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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 18.1-18.15


וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;


וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;


nanAnd He said: ‘I will certainly return unto thee when the season cometh round; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son.’ And Sarah heard in the tent door, which was behind him.—


וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—


וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’


וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם לָמָּה זֶּה צָחֲקָה שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר הַאַף אֻמְנָם אֵלֵד וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי׃And the LORD said unto Abraham: ‘Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I of a surety bear a child, who am old?


הֲיִפָּלֵא מֵיְהוָה דָּבָר לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וּלְשָׂרָה בֵן׃Is any thing too hard for the LORD. At the set time I will return unto thee, when the season cometh round, and Sarah shall have a son.’


וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ׃Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: ‘Nay; but thou didst laugh.’


וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth


וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth


וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant.


וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant.


יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree.


וְאֶקְחָה פַת־לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־עַל־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and stay ye your heart; after that ye shall pass on; forasmuch as ye are come to your servant.’ And they said: ‘So do, as thou hast said.’


וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהָם הָאֹהֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת לוּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂי עֻגוֹת׃And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: ‘Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.’


וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רָץ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח בֶּן־בָּקָר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ׃And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto the servant; and he hastened to dress it.


וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.


וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַיֵּה שָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בָאֹהֶל׃And they said unto him: ‘Where is Sarah thy wife?’ And he said: ‘Behold, in the tent.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

80 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.5, 10.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.5. וְיָדַעְתָּ עִם־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יְיַסֵּר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְיַסְּרֶךָּ׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 8.5. And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee." 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.1-3.8, 3.14-3.15, 12.1-12.11, 15.1-15.9, 19.6, 19.19, 26.1, 33.10, 33.12-33.23, 34.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וְעַתָּה לְכָה וְאֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וְהוֹצֵא אֶת־עַמִּי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 3.1. וּמֹשֶׁה הָיָה רֹעֶה אֶת־צֹאן יִתְרוֹ חֹתְנוֹ כֹּהֵן מִדְיָן וַיִּנְהַג אֶת־הַצֹּאן אַחַר הַמִּדְבָּר וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים חֹרֵבָה׃ 3.2. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל׃ 3.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם׃ 3.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אָסֻרָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה הַגָּדֹל הַזֶּה מַדּוּעַ לֹא־יִבְעַר הַסְּנֶה׃ 3.4. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי סָר לִרְאוֹת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו אֱלֹהִים מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל־נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת־קֹדֶשׁ הוּא׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 3.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה רָאֹה רָאִיתִי אֶת־עֳנִי עַמִּי אֲשֶׁר בְּמִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־צַעֲקָתָם שָׁמַעְתִּי מִפְּנֵי נֹגְשָׂיו כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־מַכְאֹבָיו׃ 3.8. וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 12.1. וְלֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרֹפוּ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 12.4. וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 12.4. וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃ 12.5. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃ 12.5. שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן־שָׁנָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן־הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ׃ 12.6. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 12.7. וְלָקְחוּ מִן־הַדָּם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וְעַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר־יֹאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ בָּהֶם׃ 12.8. וְאָכְלוּ אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה צְלִי־אֵשׁ וּמַצּוֹת עַל־מְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 12.9. אַל־תֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל בַּמָּיִם כִּי אִם־צְלִי־אֵשׁ רֹאשׁוֹ עַל־כְּרָעָיו וְעַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃ 12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.2. עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ וַיְהִי־לִי לִישׁוּעָה זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי וַאֲרֹמְמֶנְהוּ׃ 15.2. וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַתֹּף בְּיָדָהּ וַתֵּצֶאןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים אַחֲרֶיהָ בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹת׃ 15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃ 15.4. מַרְכְּבֹת פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ יָרָה בַיָּם וּמִבְחַר שָׁלִשָׁיו טֻבְּעוּ בְיַם־סוּף׃ 15.5. תְּהֹמֹת יְכַסְיֻמוּ יָרְדוּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אָבֶן׃ 15.6. יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 15.7. וּבְרֹב גְּאוֹנְךָ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךָ תְּשַׁלַּח חֲרֹנְךָ יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ׃ 15.8. וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ־נֵד נֹזְלִים קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת בְּלֶב־יָם׃ 15.9. אָמַר אוֹיֵב אֶרְדֹּף אַשִּׂיג אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי אָרִיק חַרְבִּי תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ יָדִי׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.19. וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃ 26.1. וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן תַּעֲשֶׂה עֶשֶׂר יְרִיעֹת שֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר וּתְכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתֹלַעַת שָׁנִי כְּרֻבִים מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם׃ 26.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ חֲמִשִּׁים לֻלָאֹת עַל שְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הָאֶחָת הַקִּיצֹנָה בַּחֹבָרֶת וַחֲמִשִּׁים לֻלָאֹת עַל שְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הַחֹבֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 33.12. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה רְאֵה אַתָּה אֹמֵר אֵלַי הַעַל אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הוֹדַעְתַּנִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַח עִמִּי וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ יְדַעְתִּיךָ בְשֵׁם וְגַם־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינָי׃ 33.13. וְעַתָּה אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הוֹדִעֵנִי נָא אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאֵדָעֲךָ לְמַעַן אֶמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה כִּי עַמְּךָ הַגּוֹי הַזֶּה׃ 33.14. וַיֹּאמַר פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ וַהֲנִחֹתִי לָךְ׃ 33.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אִם־אֵין פָּנֶיךָ הֹלְכִים אַל־תַּעֲלֵנוּ מִזֶּה׃ 33.16. וּבַמֶּה יִוָּדַע אֵפוֹא כִּי־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲנִי וְעַמֶּךָ הֲלוֹא בְּלֶכְתְּךָ עִמָּנוּ וְנִפְלֵינוּ אֲנִי וְעַמְּךָ מִכָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 33.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה גַּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶעֱשֶׂה כִּי־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינַי וָאֵדָעֲךָ בְּשֵׁם׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל־הַצּוּר׃ 33.22. וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 3.1. Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the farthest end of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of God, unto Horeb." 3.2. And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." 3.3. And Moses said: ‘I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.’" 3.4. And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said: ‘Moses, Moses.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’" 3.5. And He said: ‘Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.’" 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 3.7. And the LORD said: ‘I have surely seen the affliction of My people that are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their pains;" 3.8. and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite." 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations." 12.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying:" 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 12.4. and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb." 12.5. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats;" 12.6. and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk." 12.7. And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it." 12.8. And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it." 12.9. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof." 12.10. And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire." 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.2. The LORD is my strength and song, And He is become my salvation; This is my God, and I will glorify Him; My father’s God, and I will exalt Him." 15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name." 15.4. Pharaoh’s chariots and his host hath He cast into the sea, And his chosen captains are sunk in the Red Sea." 15.5. The deeps cover them— They went down into the depths like a stone." 15.6. Thy right hand, O LORD, glorious in power, Thy right hand, O LORD, dasheth in pieces the enemy." 15.7. And in the greatness of Thine excellency Thou overthrowest them that rise up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble." 15.8. And with the blast of Thy nostrils the waters were piled up— The floods stood upright as a heap; The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea." 15.9. The enemy said: ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; My lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’" 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 19.19. And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice." 26.1. Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains: of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, with cherubim the work of the skilful workman shalt thou make them." 33.10. And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the door of the Tent, all the people rose up and worshipped, every man at his tent door." 33.12. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘See, Thou sayest unto me: Bring up this people; and Thou hast not let me know whom Thou wilt send with me. Yet Thou hast said: I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in My sight." 33.13. Now therefore, I pray Thee, if I have found grace in Thy sight, show me now Thy ways, that I may know Thee, to the end that I may find grace in Thy sight; and consider that this nation is Thy people.’" 33.14. And He said: ‘My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest.’" 33.15. And he said unto Him: ‘If Thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence." 33.16. For wherein now shall it be known that I have found grace in Thy sight, I and Thy people? is it not in that Thou goest with us, so that we are distinguished, I and Thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth?’" 33.17. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken, for thou hast found grace in My sight, and I know thee by name.’" 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 33.21. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock." 33.22. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by." 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’" 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 2.7, 4.4, 4.5, 4.20, 6, 7, 8, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.31-12.9, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 14, 14.13, 14.19, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.7, 15.13, 16, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 17, 17.1, 17.5, 17.9, 17.16, 17.17, 18, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.21, 18.22, 18.23, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 18.27, 18.28, 18.29, 18.30, 18.31, 18.32, 18.33, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10, 21.11, 21.12, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 21.18, 21.19, 21.20, 21.21, 21.22, 21.23, 22, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 22.15, 22.16, 22.17, 22.18, 22.19, 22.21, 23.1, 24, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13, 24.14, 24.15, 24.16, 24.17, 24.18, 24.19, 24.20, 24.21, 24.22, 24.23, 24.24, 24.25, 24.26, 24.27, 24.28, 24.29, 24.30, 24.31, 24.32, 24.33, 24.34, 24.35, 24.36, 24.37, 24.38, 24.39, 24.40, 24.41, 24.42, 24.43, 24.44, 24.45, 24.46, 24.47, 24.48, 24.49, 24.50, 24.51, 24.52, 24.53, 24.54, 24.55, 24.56, 24.57, 24.58, 24.59, 24.60, 24.61, 25.1, 25.2, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.12, 25.13, 25.14, 25.15, 25.16, 26.2, 28, 28.10, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 29.5, 29.6, 29.7, 29.8, 29.9, 29.10, 29.11, 29.12, 29.13, 29.14, 29.15, 29.16, 29.17, 29.18, 29.19, 29.20, 30.37, 31, 32.23, 32.24, 32.25, 32.26, 32.27, 32.28, 32.29, 32.30, 32.31, 32.32, 33.17, 34, 35.11, 46.3, 49.1, 49.2, 49.8, 49.9, 49.10, 49.11, 49.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.5, 23.19, 25.7-25.13, 35.9-35.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 23.19. לֹא אִישׁ אֵל וִיכַזֵּב וּבֶן־אָדָם וְיִתְנֶחָם הַהוּא אָמַר וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה וְדִבֶּר וְלֹא יְקִימֶנָּה׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.9. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 35.11. וְהִקְרִיתֶם לָכֶם עָרִים עָרֵי מִקְלָט תִּהְיֶינָה לָכֶם וְנָס שָׁמָּה רֹצֵחַ מַכֵּה־נֶפֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 35.12. וְהָיוּ לָכֶם הֶעָרִים לְמִקְלָט מִגֹּאֵל וְלֹא יָמוּת הָרֹצֵחַ עַד־עָמְדוֹ לִפְנֵי הָעֵדָה לַמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 35.13. וְהֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר תִּתֵּנוּ שֵׁשׁ־עָרֵי מִקְלָט תִּהְיֶינָה לָכֶם׃ 35.14. אֵת שְׁלֹשׁ הֶעָרִים תִּתְּנוּ מֵעֵבֶר לַיַּרְדֵּן וְאֵת שְׁלֹשׁ הֶעָרִים תִּתְּנוּ בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן עָרֵי מִקְלָט תִּהְיֶינָה׃ 35.15. לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר וְלַתּוֹשָׁב בְּתוֹכָם תִּהְיֶינָה שֵׁשׁ־הֶעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לְמִקְלָט לָנוּס שָׁמָּה כָּל־מַכֵּה־נֶפֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 12.5. And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth." 23.19. God is not a man, that He should lie; Neither the son of man, that He should repent: When He hath said, will He not do it? Or when He hath spoken, will He not make it good?" 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand." 25.10. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’" 35.9. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 35.10. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye pass over the Jordan into the land of Canaan," 35.11. then ye shall appoint you cities to be cities of refuge for you, that the manslayer that killeth any person through error may flee thither." 35.12. And the cities shall be unto you for refuge from the avenger, that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation for judgment." 35.13. And as to the cities which ye shall give, there shall be for you six cities of refuge." 35.14. Ye shall give three cities beyond the Jordan, and three cities shall ye give in the land of Canaan; they shall be cities of refuge." 35.15. For the children of Israel, and for the stranger and for the settler among them, shall these six cities be for refuge, that every one that killeth any person through error may flee thither."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.23-8.30, 9.1-9.11, 25.9-25.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 9.2. טָבְחָה טִבְחָהּ מָסְכָה יֵינָהּ אַף עָרְכָה שֻׁלְחָנָהּ׃ 9.3. שָׁלְחָה נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ תִקְרָא עַל־גַּפֵּי מְרֹמֵי קָרֶת׃ 9.4. מִי־פֶתִי יָסֻר הֵנָּה חֲסַר־לֵב אָמְרָה לּוֹ׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 9.6. עִזְבוּ פְתָאיִם וִחְיוּ וְאִשְׁרוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ בִּינָה׃ 9.7. יֹסֵר לֵץ לֹקֵחַ לוֹ קָלוֹן וּמוֹכִיחַ לְרָשָׁע מוּמוֹ׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 9.9. תֵּן לְחָכָם וְיֶחְכַּם־עוֹד הוֹדַע לְצַדִּיק וְיוֹסֶף לֶקַח׃ 9.11. כִּי־בִי יִרְבּוּ יָמֶיךָ וְיוֹסִיפוּ לְּךָ שְׁנוֹת חַיִּים׃ 25.9. רִיבְךָ רִיב אֶת־רֵעֶךָ וְסוֹד אַחֵר אַל־תְּגָל׃ 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 9.2. She hath prepared her meat, she hath mingled her wine; she hath also furnished her table." 9.3. She hath sent forth her maidens, she calleth, upon the highest places of the city:" 9.4. ’Whoso is thoughtless, let him turn in hither’; as for him that lacketh understanding, she saith to him:" 9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." 9.6. Forsake all thoughtlessness, and live; and walk in the way of understanding." 9.7. He that correcteth a scorner getteth to himself shame, and he that reproveth a wicked man, it becometh unto him a blot." 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 9.9. Give to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser; teach a righteous man, and he will increase in learning." 9.10. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the All-holy is understanding." 9.11. For by me thy days shall be multiplied, and the years of thy life shall be increased." 25.9. Debate thy cause with thy neighbour, but reveal not the secret of another;" 25.10. Lest he that heareth it revile thee, and thine infamy turn not away."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 41.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

41.10. Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, who did eat of my bread, Hath lifted up his heel against me."
7. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 3.8-3.11, 3.13, 3.16-3.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. לָכֵן חַכּוּ־לִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה לְיוֹם קוּמִי לְעַד כִּי מִשְׁפָּטִי לֶאֱסֹף גּוֹיִם לְקָבְצִי מַמְלָכוֹת לִשְׁפֹּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם זַעְמִי כֹּל חֲרוֹן אַפִּי כִּי בְּאֵשׁ קִנְאָתִי תֵּאָכֵל כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.9. כִּי־אָז אֶהְפֹּךְ אֶל־עַמִּים שָׂפָה בְרוּרָה לִקְרֹא כֻלָּם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה לְעָבְדוֹ שְׁכֶם אֶחָד׃ 3.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא תֵבוֹשִׁי מִכֹּל עֲלִילֹתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר פָּשַׁעַתְּ בִּי כִּי־אָז אָסִיר מִקִּרְבֵּךְ עַלִּיזֵי גַּאֲוָתֵךְ וְלֹא־תוֹסִפִי לְגָבְהָה עוֹד בְּהַר קָדְשִׁי׃ 3.13. שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־יַעֲשׂוּ עַוְלָה וְלֹא־יְדַבְּרוּ כָזָב וְלֹא־יִמָּצֵא בְּפִיהֶם לְשׁוֹן תַּרְמִית כִּי־הֵמָּה יִרְעוּ וְרָבְצוּ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 3.16. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָמֵר לִירוּשָׁלִַם אַל־תִּירָאִי צִיּוֹן אַל־יִרְפּוּ יָדָיִךְ׃ 3.17. יְהוָה אֱלֹהַיִךְ בְּקִרְבֵּך גִּבּוֹר יוֹשִׁיעַ יָשִׂישׂ עָלַיִךְ בְּשִׂמְחָה יַחֲרִישׁ בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ יָגִיל עָלַיִךְ בְּרִנָּה׃ 3.8. Therefore wait ye for Me, saith the LORD, Until the day that I rise up to the prey; For My determination is to gather the nations, That I may assemble the kingdoms, To pour upon them Mine indignation, Even all My fierce anger; For all the earth shall be devoured With the fire of My jealousy." 3.9. For then will I turn to the peoples A pure language, That they may all call upon the name of the LORD, To serve Him with one consent." 3.10. From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia Shall they bring My suppliants, Even the daughter of My dispersed, As Mine offering." 3.11. In that day shalt thou not be ashamed for all thy doings, Wherein thou hast transgressed against Me; For then I will take away out of the midst of thee Thy proudly exulting ones, And thou shalt no more be haughty In My holy mountain." 3.13. The remt of Israel shall not do iniquity, Nor speak lies, Neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth; For they shall feed and lie down, And none shall make them afraid." 3.16. In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem: ‘Fear thou not; O Zion, let not thy hands be slack." 3.17. The LORD thy God is in the midst of thee, A Mighty One who will save; He will rejoice over thee with joy, He will be silent in His love, He will joy over thee with singing.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.4-3.15, 9.3, 9.7, 19.5, 22.20, 22.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ גִּבְעֹנָה לִזְבֹּחַ שָׁם כִּי הִיא הַבָּמָה הַגְּדוֹלָה אֶלֶף עֹלוֹת יַעֲלֶה שְׁלֹמֹה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַהוּא׃ 3.5. בְּגִבְעוֹן נִרְאָה יְהֹוָה אֶל־שְׁלֹמֹה בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים שְׁאַל מָה אֶתֶּן־לָךְ׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁלֹמֹה אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ עִם־עַבְדְּךָ דָוִד אָבִי חֶסֶד גָּדוֹל כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ בֶּאֱמֶת וּבִצְדָקָה וּבְיִשְׁרַת לֵבָב עִמָּךְ וַתִּשְׁמָר־לוֹ אֶת־הַחֶסֶד הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה וַתִּתֶּן־לוֹ בֵן יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 3.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי אַתָּה הִמְלַכְתָּ אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ תַּחַת דָּוִד אָבִי וְאָנֹכִי נַעַר קָטֹן לֹא אֵדַע צֵאת וָבֹא׃ 3.8. וְעַבְדְּךָ בְּתוֹךְ עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתָּ עַם־רָב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמָּנֶה וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃ 3.9. וְנָתַתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לֵב שֹׁמֵעַ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ לְהָבִין בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֵלָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתָּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ עֹשֶׁר וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ הָבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט׃ 3.12. הִנֵּה עָשִׂיתִי כִּדְבָרֶיךָ הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ לֵב חָכָם וְנָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר כָּמוֹךָ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְאַחֲרֶיךָ לֹא־יָקוּם כָּמוֹךָ׃ 3.13. וְגַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ נָתַתִּי לָךְ גַּם־עֹשֶׁר גַּם־כָּבוֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיָה כָמוֹךָ אִישׁ בַּמְּלָכִים כָּל־יָמֶיךָ׃ 3.14. וְאִם תֵּלֵךְ בִּדְרָכַי לִשְׁמֹר חֻקַּי וּמִצְוֺתַי כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ דָּוִיד אָבִיךָ וְהַאַרַכְתִּי אֶת־יָמֶיךָ׃ 3.15. וַיִּקַץ שְׁלֹמֹה וְהִנֵּה חֲלוֹם וַיָּבוֹא יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־אֲדֹנָי וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלָמִים וַיַּעַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־עֲבָדָיו׃ 9.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־תְּפִלָּתְךָ וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתְךָ אֲשֶׁר הִתְחַנַּנְתָּה לְפָנַי הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִתָה לָשׂוּם־שְׁמִי שָׁם עַד־עוֹלָם וְהָיוּ עֵינַי וְלִבִּי שָׁם כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 9.7. וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָהֶם וְאֶת־הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי לִשְׁמִי אֲשַׁלַּח מֵעַל פָּנָי וְהָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמָשָׁל וְלִשְׁנִינָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 19.5. וַיִּשְׁכַּב וַיִּישַׁן תַּחַת רֹתֶם אֶחָד וְהִנֵּה־זֶה מַלְאָךְ נֹגֵעַ בּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ קוּם אֱכוֹל׃ 22.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵצֵא וְהָיִיתִי רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאָיו וַיֹּאמֶר תְּפַתֶּה וְגַם־תּוּכָל צֵא וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן׃ 3.4. And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place; a thousand burnt-offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar." 3.5. In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said: ‘Ask what I shall give thee.’" 3.6. And Solomon said: ‘Thou hast shown unto Thy servant David my father great kindness, according as he walked before Thee in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with Thee; and Thou hast kept for him this great kindness, that Thou hast given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day." 3.7. And now, O LORD my God, Thou hast made Thy servant king instead of David my father; and I am but a little child; I know not how to go out or come in." 3.8. And Thy servant is in the midst of Thy people which Thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude." 3.9. Give Thy servant therefore an understanding heart to judge Thy people, that I may discern between good and evil; for who is able to judge this Thy great people?’" 3.10. And the speech pleased the LORD, that Solomon had asked this thing." 3.11. And God said unto him: ‘Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern justice;" 3.12. behold, I have done according to thy word: lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there hath been none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee." 3.13. And I have also given thee that which thou hast not asked, both riches and honour—so that there hath not been any among the kings like unto thee—all thy days." 3.14. And if thou wilt walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as thy father David did walk, then I will lengthen thy days.’" 3.15. And Solomon awoke, and, behold, it was a dream; and he came to Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covet of the LORD, and offered up burnt-offerings, and offered peace-offerings, and made a feast to all his servants." 9.3. And the LORD said unto him: ‘I have heard thy prayer and thy supplication, that thou hast made before Me: I have hallowed this house, which thou hast built, to put My name there for ever; and Mine eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually." 9.7. then will I cut off Israel out of the land which I have given them; and this house, which I have hallowed for My name, will I cast out of My sight; and Israel shall be a proverb and a by word among all peoples;" 19.5. And he lay down and slept under a broom-tree; and, behold, an angel touched him, and said unto him: ‘Arise and eat.’" 22.20. And the LORD said: Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead. And one said: On this manner; and another said: On that manner." 22.22. And the LORD said unto him: Wherewith? And he said: I will go forth, and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said: Thou shalt entice him, and shalt prevail also; go forth, and do so."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.2, 1.12-1.19, 3.1, 3.10, 3.20, 10.22, 23.2, 23.4, 30.8, 31.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וְלוֹ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם אַחַת חַנָּה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית פְּנִנָּה וַיְהִי לִפְנִנָּה יְלָדִים וּלְחַנָּה אֵין יְלָדִים׃ 1.2. וַיְהִי לִתְקֻפוֹת הַיָּמִים וַתַּהַר חַנָּה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שְׁמוּאֵל כִּי מֵיְהוָה שְׁאִלְתִּיו׃ 1.12. וְהָיָה כִּי הִרְבְּתָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעֵלִי שֹׁמֵר אֶת־פִּיהָ׃ 1.13. וְחַנָּה הִיא מְדַבֶּרֶת עַל־לִבָּהּ רַק שְׂפָתֶיהָ נָּעוֹת וְקוֹלָהּ לֹא יִשָּׁמֵעַ וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ עֵלִי לְשִׁכֹּרָה׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ עֵלִי עַד־מָתַי תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִין הָסִירִי אֶת־יֵינֵךְ מֵעָלָיִךְ׃ 1.15. וַתַּעַן חַנָּה וַתֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲדֹנִי אִשָּׁה קְשַׁת־רוּחַ אָנֹכִי וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר לֹא שָׁתִיתִי וָאֶשְׁפֹּךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.16. אַל־תִּתֵּן אֶת־אֲמָתְךָ לִפְנֵי בַּת־בְּלִיָּעַל כִּי־מֵרֹב שִׂיחִי וְכַעְסִי דִּבַּרְתִּי עַד־הֵנָּה׃ 1.17. וַיַּעַן עֵלִי וַיֹּאמֶר לְכִי לְשָׁלוֹם וֵאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתֵּן אֶת־שֵׁלָתֵךְ אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתְּ מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 1.18. וַתֹּאמֶר תִּמְצָא שִׁפְחָתְךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָאִשָּׁה לְדַרְכָּהּ וַתֹּאכַל וּפָנֶיהָ לֹא־הָיוּ־לָהּ עוֹד׃ 1.19. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־בֵּיתָם הָרָמָתָה וַיֵּדַע אֶלְקָנָה אֶת־חַנָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַיִּזְכְּרֶהָ יְהוָה׃ 3.1. וַיָּבֹא יְהוָה וַיִּתְיַצַּב וַיִּקְרָא כְפַעַם־בְּפַעַם שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל דַּבֵּר כִּי שֹׁמֵעַ עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 3.1. וְהַנַּעַר שְׁמוּאֵל מְשָׁרֵת אֶת־יְהוָה לִפְנֵי עֵלִי וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה יָקָר בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין חָזוֹן נִפְרָץ׃ 10.22. וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ־עוֹד בַּיהוָה הֲבָא עוֹד הֲלֹם אִישׁ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה־הוּא נֶחְבָּא אֶל־הַכֵּלִים׃ 23.2. וְעַתָּה לְכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ לָרֶדֶת רֵד וְלָנוּ הַסְגִּירוֹ בְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 23.2. וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר הַאֵלֵךְ וְהִכֵּיתִי בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־דָּוִד לֵךְ וְהִכִּיתָ בַפְּלִשְׁתִּים וְהוֹשַׁעְתָּ אֶת־קְעִילָה׃ 23.4. וַיּוֹסֶף עוֹד דָּוִד לִשְׁאֹל בַּיהוָה וַיַּעֲנֵהוּ יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר קוּם רֵד קְעִילָה כִּי־אֲנִי נֹתֵן אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 30.8. וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר אֶרְדֹּף אַחֲרֵי הַגְּדוּד־הַזֶּה הַאַשִּׂגֶנּוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ רְדֹף כִּי־הַשֵּׂג תַּשִּׂיג וְהַצֵּל תַּצִּיל׃ 31.13. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־עַצְמֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּקְבְּרוּ תַחַת־הָאֶשֶׁל בְּיָבֵשָׁה וַיָּצֻמוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 1.2. and he had two wives; the name of the one was Ĥanna, and the name of the other Peninna: and Peninna had children, but Ĥanna had no children." 1.12. And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the Lord, that ῾Eli marked her mouth." 1.13. Now Ĥanna spoke in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore ῾Eli thought she was drunk." 1.14. And ῾Eli said to her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee." 1.15. And Ĥanna answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the Lord." 1.16. Take not thy handmaid for a worthless woman: for out of the greatness of my complaint and grief have I been speaking." 1.17. Then ῾Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Yisra᾽el grant thee thy petition which thou hast asked of him." 1.18. And she said, Let thy handmaid find favour in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countece was no more sad." 1.19. And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the Lord, and returned, and came to their house to Rama: and Elqana had intimacy with Ĥanna his wife; and the Lord remembered her." 3.1. And the child Shemu᾽el ministered to the Lord before ῾Eli. And the word of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no frequent vision." 3.10. And the Lord came, and stood, and called as on the previous occasions, Shemu᾽el, Shemu᾽el. Then Shemu᾽el answered, Speak; for Thy servant is listening." 10.22. Therefore they inquired again of the Lord, Did the man come here? And the Lord answered, Behold, he is hidden among the baggage." 23.2. Therefore David inquired of the Lord, saying, Shall I go and smite these Pelishtim? And the Lord said to David, Go, and smite the Pelishtim, and save Qe῾ila." 23.4. Then David inquired of the Lord yet again. And the Lord answered him and said, Arise, go down to Qe῾ila; for I will deliver the Pelishtim into thy hand." 30.8. And David inquired of the Lord, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all." 31.13. And they took their bones, and buried them under a tamarisk tree at Yavesh, and fasted seven days."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 18.3-18.7, 22.3-22.7, 23.2-23.12, 23.19, 23.24, 23.26-23.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.3. וְאַל־יַבְטַח אֶתְכֶם חִזְקִיָּהוּ אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הַצֵּל יַצִּילֵנוּ יְהוָה וְלֹא תִנָּתֵן אֶת־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת בְּיַד מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃ 18.3. וַיַּעַשׂ הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה דָּוִד אָבִיו׃ 18.4. הוּא הֵסִיר אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת וְשִׁבַּר אֶת־הַמַּצֵּבֹת וְכָרַת אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה וְכִתַּת נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה כִּי עַד־הַיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה הָיוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַטְּרִים לוֹ וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ נְחֻשְׁתָּן׃ 18.5. בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּטָח וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא־הָיָה כָמֹהוּ בְּכֹל מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה וַאֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנָיו׃ 18.6. וַיִּדְבַּק בַּיהוָה לֹא־סָר מֵאַחֲרָיו וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 18.7. וְהָיָה יְהוָה עִמּוֹ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא יַשְׂכִּיל וַיִּמְרֹד בְּמֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר וְלֹא עֲבָדוֹ׃ 22.3. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ שָׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־שָׁפָן בֶּן־אֲצַלְיָהוּ בֶן־מְשֻׁלָּם הַסֹּפֵר בֵּית יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 22.4. עֲלֵה אֶל־חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וְיַתֵּם אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף הַמּוּבָא בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אָסְפוּ שֹׁמְרֵי הַסַּף מֵאֵת הָעָם׃ 22.5. ויתנה [וְיִתְּנֻהוּ] עַל־יַד עֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה הַמֻּפְקָדִים בבית [בֵּית] יְהוָה וְיִתְּנוּ אֹתוֹ לְעֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית יְהוָה לְחַזֵּק בֶּדֶק הַבָּיִת׃ 22.6. לֶחָרָשִׁים וְלַבֹּנִים וְלַגֹּדְרִים וְלִקְנוֹת עֵצִים וְאַבְנֵי מַחְצֵב לְחַזֵּק אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 22.7. אַךְ לֹא־יֵחָשֵׁב אִתָּם הַכֶּסֶף הַנִּתָּן עַל־יָדָם כִּי בֶאֱמוּנָה הֵם עֹשִׂים׃ 23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.3. וַיַּרְכִּבֻהוּ עֲבָדָיו מֵת מִמְּגִדּוֹ וַיְבִאֻהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בִּקְבֻרָתוֹ וַיִּקַּח עַם־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יְהוֹאָחָז בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֹתוֹ תַּחַת אָבִיו׃ 23.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמּוּד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחַר יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו בְּכָל־לֵב וּבְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַיַּעֲמֹד כָּל־הָעָם בַּבְּרִית׃ 23.4. וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַמִּשְׁנֶה וְאֶת־שֹׁמְרֵי הַסַּף לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֵיכַל יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָעֲשׂוּיִם לַבַּעַל וְלָאֲשֵׁרָה וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיִּשְׂרְפֵם מִחוּץ לִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּשַׁדְמוֹת קִדְרוֹן וְנָשָׂא אֶת־עֲפָרָם בֵּית־אֵל׃ 23.5. וְהִשְׁבִּית אֶת־הַכְּמָרִים אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְקַטֵּר בַּבָּמוֹת בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וּמְסִבֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֶת־הַמְקַטְּרִים לַבַּעַל לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וְלַמַּזָּלוֹת וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 23.6. וַיֹּצֵא אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה מִבֵּית יְהוָה מִחוּץ לִירוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־נַחַל קִדְרוֹן וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֹתָהּ בְּנַחַל קִדְרוֹן וַיָּדֶק לְעָפָר וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־עֲפָרָהּ עַל־קֶבֶר בְּנֵי הָעָם׃ 23.7. וַיִּתֹּץ אֶת־בָּתֵּי הַקְּדֵשִׁים אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הַנָּשִׁים אֹרְגוֹת שָׁם בָּתִּים לָאֲשֵׁרָה׃ 23.8. וַיָּבֵא אֶת־כָּל־הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְטַמֵּא אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ־שָׁמָּה הַכֹּהֲנִים מִגֶּבַע עַד־בְּאֵר שָׁבַע וְנָתַץ אֶת־בָּמוֹת הַשְּׁעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח שַׁעַר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׂר־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר־עַל־שְׂמֹאול אִישׁ בְּשַׁעַר הָעִיר׃ 23.9. אַךְ לֹא יַעֲלוּ כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֶל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי אִם־אָכְלוּ מַצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵיהֶם׃ 23.11. וַיַּשְׁבֵּת אֶת־הַסּוּסִים אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מִבֹּא בֵית־יְהוָה אֶל־לִשְׁכַּת נְתַן־מֶלֶךְ הַסָּרִיס אֲשֶׁר בַּפַּרְוָרִים וְאֶת־מַרְכְּבוֹת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ שָׂרַף בָּאֵשׁ׃ 23.12. וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַגָּג עֲלִיַּת אָחָז אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מְנַשֶּׁה בִּשְׁתֵּי חַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה נָתַץ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיָּרָץ מִשָּׁם וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֶת־עֲפָרָם אֶל־נַחַל קִדְרוֹן׃ 23.19. וְגַם אֶת־כָּל־בָּתֵּי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר בְּעָרֵי שֹׁמְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַכְעִיס הֵסִיר יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם כְּכָל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה בְּבֵית־אֵל׃ 23.24. וְגַם אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִים וְאֶת־הַגִּלֻּלִים וְאֵת כָּל־הַשִּׁקֻּצִים אֲשֶׁר נִרְאוּ בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם בִּעֵר יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר אֲשֶׁר מָצָא חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 23.26. אַךְ לֹא־שָׁב יְהוָה מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ הַגָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר־חָרָה אַפּוֹ בִּיהוּדָה עַל כָּל־הַכְּעָסִים אֲשֶׁר הִכְעִיסוֹ מְנַשֶּׁה׃ 23.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה גַּם אֶת־יְהוּדָה אָסִיר מֵעַל פָּנַי כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמָאַסְתִּי אֶת־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר־בָּחַרְתִּי אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאֶת־הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי יִהְיֶה שְׁמִי שָׁם׃ 18.3. And he did that which was right in the eyes of the LORD, according to all that David his father had done." 18.4. He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Asherah; and he broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan." 18.5. He trusted in the LORD, the God of Israel;" 18.6. For he cleaved to the LORD, he departed not from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses." 18.7. And the LORD was with him: whithersoever he went forth he prospered; and he rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not." 22.3. And it came to pass in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, that the king sent Shaphan the son of Azaliah, the son of Meshullam, the scribe, to the house of the LORD, saying." 22.4. ’Go up to Hilkiah the high priest, that he may sum the money which is brought into the house of the LORD, which the keepers of the door have gathered of the people;" 22.5. and let them deliver it into the hand of the workmen that have the oversight of the house of the LORD; and let them give it to the workmen that are in the house of the LORD, to repair the breaches of the house;" 22.6. unto the carpenters, and to the builders, and to the masons; and for buying timber and hewn stone to repair the house.’—" 22.7. Howbeit there was no reckoning made with them of the money that was delivered into their hand; for they dealt faithfully." 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD." 23.3. And the king stood on the platform, and made a covet before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep His commandments, and His testimonies, and His statutes, with all his heart, and all his soul, to confirm the words of this covet that were written in this book; and all the people stood to the covet." 23.4. And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el." 23.5. And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to offer in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that offered unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the constellations, and to all the host of heaven." 23.6. And he brought out the Asherah from the house of the LORD, without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron, and stamped it small to powder, and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the common people." 23.7. And he broke down the houses of the sodomites, that were in the house of the LORD, where the women wove coverings for the Asherah." 23.8. And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had made offerings, from Geba to Beer-sheba; and he broke down the high places of the gates that were at the entrance of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on a man’s left hand as he entered the gate of the city." 23.9. Nevertheless the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they did eat unleavened bread among their brethren." 23.10. And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech." 23.11. And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entrance of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nethan-melech the officer, which was in the precincts; and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire." 23.12. And the altars that were on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, did the king break down, and beat them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron." 23.19. And all the houses also of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke [the LORD], Josiah took away, and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Beth-el." 23.24. Moreover them that divined by a ghost or a familiar spirit, and the teraphim, and the idols, and all the detestable things that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might confirm the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD." 23.26. Notwithstanding the LORD turned not from the fierceness of His great wrath, wherewith His anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations wherewith Manasseh had provoked Him." 23.27. And the LORD said: ‘I will remove Judah also out of My sight, as I have removed Israel, and I will cast off this city which I have chosen, even Jerusalem, and the house of which I said: My name shall be there.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.4-7.17, 21.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.4. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיְהִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־נָתָן לֵאמֹר׃ 7.5. לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אֶל־דָּוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַאַתָּה תִּבְנֶה־לִּי בַיִת לְשִׁבְתִּי׃ 7.6. כִּי לֹא יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּבַיִת לְמִיּוֹם הַעֲלֹתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וְעַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאֶהְיֶה מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֹהֶל וּבְמִשְׁכָּן׃ 7.7. בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדָבָר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי לִרְעוֹת אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה לֹא־בְנִיתֶם לִי בֵּית אֲרָזִים׃ 7.8. וְעַתָּה כֹּה־תֹאמַר לְעַבְדִּי לְדָוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיךָ מִן־הַנָּוֶה מֵאַחַר הַצֹּאן לִהְיוֹת נָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.9. וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 7.11. וּלְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי שֹׁפְטִים עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲנִיחֹתִי לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהִגִּיד לְךָ יְהוָה כִּי־בַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.15. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מֵעִם שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ׃ 7.16. וְנֶאְמַן בֵּיתְךָ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כִּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.17. כְּכֹל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וּכְכֹל הַחִזָּיוֹן הַזֶּה כֵּן דִּבֶּר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד׃ 21.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בִּימֵי דָוִד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים שָׁנָה אַחֲרֵי שָׁנָה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְאֶל־בֵּית הַדָּמִים עַל־אֲשֶׁר־הֵמִית אֶת־הַגִּבְעֹנִים׃ 21.1. וַתִּקַּח רִצְפָּה בַת־אַיָּה אֶת־הַשַּׂק וַתַּטֵּהוּ לָהּ אֶל־הַצּוּר מִתְּחִלַּת קָצִיר עַד נִתַּךְ־מַיִם עֲלֵיהֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְלֹא־נָתְנָה עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם לָנוּחַ עֲלֵיהֶם יוֹמָם וְאֶת־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה לָיְלָה׃ 7.4. And it came to pass that night, that the word of the Lord came to Natan, saying," 7.5. Go and tell my servant David, Thus says the Lord, shalt thou build me a house for me to dwell in?" 7.6. For I have not dwelt in any house since that time that I brought up the children of Yisra᾽el out of Miżrayim, even to this day, but I have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle." 7.7. In all the places where I have walked with all the children of Yisra᾽el, did I speak a word with any of the rulers of Yisra᾽el, whom I commanded as shepherds of my people Yisra᾽el, saying, Why do you not build me a house of cedar?" 7.8. Now therefore so shalt thou say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took thee from the sheepfold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Yisra᾽el:" 7.9. and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth." 7.10. Moreover I have appointed a place for my people Yisra᾽el, and planted them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be troubled no more; neither shall the children of wickedness torment them any more, as at the beginning," 7.11. and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Yisra᾽el; but I will give thee rest from all thy enemies, and the Lord tells thee that he will make thee a house." 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom." 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 7.15. but my covet love shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Sha᾽ul, whom I put away before thee." 7.16. And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be firm for ever." 7.17. According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Natan speak to David." 21.1. Then there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year; and David inquired of the Lord. And the Lord answered, It is for Sha᾽ul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Giv῾onim."
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 7.1, 7.4, 7.7, 8.1, 9.1-9.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7.4. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִנֵּה קֹרֵא לָרִב בָּאֵשׁ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וַתֹּאכַל אֶת־תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וְאָכְלָה אֶת־הַחֵלֶק׃ 7.7. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי וְהִנֵּה אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־חוֹמַת אֲנָךְ וּבְיָדוֹ אֲנָךְ׃ 8.1. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִנֵּה כְּלוּב קָיִץ׃ 8.1. וְהָפַכְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם לְאֵבֶל וְכָל־שִׁירֵיכֶם לְקִינָה וְהַעֲלֵיתִי עַל־כָּל־מָתְנַיִם שָׂק וְעַל־כָּל־רֹאשׁ קָרְחָה וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ כְּאֵבֶל יָחִיד וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר׃ 9.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיֹּאמֶר הַךְ הַכַּפְתּוֹר וְיִרְעֲשׁוּ הַסִּפִּים וּבְצַעַם בְּרֹאשׁ כֻּלָּם וְאַחֲרִיתָם בַּחֶרֶב אֶהֱרֹג לֹא־יָנוּס לָהֶם נָס וְלֹא־יִמָּלֵט לָהֶם פָּלִיט׃ 9.1. בַּחֶרֶב יָמוּתוּ כֹּל חַטָּאֵי עַמִּי הָאֹמְרִים לֹא־תַגִּישׁ וְתַקְדִּים בַּעֲדֵינוּ הָרָעָה׃ 9.2. אִם־יַחְתְּרוּ בִשְׁאוֹל מִשָּׁם יָדִי תִקָּחֵם וְאִם־יַעֲלוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מִשָּׁם אוֹרִידֵם׃ 9.3. וְאִם־יֵחָבְאוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַכַּרְמֶל מִשָּׁם אֲחַפֵּשׂ וּלְקַחְתִּים וְאִם־יִסָּתְרוּ מִנֶּגֶד עֵינַי בְּקַרְקַע הַיָּם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וּנְשָׁכָם׃ 9.4. וְאִם־יֵלְכוּ בַשְּׁבִי לִפְנֵי אֹיבֵיהֶם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַחֶרֶב וַהֲרָגָתַם וְשַׂמְתִּי עֵינִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה׃ 7.4. Thus the Lord GOD showed me; and, behold, the Lord GOD called to contend by fire; and it devoured the great deep, and would have eaten up the land." 7.7. Thus He showed me; and, behold, the Lord stood beside a wall made by a plumbline, with a plumbline in His hand." 8.1. Thus the Lord GOD showed me; and behold a basket of summer fruit." 9.1. I saw the Lord standing beside the altar; and He said: Smite the capitals, that the posts may shake; And break them in pieces on the head of all of them; And I will slay the residue of them with the sword; There shall not one of them flee away, And there shall not one of them escape." 9.2. Though they dig into the nether-world, Thence shall My hand take them; And though they climb up to heaven, Thence will I bring them down." 9.3. And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; And though they be hid from My sight in the bottom of the sea, Thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them." 9.4. And though they go into captivity before their enemies, Thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them; And I will set Mine eyes upon them For evil, and not for good."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.9, 29.11, 51.1-51.3, 54.9-54.15, 60.1-60.6, 61.1-61.10, 65.18-65.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.9. לוּלֵי יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הוֹתִיר לָנוּ שָׂרִיד כִּמְעָט כִּסְדֹם הָיִינוּ לַעֲמֹרָה דָּמִינוּ׃ 29.11. וַתְּהִי לָכֶם חָזוּת הַכֹּל כְּדִבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר הֶחָתוּם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־יוֹדֵעַ הספר [סֵפֶר] לֵאמֹר קְרָא נָא־זֶה וְאָמַר לֹא אוּכַל כִּי חָתוּם הוּא׃ 51.1. שִׁמְעוּ אֵלַי רֹדְפֵי צֶדֶק מְבַקְשֵׁי יְהוָה הַבִּיטוּ אֶל־צוּר חֻצַּבְתֶּם וְאֶל־מַקֶּבֶת בּוֹר נֻקַּרְתֶּם׃ 51.1. הֲלוֹא אַתְּ־הִיא הַמַּחֲרֶבֶת יָם מֵי תְּהוֹם רַבָּה הַשָּׂמָה מַעֲמַקֵּי־יָם דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲבֹר גְּאוּלִים׃ 51.2. בָּנַיִךְ עֻלְּפוּ שָׁכְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת כְּתוֹא מִכְמָר הַמְלֵאִים חֲמַת־יְהוָה גַּעֲרַת אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 51.2. הַבִּיטוּ אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם וְאֶל־שָׂרָה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶם כִּי־אֶחָד קְרָאתִיו וַאֲבָרְכֵהוּ וְאַרְבֵּהוּ׃ 51.3. כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה צִיּוֹן נִחַם כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶיהָ וַיָּשֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ כְּעֵדֶן וְעַרְבָתָהּ כְּגַן־יְהוָה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יִמָּצֵא בָהּ תּוֹדָה וְקוֹל זִמְרָה׃ 54.9. כִּי־מֵי נֹחַ זֹאת לִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי־נֹחַ עוֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ כֵּן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מִקְּצֹף עָלַיִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּךְ׃ 54.11. עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃ 54.12. וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃ 54.13. וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃ 54.14. בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃ 54.15. הֵן גּוֹר יָגוּר אֶפֶס מֵאוֹתִי מִי־גָר אִתָּךְ עָלַיִךְ יִפּוֹל׃ 60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃ 60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 60.2. לֹא־יָבוֹא עוֹד שִׁמְשֵׁךְ וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף כִּי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וְשָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי אֶבְלֵךְ׃ 60.2. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַחֹשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה־אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח יְהוָה וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה׃ 60.3. וְהָלְכוּ גוֹיִם לְאוֹרֵךְ וּמְלָכִים לְנֹגַהּ זַרְחֵךְ׃ 60.4. שְׂאִי־סָבִיב עֵינַיִךְ וּרְאִי כֻּלָּם נִקְבְּצוּ בָאוּ־לָךְ בָּנַיִךְ מֵרָחוֹק יָבֹאוּ וּבְנֹתַיִךְ עַל־צַד תֵּאָמַנָה׃ 60.5. אָז תִּרְאִי וְנָהַרְתְּ וּפָחַד וְרָחַב לְבָבֵךְ כִּי־יֵהָפֵךְ עָלַיִךְ הֲמוֹן יָם חֵיל גּוֹיִם יָבֹאוּ לָךְ׃ 60.6. שִׁפְעַת גְּמַלִּים תְּכַסֵּךְ בִּכְרֵי מִדְיָן וְעֵיפָה כֻּלָּם מִשְּׁבָא יָבֹאוּ זָהָב וּלְבוֹנָה יִשָּׂאוּ וּתְהִלֹּת יְהוָה יְבַשֵּׂרוּ׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 61.4. וּבָנוּ חָרְבוֹת עוֹלָם שֹׁמְמוֹת רִאשֹׁנִים יְקוֹמֵמוּ וְחִדְּשׁוּ עָרֵי חֹרֶב שֹׁמְמוֹת דּוֹר וָדוֹר׃ 61.5. וְעָמְדוּ זָרִים וְרָעוּ צֹאנְכֶם וּבְנֵי נֵכָר אִכָּרֵיכֶם וְכֹרְמֵיכֶם׃ 61.6. וְאַתֶּם כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה תִּקָּרֵאוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ יֵאָמֵר לָכֶם חֵיל גּוֹיִם תֹּאכֵלוּ וּבִכְבוֹדָם תִּתְיַמָּרוּ׃ 61.7. תַּחַת בָּשְׁתְּכֶם מִשְׁנֶה וּכְלִמָּה יָרֹנּוּ חֶלְקָם לָכֵן בְּאַרְצָם מִשְׁנֶה יִירָשׁוּ שִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לָהֶם׃ 61.8. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֹהֵב מִשְׁפָּט שֹׂנֵא גָזֵל בְּעוֹלָה וְנָתַתִּי פְעֻלָּתָם בֶּאֱמֶת וּבְרִית עוֹלָם אֶכְרוֹת לָהֶם׃ 61.9. וְנוֹדַע בַּגּוֹיִם זַרְעָם וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הָעַמִּים כָּל־רֹאֵיהֶם יַכִּירוּם כִּי הֵם זֶרַע בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה׃ 65.18. כִּי־אִם־שִׂישׂוּ וְגִילוּ עֲדֵי־עַד אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי בוֹרֵא כִּי הִנְנִי בוֹרֵא אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם גִּילָה וְעַמָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ׃ 65.19. וְגַלְתִּי בִירוּשָׁלִַם וְשַׂשְׂתִּי בְעַמִּי וְלֹא־יִשָּׁמַע בָּהּ עוֹד קוֹל בְּכִי וְקוֹל זְעָקָה׃ 65.21. וּבָנוּ בָתִּים וְיָשָׁבוּ וְנָטְעוּ כְרָמִים וְאָכְלוּ פִּרְיָם׃ 65.22. לֹא יִבְנוּ וְאַחֵר יֵשֵׁב לֹא יִטְּעוּ וְאַחֵר יֹאכֵל כִּי־כִימֵי הָעֵץ יְמֵי עַמִּי וּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם יְבַלּוּ בְחִירָי׃ 65.23. לֹא יִיגְעוּ לָרִיק וְלֹא יֵלְדוּ לַבֶּהָלָה כִּי זֶרַע בְּרוּכֵי יְהוָה הֵמָּה וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם אִתָּם׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 1.9. Except the LORD of hosts Had left unto us a very small remt, We should have been as Sodom, We should have been like unto Gomorrah." 29.11. And the vision of all this is become unto you as the words of a writing that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying: ‘Read this, I pray thee’; and he saith: ‘I cannot, for it is sealed’;" 51.1. Hearken to Me, ye that follow after righteousness, Ye that seek the LORD; Look unto the rock whence ye were hewn, And to the hole of the pit whence ye were digged." 51.2. Look unto Abraham your father, And unto Sarah that bore you; For when he was but one I called him, And I blessed him, and made him many." 51.3. For the LORD hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all her waste places, And hath made her wilderness like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness shall be found therein, Thanksgiving, and the voice of melody." 54.9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee." 54.10. For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall My covet of peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath compassion on thee." 54.11. O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires." 54.12. And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones." 54.13. And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children." 54.14. In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee." 54.15. Behold, they may gather together, but not by Me; Whosoever shall gather together against thee shall fall because of thee." 60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee." 60.2. For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, And gross darkness the peoples; But upon thee the LORD will arise, And His glory shall be seen upon thee." 60.3. And nations shall walk at thy light, And kings at the brightness of thy rising." 60.4. Lift Up thine eyes round about, and see: They all are gathered together, and come to thee; Thy sons come from far, And thy daughters are borne on the side." 60.5. Then thou shalt see and be radiant, And thy heart shall throb and be enlarged; Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned unto thee, The wealth of the nations shall come unto thee." 60.6. The caravan of camels shall cover thee, And of the young camels of Midian and Ephah, All coming from Sheba; They shall bring gold and incense, And shall proclaim the praises of the LORD." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;" 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory." 61.4. And they shall build the old wastes, They shall raise up the former desolations, And they shall renew the waste cities, The desolations of many generations." 61.5. And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, And aliens shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers." 61.6. But ye shall be named the priests of the LORD, Men shall call you the ministers of our God; Ye shall eat the wealth of the nations, And in their splendour shall ye revel." 61.7. For your shame which was double, And for that they rejoiced: ‘Confusion is their portion’; Therefore in their land they shall possess double, Everlasting joy shall be unto them." 61.8. For I the LORD love justice, I hate robbery with iniquity; And I will give them their recompense in truth, And I will make an everlasting covet with them." 61.9. And their seed shall be known among the nations, And their offspring among the peoples; All that see them shall acknowledge them, That they are the seed which the LORD hath blessed." 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." 65.18. But be ye glad and rejoice for ever In that which I create; For, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, And her people a joy." 65.19. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; And the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, Nor the voice of crying." 65.20. There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man, That hath not filled his days; For the youngest shall die a hundred years old, And the sinner being a hundred years old shall be accursed." 65.21. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; And they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them." 65.22. They shall not build, and another inhabit, They shall not plant, and another eat; For as the days of a tree shall be the days of My people, And Mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands." 65.23. They shall not labour in vain, Nor bring forth for terror; For they are the seed blessed of the LORD, And their offspring with them." 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.6, 1.9, 1.13, 38.33-38.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.6. וָאֹמַר אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה הִנֵּה לֹא־יָדַעְתִּי דַּבֵּר כִּי־נַעַר אָנֹכִי׃ 1.9. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיךָ׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי שֵׁנִית לֵאמֹר מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר סִיר נָפוּחַ אֲנִי רֹאֶה וּפָנָיו מִפְּנֵי צָפוֹנָה׃ 1.6. Then said I: ‘Ah, Lord GOD! behold, I cannot speak; for I am a child.’" 1.9. Then the LORD put forth His hand, and touched my mouth; and the LORD said unto me: Behold, I have put My words in thy mouth;" 1.13. And the word of the LORD came unto me the second time, saying: ‘What seest thou?’ And I said: ‘I see a seething pot; and the face thereof is from the north.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.10, 5.13-5.15, 24.26-24.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ׃ 5.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר־צְבָא־יְהוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ׃ 5.15. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר־צְבָא יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל־נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן׃ 24.26. וַיִּכְתֹּב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהִים וַיִּקַּח אֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָה וַיְקִימֶהָ שָּׁם תַּחַת הָאַלָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּמִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה׃ 24.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן הַזֹּאת תִּהְיֶה־בָּנוּ לְעֵדָה כִּי־הִיא שָׁמְעָה אֵת כָּל־אִמְרֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עִמָּנוּ וְהָיְתָה בָכֶם לְעֵדָה פֶּן־תְּכַחֲשׁוּן בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 5.10. And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal; and they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho." 5.13. And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him: ‘Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?’ ." 5.14. And he said: ‘Nay, but I am captain of the host of the LORD; I am now come.’ And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down, and said unto him: ‘What saith my lord unto his servant?’" 5.15. And the captain of the LORD’S host said unto Joshua: ‘Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy.’ And Joshua did so." 24.26. And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God; and he took a great stone, and set it up there under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the LORD." 24.27. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Behold, this stone shall be a witness against us; for it hath heard all the words of the LORD which He spoke unto us; it shall be therefore a witness against you, lest ye deny your God.’"
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1.1-1.2, 4.5, 6.21-6.22, 9.37, 13.3, 13.7, 13.15-13.16, 20.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוּדָה אֶל־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶבְרוֹן וְשֵׁם־חֶבְרוֹן לְפָנִים קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־שֵׁשַׁי וְאֶת־אֲחִימַן וְאֶת־תַּלְמָי׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ אֶל־הַכְּנַעֲנִי בַּתְּחִלָּה לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יְהוּדָה יַעֲלֶה הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ בְּיָדוֹ׃ 1.2. וַיִּתְּנוּ לְכָלֵב אֶת־חֶבְרוֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹרֶשׁ מִשָּׁם אֶת־שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי הָעֲנָק׃ 4.5. וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת תַּחַת־תֹּמֶר דְּבוֹרָה בֵּין הָרָמָה וּבֵין בֵּית־אֵל בְּהַר אֶפְרָיִם וַיַּעֲלוּ אֵלֶיהָ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 6.21. וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־קְצֵה הַמִּשְׁעֶנֶת אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ וַיִּגַּע בַּבָּשָׂר וּבַמַּצּוֹת וַתַּעַל הָאֵשׁ מִן־הַצּוּר וַתֹּאכַל אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר וְאֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הָלַךְ מֵעֵינָיו׃ 6.22. וַיַּרְא גִּדְעוֹן כִּי־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הוּא וַיֹּאמֶר גִּדְעוֹן אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כִּי־עַל־כֵּן רָאִיתִי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים׃ 9.37. וַיֹּסֶף עוֹד גַּעַל לְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה־עָם יוֹרְדִים מֵעִם טַבּוּר הָאָרֶץ וְרֹאשׁ־אֶחָד בָּא מִדֶּרֶךְ אֵלוֹן מְעוֹנְנִים׃ 13.3. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה־נָא אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן׃ 13.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טֻמְאָה כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבֶּטֶן עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ׃ 13.15. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה נַעְצְרָה־נָּא אוֹתָךְ וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנֶיךָ גְּדִי עִזִּים׃ 13.16. וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־מָנוֹחַ אִם־תַּעְצְרֵנִי לֹא־אֹכַל בְּלַחְמֶךָ וְאִם־תַּעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה לַיהוָה תַּעֲלֶנָּה כִּי לֹא־יָדַע מָנוֹחַ כִּי־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הוּא׃ 20.18. וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיַּעֲלוּ בֵית־אֵל וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ בֵאלֹהִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ בַתְּחִלָּה לַמִּלְחָמָה עִם־בְּנֵי בִנְיָמִן וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יְהוּדָה בַתְּחִלָּה׃ 1.1. Now after the death of Yehoshua it came to pass, that the children of Yisra᾽el asked the Lord, saying, Who shall go up for us against the Kena῾ani first, to fight against them?" 1.2. And the Lord said, Yehuda shall go up: behold, I have delivered the land into his hand." 4.5. And she dwelt under the palm tree of Devora between Rama and Bet-el in mount Efrayim: and the children of Yisra᾽el came up to her for judgment." 6.21. Then the angel of the Lord stretched out the end of the staff that was in his hand, and touched the meat and the unleavened cakes; and the fire rose up out of the rock, and consumed the meat and the unleavened cakes. Then the angel of the Lord departed out of his sight." 6.22. And when Gid῾on perceived that he was an angel of the Lord, Gid῾on said, Alas, O Lord God! because I have surely seen an angel of the Lord face to face." 9.37. And Ga῾al spoke again and said, See there come people down from the knoll of the land, and another company come along by the oak of Me῾onenim." 13.3. And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman, and said to her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son." 13.7. but he said to me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb to the day of his death." 13.15. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for thee." 13.16. And the angel of the Lord said to Manoaĥ, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it to the Lord. For Manoaĥ knew not that he was an angel of the Lord." 20.18. And the children of Yisra᾽el arose, and went up to the house of God, and asked counsel of God, and said, which of us shall go up first to the battle against the children of Binyamin? And the Lord said, Yehuda shall go up first."
17. Homer, Odyssey, 4.400, 17.485-17.487 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.25, 11.24, 37.1-37.14, 43.6 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.25. וַיְהִי־קוֹל מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 11.24. וְרוּחַ נְשָׂאַתְנִי וַתְּבִיאֵנִי כַשְׂדִּימָה אֶל־הַגּוֹלָה בַּמַּרְאֶה בְּרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַיַּעַל מֵעָלַי הַמַּרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי׃ 37.1. וְהִנַּבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנִי וַתָּבוֹא בָהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּחְיוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־רַגְלֵיהֶם חַיִל גָּדוֹל מְאֹד־מְאֹד׃ 37.1. הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד־יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ יְהוָה וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַבִּקְעָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמוֹת׃ 37.2. וְהָיוּ הָעֵצִים אֲ‍שֶׁר־תִּכְתֹּב עֲלֵיהֶם בְּיָדְךָ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 37.2. וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב וְהִנֵּה רַבּוֹת מְאֹד עַל־פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשׁוֹת מְאֹד׃ 37.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ׃ 37.4. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמוֹת הַיְבֵשׁוֹת שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 37.5. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.7. וְנִבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צֻוֵּיתִי וַיְהִי־קוֹל כְּהִנָּבְאִי וְהִנֵּה־רַעַשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּ עֲצָמוֹת עֶצֶם אֶל־עַצְמוֹ׃ 37.8. וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹר מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 37.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃ 37.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמוֹתֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ׃ 37.12. לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי פֹתֵחַ אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וְהַעֲלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 37.13. וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלוֹתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 43.6. וָאֶשְׁמַע מִדַּבֵּר אֵלַי מֵהַבָּיִת וְאִישׁ הָיָה עֹמֵד אֶצְלִי׃ 1.25. For, when there was a voice above the firmament that was over their heads, as they stood, they let down their wings." 11.24. And a spirit lifted me up, and brought me in the vision by the spirit of God into Chaldea, to them of the captivity. So the vision that I had seen went up from Me." 37.1. The hand of the LORD was upon me, and the LORD carried me out in a spirit, and set me down in the midst of the valley, and it was full of bones;" 37.2. and He caused me to pass by them round about, and, behold, there were very many in the open valley; and, lo, they were very dry." 37.3. And He said unto me: ‘Son of man, can these bones live?’ And I answered: ‘O Lord GOD, Thou knowest.’" 37.4. Then He said unto me: ‘Prophesy over these bones, and say unto them: O ye dry bones, hear the word of the LORD:" 37.5. Thus saith the Lord GOD unto these bones: Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.7. So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a commotion, and the bones came together, bone to its bone." 37.8. And I beheld, and, lo, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up, and skin covered them above; but there was no breath in them." 37.9. Then said He unto me: ‘Prophesy unto the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.’" 37.10. So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great host." 37.11. Then He said unto me: ‘Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say: Our bones are dried up, and our hope is lost; we are clean cut off." 37.12. Therefore prophesy, and say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, O My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel." 37.13. And ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves, and caused you to come up out of your graves, O My people." 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’" 43.6. And I heard one speaking unto me out of the house; and a man stood by me."
19. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4.8, 9.9-9.12, 9.14-9.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.8. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 9.9. גִּילִי מְאֹד בַּת־צִיּוֹן הָרִיעִי בַּת יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִנֵּה מַלְכֵּךְ יָבוֹא לָךְ צַדִּיק וְנוֹשָׁע הוּא עָנִי וְרֹכֵב עַל־חֲמוֹר וְעַל־עַיִר בֶּן־אֲתֹנוֹת׃ 9.11. גַּם־אַתְּ בְּדַם־בְּרִיתֵךְ שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֲסִירַיִךְ מִבּוֹר אֵין מַיִם בּוֹ׃ 9.12. שׁוּבוּ לְבִצָּרוֹן אֲסִירֵי הַתִּקְוָה גַּם־הַיּוֹם מַגִּיד מִשְׁנֶה אָשִׁיב לָךְ׃ 9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 9.15. יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת יָגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם וְאָכְלוּ וְכָבְשׁוּ אַבְנֵי־קֶלַע וְשָׁתוּ הָמוּ כְּמוֹ־יָיִן וּמָלְאוּ כַּמִּזְרָק כְּזָוִיּוֹת מִזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.8. Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 9.9. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; Behold, thy king cometh unto thee, He is triumphant, and victorious, Lowly, and riding upon an ass, Even upon a colt the foal of an ass." 9.10. And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, And the horse from Jerusalem, And the battle bow shall be cut off, And he shall speak peace unto the nations; And his dominion shall be from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth." 9.11. As for thee also, because of the blood of thy covet I send forth thy prisoners out of the pit Wherein is no water." 9.12. Return to the stronghold, Ye prisoners of hope; Even to-day do I declare That I will render double unto thee." 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south." 9.15. The LORD of hosts will defend them; And they shall devour, and shall tread down the sling-stones; And they shall drink, and make a noise as through wine; And they shall be filled like the basins, like the corners of the altar."
20. Herodotus, Histories, 2.52 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.52. Formerly, in all their sacrifices, the Pelasgians called upon gods without giving name or appellation to any (I know this, because I was told at Dodona ); for as yet they had not heard of such. They called them gods from the fact that, besides setting everything in order, they maintained all the dispositions. ,Then, after a long while, first they learned the names of the rest of the gods, which came to them from Egypt, and, much later, the name of Dionysus; and presently they asked the oracle at Dodona about the names; for this place of divination, held to be the most ancient in Hellas, was at that time the only one. ,When the Pelasgians, then, asked at Dodona whether they should adopt the names that had come from foreign parts, the oracle told them to use the names. From that time onwards they used the names of the gods in their sacrifices; and the Greeks received these later from the Pelasgians.
21. Anon., 1 Enoch, 32.3-32.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4. That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 32.5. is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.'
22. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 4.1312 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1312. ἔνδιον ἦμαρ ἔην, περὶ δʼ ὀξύταται θέρον αὐγαὶ
23. Anon., Jubilees, 3.4, 4.2, 4.6, 10.22-10.23, 14.18, 14.20, 16.1-16.2, 17.16-17.17, 19.3, 30.18, 31.14, 32.21-32.26, 41.24, 48.4, 48.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. And on these five days Adam saw all these, male and female, according to every kind that was on the earth, but he was alone and found no helpmeet for him. 4.2. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 4.6. and the man who hath seen and not declared (it), let him be accursed as the other. 10.22. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two weeks and five years. 10.23. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. 14.18. And the nation also to whom they will be in bondage shall I judge, and after that they will come forth thence with much substance. 14.20. But in the fourth generation they will return hither; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 16.1. And on the new moon of the fourth month we appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, and we talked with him 16.2. and we announced to him that a son would be given to him by Sarah his wife. 17.16. And she opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water, and she went and filled her bottle with water, and she gave her child to drink 17.17. and she arose and went towards the wilderness of Paran. brAnd the child grew and became an archer, and God was with him; 19.3. and we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient and he were not indigt in the words of his mouth; and he was found patient in this, and was not disturbed. 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 32.21. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children after him. 32.22. And the Lord appeared to him by night and blessed him and said unto him: "Thy name shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall they name thy name. 32.23. And He said unto him again: "I am the Lord who created the heaven and the earth, and I shall increase thee and multiply thee exceedingly, and kings will come forth from thee, and they will judge everywhere wherever the foot of the sons of men hath trodden. 32.24. Ana I shall give to thy seed all the earth which is under heaven, and they will judge all the nations according to their desires, and after that they will get possession of the whole earth and inherit it for ever. 32.25. And He finished speaking with him, and He went up from him, and Jacob looked till He had ascended into heaven. 32.26. And he saw in a vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from heaven with seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, and he read them and knew all that was written therein which would befall him and his sons through-out all the ages. 41.24. And Judah acknowledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray; for he had uncovered the skirt of his son 48.4. Did he not with all his power seek to slay thee and deliver the Egyptians out of thy hand when he saw that thou wast sent to execute judgment and vengeance on the Egyptians? 48.8. and by darkness; and (by the death) of the first-born of men and animals
24. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 5.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.8. And I saw, for I was there, and behold a holy writing appeared to us, saying: Assyrians, Medes, Persians, [Chaldeans,] Syrians, shall possess in captivity the twelve tribes of Israel.
25. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.1-3.27, 4.31, 8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא שָׂמְתָּ טְּעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִשְׁמַע קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְסַנְתֵּרִין וסיפניה [וְסוּפֹּנְיָה] וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא׃ 3.1. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא עֲבַד צְלֵם דִּי־דְהַב רוּמֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין פְּתָיֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁת אֲקִימֵהּ בְּבִקְעַת דּוּרָא בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 3.2. וּנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא שְׁלַח לְמִכְנַשׁ לַאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לְמֵתֵא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.2. וּלְגֻבְרִין גִּבָּרֵי־חַיִל דִּי בְחַיְלֵהּ אֲמַר לְכַפָּתָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לְמִרְמֵא לְאַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.3. בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא הַצְלַח לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 3.3. בֵּאדַיִן מִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא וקאמין [וְקָיְמִין] לָקֳבֵל צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר׃ 3.4. וְכָרוֹזָא קָרֵא בְחָיִל לְכוֹן אָמְרִין עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַּיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא׃ 3.5. בְּעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרוס [קַתְרוֹס] סַבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין סוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.6. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.7. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא כְּדִי שָׁמְעִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְטֵרִין וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא נָפְלִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא סָגְדִין לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.8. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא קְרִבוּ גֻּבְרִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין וַאֲכַלוּ קַרְצֵיהוֹן דִּי יְהוּדָיֵא׃ 3.9. עֲנוֹ וְאָמְרִין לִנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא מַלְכָּא לְעָלְמִין חֱיִי׃ 3.11. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.12. אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן דִּי־מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא־שָׂמוּ עליך [עֲלָךְ] מַלְכָּא טְעֵם לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.14. עָנֵה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר לְהוֹן הַצְדָּא שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לֵאלָהַי לָא אִיתֵיכוֹן פָּלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימֶת לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.16. עֲנוֹ שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לָא־חַשְׁחִין אֲנַחְנָה עַל־דְּנָה פִּתְגָם לַהֲתָבוּתָךְ׃ 3.17. הֵן אִיתַי אֱלָהַנָא דִּי־אֲנַחְנָא פָלְחִין יָכִל לְשֵׁיזָבוּתַנָא מִן־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמִן־יְדָךְ מַלְכָּא יְשֵׁיזִב׃ 3.18. וְהֵן לָא יְדִיעַ לֶהֱוֵא־לָךְ מַלְכָּא דִּי לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא־איתינא [אִיתַנָא] פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא נִסְגֻּד׃ 3.19. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא וּצְלֵם אַנְפּוֹהִי אשתנו [אֶשְׁתַּנִּי] עַל־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְמֵזֵא לְאַתּוּנָא חַד־שִׁבְעָה עַל דִּי חֲזֵה לְמֵזְיֵהּ׃ 3.21. בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ כְּפִתוּ בְּסַרְבָּלֵיהוֹן פטישיהון [פַּטְּשֵׁיהוֹן] וְכַרְבְּלָתְהוֹן וּלְבֻשֵׁיהוֹן וּרְמִיו לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.22. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה מִן־דִּי מִלַּת מַלְכָּא מַחְצְפָה וְאַתּוּנָא אֵזֵה יַתִּירָא גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי הַסִּקוּ לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ קַטִּל הִמּוֹן שְׁבִיבָא דִּי נוּרָא׃ 3.23. וְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ תְּלָתֵּהוֹן שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ נְפַלוּ לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן־נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא מְכַפְּתִין׃ 3.24. אֱדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא תְּוַהּ וְקָם בְּהִתְבְּהָלָה עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְהַדָּבְרוֹהִי הֲלָא גֻבְרִין תְּלָתָא רְמֵינָא לְגוֹא־נוּרָא מְכַפְּתִין עָנַיִן וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא יַצִּיבָא מַלְכָּא׃ 3.25. עָנֵה וְאָמַר הָא־אֲנָה חָזֵה גֻּבְרִין אַרְבְּעָה שְׁרַיִן מַהְלְכִין בְּגוֹא־נוּרָא וַחֲבָל לָא־אִיתַי בְּהוֹן וְרֵוֵהּ דִּי רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] דָּמֵה לְבַר־אֱלָהִין׃ 3.26. בֵּאדַיִן קְרֵב נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לִתְרַע אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא עָנֵה וְאָמַר שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד־נְגוֹ עַבְדוֹהִי דִּי־אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] פֻּקוּ וֶאֱתוֹ בֵּאדַיִן נָפְקִין שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ מִן־גּוֹא נוּרָא׃ 3.27. וּמִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא חָזַיִן לְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי לָא־שְׁלֵט נוּרָא בְּגֶשְׁמְהוֹן וּשְׂעַר רֵאשְׁהוֹן לָא הִתְחָרַךְ וְסָרְבָּלֵיהוֹן לָא שְׁנוֹ וְרֵיחַ נוּר לָא עֲדָת בְּהוֹן׃ 4.31. וְלִקְצָת יוֹמַיָּה אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר עַיְנַי לִשְׁמַיָּא נִטְלֵת וּמַנְדְּעִי עֲלַי יְתוּב ולעליא [וּלְעִלָּאָה] בָּרְכֵת וּלְחַי עָלְמָא שַׁבְּחֵת וְהַדְּרֵת דִּי שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 3.1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits; he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon." 3.2. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.3. Then the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together unto the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up." 3.4. And the herald cried aloud: ‘To you it is commanded, O peoples, nations, and languages," 3.5. that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up;" 3.6. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.’" 3.7. Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.8. Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and brought accusation against the Jews." 3.9. They spoke and said to Nebuchadnezzar the king: ‘O king, live for ever!" 3.10. Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image;" 3.11. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace." 3.12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.14. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said unto them: ‘Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, that ye serve not my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up?" 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’" 3.16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king: ‘O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer thee in this matter." 3.17. If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us, He will deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and out of thy hand, O king." 3.18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 3.19. Then was Nebuchadnezzar filled with fury, and the form of his visage was changed, against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; he spoke, and commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times more than it was wont to be heated." 3.20. And he commanded certain mighty men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them into the burning fiery furnace." 3.21. Then these men were bound in their cloaks, their tunics, and their robes, and their other garments, and were cast into the midst of the burning fiery furnace." 3.22. Therefore because the king’s commandment was peremptory, and the furnace exceeding hot, the flame of the fire slew those men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego." 3.23. And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, fell down bound into the midst of the burning fiery furnace." 3.24. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was alarmed, and rose up in haste; he spoke and said unto his ministers: ‘Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire?’ They answered and said unto the king: ‘True, O king.’" 3.25. He answered and said: ‘Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.’" 3.26. Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace; he spoke and said: ‘Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, ye servants of God Most High, come forth, and come hither.’ Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth out of the midst of the fire." 3.27. And the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, and the king’s ministers, being gathered together, saw these men, that the fire had no power upon their bodies, nor was the hair of their head singed, neither were their cloaks changed, nor had the smell of fire passed on them." 4.31. ‘And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honoured Him that liveth for ever; For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom from generation to generation;" 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’"
26. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.26, 3.33-3.34, 15.11-15.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.26. Two young men also appeared to him, remarkably strong, gloriously beautiful and splendidly dressed, who stood on each side of him and scourged him continuously, inflicting many blows on him.' 3.33. While the high priest was making the offering of atonement, the same young men appeared again to Heliodorus dressed in the same clothing, and they stood and said, 'Be very grateful to Onias the high priest, since for his sake the Lord has granted you your life.' 3.34. And see that you, who have been scourged by heaven, report to all men the majestic power of God.'Having said this they vanished.' 15.11. He armed each of them not so much with confidence in shields and spears as with the inspiration of brave words, and he cheered them all by relating a dream, a sort of vision, which was worthy of belief.' 15.12. What he saw was this: Onias, who had been high priest, a noble and good man, of modest bearing and gentle manner, one who spoke fittingly and had been trained from childhood in all that belongs to excellence, was praying with outstretched hands for the whole body of the Jews.' 15.13. Then likewise a man appeared, distinguished by his gray hair and dignity, and of marvelous majesty and authority.' 15.14. And Onias spoke, saying, 'This is a man who loves the brethren and prays much for the people and the holy city, Jeremiah, the prophet of God.' 15.15. Jeremiah stretched out his right hand and gave to Judas a golden sword, and as he gave it he addressed him thus:' 15.16. Take this holy sword, a gift from God, with which you will strike down your adversaries.' 15.17. Encouraged by the words of Judas, so noble and so effective in arousing valor and awaking manliness in the souls of the young, they determined not to carry on a campaign but to attack bravely, and to decide the matter, by fighting hand to hand with all courage, because the city and the sanctuary and the temple were in danger.'
27. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.7-6.9, 6.14-6.17, 27.16, 37.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

27.16. Whoever betrays secrets destroys confidence,and he will never find a congenial friend. 37.4. Some companions rejoice in the happiness of a friend,but in time of trouble are against him.
28. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 17.5, 17.7, 17.11, 17.20, 18.17-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.5. And no power of fire was able to give light,nor did the brilliant flames of the stars avail to illumine that hateful night. 17.7. The delusions of their magic art lay humbled,and their boasted wisdom was scornfully rebuked. 17.11. For wickedness is a cowardly thing, condemned by its own testimony;distressed by conscience, it has always exaggerated the difficulties. 17.20. For the whole world was illumined with brilliant light,and was engaged in unhindered work 18.17. Then at once apparitions in dreadful dreams greatly troubled them,and unexpected fears assailed them; 18.18. and one here and another there, hurled down half dead,made known why they were dying; 18.19. for the dreams which disturbed them forewarned them of this,so that they might not perish without knowing why they suffered.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 107-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-132, 136, 14, 144, 147, 15-16, 163, 167-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 20, 200-207, 21, 217, 22-29, 3, 30-47, 62-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-81, 9, 90, 93, 97-98, 10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

10. for, as the poet Homer, though the number of poets is beyond all calculation, is called "the poet" by way of distinction, and as the black [ink] with which we write is called "the black," though in point of fact everything which is not white is black; and as that archon at Athens is especially called "the archon," who is the archon eponymus and the chief of the nine archons, from whom the chronology is dated; so in the same manner the sacred historian calls him who indulges in hope, "a man," by way of pre-eminence, passing over in silence the rest of the multitude of human beings, as not being worthy to receive the same appellation.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 121, 27-28, 49-50, 99, 106 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

106. Such a house then being prepared in the race of mankind, all things on earth will be filled with good hopes, expecting the return of the powers of God; and they will come, bringing laws from heaven, and bonds, for the purpose of sanctifying the hallowing it, according to the command of their Father; then becoming the associates and constant companions of these souls which love virtue, they sow in them the genus of happiness: as they gave to the wise Abraham his son Isaac as the most perfect proof of their gratitude for the hospitality which they experienced from him. 106. And after this commandment relating to the seventh day he gives the fifth, which concerns the honour to be paid to parents, giving it a position on the confines of the two tables of five commandments each; for being the concluding one of the first table, in which the most sacred duties to the Deity are enjoined, it has also some connection with the second table which comprehends the obligations towards our fellow creatures;
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 137 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

137. For that which is higher than all powers is understood to exceed them, not merely in the fact of its existence. But the power of this being which made and arranged everything is with perfect truth called God, and it contains everything in its bosom, and pervades every portion of the universe.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 36 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

36. But the self-instructed race, of which Isaac was a partaker, the excellent country of the mastery over the passions, has received as its share a nature simple, and unmixed, and unalloyed, standing in no need of either practice or instruction in which there is need of the concubine sciences, and not only of the citizen wives; for when God has showered down from above that most requisite benefit of knowledge, self-taught, and having no need of a preceptor, it would be impossible any longer for a man to live with the slavish and concubine arts, having a desire for bastard doctrines as his children. For the man who has arrived at this honour, is inscribed as the husband of the mistress and princess virtue; and she is called in the Greek language, perseverance, but among the Hebrews her name is Rebekkah.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 84, 164 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

34. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 13, 60, 86, 107 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

107. He then who can thus look upon the living God, and who thus comprehends the nature of the cause of all things, honours the things of which he is the cause in a secondary degree to himself; while at the same time he confesses their importance though without flattering them. And this confession is most just: I will receive nothing from you, but everything from God, to whom all things belong, though perhaps the benefits may be bestowed through the medium of you; for ye are instruments to minister to his everlasting graces.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 101-105, 128, 94-100 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

100. These, then, are the six cities which Moses calls cities of refuge, five of which have had their figures set forth in the sacred scriptures, and their images are there likewise. The images of the cities of command and prohibition are the laws in the ark; that of the merciful power of God is the covering of the ark, and he calls it the mercy-seat. The images of the creative power and of the kingly power are the winged cherubim which are placed upon it.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 61, 60 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

60. Therefore he utters no fable whatever respecting the giants; but he wishes to set this fact before your eyes, that some men are born of the earth, and some are born of heaven, and some are born of God: those are born of the earth, who are hunters after the pleasures of the body, devoting themselves to the enjoyment and fruition of them, and being eager to provide themselves with all things that tend to each of them. Those again are born of heaven who are men of skill and science and devoted to learning; for the heavenly portion of us is our mind, and the mind of every one of those persons who are born of heaven studies the encyclical branches of education and every other art of every description, sharpening, and exercising, and practising itself, and rendering itself acute in all those matters which are the objects of intellect.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 211, 45, 89, 126 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

126. For, virtue is, and will be, and has been in everything; which virtue perhaps is at times obscured among men by the want of opportunity, but which opportunity the minister of God again brings to light. Since Sarah, that is to say, prudence, brings forth a male child, flourishing, not according to the periodical seasons of the year, but according to those seasons and felicitous occasions which have no connection with time; for it is said, "I will surely return and visit thee according to the time of life; and Sarah, thy wife, shall have a Son." XXIII.
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 10-17, 194, 197, 200, 7-9, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. Abraham was ninety and nine years old; and the Lord appeared unto Abraham, and said unto him, I am thy God." The number of nine, when added to the number ninety, is very near to a hundred; in which number the self-taught race shone forth, namely Isaac, the most excellent joy of all enjoyments; for he was born when his father was a hundred years old.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 17, 171-172, 23, 69-70, 8, 88, 9, 16 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

16. for God, as apprehending beforehand, as a God must do, that there could not exist a good imitation without a good model, and that of the things perceptible to the external senses nothing could be faultless which wax not fashioned with reference to some archetypal idea conceived by the intellect, when he had determined to create this visible world, previously formed that one which is perceptible only by the intellect, in order that so using an incorporeal model formed as far as possible on the image of God, he might then make this corporeal world, a younger likeness of the elder creation, which should embrace as many different genera perceptible to the external senses, as the other world contains of those which are visible only to the intellect.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 36 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 28, 134 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

134. Now of the four virtues, some are always virgins, and some from having been women become changed into virgins, as Sarah did; "For it had ceased to be with her after the manner of Women," when she began to conceive her happy offspring Isaac. But that which is always a virgin, is that of which Moses says, "And no man whatever knows her." For in truth, it is not permitted to any mortal to pollute incorruptible nature, nor even clearly to comprehend what it is. If indeed he were able by any means to become acquainted with it, he would not cease to hate and regret it;
42. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 31-32, 42, 27 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

27. Let these men, then, hang by their appetites as by a halter; but the wise Abraham, where he stands, comes near to God, who is also standing. For Moses says that "Abraham was standing near to God; and coming nigh unto him, he Said,"... For in good truth the unalterable soul is the only thing that has access to the unalterable God; and being of such a disposition, it does really stand very near to the Divine power.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 59-62, 27 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

27. And she was attended by piety, and holiness, and truth, and right, and purity, and an honest regard for an oath, and justice, and equality, and adherence to one's engagements and communion, and prudent silence, and temperance, and orderliness, and meekness, and abstemiousness, and contentment, and good-temper, and modesty, and an absence of curiosity about the concerns of others, and manly courage, and a noble disposition and wisdom in counsel, and prudence, and forethought, and attention, and correctness, and cheerfulness, and humanity, and gentleness, and courtesy, and love of one's kind, and magimity, and happiness, and goodness. One day would fail me if I were to enumerate all the names of the particular virtues.
44. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

45. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.194-1.195, 1.229-1.230, 1.237, 2.185 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.194. In this manner, too, Moses is called up to the bush. For, the scripture says, "When he saw that he was turning aside to see, God called him out of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses: and he said, What is it, Lord?" And Abraham also, on the occasion of offering up his beloved and only son as a burnt-offering, when he was beginning to sacrifice him, and when he had given proof of his piety, was forbidden to destroy the self-taught race, Isaac by name, from among men; 1.195. for at the beginning of his account of this transaction, Moses says that "God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Behold, here am I. And he said unto him, Take now thy beloved son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and offer him up." And when he had brought the victim to the altar, then the angel of the Lord called him out of heaven, saying, "Abraham, Abraham," and he answered, "Behold, here am I. And he said, Lay not thy hand upon the child, and do nothing to Him. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou); 1.230. and what he here calls God is his most ancient word, not having any superstitious regard to the position of the names, but only proposing one end to himself, namely, to give a true account of the matter; for in other passages the sacred historian, when he considered whether there really was any name belonging to the living God, showed that he knew that there was none properly belonging to him; but that whatever appellation any one may give him, will be an abuse of terms; for the living God is not of a nature to be described, but only to be. XL. 1.237. For we must be content if such men can be brought to a proper state, by the fear which is suspended over them by such descriptions; and one many almost say that these are the only two paths taken, in the whole history of the law; one leading to plain truth, owing to which we have such assertions as, "God is not as a Man;" the other, that which has regard to the opinions of foolish men, in reference to whom it is said, "The Lord God shall instruct you, like as if a man instructs his Son." XLI. 2.185. But the high priest of whom we are speaking is a perfect man, the husband of a virgin (a most extraordinary statement), who has never been made a woman; but who on the contrary, has ceased to be influenced by the customs of women in regard to her connection with her Husband. And not only is this man competent to sow the seeds of unpolluted and virgin opinions, but he is also the father of sacred reasonings
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.41-1.50, 1.66, 1.272, 1.299-1.300, 1.307, 1.324, 2.79, 3.6, 3.178, 3.189, 4.18 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.41. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, "Show me thyself"--all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words--"that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. 1.42. On which account, I beg and entreat of thee to receive the supplication of a man who is thy suppliant and devoted to God's service, and desirous to serve thee alone; for as the light is not known by the agency of anything else, but is itself its own manifestation, so also thou must alone be able to manifest thyself. For which reason I hope to receive pardon, if, from want of any one to teach me, I am so bold as to flee to thee, desiring to receive instruction from thyself. 1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive. 1.44. But not only is the nature of mankind, but even the whole heaven and the whole world is unable to attain to an adequate comprehension of me. So know yourself, and be not carried away with impulses and desires beyond your power; and let not a desire of unattainable objects carry you away and keep you in suspense. For you shall not lack anything which may be possessed by you. 1.45. When Moses heard this he betook himself to a second supplication, and said, "I am persuaded by thy explanations that I should not have been able to receive the visible appearance of thy form. But I beseech thee that I may, at all events, behold the glory that is around thee. And I look upon thy glory to be the powers which attend thee as thy guards, the comprehension of which having escaped me up to the present time, worketh in me no slight desire of a thorough understanding of it. 1.46. But God replied and said, "The powers which you seek to behold are altogether invisible, and appreciable only by the intellect; since I myself am invisible and only appreciable by the intellect. And what I call appreciable only by the intellect are not those which are already comprehended by the mind, but those which, even if they could be so comprehended, are still such that the outward senses could not at all attain to them, but only the very purest intellect. 1.47. And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened. 1.48. And some of your race, speaking with sufficient correctness, call them ideas (ideai 1.49. Do not, then, ever expect to be able to comprehend me nor any one of my powers, in respect of our essence. But, as I have said, I willingly and cheerfully grant unto you such things as you may receive. And this gift is to call you to the beholding of the world and all the things that are in it, which must be comprehended, not indeed by the eyes of the body, but by the sleepless vision of the soul. 1.50. The desire of wisdom alone is continual and incessant, and it fills all its pupils and disciples with famous and most beautiful doctrines." When Moses heard this he did not cease from his desire, but he still burned with a longing for the understanding of invisible things. [...]{7}{mangey thinks that there is a considerable hiatus here. What follows relates to the regulations respecting proselytes, which as the text stands is in no way connected with what has gone before about the worship of God.}IX. 1.66. We ought to look upon the universal world as the highest and truest temple of God, having for its most holy place that most sacred part of the essence of all existing things, namely, the heaven; and for ornaments, the stars; and for priests, the subordinate ministers of his power, namely, the angels, incorporeal souls, not beings compounded of irrational and rational natures, such as our bodies are, but such as have the irrational parts wholly cut out, being absolutely and wholly intellectual, pure reasonings, resembling the unit. 1.272. And even if they bring nothing else, still when they bring themselves, the most perfect completeness of virtue and excellence, they are offering the most excellent of all sacrifices, honouring God, their Benefactor and Saviour, with hymns and thanksgivings; the former uttered by the organs of the voice, and the latter without the agency of the tongue or mouth, the worshippers making their exclamations and invocations with their soul alone, and only appreciable by the intellect, and there is but one ear, namely, that of the Deity which hears them. For the hearing of men does not extend so far as to be sensible of them.LI. 1.299. These, then, and other commandments like them, are those which are established for the purpose of promoting piety, by express injunctions and prohibitions. But those which are in accordance with philosophical suggestions and recommendations must be explained in this manner; for the lawgiver, in effect, says, "God, O mind of man! demands nothing of you which is either oppressive, or uncertain, or difficult, but only such things as are very simple and easy. 1.300. And these are, to love him as your benefactor; and if you fail to do so, at all events, to fear him as your Governor and Lord, and to enter zealously upon all the paths which may please him, and to serve him in no careless or superficial manner, but with one's whole soul thoroughly filled as it ought to be with God-loving sentiments, and to cleave to his commandments, and to honour justice, by all which means the world itself continues constantly in the same nature without ever changing, and all other things which are contained in the world have a tendency towards improvement, such as the sun and the moon, and the whole multitude of the rest of the stars, and the entire heaven. But the mountains of the earth are elevated to the greatest possible height, and the champaign country, like other fusible essences, is spread over a body of wide extent, and the sea also changes so as to become united with sweet waters, and the rains also become in their turn similar to the sea. Therefore every one of those things is still fixed within the same boundaries as those within which it was originally created, when it was first disposed of in regular order. But you shall be better, living quite irreproachably. 1.307. Do you not see that the most important and greatest of all the powers of the living God are his beneficent and his punishing power? And his beneficent power is called God, since it is by means of this that he made and arranged the universe. And the other, or punishing power, is called Lord, on which his sovereignty over the universe depends. And God is God, not only of men, but also of gods; and he is mighty, being truly strong and truly Powerful.{45}{#de 10:17.}LVII. 1.324. But the law, being most especially an interpreter of equal communion, and of courteous humanity among men, has preserved the honour and dignity of each virtue; not permitting any one who is incurably sunk in vice to flee to them, but rejecting all such persons and repelling them to a distance. 2.79. After having given these commandments, Moses proceeds in regular order to establish a law full of all gentleness and humanity. "If," says this law, "one of thy brethren be sold to thee, let him serve thee for six years; and in the seventh year let him be set free without any Payment,"{11}{#de 15:12.} 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature. 3.189. But as the mind was unable by itself to comprehend all these things from merely beholding them by the faculty of sight, it did not stop merely at what was seen by it, but being devoted to learning, and fond of what is honourable and excellent, as it admired what it did see, it adopted this probable opinion, that these things are not moved spontaneously and at random by any irrational impulse of their own, but that they are set in motion and guided by the will of God, whom it is proper to look upon as the Father and Creator of the world. Moreover, that these things are not unrestrained by any bounds, but that they are limited by the circumference of one world, as they might be by the walls of a city, the world itself being circumscribed within the outermost sphere of the fixed stars. Moreover it considered also that the Father who created the world does by the law of nature take care of that which he has created, exerting his providence in behalf of the whole universe and of its parts. 4.18. For they, being aware of the former prosperous condition of those whom they have carried off, might perhaps repent, feeling a tardy and late compassion for those who are thus fallen, having a proper awe of the uncertainty of fortune eluding all conjectures. But those who buy persons in this condition, out of ignorance of their families, will neglect them as if they were sprung from successive generations of slaves, having no inducement in their souls to display that gentleness and humanity towards them which it would be natural for them to preserve in the case of slaves who had become so after having been originally and naturally free-born.
47. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 101-174, 51-100 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

100. For, in this fiftieth year, all the ordices which are given relating to the seventh year are repeated, and some of greater magnitude are likewise added, for instance, a resumption of a man's own possessions which he may have yielded up to others through unexpected necessity; for the law does not permit any one permanently to retain possession of the property of others, but blockades and stops up the roads to covetousness for the sake of checking desire, that treacherous passion, that cause of all evils; and, therefore, it has not permitted that the owners should be for ever deprived of their original property, as that would be punishing them for their poverty, for which we ought not to be punished, but undoubtedly to be pitied.
48. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 78 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

78. And these explanations of the sacred scriptures are delivered by mystic expressions in allegories, for the whole of the law appears to these men to resemble a living animal, and its express commandments seem to be the body, and the invisible meaning concealed under and lying beneath the plain words resembles the soul, in which the rational soul begins most excellently to contemplate what belongs to itself, as in a mirror, beholding in these very words the exceeding beauty of the sentiments, and unfolding and explaining the symbols, and bringing the secret meaning naked to the light to all who are able by the light of a slight intimation to perceive what is unseen by what is visible.
49. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.116, 1.166, 1.221, 1.232, 1.301-1.318, 2.67, 2.97-2.100 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.116. perhaps also it does so because it was superfluous for winter to occur in Egypt; for the object for which showers of rain are usually serviceable, is in this instance provided for by the river which overflows the fields, and turns them into one vast lake, to make them productive of the annual crops; 1.166. for a cloud, fashioned into the form of a vast pillar, went before the multitude by day, giving forth a light like that of the sun, but by night it displayed a fiery blaze, in order that the Hebrews might not wander on their journey, but might follow the guidance of their leader along the road, without any deviation. Perhaps, indeed, this was one of the ministers of the mighty King, an unseen messenger, a guide of the way enveloped in this cloud, whom it was not lawful for men to behold with the eyes of the body. 1.221. and accordingly he chose out twelve men, to correspond in number to the twelve tribes, one out of each tribe to be the leader of it, selecting the most approved men, with reference to their excellence, in order that no quarrels might arise from any one party being better or worse off than another, but that they might all, by the agency of those to whom the matter was entrusted, be equally instructed as to the state of affairs among the inhabitants, if only the spies who were sent out brought a true report. 1.232. Accordingly, there were a great many contest between them even before they returned to the camp, but not very serious ones, in order that there might not be seditions between them from any of them adhering very contentiously to his own opinion, or from different persons giving different accounts, but they became more violent after their return; 1.301. Accordingly, when licence was thus given, they brought over a multitude of young men, having already long before this seduced their minds, and having by their tricks and allurements perverted them to impiety; until Phinehas, the son of the chief priest, being exceedingly indigt at all that was taking place (for it appeared to him to be a most scandalous thing for his countrymen to give up at one time both their bodies and souls--their bodies to pleasure, and their souls to transgression of the law, and to works of wickedne 1.302. For when he saw a man of his nation sacrificing with and then entering into the tent of a harlot, and that too without casting his eyes down on the ground and seeking to avoid the notice of the multitude, but making a display of his licentiousness with shameless boldness, and giving himself airs as if he were about to engage in a creditable action, and one deserving of smiles--Phinehas, I say, being very indigt and being filled with a just anger, ran in, and while they were still lying on the bed, slew both the lover and the harlot, cutting them in two pieces in the middle, because they thus indulged in illicit connections. 1.303. When some persons of those who admired temperance, and chastity, and piety, saw this example, they, at the command of Moses, imitated it, and slew all their own relations and friends, even to a man, who had sacrificed to idols made with hands, and thus they effaced the stain which was defiling the nation by this implacable revenge which they thus wreaked on those who had set the example of wrong doing, and so saved the rest, who made a clear defence of themselves, demonstrating their own piety, showing no compassion on any one of those who were justly condemned to death, and not passing over their offences out of pity, but looking upon those who slew them as pure from all sin. Therefore they did not allow any escape whatever to those who sinned in this way, and such conduct is the truest praise; 1.304. and they say that twenty-four thousand men were slain in one day, the common pollution, which was defiling the whole army, being thus at once got rid of. And when the works of purification were thus accomplished, Moses began to seek how he might give an honour worthy of him who had displayed such permanent excellence to the son of the chief priest, who was the first who hastened to inflict chastisement on the offenders. But God was beforehand with him, giving to Phinehas, by means of his holy word, the greatest of all good things, namely, peace, which no man is able to bestow; and also, in addition to this peace, he gave him the perpetual possession of the priesthood, an inheritance to his family, which could not be taken from it. 1.305. But when none of the civil and intestine evils remained any longer, but when all the men who were suspected of having either forsaken the ways of their ancestors or of treachery had perished, it appeared to be a most favourable opportunity for making an expedition against Balak, a man who had both planned to do, and had also executed an innumerable host of evil deeds, since he had planned them through the agency of the prophet, who he hoped would be able, by means of his curses, to destroy the power of the Hebrews, and who had executed his purpose by the agency of the licentiousness and incontinence of the women, who destroyed the bodies of those who associated with them by debauchery, and their souls by impiety. 1.306. Therefore Moses did not think fit to carry on war against him with his whole army, knowing that superfluous numbers are apt to meet with disaster in consequence of those very numbers; and also, at the same time, thinking it useful to have stations of reserve, to be assistants to those of their allies who appeared likely to fail; but he selected a thousand picked men of the youth of the nation, selected man by man, out of each tribe, twelve thousand in all, for that was the number of the tribes, and he appointed Phinehas to be the commander in the war, as he had already given proof of the happy daring which becomes a general; and after he had offered up sacrifices of good omen, he sent forth his warriors, and encouraged them in the following words:-- 1.307. The present contest is not one for dominion or sovereignty, nor is it waged for the sake of acquiring the property of others, though these are the objects for which alone, or almost invariably, wars take place; but this war is undertaken in the cause of piety and holiness, from which the enemy has alienated our relations and friends, being the causes of bitter destruction to those who have been brought under their yoke. 1.308. It is therefore absurd for us to be the slayers of our own countrymen, for having offended against the law, and to spare our enemies, who have violated it in a much worse degree, and to slay, with every circumstance of violence, those who were only learning and beginning to sin, but to leave those who taught them to do so unpunished, who are, in reality, the guilty causes of all that has taken place, and of all the evils which our countrymen have either done or suffered. 1.309. Therefore being nerved by these exhortations, and being kindled and filled with noble courage which was indeed in their souls already, they went forth to that contest with invincible spirit as to a certain victory; and when they engaged with the enemy, they displayed such incredible vigour and courage that they slew all their enemies, and returned themselves unhurt, every one of them, not one of their number having been slain or even wounded. 1.310. Any one who did not know what had taken place, might have supposed, when he saw them returning, that they were coming in, not from war and from a pitched battle, but rather from a display and field-day of exercise under arms, such as often take place in time of peace; and these fielddays are days of exercise and practice, while the men train themselves among friends to attack their enemies. 1.311. Therefore they destroyed all their cities, razing them to the ground or else burning them, so that no one could tell that any cities had ever been inhabited in that land. And they led away a perfectly incalculable number of prisoners, of whom they chose to slay all the full-grown men and women, the men because they had set the example of wicked counsels and actions, and the women because they had beguiled the youth of the Hebrews, becoming the causes to them of incontinence and impiety, and at the last of death; but they pardoned all the young male children and all the virgins, their tender age procuring them forgiveness; 1.312. and as they had taken a vast booty from the king's palace, and from private houses, and also from the dwellings of all kinds in the open country (for there was not less booty in the country places than in the citie 1.313. And Moses praised Phinehas their general, and those who had served under him for their good success, and also because they had not been covetous of their own advantage, running after booty and thinking of nothing, but appropriating the spoil to themselves, but because they had brought it all into the common stock, so that they who had staid behind in the tents might share in the booty; and he ordered those men to remain outside the camp for some days, and the high priest he commanded to purify both the men themselves, and those of their allies who had returned from fighting by their side, of bloodshed; 1.314. for even though the slaughter of the enemies of one's country is according to law, still he who kills a man, even though justly and in self-defence, and because he has been attacked, still appears to be guilty of blood by reason of his supreme and common relationship to a common father; on which account those who had slain enemies were in need of rites of purification, to cleanse them from what was looked upon as a pollution. 1.315. However, after no long lapse of time he divided the booty among those who had taken a part in the expedition, and they were but a small number, giving one half among those who had remained inactive at home, and the other half to those who were still in the camp; for he looked upon it as just and equitable to give the share of the advantages gained, to those who had shared in the contest, if not with their souls, at all events with their bodies; for as the spectators were not inferior to the actual combatants in their zeal, they were inferior only in point of time and in respect of their being anticipated. 1.316. And as the smaller body had received each a larger share of the booty, by reason of their having been the foremost in encountering danger, and the larger body had received each a smaller share, by reason of their having remained at home; it appeared indispensable that they should consecrate the first fruits of the whole of the booty; those therefore who had remained at home brought a fiftieth, and those who had been actually engaged in the war, brought and contributed a five hundredth part; and of ten first fruits Moses commanded that portion which came from those who had borne a part in the expedition, to be given to the high priest, and that portion which came from those who had remained in the camp, to the keepers of the temple whose name were the Levites. 1.317. And the captains of thousands, and centurions, and all the rest of the multitude of commanders of battalions and companies willingly contributed special first fruits, as an offering for their own safety, and that of those who had gone out to war, and for the victory which had been gained in a manner beyond all hope, giving up all the golden ornaments which had fallen to the lot of each individual, in the apportionment of the booty, and the most costly vessels, of which the material was gold. All which things Moses took, and, admiring the piety of those who contributed them, dedicated them in the consecrated tabernacle as a memorial of the gratitude of the men; and the division of the first fruits was very beautiful; 1.318. those which had been given by the men who had borne their share in the war, he distributed among the keepers of the temple as among men who had only displayed one half of virtue, namely eagerness without action; but the first fruits of those who had warred and fought, who had encountered danger with their bodies and lives, and thus had displayed perfect and complete excellence, he allotted to him who presided over the keepers of the temple, namely to the high priest; and the first fruits of the captains, as being the offerings of chiefs and rulers, he allotted to the great ruler of all, namely to God. 2.67. Therefore he, with a few other men, was dear to God and devoted to God, being inspired by heavenly love, and honouring the Father of the universe above all things, and being in return honoured by him in a particular manner. And it was an honour well adapted to the wise man to be allowed to serve the true and living God. Now the priesthood has for its duty the service of God. of this honour, then, Moses was thought worthy, than which there is no greater honour in the whole world, being instructed by the sacred oracles of God in everything that related to the sacred offices and ministrations. 2.97. But the ark is the depository of the laws, for in that are placed the holy oracles of God, which were given to Moses; and the covering of the ark, which is called the mercy-seat, is a foundation for two winged creatures to rest upon, which are called, in the native language of the Hebrews, cherubim, but as the Greeks would translate the word, vast knowledge and science. 2.98. Now some persons say, that these cherubim are the symbols of the two hemispheres, placed opposite to and fronting one another, the one beneath the earth and the other above the earth, for the whole heaven is endowed with wings. 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness; 2.100. for he, being the only true living God, is also really the Creator of the world; since he brought things which had no existence into being; and he is also a king by nature, because no one can rule over beings that have been created more justly than he who created them.
50. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 95 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

95. Afterwards, when he thought fit to do so, he laid aside these ornaments, and metamorphosed and transformed himself into Apollo, crowning his head with garlands, in the form of rays, and holding a bow and arrows in his left hand, and holding forth graces in his right, as if it became him to proffer blessings to all men from his ready store, and to display the best arrangement possible on his right hand, but to contract the punishments which he had it in his power to inflict, and to allot to them a more confined space on his left.
51. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.10, 3.100, 3.223-3.224 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

52. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

53. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.2, 4.4, 4.8-4.9, 4.11, 4.15-4.16, 4.19, 4.124 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

54. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 28 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

28. Let us go to Dotham:" and the name Dotham, being interpreted, means "a sufficient leaving;" showing that it was with no moderate resolution, but with extreme determination that they had decided on leaving and abandoning all those things which do not co-operate towards virtue, just as the customs of women had ceased any longer to affect Sarah. But the passions are female by nature, and we must study to quit them, showing our preference for the masculine characters of the good dispositions. Therefore the interpreter of divers opinions, the wandering Joseph, is found in the plain, that is to say, in a contention of words, having reference to political considerations rather than to useful truth;
55. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 53-54, 64, 69, 11 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

11. And yet she who is speaking is in reality only the mother of one son, namely, of Samuel. How then does she say that she has borne seven children, unless indeed any one thinks that the unit is in its strictest nature identical with the number seven, not only in number, but also in the harmony of the universe, and in the reasonings of the soul which is devoted to virtue? For he who was devoted to the one God, that is Samuel, and who had no connection whatever with any other being, is adorned according to that essence which is single and the real unit;
56. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 36 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

36. We must therefore have recourse to allegory, which is a favourite with men capable of seeing through it; for the sacred oracles most evidently conduct us towards and instigate us to the pursuit of it. For they say that in the Paradise there were plants in no respect similar to those which exist among us; but they speak of trees of life, trees of immortality, trees of knowledge, of comprehension, of understanding; trees of the knowledge of good and evil.
57. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 5.51 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

58. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.191, 1.196-1.197, 1.203, 1.220, 1.223, 1.225, 1.227, 1.232-1.236 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.191. 5. The forementioned son was born to Abram when he was eighty-six years old: but when he was ninety-nine, God appeared to him, and promised him that he Should have a son by Sarai, and commanded that his name should be Isaac; and showed him, that from this son should spring great nations and kings, and that they should obtain all the land of Canaan by war, from Sidon to Egypt. 1.196. 2. When God had thus resolved concerning the Sodomites, Abraham, as he sat by the oak of Mambre, at the door of his tent, saw three angels; and thinking them to be strangers, he rose up, and saluted them, and desired they would accept of an entertainment, and abide with him; 1.197. to which, when they agreed, he ordered cakes of meal to be made presently; and when he had slain a calf, he roasted it, and brought it to them, as they sat under the oak. Now they made a show of eating; and besides, they asked him about his wife Sarah, where she was; and when he said she was within, they said they would come again hereafter, and find her become a mother. 1.203. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot’s wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day. 1.223. Abraham also placed his own happiness in this prospect, that, when he should die, he should leave this his son in a safe and secure condition; which accordingly he obtained by the will of God: who being desirous to make an experiment of Abraham’s religious disposition towards himself, appeared to him, and enumerated all the blessings he had bestowed on him; 1.225. 2. Now Abraham thought that it was not right to disobey God in any thing, but that he was obliged to serve him in every circumstance of life, since all creatures that live enjoy their life by his providence, and the kindness he bestows on them. Accordingly he concealed this command of God, and his own intentions about the slaughter of his son, from his wife, as also from every one of his servants, otherwise he should have been hindered from his obedience to God; and he took Isaac, together with two of his servants, and laying what things were necessary for a sacrifice upon an ass, he went away to the mountain. 1.227. Now they had brought with them every thing necessary for a sacrifice, excepting the animal that was to be offered only. Now Isaac was twenty-five years old. And as he was building the altar, he asked his father what he was about to offer, since there was no animal there for an oblation:—to which it was answered, “That God would provide himself an oblation, he being able to make a plentiful provision for men out of what they have not, and to deprive others of what they already have, when they put too much trust therein; that therefore, if God pleased to be present and propitious at this sacrifice, he would provide himself an oblation.” 1.232. 4. Now Isaac was of such a generous disposition as became the son of such a father, and was pleased with this discourse; and said, “That he was not worthy to be born at first, if he should reject the determination of God and of his father, and should not resign himself up readily to both their pleasures; since it would have been unjust if he had not obeyed, even if his father alone had so resolved.” So he went immediately to the altar to be sacrificed. 1.233. And the deed had been done if God had not opposed it; for he called loudly to Abraham by his name, and forbade him to slay his son; and said, “It was not out of a desire of human blood that he was commanded to slay his son, nor was he willing that he should be taken away from him whom he had made his father, but to try the temper of his mind, whether he would be obedient to such a command. 1.234. Since therefore he now was satisfied as to that his alacrity, and the surprising readiness he showed in this his piety, he was delighted in having bestowed such blessings upon him; and that he would not be wanting in all sort of concern about him, and in bestowing other children upon him; and that his son should live to a very great age; that he should live a happy life, and bequeath a large principality to his children, who should be good and legitimate.” 1.235. He foretold also, that his family should increase into many nations and that those patriarchs should leave behind them an everlasting name; that they should obtain the possession of the land of Canaan, and be envied by all men. When God had said this, he produced to them a ram, which did not appear before, for the sacrifice. 1.236. So Abraham and Isaac receiving each other unexpectedly, and having obtained the promises of such great blessings, embraced one another; and when they had sacrificed, they returned to Sarah, and lived happily together, God affording them his assistance in all things they desired.
59. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.533 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.533. There is also there showed, at the distance of six furlongs from the city, a very large turpentine tree and the report goes, that this tree has continued ever since the creation of the world.
60. Mishnah, Avot, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. Antigonus a man of Socho received [the oral tradition] from Shimon the Righteous. He used to say: do not be like servants who serve the master in the expectation of receiving a reward, but be like servants who serve the master without the expectation of receiving a reward, and let the fear of Heaven be upon you."
61. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.1, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord? 15.8. and last of all, as to the child born at the wrongtime, he appeared to me also.
62. New Testament, Acts, 9.1-9.30, 13.31, 14.11, 22.3-22.21, 26.9-26.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.1. But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest 9.2. and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound to Jerusalem. 9.3. As he traveled, it happened that he got close to Damascus, and suddenly a light from the sky shone around him. 9.4. He fell on the earth, and heard a voice saying to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? 9.5. He said, "Who are you, Lord?"The Lord said, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. 9.6. But rise up, and enter into the city, and you will be told what you must do. 9.7. The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one. 9.8. Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened, he saw no one. They led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. 9.9. He was without sight for three days, and neither ate nor drank. 9.10. Now there was a certain disciple at Damascus named Aias. The Lord said to him in a vision, "Aias!"He said, "Behold, it's me, Lord. 9.11. The Lord said to him, "Arise, and go to the street which is called Straight, and inquire in the house of Judas for one named Saul, a man of Tarsus. For behold, he is praying 9.12. and in a vision he has seen a man named Aias coming in, and laying his hands on him, that he might receive his sight. 9.13. But Aias answered, "Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he did to your saints at Jerusalem. 9.14. Here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name. 9.15. But the Lord said to him, "Go your way, for he is my chosen vessel to bear my name before the nations and kings, and the children of Israel. 9.16. For I will show him how many things he must suffer for my name's sake. 9.17. Aias departed, and entered into the house. Laying his hands on him, he said, "Brother Saul, the Lord, who appeared to you in the way which you came, has sent me, that you may receive your sight, and be filled with the Holy Spirit. 9.18. Immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he received his sight. He arose and was baptized. 9.19. He took food and was strengthened. Saul stayed several days with the disciples who were at Damascus. 9.20. Immediately in the synagogues he proclaimed the Christ, that he is the Son of God. 9.21. All who heard him were amazed, and said, "Isn't this he who in Jerusalem made havoc of those who called on this name? And he had come here intending to bring them bound before the chief priests! 9.22. But Saul increased more in strength, and confounded the Jews who lived at Damascus, proving that this is the Christ. 9.23. When many days were fulfilled, the Jews conspired together to kill him 9.24. but their plot became known to Saul. They watched the gates both day and night that they might kill him 9.25. but his disciples took him by night, and let him down through the wall, lowering him in a basket. 9.26. When Saul had come to Jerusalem, he tried to join himself to the disciples. They were all afraid of him, not believing that he was a disciple. 9.27. But Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles, and declared to them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, and how at Damascus he had preached boldly in the name of Jesus. 9.28. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem 9.29. preaching boldly in the name of the Lord. He spoke and disputed against the Grecian Jews, but they were seeking to kill him. 9.30. When the brothers knew it, they brought him down to Caesarea, and sent him out to Tarsus. 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 14.11. When the multitude saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voice, saying in the language of Lycaonia, "The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men! 22.3. I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 22.4. I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women. 22.5. As also the high priest and all the council of the elders testify, from whom also I received letters to the brothers, and journeyed to Damascus to bring them also who were there to Jerusalem in bonds to be punished. 22.6. It happened that, as I made my journey, and came close to Damascus, about noon, suddenly there shone from the sky a great light around me. 22.7. I fell to the ground, and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?' 22.8. I answered, 'Who are you, Lord?' He said to me, 'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you persecute.' 22.9. Those who were with me indeed saw the light and were afraid, but they didn't understand the voice of him who spoke to me. 22.10. I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' The Lord said to me, 'Arise, and go into Damascus. There you will be told about all things which are appointed for you to do.' 22.11. When I couldn't see for the glory of that light, being led by the hand of those who were with me, I came into Damascus. 22.12. One Aias, a devout man according to the law, well reported of by all the Jews who lived there 22.13. came to me, and standing by me said to me, 'Brother Saul, receive your sight!' In that very hour I looked up at him. 22.14. He said, 'The God of our fathers has appointed you to know his will, and to see the Righteous One, and to hear a voice from his mouth. 22.15. For you will be a witness for him to all men of what you have seen and heard. 22.16. Now why do you wait? Arise, be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on the name of the Lord.' 22.17. It happened that, when I had returned to Jerusalem, and while I prayed in the temple, I fell into a trance 22.18. and saw him saying to me, 'Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not receive testimony concerning me from you.' 22.19. I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. 22.20. When the blood of Stephen, your witness, was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting to his death, and guarding the cloaks of those who killed him.' 22.21. He said to me, 'Depart, for I will send you out far from here to the Gentiles.' 26.9. I myself most assuredly thought that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. 26.10. This I also did in Jerusalem. I both shut up many of the saints in prisons, having received authority from the chief priests, and when they were put to death I gave my vote against them. 26.11. Punishing them often in all the synagogues, I tried to make them blaspheme. Being exceedingly enraged against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. 26.12. Whereupon as I journeyed to Damascus with the authority and commission from the chief priests 26.13. at noon, O King, I saw on the way a light from the sky, brighter than the sun, shining around me and those who traveled with me. 26.14. When we had all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads.' 26.15. I said, 'Who are you, Lord?' "He said, 'I am Jesus, whom you persecute. 26.16. But arise, and stand on your feet, for to this end have I appeared to you, to appoint you a servant and a witness both of the things which you have seen, and of the things which I will reveal to you; 26.17. delivering you from the people, and from the Gentiles, to whom I send you 26.18. to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive remission of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in me.' 26.19. Therefore, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision 26.20. but declared first to them of Damascus, at Jerusalem, and throughout all the country of Judea, and also to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, doing works worthy of repentance.
63. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.9-1.20, 10.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 1.11. saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. 1.12. I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. 1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.15. His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 1.17. When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last 1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them.
64. New Testament, Colossians, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily
65. New Testament, Galatians, 1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus.
66. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.2, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 13.2. Don't forget to show hospitality to strangers, for in doing so, some have entertained angels without knowing it.
67. New Testament, John, 13.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.18. I don't speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen. But that the Scripture may be fulfilled, 'He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.'
68. New Testament, Luke, 1.22, 23.44, 24.13-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. When he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. 23.44. It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
69. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 53.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

70. Anon., The Acts of John, 89, 87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Those that were present inquired the cause, and were especially perplexed, because Drusiana had said: The Lord appeared unto me in the tomb in the likeness of John, and in that of a youth. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said (or John bearing it patiently, said):
71. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 43.7, 47.10, 48.8-48.11, 48.14, 49.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

43.7. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ (בראשית יד, יט), מִמִּי קְנָאָן, רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַב כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר כְּאִינָשׁ דַּאֲמַר פְּלַן עֵינוֹהִי יָאֵי, שַׂעֲרֵיהּ יָאֵי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, וּמִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִין הָיָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם אִמְּרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי לֹא הָיָה שְׁמִי נִכָּר לִבְרִיּוֹתַי וְהִכַּרְתָּ אוֹתִי בִּבְרִיּוֹתַי, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ אַתָּה שֻׁתָּף עִמִּי בִּבְרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: קוֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ. 48.8. פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל (בראשית יח, א), פֶּתַח טוֹב פָּתַחְתָּ לָעוֹבְרִים וְלַשָּׁבִים, פֶּתַח טוֹב פָּתַחְתָּ לַגֵּרִים, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי אַתְּ לֹא בָרָאתִי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מ, כב): וַיִּמְתָּחֵם כָּאֹהֶל לָשָׁבֶת, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי אַתְּ לֹא בָרָאתִי גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, ה): לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ שָׂם אֹהֶל בָּהֶם, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵּי אַתְּ לֹא בָרָאתִי אֶת הַיָּרֵחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כה, ה): הֵן עַד יָרֵחַ וְלֹא יַאֲהִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא אַבְרָהָם יוֹשֵׁב עַל פֶּתַח גֵּיהִנֹּם וְאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ אָדָם מָהוּל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֵירֵד לְתוֹכָהּ, וְאוֹתָן שֶׁחָטְאוּ יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, מֶה עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם מַעֲבִיר אֶת הָעָרְלָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּי תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁמֵּתוּ עַד שֶׁלֹא מָלוּ, וְנוֹתְנָהּ עֲלֵיהֶם וּמוֹרִידָן לַגֵּיהִנֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים נה, כא): שָׁלַח יָדָיו בִּשְׁלֹמָיו חִלֵּל בְּרִיתוֹ. כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם, לִכְשֶׁיָּבוֹא אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (מלאכי ג, יט): כִּי הִנֵּה הַיּוֹם בָּא בֹּעֵר כַּתַּנּוּר. כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם, תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם הֲרֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת אֲמוּרוֹת, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם (שמות טז, כא): וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמֵס, בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת. אַתָּה אוֹמֵר אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם הֲרֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת אֲמוּרוֹת. אוֹ חִילוּף, כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמֵס בְּשִׁשָּׁה שָׁעוֹת. אֲמַרְתְּ הֵיךְ אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת וַהֲלוֹא בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אֵין חֹם אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת שָׁם, בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת טֻלָּא קָרִיר וְשִׁמְשָׁא שָׁרִיב, בְּשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת טֻלָּא וְשִׁמְשָׁא שְׁרִיבִין כַּחֲדָא, הָא אֵין עָלֶיךָ לוֹמַר כְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֲרוֹן אֶלָּא כְּלָשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן, כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם בְּשִׁשָּׁה שָׁעוֹת, וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמֵס בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם שֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת בִּלְבָד שָׁם נָמָס. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין לַבְּרִיּוֹת צֵל תַּחְתָּיו. אָמַר רַבִּי יַנַּאי, נִקֵּב נֶקֶב מִגֵּיהִנֹּם וְהִרְתִּיחַ כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ עַל יוֹשְׁבָיו לְשָׁעָה קַלָּה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צַדִּיקִים בְּצַעַר וְהָעוֹלָם בְּרֶוַח, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁהַחִמּוּם יָפֶה לַמַּכָּה. 48.9. אָמַר עַד שֶׁלֹא מַלְתִּי הָיוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים בָּאִים אֶצְלִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁלֹא מַלְתָּה הָיוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם עֲרֵלִים בָּאִים, עַכְשָׁו אֲנִי וּבְנֵי פַּמַּלְיָא שֶׁלִּי נִגְלִים עָלֶיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, ב): וַיִּשָֹּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו, וַיַּרְא בַּשְּׁכִינָה, וַיַּרְא בַּמַּלְאָכִים. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא שְׁמוֹת חֳדָשִׁים עָלוּ מִבָּבֶל. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר אַף שְׁמוֹת מַלְאָכִים מִיכָאֵל רְפָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אֶחָד נִדְמָה לוֹ בִּדְמוּת סָדָקִי, וְאֶחָד נִדְמָה לוֹ בִּדְמוּת נָוָטִי, וְאֶחָד בִּדְמוּת עֲרָבִי, אָמַר אִם רוֹאֶה אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁכִינָה מַמְתֶּנֶת עֲלֵיהֶם אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אָדָם גְּדוֹלִים, וְאִם אֲנִי רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן חוֹלְקִים כָּבוֹד אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ, אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּגָנִין, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן חוֹלְקִין כָּבוֹד אֵלּו לְאֵלּוּ, יָדַע שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּגָנִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אֹהֶל פְּלָן שֶׁל אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם מְפֻלָּשׁ הָיָה, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר כְּהָדֵין דְּרוֹמִילוֹס, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן שֶׁהִפְלִיגוּ אֶת דַּרְכָּם לְהִתְקָרֵב דֶּרֶךְ כָּאן, אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֵן בָּאִים אֶצְלִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן שֶׁהִפְלִיגוּ, מִיָּד וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה. 48.11. וְאֶקְחָה פַת לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ (בראשית יח, ה), אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּתּוֹרָה וּבַנְּבִיאִים וּבַכְּתוּבִים מָצִינוּ דַּהֲדָא פִּתָּא מְזוֹנִיתָא דְלִבָּא. בַּתּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, וְאֶקְחָה פַת לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם. בַּנְּבִיאִים (שופטים יט, ה): סְעָד לִבְּךָ פַּת לֶחֶם. בַּכְּתוּבִים (תהלים קד, טו): וְלֶחֶם לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד. אָמַר רַב אַחָא וְסַעֲדוּ לְבַבְכֶם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם, הֲדָא אָמְרָת אֵין יֵצֶר הָרָע שׁוֹלֵט בַּמַּלְאָכִים, הוּא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא (תהלים מח, יד): שִׁיתוּ לְבַבְכֶם לְחֵילָה אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא לִבְּכֶם, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁאֵין יֵצֶר הָרָע שׁוֹלֵט לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. כִּי עַל כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל עַבְדְּכֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִיּוֹם שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ הֱיִיתֶם מְזֻמָּנִים לָבוֹא אֶצְלִי, כִּי עַל כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות י, י): יְהִי כֵן ה' עִמָּכֶם. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ, אָמְרוּ אָנוּ אֵין לְפָנֵינוּ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, אֲבָל אַתָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְפָנֶיךָ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְעַצְמְךָ, כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ, יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתִּזְכֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד סְעוּדָה אַחֶרֶת לְבַר דְּכַר דְּיִתְיְלֵיד לָךְ. 48.14. וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב (בראשית יח, ח), אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא הַמְעֻלֶּה אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים בֶּחָלָב, וְהַבֵּינוֹנִי אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעִים, וְהַקִּבָּר אֶחָד מֵעֶשְׂרִים. רַבִּי יוֹנָה אָמַר הַמְעֻלָּה אֶחָד מִמֵּאָה, בֵּינוֹנִי אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים, וְהַקִּבָּר אֶחָד מֵעֶשְׂרִים. וּפַת הֵיכָן הִיא, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְשָׁאָה תַּלְמִידוֹ דְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר פִּירְסָה נִדָּה וְנִטְמֵאת הָעִסָּה. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲפִלּוּ פַּת הֵבִיא לִפְנֵיהֶם, מָה אִם דְּבָרִים שֶׁלֹא אָמַר הֵבִיא לִפְנֵיהֶם, דְּבָרִים שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. (בראשית יח, ח): וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם, הָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם, וּלְהַלָּן אָמַר (בראשית יח, ב): נִצָּבִים עָלָיו, אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁלֹא יָצָא יְדֵיהֶם נִצָּבִים עָלָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵיהֶם וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם, אֵימָתוֹ מֻטֶּלֶת עֲלֵיהֶם, מִיכָאֵל מִרְתַּת, גַּבְרִיאֵל מִרְתַּת. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מַתְלָא אֲמַר, עֲלַת לְקַרְתָּא הֲלֵךְ בְּנִימוּסָהּ, לְמַעְלָה שֶׁאֵין אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, עָלָה משֶׁה לַמָּרוֹם וְלֹא אָכַל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ט, ט): וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתִיתִי, אֲבָל לְמַטָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה, וְהוּא עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ, וְכִי אוֹכְלִין הָיוּ, אֶלָּא נִרְאִין כְּאוֹכְלִין, רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן מִסְתַּלֵּק. 49.4. כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה (בראשית יח, יט), רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זוֹ הוֹבְרָיָא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי זוֹ בִּקּוּר חוֹלִים. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מִתְּחִלָּה צֶדֶק לְבַסּוֹף מִשְׁפָּט. הָא כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, מִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִים אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, אָמַר לָהֶם אִמְרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אִם מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו וּבְרִיךְ, הֲוָה אָכֵיל וְשָׁתֵי וְאָזֵיל, וְאִי לָא הֲוָה מְקַבֵּל עֲלֵיהּ וּבָרִיךְ, הֲוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ הַב מַה דַּעֲלָךְ. וְאָמַר מָה אִית לָךְ עָלַי, הֲוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ, חַד קְסִיט דַּחֲמַר בַּעֲשָׂרָה פּוֹלָרִין, וְחַד לִיטְרָא דְּקוֹפָר בַּעֲשָׂרָה פוֹלָרִין, וְחַד עִגּוּל דְּרִפְתָּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה פוֹלָרִין. מַאן יָהֵיב לָךְ חַמְרָא בְּמַדְבְּרָא, מַאי יָהֵיב לָךְ קוֹפָר בְּמַדְבְּרָא, מַאן יָהֵיב לָךְ עִגּוּלָא בְּמַדְבְּרָא. מִן דַּהֲוָה חָמֵי הַהִיא עַקְתָא דַּהֲוָה עָקֵי לֵיהּ, הֲוָה אָמַר בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב לְכַתְּחִלָּה צְדָקָה וּלְבַסּוֹף מִשְׁפָּט. (בראשית יח, יט): לְמַעַן הָבִיא ה' עַל אַבְרָהָם וגו', תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר, כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בֵּן יָגֵעַ בַּתּוֹרָה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא מֵת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: לְמַעַן הָבִיא ה' עַל אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' עָלָיו. 48.8. \"At the opening of the tent\" (Gen. 18:1). You have made a good opening for passersby. You have made a good opening for strangers/converts. For were it not for you, I would not have created heaven and earth, as it is said (Isa. 40:22]), \"Stretched them out like a tent to dwell in.\" For were it not for you, I would not have made the orb of the sun, as it is said (Ps. 19:5), \"He placed in them a tent for the sun.\" For were it not for you, I would not have made the moon, as it is said (Job 25:5), \"Even the moon is not bright [ya'ahil].\" R' Levi said, In the future, Avraham will be sitting at the entrance to Gehinnom, and he will not allow a circumcised Jew to go down into it. And those who have sinned too much, what does he/He do to them? He removes the foreskin from babies who have died before they were circumcised, places it on them, and causes them to go down to Gehinnom. Thus it is said (Ps. 55:21), \"He harmed his ally, he broke his pact.\" \"In the heat of the day\" (Gen. 18:1). When that day comes about which is written (Mal. 3:19), \"For lo! That day is at hand, burning like an oven.\" \"In the heat of the day.\" R' Yishmael taught, \"In the heat of the day,\" this refers to six hours of the day [noon]. So then how do I interpret (Ex. 16:21), \"when the sun grew hot, it would melt\"? To four hours. You say four hours; might it not be six hours? When it says, \"In the heat of the day,\" this refers to six hours. Or maybe it's the reverse -- \"In the heat of the day\" to four hours, and \"when the sun grew hot\" to six hours. You would say, how can you interpret \"In the heat of the day\" as four hours? Isn't it the case that, at four hours, there is heat only in a spot where the sun shines. At four hours, in the shade it is cool, and in the sun it is hot; at six hours, in the shade and the sun alike are hot. Thus you should not go by the latter version, but rather by the former: \"In the heat of the day\" is six hours, and \"when the sun grew hot\" is four hours, and only in a spot where the sun shone would it melt. R' Tanhuma said, at a time when people do not have shadows underneath [Yerush: omits \"underneath\"; Maharzu emends to \"except underneath\"]. R' Yanai said, He opened a fissure from Gehinnom and boiled the entire world, and its inhabitants to boot, for a brief moment; the Holy One, Blessed be He, said, the righteous ones are in distress, and the world is at ease? [From] this you say that heat is good for wounds." 48.10. \"And he said, \"My lords, if only I have found favor in your eyes...\" (Bereshit 18:3) R' Chiyah taught: he said this to the greatest of them, Michael. \"Please let a little water be taken...\" (Bereshit 18:4) R' Eliezer said in the name of R' Simai: the Holy One said to Avraham \"you said 'let a little water be taken.' By your life! I will recompense your children in the wilderness, in the settled lands and in the time to come. This is what is written \"Then Israel sang this song: \"'Ascend, O well,' sing to it!\" (Bamidbar 21:17) This is in the wilderness. Where do we learn in the land of Canaan? \"... a land with brooks of water, fountains and depths, that emerge in valleys and mountains,\" (Devarim 8:7) From where do we learn in the time to come? \"And it shall come to pass on that day that spring water shall come forth from Jerusalem...\" (Zechariah 14:8)"
72. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

73. Anon., Acts of John, 89, 87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

87. Those that were present inquired the cause, and were especially perplexed, because Drusiana had said: The Lord appeared unto me in the tomb in the likeness of John, and in that of a youth. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said (or John bearing it patiently, said):
74. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86b. ריבה להן ומעשה נמי בר' יוחנן בן מתיא שאמר לבנו צא שכור לנו פועלים הלך ופסק להן מזונות וכשבא אצל אביו אמר לו בני אפילו אתה עושה להן כסעודת שלמה בשעתו לא יצאת ידי חובתך עמהן שהן בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב,למימרא דסעודתא דאברהם אבינו עדיפא מדשלמה והכתיב (מלכים א ה, ב) ויהי לחם שלמה ליום אחד שלשים כור סולת וששים כור קמח עשרה בקר בריאים ועשרה בקר רעי ומאה צאן לבד מאיל וצבי ויחמור וברבורים אבוסים ואמר גוריון בן אסטיון משמיה דרב הללו לעמילן של טבחים ור' יצחק אמר הללו לציקי קדירה,ואמר ר' יצחק אלף נשים היו לשלמה כל אחת ואחת עשתה לו בביתה כך מאי טעמא זו סבורה שמא אצלי סועד היום וזו סבורה [שמא] אצלי סועד היום ואילו גבי אברהם כתיב (בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם ויקח בן בקר רך וטוב ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בן בקר אחד רך שנים וטוב שלשה,התם תלתא תורי לתלתא גברי הכא לכל ישראל ויהודה שנאמר (מלכים א ד, כ) יהודה וישראל רבים כחול אשר על (שפת) הים,מאי ברבורים אבוסים אמר רב שאובסים אותן בעל כרחן ושמואל אמר שאבוסים ועומדים מאליהם ורבי יוחנן אמר מביאין תור ממרעיתו בדלא אניס ותרנגולת מאשפתה בדלא אניסא,אמר רבי יוחנן מובחר שבבהמות שור מובחר שבעופות תרנגולת אמר אמימר זגתא אוכמתא בי בטניתא דמשתכחא ביני עצרי דלא מציא פסיא קניא,(בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בן בקר אחד רך שנים וטוב שלשה ואימא חד כדאמרי אינשי רכיך וטב,א"כ לכתוב רך טוב מאי וטוב ש"מ לדרשה אימא תרי מדטוב לדרשה רך נמי לדרשה,מתיב רבה בר עולא ואיתימא רב הושעיא ואיתימא רב נתן ברבי הושעיא (בראשית יח, ז) ויתן אל הנער וימהר לעשות אותו כל חד וחד יהביה לנער חד (בראשית יח, ח) ויקח חמאה וחלב ובן הבקר אשר עשה ויתן לפניהם דקמא קמא דמטיא אייתי לקמייהו,ולמה לי תלתא תסגי בחד אמר רב חנן בר רבא כדי להאכילן שלש לשונות בחרדל אמר רבי תנחום בר חנילאי לעולם אל ישנה אדם מן המנהג שהרי משה עלה למרום ולא אכל לחם מלאכי השרת ירדו למטה ואכלו לחם ואכלו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נראו כמי שאכלו ושתו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שעשה אברהם למלאכי השרת בעצמו עשה הקב"ה לבניו בעצמו וכל [מה] שעשה אברהם ע"י שליח עשה הקב"ה לבניו ע"י שליח,(בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם (במדבר יא, לא) ורוח נסע מאת ה' ויקח חמאה וחלב (שמות טז, ד) הנני ממטיר לכם לחם מן השמים,(בראשית יח, ח) והוא עומד עליהם תחת העץ (שמות יז, ו) הנני עומד לפניך שם על הצור [וגו'] (בראשית יח, טז) ואברהם הולך עמם לשלחם (שמות יג, כא) וה' הולך לפניהם יומם,(בראשית יח, ד) יוקח נא מעט מים (שמות יז, ו) והכית בצור ויצאו ממנו מים ושתה העם,ופליגא דר' חמא בר' חנינא דאמר ר' חמא בר' חנינא וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בשכר שלשה זכו לשלשה בשכר חמאה וחלב זכו למן בשכר והוא עומד עליהם זכו לעמוד הענן בשכר יוקח נא מעט מים זכו לבארה של מרים,יוקח נא מעט מים ורחצו רגליכם אמר רבי ינאי ברבי ישמעאל אמרו לו וכי בערביים חשדתנו שהם משתחוים לאבק רגליהם כבר יצא ממנו ישמעאל,(בראשית יח, א) וירא אליו ה' באלוני ממרא והוא יושב פתח האוהל כחום היום מאי כחום היום אמר רבי חמא בר' חנינא אותו היום יום שלישי של מילה של אברהם היה ובא הקב"ה לשאול באברהם הוציא הקב"ה חמה מנרתיקה כדי שלא יטריח אותו צדיק באורחים,שדריה לאליעזר למיפק לברא נפק ולא אשכח אמר לא מהימנא לך היינו דאמרי תמן לית הימנותא בעבדי נפק איהו חזייה להקדוש ברוך הוא דקאי אבבא היינו דכתיב (בראשית יח, ג) אל נא תעבור מעל עבדך,כיון דחזא דקא אסר ושרי אמר לאו אורח ארעא למיקם הכא היינו דכתיב (בראשית יח, ב) וישא עיניו וירא והנה שלשה אנשים נצבים עליו וירא וירץ לקראתם מעיקרא אתו קמו עליה כי חזיוהו דהוה ליה צערא אמרו לאו אורח ארעא למיקם הכא,מאן נינהו שלשה אנשים מיכאל וגבריאל ורפאל מיכאל שבא לבשר את שרה רפאל שבא לרפא את אברהם גבריאל אזל למהפכיה לסדום והא כתיב (בראשית יט, א) ויבאו שני המלאכים סדומה בערב דאזל מיכאל בהדיה לשזביה ללוט דיקא נמי [דכתיב] (בראשית יט, כה) ויהפוך את הערים האל ולא כתיב ויהפכו שמע מינה,מאי שנא לגבי אברהם דכתיב (בראשית יח, ה) כן תעשה כאשר דברת ומאי שנא לגבי לוט דכתיב 86b. bhe has increasedhis obligation to bthem,since if he had meant to give them no more than the accepted amount, he would not have made any stipulation at all. The mishna then continues: bAndthere is balsoa supporting bincident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya, who said to his son: Go outand bhire laborers for us.His son bwent,hired them, band pledgedto provide bsustece for themas a term of their employment, without specifying the details. bAnd when he cameback bto his fatherand reported what he had done, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya bsaid to him: My son, even if you were to prepare a feast for them like that ofKing bSolomon in his time, you would not have fulfilled your obligation to them, as they are the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. /b,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that the feast of Abraham, our forefather, was superior to that ofKing bSolomon? But isn’t it written: “And Solomon’s provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and sixty measures of meal; ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, beside harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl”(I Kings 5:2–3). bAnd Guryon ben Asteyon says in the name of Rav: Thesemeasures of flour mentioned in the verse bwereused merely bfor the bakers’ well-worked dough [ ila’amilan /i]that was placed in the pot to absorb the steam. bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Thesemeasures of flour were used bformeat bpudding,a mixture of wine, flour, and leftover meat, bin a pot. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥakfurther bsays:King bSolomon had one thousand wives, each one of whom would prepare for him at her homea feast of bsuchproportions. bWhat is the reasonthat they did this? bThiswife breasoned: Perhaps he will feast with me today, and thatwife breasoned: Perhaps he will feast with me today. But with regard to Abraham, it is written: “And Abraham ran to the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good”(Genesis 18:7), band Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in explanation of the verse: b“A calf”indicates bone;the word b“tender”means an additional one, i.e., btwo; “and good”indicates yet another one. This makes a total of bthreecalves, a considerably smaller feast than that of Solomon.,The Gemara answers: bThere,with regard to Abraham, he prepared bthree oxen for three people,whereas bhere,in the case of Solomon, his wives would prepare a feast bfor the entirerealms of bIsrael and Judah, as it is stated: “Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the seain multitude, eating and drinking and making merry” (I Kings 4:20). Abraham’s feast was proportionately greater than that of Solomon.,With regard to the verse cited in relation to King Solomon, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the term b“fatted fowl [ iavusim /i]”? Rav says:It means bthat they are fed [ iovsim /i] by force. Shmuel says:It means bthat they were fattened [ iavusim /i] and maintained on their own accord,i.e., they were naturally fat. bRabbi Yoḥa says:Solomon’s feasts were of fine quality because bthey would bring from his herd an ox that had never been forcedto work, bandthey would also bring ba hen from its coop that had never been forcedto lay eggs, and use those for the cuisine.,The Gemara cites a related statement of Rabbi Yoḥa. bRabbi Yoḥa says: The choicest of cattleis the box. The choicest of fowlis the bhen.With regard to the type of hen to which this is referring, bAmeimar says:It is ba fattened, black hen [ izagta /i] that is found amongthe wine bvats, whichconsumes so many grape seeds that it bcannot take a stepthe length of ba reed,due to its corpulence.,The Gemara returns to discuss the verse in Genesis: b“And Abraham ran to the herd,and fetched a calf tender and good” (Genesis 18:7). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: “A calf”is bone; “tender”indicates an additional one, i.e., btwo; “and good”indicates another one, for a total of bthreecalves. The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat the verse is referring to only bonecalf, bas people saywhen describing a single item that it is btender and good? /b,The Gemara answers: bIf so, letthe verse bwrite: Tender, good. Whatis the significance of the term b“and good,”which indicates an addition? bConclude from thisthat the verse is stated bforthe purpose of ban expositionand is referring to more than one calf. The Gemara challenges: But one can still bsaythere were only btwocalves. The Gemara answers: bFromthe fact that the word b“good”is written bfor an exposition,to include an additional calf, it may be inferred that the term b“tender”is balsowritten bfor an expositionand indicates yet another calf., bRabba bar Ulla raises an objection, and some sayit is bRav Hoshaya, and some sayit is bRav Natan, son of Rabbi Hoshaya,who raises the objection: The verse states: b“And he gave it to the servant; and he hastened to prepare it”(Genesis 18:7). The singular term “it” indicates that there was only one calf. The Gemara answers: Abraham bgave each and everycalf bto one servant,i.e., he gave the three calves to three different servants. The Gemara raises a question from the verse: b“And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them”(Genesis 18:8), which again indicates that there was only one calf. The Gemara responds: The verse means bthat as each calf arrivedprepared, bhe brought it before them,and he did not serve all three calves at once.,The Gemara asks: bAnd why do Ineed bthreecalves? bOnecalf bshould be sufficientfor three guests. bRav Ḥa bar Rava said:Abraham prepared three calves bin order to feedthe guests bthree tongues with mustard,a particular delicacy. With regard to this incident, bRabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: A person should never deviate from thelocal bcustom, as Moses ascended toheaven bon high and did not eat breadwhile he was there, whereas bthe ministering angels descended downto this world, as guests visiting Abraham, band they ate bread.You say: bAnd they atebread? Can it benter your mindthat they actually ate food? bRather, saythat btheymerely bappeared as though they ate and drank. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Every action that Abraham performed himself for the ministering angels, the Holy One, Blessed be He, performed Himself forAbraham’s bdescendants. And every action that Abraham performed through a messenger, the Holy One, Blessed be He,likewise bperformed for his descendants through a messenger. /b,The Gemara elaborates: With regard to Abraham, the verse states: b“And Abraham ran to the herd”(Genesis 18:7), bringing the meat himself, and in reference to God’s actions for Abraham’s descendants the verse states: b“And there went forth a wind from the Lord,and brought across quails from the sea” (Numbers 11:31), that God brought meat to them. In reference to Abraham, the verse states: b“And he took curd and milk”(Genesis 18:8), and God says to the Jewish people: b“Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you”(Exodus 16:4), which shows that God gave food to the Jewish people.,With regard to Abraham, the verse states: b“And he stood by them under the tree,and they ate” (Genesis 18:8), and in reference to God, the verse states: b“Behold, I will stand before you there upon the rockin Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and there shall come water out of it” (Exodus 17:6). In the case of Abraham it is written: b“And Abraham went with them to bring them on the way”(Genesis 18:16), and the verse states: b“And the Lord went before them by day”(Exodus 13:21).,By contrast, Abraham performed certain actions through an agent. He said: b“Let now a little water be fetched”(Genesis 18:4), and correspondingly the verse states in reference to Moses, God’s messenger: b“And you shall strike the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink”(Exodus 17:6).,The Gemara notes: bAndin stating this, Rav bdisagreeswith bthatstatement bof Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina. As Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says, and likewise the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: In reward for threeacts of hospitality that Abraham performed for the angels, his descendants bmerited threerewards. The Gemara elaborates: bIn reward forproviding them with bcurd and milk,the Jewish people bmerited the manna; in reward for: “And he stood [ iomed /i] by them,”the Jews bmerited the pillar [ iamud /i] of cloud; in reward forAbraham saying: b“Let now a little water be fetched,”they bmerited the well of Miriam.This statement does not distinguish between actions performed by Abraham himself and those performed by means of a messenger.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the verse: b“Let now a little water be fetched and wash your feet”(Genesis 18:4). bRabbi Yannai, son of Rabbi Yishmael, saidthat the guests bsaid toAbraham: bAre you suspicious that we are Arabs who bow to the dust of their feet? Yishmael has already issued from him,i.e., your own son acts in this manner.,§ The Gemara expounds another verse involving Abraham: b“And the Lord appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day”(Genesis 18:1). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“the heat of the day”? Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: That day was the third day after Abraham’s circumcision, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, came to inquireabout the well-being bof Abraham. The Holy One, Blessed be He, removed the sun from its sheath in order not to bother that righteous one with guests,i.e., God made it extremely hot that day to allow Abraham to recover from his circumcision, as he would not be troubled by passing travelers whom he would invite into his tent.,Despite the intense heat, Abraham wanted to invite guests. bHe sent Eliezerhis slave bto go outsideto see if there were any passersby. Eliezer bwent out but did not findanyone. Abraham bsaid to him: I do not believe you.The Gemara comments: bThisdemonstrates the popular adage bthatpeople bthere,i.e., in Eretz Yisrael, bsay: Slaves do not have any credibility.The Gemara continues: Abraham bhimself went out and saw the Holy One, Blessed be He, standing at the entranceto his tent. bThis is as it is written:“My Lord, if now I have found favor in your eyes, bdo not leave Your servant”(Genesis 18:3), i.e., God’s presence was there, and Abraham asked Him for permission to attend to the travelers., bOnceGod bsawAbraham btying and untyingthe bandage on his circumcision, God bsaid:It is bnot proper conduct to stand here,i.e., it is not respectful to Abraham even for God to stand there. bThis is as it is written: “And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, three men stood over him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them”(Genesis 18:2). The verse first states that they stood over him, and then it says that he ran to meet them. The Gemara reconciles this apparent contradiction: bInitially, they came and stood over him. Upon seeing that he was in pain, they said:It is bnot proper conduct to stand here. /b,The Gemara continues: bWho are these three men?They are the angels bMichael, Gabriel, and Raphael: Michael, who came to announceto bSarahthat she was to give birth to a son; bRaphael, who came to heal Abrahamafter his circumcision; and bGabriel,who bwent to overturn Sodom.The Gemara asks: bBut it is written: “And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening”(Genesis 19:1). The Gemara answers bthat Michael went along withGabriel to Sodom bto save Lot.The Gemara notes: The language bis also precise, as it is written: “And he overturned those cities”(Genesis 19:25), band it is not written: They overturnedthose cities. bConclude from itthat only one angel overturned Sodom.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is different with regard tothe incident involving bAbraham,where the angels acquiesced immediately to his request to remain with him, bas it is written: “So do, as you have said”(Genesis 18:5), band what is different with regard to Lot,where they first displayed reluctance, bas it is written: /b
75. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

127a. כדאמרי אינשי ואי בעי אפילו טובא נמי מפנין ומאי אבל לא את האוצר שלא יגמור כולו דילמא אתי לאשוויי גומות אבל אתחולי מתחיל ומני ר"ש היא דלית ליה מוקצה,ת"ר אין מתחילין באוצר תחילה אבל עושה בו שביל כדי שיכנס ויצא עושה בו שביל והא אמרת אין מתחילין הכי קאמר עושה בו שביל ברגליו בכניסתו וביציאתו,תנו רבנן תבואה צבורה בזמן שהתחיל בה מע"ש מותר להסתפק ממנה בשבת ואם לאו אסור להסתפק ממנה בשבת דברי ר"ש ר' אחא מתיר כלפי לייא אלא אימא דברי ר' אחא ורבי שמעון מתיר,תנא כמה שיעור תבואה צבורה לתך בעא מיניה רב נחומי בר זכריה מאביי שיעור תבואה צבורה בכמה אמר ליה הרי אמרו שיעור תבואה צבורה לתך,איבעיא להו הני ארבע וחמש קופות דקאמר בארבע וחמש קופות אין טפי לא אלמא למעוטי בהילוכא עדיף או דילמא למעוטי משוי עדיף,ת"ש דתני חדא מפנין אפילו ארבע וחמש קופות של כדי שמן ושל כדי יין ותניא אידך בעשר ובחמש עשרה מאי לאו בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר מעוטי בהילוכא עדיף ומר סבר מעוטי במשוי עדיף,לא דכ"ע מעוטי בהילוכא עדיף ומי סברת בעשר ובחמש עשרה אקופות קאי אכדין קאי ולא קשיא הא דמשתקלי חד חד בקופה והא דמישתקלי תרי תרי והא דמשתקלי תלתא תלתא ובדקורי דהרפניא,איבעיא להו הני ארבע וחמש דקאמר אע"ג דאית ליה אורחין טובא או דילמא הכל לפי האורחין ואת"ל הכל לפי האורחין חד גברא מפני לכולהו או דילמא גברא גברא מפני לנפשיה,ת"ש דאמר רבה אמר רבי חייא פעם אחת הלך רבי למקום אחד וראה מקום דחוק לתלמידים ויצא לשדה ומצא שדה מלאה עומרים ועימר רבי כל השדה כולה (שמע מינה הכל לפי האורחין),ורב יוסף א"ר הושעיא פעם אחת הלך ר' חייא למקום אחד וראה מקום דחוק לתלמידים ויצא לשדה ומצא שדה מלאה עומרים ועימר ר' חייא כל השדה כולה שמע מינה הכל לפי האורחין,ועדיין תבעי לך חד גברא מפני ליה לכולא או דילמא כל גברא וגברא מפני לנפשיה,ת"ש ועימר רבי ולטעמיך רבי בדנפשיה עימר אלא צוה ועימר ולעולם כל חד וחד מפני לנפשיה:,מפני האורחין וכו': א"ר יוחנן גדולה הכנסת אורחין כהשכמת בית המדרש דקתני מפני האורחין ומפני בטול בית המדרש ורב דימי מנהרדעא אמר יותר מהשכמת בית המדרש דקתני מפני האורחין והדר ומפני בטול בית המדרש אמר רב יהודה אמר רב גדולה הכנסת אורחין מהקבלת פני שכינה דכתיב (בראשית יח, ג) ויאמר (ה') אם נא מצאתי חן בעיניך אל נא תעבור וגו' א"ר אלעזר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת ב"ו אין קטן יכול לומר לגדול המתן עד שאבא אצלך ואילו בהקדוש ברוך הוא כתיב ויאמר (ה') אם נא מצאתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה בר שילא א"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן ששה דברים אדם אוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא ואלו הן הכנסת אורחין וביקור חולים ועיון תפלה והשכמת בית המדרש והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והדן את חברו לכף זכות,איני והא אנן) תנן אלו דברים שאדם עושה אותם ואוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא ואלו הן כיבוד אב ואם וגמילות חסדים והבאת שלום שבין אדם לחברו ות"ת כנגד כולם) [הני אין מידי אחרינא לא] 127a. bas peoplewho are not so precise in their formulation bsay:Four or five. bAnd if oneso bdesires, he may clear even more. And whatthen is the meaning of: bHowever,one may bnotmove these items to create space in bthe storeroom?It means bthat one may not finishmoving the baskets out of the bentirestoreroom, blest he come to levelthe floor by filling the bholes. However, one may beginremoving baskets from the storeroom. bAnd whoseopinion is cited in this mishna? It is the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, who is notof the opinion that there is a prohibition of bset-aside. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may notuse bthe storeroomfor the bfirst time.If one has never taken supplies from this storeroom, he may not begin moving baskets from it. bHowever, he makes a path in it, so that he willbe able to benter and exit.The Gemara asks: He bmakes a path in it? Did you not say: One may notuse bthe storeroomfor the bfirst time?The Gemara answers that the ibaraita bis saying as follows: He makes a path in itby moving baskets bwith his feet, as he entersthe storehouse band as he exits.He may not move the basket with his hand., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bpiled grain, if one had startedto take grain from the pile bon Shabbat eve, it is permitted to satisfy his needs from it on Shabbat, and if not, it is prohibited to satisfy his needs from it on Shabbat;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Aḥa permitsdoing so in any case. The Gemara raises a difficulty: bOn the contrary;it is Rabbi Shimon who is lenient with regard to the ihalakhotof set-aside. bRather,emend the ibaraitaand bsay:This is bthe statement of Rabbi Aḥa. Rabbi Shimon permitsdoing so in any case., bIt was taught: How much isthe bmeasure of piled grainneeded to confer the legal status of a storeroom? bA half-kor. Rav Naḥumi bar Zekharya raised a dilemma before Abaye:The bmeasure of piled grain, how muchis it? Abaye said to him that bthey said: The measure of piled grain is a half- ikor /i. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bThese four or five baskets, whichthe itanna bstatedin the mishna, is he saying the following: bFour or five baskets, yes,one may move them, bmorebaskets, bno,one may not move them? This would indicate bthat it is preferable to minimizethe bwalkingdistance because fewer baskets results in less walking in and out of the storeroom. bOr perhaps it is preferable to minimizethe size of the bburdenby carrying smaller baskets, as long as the total measure of all that one carries does not exceed the capacity of five large baskets?, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma, bas one ibaraita btaught: Onemay bmove even four or five basketscontaining bjugs of oil and jugs of wine. And it was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: One may move them even bin ten and in fifteenbaskets. bWhat, is it not thatthe two ibaraitot bdisagreeconcerning bthe followingmatter, bas this Sagein the first ibaraita bholdsthat bit is preferable to minimizethe bwalkingdistance by moving fewer, heavier baskets, band this Sagein the second ibaraita bholdsthat bit is preferable to minimizethe size of the bburdenby moving lighter baskets over the course of several trips.,The Gemara rejects this: bNo, everyone agrees that it is preferable to minimizethe bwalkingdistance. bAnd do you holdthat: bIn ten and in fifteen, is referring to baskets? It is referring to jugs,and there is no dispute between the ibaraitot /i. bAndthis is bnot difficult: This ibaraita /i, which spoke of moving five, is referring to a case bin whichthe jugs bare taken one by one ineach bbasket. And that ibaraita /i, which speaks of moving ten, is referring to a case bin whichthe jugs bare taken two by two ineach basket. bAnd that ibaraita /i, which speaks of moving fifteen, is referring to a case bin whichthe jugs bare taken three by three,e.g., in the case of bthe small jugs of Harpanya. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bThese four or five baskets, whichthe itanna bstatedin the mishna, is he saying that one may move only four or five baskets beven though he has many guests? Or perhaps, it is all according tothe number bof guests,and if there are more guests one may move more baskets. bAnd if you say it is all according to thenumber of bguests,does bone man movethe baskets to make room bfor all of them, or perhaps each and every man movesa basket to make room bfor himself? /b, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which bRabba saidthat bRav Ḥiyya said: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent to a certain place and sawthat the bplace wastoo bcrowded for the students. And he went to the field and found a field full of bundlesof grain, band RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcleared the bundlesfrom bthe whole field in its entirety. Conclude from itthat the quantity that can be moved bis all according to thenumber of bguests. /b, bAnd Rav Yosef saidthat bRav Hoshaya said: Once Rabbi Ḥiyya went to a certain place and sawthat the bplace wastoo bcrowded for the students. And he went to the field and found a field full of bundlesof grain, band Rabbi Ḥiyya cleared the bundlesfrom bthe whole field in its entirety. Conclude from itthat the quantity that can be moved bis all according to thenumber of bguests. /b,The Gemara continues: bAnd still you have a dilemma.Does bone man movethe baskets to make room bfor all of them, or perhaps each and every man movesbaskets to make room bfor himself? /b, bComeand bheara resolution to this question. We learned: bAnd RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcleared the bundles.Apparently, one person moved the bundles to make room for the others. The Gemara rejects the proof: bAnd according to your reasoning,your opinion, do you think bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, the spiritual leader of his generation, bcleared the bundles himself? Rather, he orderedothers to do so, bandhe thereby bcleared the bundles. And actually, each and every one movesa bundle to make room bfor himself. /b,We learned in the mishna: One may move baskets of produce bdue to the guestsand in order to prevent the suspension of Torah study in the study hall. bRabbi Yoḥa said: Hospitalitytoward bguests is as great as rising earlyto go bto the study hall, asthe mishna equates them band teaches: Due to the guests and due to suspension ofTorah study in bthe study hall. And Rav Dimi from Neharde’a says:Hospitality toward guests is bgreater than rising early to the study hall, as it teaches: Due to the guests, andonly bafterward: And due to suspension ofTorah study in bthe study hall. Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav saidon a related note: bHospitalitytoward bguests is greater than receiving the Divine Presence, aswhen Abraham invited his guests bit is written: “And he said: Lord, if now I have found favor in Your sight, please pass notfrom Your servant” (Genesis 18:3). Abraham requested that God, the Divine Presence, wait for him while he tended to his guests appropriately. bRabbi Elazar said: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like that of flesh and blood. The attribute of flesh and bloodpeople is such that ba less significantperson bis unable to say to a more significantperson: bWait until I come to you, while with regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, it is written: “And he said: Lord, if now I have found favorin Your sight, please pass not from Your servant.” Abraham requested that God wait for him due to his guests., bRav Yehuda bar Sheila saidthat bRabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:There are bsix matters a person enjoysthe bprofits of in this world, andnevertheless bthe principal exists for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Hospitalitytoward bguests, and visitingthe bsick, and considerationduring bprayer,and brising early to the study hall, and one who raises his sons toengage bin Torah study, and one who judges another favorably,giving him the benefit of the doubt.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? And did we not learnin a mishna: bTheseare the bmatters that a person does them and enjoys their profits in this world, andnevertheless bthe principal exists for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one’s father and mother, and acts of loving kindness, and bringing peace between a person and another, and Torah study is equal to all of them.By inference: bThesematters, byes,one enjoys their profits in this world and the principal exists for him in the World-to-Come; bother matters, no. /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35b. במי שהוא רחום קאמר,א"ל רבא אי הכי בשמים ובארץ נמי במי שהשמים והארץ שלו קאמר,הכי השתא התם כיון דליכא מידי אחרינא דאיקרי רחום וחנון ודאי במי שהוא חנון ודאי במי שהוא רחום קאמר הכא כיון דאיכא שמים וארץ בשמים ובארץ קאמר,ת"ר כתב אלף למד מאלהים יה מיי' ה"ז אינו נמחק שין דלת משדי אלף דלת מאדני צדי בית מצבאות ה"ז נמחק,רבי יוסי אומר צבאות כולו נמחק שלא נקרא צבאות אלא על שם ישראל שנאמר (שמות ז, ד) והוצאתי את צבאותי את עמי בני ישראל מארץ מצרים אמר שמואל אין הלכה כרבי יוסי,ת"ר כל הטפל לשם בין מלפניו ובין מלאחריו ה"ז נמחק לפניו כיצד ליי' ל' נמחק ביי' ב' נמחק ויי' ו' נמחק מיי' מ' נמחק (תהלים קמד, טו) שיי' ש' נמחק היי' ה' נמחק כיי' כ' נמחק,לאחריו כיצד אלהינו נ"ו נמחק אלהיהם ה"ם נמחק אלהיכם כ"ם נמחק אחרים אומרים לאחריו אינו נמחק שכבר קדשו השם אמר רב הונא הלכה כאחרים,(אברהם דלטיא לנבות בגבעת בנימן שלמה דניאל סימן),כל שמות האמורים בתורה באברהם קדש חוץ מזה שהוא חול שנאמר (בראשית יח, ג) ויאמר יי' אם נא מצאתי חן בעיניך,חנינא בן אחי רבי יהושע ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה משום רבי אלעזר המודעי אמרו אף זה קדש כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב גדולה הכנסת אורחין יותר מהקבלת פני שכינה כמאן כאותו הזוג,כל שמות האמורים בלוט חול חוץ מזה שהוא קדש שנאמר (בראשית יט, יח) ויאמר לוט אליהם אל נא אדני הנה נא מצא עבדך חן בעיניך וגו' מי שיש בידו להמית ולהחיות זה הקדוש ברוך הוא,כל שמות האמורים בנבות קדש במיכה חול ר"א אומר בנבות קדש במיכה יש מהן חול ויש מהן קדש אלף למד חול יוד הי קדש חוץ מזה שאלף למד והוא קדש (שופטים יח, לא) כל ימי היות בית האלהים בשילה,כל שמות האמורים בגבעת בנימין ר"א אומר חול רבי יהושע אומר קדש,אמר לו ר"א וכי מבטיח ואינו עושה,אמר לו ר' יהושע מה שהבטיח עשה והם לא ביחנו אם לנצוח אם לנצח באחרונה שביחנו הסכימו על ידן שנאמר (שופטים כ, כח) ופנחס בן אלעזר בן אהרן (הכהן) עומד לפניו בימים ההם לאמר האוסיף עוד לצאת למלחמה עם [בני] בנימין אחי אם אחדל וגו',כל שלמה האמורין בשה"ש קדש שיר למי שהשלום שלו חוץ מזה (שיר השירים ח, יב) כרמי שלי לפני האלף לך שלמה שלמה לדידיה ומאתים לנוטרים את פריו רבנן וי"א אף זה חול (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים,אף זה ולא מיבעי האיך אלא הא דאמר שמואל מלכותא דקטלא חד משיתא בעלמא לא מיענשא שנאמר כרמי שלי לפני האלף לך שלמה למלכותא דרקיעא ומאתים לנוטרים את פריו למלכותא דארעא שמואל לא כת"ק ולא כי"א,אלא ה"ק וי"א זה קדש וזה הוא חול דמטתו ושמואל דאמר כי"א,כל מלכיא האמורים בדניאל חול חוץ מזה שהוא קדש (דניאל ב, לז) אנת מלכא [מלך] מלכיא די אלה שמיא מלכותא חסנא ותקפא ויקרא יהב לך,וי"א אף זה קדש שנאמר (דניאל ד, טז) מרי חלמא לשנאך ופשרה לערך למאן קאמר אי סלקא דעתך לנבוכדנצר קאמר ליה שנאותיה מאי נינהו ישראל מילט קא לייט להו לישראל,ות"ק סבר שונאי ישראל איכא שונאי עובדי כוכבים ליכא:,ובכל כנויין הרי אלו חייבין כו':,ורמינהי (במדבר ה, כא) יתן ה' אותך לאלה ולשבועה מה ת"ל והלא כבר נאמר והשביע הכהן את האשה בשבועת האלה לפי שנא' (ויקרא ה, א) ושמעה קול אלה נאמר כאן אלה ונאמר להלן אלה מה להלן שבועה אף כאן שבועה מה להלן בשם אף כאן בשם,אמר אביי לא קשיא הא רבי חנינא בר אידי הא רבנן דתניא רבי חנינא בר אידי אומר הואיל ואמרה תורה השבע ואל תשבע קלל ואל תקלל מה השבע בשם אף לא תשבע בשם מה קלל בשם אף לא תקלל בשם,ורבנן אי גמירי גזירה שוה ניבעי שם המיוחד אי לא גמירי גזירה שוה אלה דשבועה היא מנא להו,נפקא להו מדתניא אלה אין אלה אלא לשון שבועה וכן הוא אומר (במדבר ה, כא) והשביע הכהן את האשה בשבועת האלה,התם שבועת האלה כתיב הכי קאמר אלה אין אלה אלא בשבועה וכן הוא אומר והשביע הכהן את האשה בשבועת האלה 35b. or binthe name of bHe Who is compassionate,that the itanna bis statingthe ihalakha /i. Although gracious and compassionate are not names of God, the reference in the mishna is to an oath in the name of God., bRava said toAbaye: bIf so,in the case of one who administered the oath to the witnesses bin thename of bheaven and in thename of bearth as well,say that it is with regard to an oath binthe name of bHe for Whom the heaven and the earth are Histhat the itanna bis statingthe ihalakha /i. Why, then, does the mishna say that for an oath in the name of heaven and in the name of earth, these witnesses are exempt from liability?,The Gemara rejects this: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? There, since there is no other entity that is called gracious and compassionate, certainlyit is binthe name of bHe Who is gracious,and bcertainlyit is binthe name of bHe Who is compassionatethat the itanna bis speaking.By contrast, bhere, since there are heaven and earththat exist as independent entities, perhaps when he administers an oath in the name of heaven and in the name of earth, it is bin thename of the actual bheaven and in thename of the actual bearththat bhe is speaking,and not in the name of He for Whom the heaven and the earth are His.,§ Apropos the names of God that may be erased and those that may not be erased, the Gemara discusses the details of the matter. bThe Sages taught:If bone wrotethe letters ialef lamedfromthe name iElohim /i,or iyod hehfrom the Tetragrammaton, thispair of letters and that pair of letters bmay not be erased.But if one wrote the letters ishin daletfrom iShaddai /i,or ialef daletfrom iAdonai /i,or itzadi beitfrom iTzevaot /i, this may be erased. /b, bRabbi Yosei says:The word itzevaotmay be erasedin bits entirety, asGod bis called iTzevaotonly in the context ofthe children of bIsrael,and it is not an independent name of God, bas it is stated: “And I shall bring forth My hosts [ itzivotai /i], My people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt”(Exodus 7:4). bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei. /b, bThe Sages taught: Anyletters bancillary to the nameof God, bwhetheras a prefix bprecedingthe name boras a suffix bsucceedingthe name, bthisaddition bmay be erased. Preceding it, how so?If one wrote the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix ilamed /i,meaning: To the Lord, the ilamedmay be erased;the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix ibeit /i,meaning: By the Lord, the ibeitmay be erased;the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix ivav /i,meaning: And the Lord, the ivavmay be erased;the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix imem /i,meaning: From the Lord, the imemmay be erased;the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix ishin /i,meaning: That the Lord, the ishinmay be erased;the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix iheh /i,meaning: Is the Lord, the ihehmay be erased;the bTetragrammatonwith the prefix ikaf /i,meaning: Like the Lord, the ikafmay be erased. /b, bSucceeding it, how so?If one wrote iEloheinu /i,meaning: Our God, the inun vav /isuffix bmay be erased; iEloheihem /i,meaning: Their God, the iheh mem /isuffix bmay be erased; iEloheikhem /i,meaning: Your God, second person plural, the ikaf mem /isuffix bmay be erased. iAḥerimsay:The suffix bsucceedingthe name of God bmay not be erased as the nameof God to which it is appended balready sanctified itand it is considered as though it is part of the name. bRav Huna says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of iAḥerim /i. /b,§ bAbraham; who cursed Naboth; in Gibeah of Benjamin; Solomon; Daniel;this is ba mnemonicfor the ihalakhotthat follow., bAll namesthat could be understood as the name of God bthat are stated in the Torah with regard to Abrahamare bsacredand are referring to God, bexcept for thisname, bwhich is non-sacred, as it is stated: “My lords, if I have found favor in your eyes”(Genesis 18:3). In that passage, Abraham is addressing the angels who appeared to him in the guise of men, not God., bḤanina, son of the brother of Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya in the name of Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i, say: This toois bsacred.The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Hospitalityaccorded to bguests is greater than receiving the Divine Presence? In accordance with whoseopinion is that statement? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthat pairof itanna’im /i, Ḥanina, son of the brother of Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who understood that Abraham was speaking to God., bAll namesthat could be understood as the name of God bthat are statedin the Torah bwith regard to Lotare bnon-sacredand are referring to angels, bexcept for thisone, bwhich is sacred, as it is stated: “And Lot said to them: Please, not so iAdonai /i. Behold your servant has found favor in your eyes,and you have magnified Your mercy that You have performed for me by saving my life” (Genesis 19:18–19). It is apparent from the context that Lot is addressing bHe Who has the capacity to kill and to vivify; that is the Holy One, Blessed be He. /b, bAll names that are stated with regard to Nabothare bsacred,e.g., in the verse: “Naboth blasphemed iElohimand the king” (I Kings 21:13), and those stated bwith regard to Micahare bnon-sacredand are referring to the graven image that he fashioned (see Judges, chapters 17–18). bRabbi Eliezer says:Indeed, all names that are stated bwith regard to Nabothare bsacred;but those stated bwith regard to Micah, some of them are non-sacred and some of them are sacred.The names beginning with the letters ialef lamed /i,i.e., iElohim /i, are bnon-sacred,as the reference is to the idol that he crafted, and all the names beginning with the letters iyod heh /i,i.e., the Tetragrammaton, are bsacred, except for thisname that begins with the letters ialef lamedand it is sacred: “All the time that the house of iElohimwas in Shiloh”(Judges 18:31)., bAll names that are stated inthe passage concerning bGibeah of Benjamin,where the rest of the tribes consulted God to determine whether they should go to war against the tribe of Benjamin (see Judges, chapter 20), bRabbi Eliezer says:They are bnon-sacred,as they were consulting an idol, not God. bRabbi Yehoshua says:They are bsacred. /b, bRabbi Eliezer said toRabbi Yehoshua: How can you say that those names are sacred? bDoesGod bpromise and not fulfillthe promise? Twice the tribes received the response to go to war against Benjamin, and twice they were vanquished., bRabbi Yehoshua said toRabbi Eliezer: bThat whichGod bpromised, He fulfilled.In each case, He responded to their question. The first time they consulted God through the iUrim VeTummim /i, bbut they did not seek to ascertain ifthey are bto triumphin the war or bifthey are bto be defeated. In the lasttime that they consulted God through the iUrim VeTummim /i, bwhere they sought to ascertainwhether they would emerge triumphant, bthey consentedin Heaven bto theirendeavor, bas it is stated: “And Pinehas, son of Elazar, son of Aaron was standing before it in those days, saying: Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother, or shall I cease?And the Lord said: Go up, as tomorrow I will deliver them into your hand” (Judges 20:28)., bAllmentions of the name bShlomo that are stated in the Song of Songs,such as: “The song of songs that is Shlomo’s” (Song of Songs 1:1), are not references to King Solomon; rather, they are bsacred,meaning ba song tothe bOne for Whom peace [ ishehashalom /i] is His, except for thismention: b“My vineyard, which is mine, is before me; you, Solomon shall have the one thousand,”i.e., one thousand are bfor Solomon himself; “and two hundred for those who guard its fruit”(Song of Songs 8:12), which is a reference to bthe Sages. And some say: Thisverse btoo is non-sacred: “Behold, the bed of Solomon; sixtymighty men are around it” (Song of Songs 3:7).,The Gemara asks: Does this mean: bThisverse btoois non-sacred, band it is not necessaryto say that the verse cited earlier is non-sacred? bBut that which Shmuel says: A monarchy that kills one ofevery bsixindividuals bin the world is not punishedfor doing so, as that is the prerogative of a monarch, bas it is stated: “My vineyard, which is mine, is before me; you, Shlomo shall have the one thousand,”this is a reference bto the monarchy of Heaven; “and two hundred for those who guard its fruit,”this is a reference bto the monarchy of earth.of the 1,200 mentioned in the two parts of the verse, two hundred, or one-sixth, are the prerogative of the earthly monarch. bShmuel,who interprets the mention of Shlomo in this verse as referring to God, holds bneither in accordance withthe opinion of bthe first itannanor in accordance withthe opinion introduced with the term: bSome say.Both itanna’imagree that the reference in the verse is to Solomon and not to the Holy One, Blessed be He., bRather,Shmuel cites a different version of the opinion introduced with the term: Some say, according to which bthisis what bit is saying. And some say: ThisShlomo that appears in the verse with regard to the one thousand is bsacred, and thatShlomo that appears in the verse bwith regard to the bed ofSolomon bis non-sacred, andit is bShmuel who stateshis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion introduced with the term: bSome say. /b, bAll kings that are stated with regard to Danielare bnon-sacred, except for thisone, bwhich is sacred: “You, O king, king of kings, unto whom the God of heaven has given you the kingdom, the power, and the strength, and the glory”(Daniel 2:37)., bAnd some say: This toois bsacred, as it is stated: “My Lord, the dream shall be for your enemy and its interpretation for your foe”(Daniel 4:16). bTo whom isDaniel bsayingthis? bIf it enters your mindthat when Daniel says: “My lord,” it is bto Nebuchadnezzarthat bhe is saying it, his enemy, who are they?They are the bJewish people. WouldDaniel bcurse the Jewish people? /b, bAnd the first itanna /i,who understands that Daniel is referring to Nebuchadnezzar, bholds: Are there Jewish enemiesfor Nebuchadnezzar and bthere are no gentile enemiesfor him? Daniel was cursing the gentile enemies, not the Jewish enemies.,§ The mishna teaches: bOrif one administered the oath to the witnesses binthe name of bany of the appellationsof God, even though he did not mention the ineffable name of God, bthesewitnesses are bliablefor taking a false oath of testimony., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraitathat cites the verse: b“The Lord shall render you as a curse and as an oath”(Numbers 5:21). bWhymust bthe verse statethis? bIsn’t it already statedat the beginning of the verse: b“And the priest shall administer to the woman with the oath of cursing”? Due tothe fact bthat it is statedwith regard to an oath of testimony: b“And he heard the voice of an iala /i”(Leviticus 5:1), one may infer: iAlais stated herewith regard to an oath of testimony band ialais stated therewith regard to a isota /i; bjust as there,with regard to a isota /i, the reference is to ban oath, so too here,with regard to an oath of testimony, the reference is to ban oath.And bjust as there,the oath is administered binthe bnameof God, bso too here,the oath is administered binthe bnameof God. This is contrary to the mishna, where the ruling is that an oath of testimony may be administered even in the name of appellations of God., bAbaye said:This is bnot difficult. This ibaraitais the opinion of bRabbi Ḥanina bar Idi,and bthatmishna is the opinion of bthe Rabbis, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Ḥanina bar Idi says: Since the Torah saysin some cases: bTake an oath, andin some cases: bDo not take an oath;and it says in some cases: bCurse, andin some cases: bDo not curse, just aswhen the Torah says: bTake an oath,it is binthe bnameof God, bso too,when the Torah states: bDo not take an oath,it is bin the nameof God. And bjust aswhen the Torah states: bCurse,it is binthe bnameof God, bso too,when the Torah says: bDo not curse,it is binthe bnameof God.,The Gemara asks: bAnd the Rabbissay: bIf they derivean oath of testimony from isotaby means of ba verbal analogy, let us requirethat both an oath of testimony and the curse will be specifically in bthe ineffable nameof God. bIf they do not derivean oath of testimony from isotaby means of ba verbal analogy, from where do theyderive bthatthe instance of the word ialathatis written with regard to an oath of testimony bis an oath? /b,The Gemara answers: bThey derive it from that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is written with regard to an oath of testimony: “And he hears the voice of ban iala /i”(Leviticus 5:1); ialais nothing other than an expressionmeaning boath. And likewise it says: “And the priest shall administer to the woman with the oath of cursing [ iha’ala /i]”(Numbers 5:21).,The Gemara asks: It is not merely ialathat is written there; bthe oath of an ialais written there.Apparently, ialaalone does not mean oath. The Gemara explains that bthisis what the itanna bis saying:“And he hears the voice of ban iala /i”; ialaisused bonlywhen accompanied bby an oath. And likewise it says: “And the priest shall administer to the woman with the oath of cursing.” /b
77. Origen, Homilies On Genesis, 4.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

78. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.13

9.13. And when they heard the voice they did not bury him, but stayedaround his tabernacle for three days saying, "when will he arise?
79. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 1.1, 1.5, 20.15

80. Epigraphy, Ig, 952



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba shaul Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 151
abel Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
abraham,as universal exemplar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44, 50
abraham,criticism of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
abraham,defense of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
abraham,encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
abraham,eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 275, 276
abraham,hospitality of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 252, 254, 257, 259, 260, 303
abraham,humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 257, 259
abraham,lot contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276, 277
abraham,name largely omitted by philo Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 269
abraham,pharaoh contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
abraham,praise of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23, 44
abraham,vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 50
abraham Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 293; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53; Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 181, 183; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
acacia Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
actaeon Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226
adam,cultic activity of Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
adam Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
adversity Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53
agents in post-mortem state Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
agriculture Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
angel Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 181
angels,and not eating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 254, 258
angels,as servants and lieutenants Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 257
angels,incorporeal nature of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 254, 258
angels,lot refused by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276
angels,predictions made by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 257, 258
angels,sarah recognizing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 253, 256, 257, 260
angels Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 286
anger,wild Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
annunciation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
antigonus of sokho Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 274
antiochus iv Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
anxiety dreams and nightmares,voices Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
anxiety dreams and nightmares,wsol Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 151
apparitions Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 151
aqedah,for philo Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 257
aqedah,in philo,a drama Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 269
archetypes,numbers and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 266
art,medieval christian,depiction of jews Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
artemis Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226
ash cakes Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253, 254, 276
asherah/asherah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46, 63
athena Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226
athletics imagery Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 254, 269
beast Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
beneficent power,philos selection of passages from Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
beneficent power,quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 38
beneficent power,the bible Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 38, 44, 50, 51
biography (bios),rhetoric in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
body Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
cain Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
caprid Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46, 63
cattle Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
cherubim Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 271, 275
child sacrifice Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 303
church fathers,the holy trinity and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276, 277
circumcise/circumcision Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 183
claudius,roman emperor,expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 371
clothing,signification of,in medieval christian art Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 266, 268
constantinople Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
covenant,omission of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 250
creation,creator caring for Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 265
creation,gods powers in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 270, 271
criticism of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
daimones Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
damascus Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
day,expulsion,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
de abrahamo,epilogue of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
de abrahamo,inconsistencies in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 257, 258
de abrahamo,interconnections within Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 50, 51
de abrahamo,rhetoric in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23, 268, 286
de abrahamo,structure of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32
de abrahamo,transitions in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 263
death Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
devil,entering into the allotment of adam Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
diatribe,on the sodomite cities Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 277
diatribe Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32
divination,incubation Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
divine feminine/mother-goddess Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46, 63
divine visits,incognito Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 121, 151, 374
divine visits Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 374
divine voices,jewish Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
domain,private versus public,plunder of Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 151
dreams Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
dreams and visions,dream figures,invisible (voice only) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,examples,apocrypha and non-apocalyptic pseudepigrapha Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 151
dreams and visions,examples,hebrew bible Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 121
dreams and visions,form criticism/classification,message dreams Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 121, 151
dreams and visions,form criticism/classification,prophetic symbolic dreams Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,incubation,oracular Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dyad and monad Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 266
egypt,allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 250
egypt,negative depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 250
egypt,sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32, 38, 250
egypt Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46, 63
encomia,on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
enemies Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53
enoch Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
epiphany Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224, 226
ethical interpretation,as part of a literal interpretation Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 286
etymologies,of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253
etymologies,of israel Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 265
eudorus Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 266
exaiphnês Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226
exegesis,in alexandria Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
exegesis,originality of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 50
exegesis,traditional vs. original Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44, 50
exegesis Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
exiles Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
external goods,the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 276
eyes,interior Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 276
eyes,light and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 275, 276
faithfulness Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53
famine,father,god as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 255, 261, 264, 267, 268, 276
fear,as motive for worship Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 269, 273, 274
fear,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 256
fear,vs. love Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 273, 274
feast,days Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
five,the number,and the cities of refuge Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 265, 271
five,the number,and the destruction of the sodomite cities Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 51
five,the number Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 271
forms Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 266, 267
friendship Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 268, 269, 273, 276
gabriel Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 183
garden of eden Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
gestures,of jews in medieval christian art Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
god,as father Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 255, 261, 264, 267, 268, 276
god,as like or not like a person Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 272, 273
god,good things coming from Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 286
god,love for Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 273, 274
god,motives for serving Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274
god,welcome of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 268
grace Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 237
graetz,heinrich,ḥama bar ḥanina,rabbi Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 151
hebrew,hidden bread Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253, 254, 276
hebrew bible Vargas (2021), Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time, 166
heliodorus Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224
hezekiah,king of judah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
holy spirit,and liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
holy week Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
horus Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
hospitality,heaven and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 260
hospitality,love of humanity and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 259
hospitality,piety and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 252, 257, 259, 303
hospitality,relationship to tamhui Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 102
hospitality Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 252, 254, 257, 303; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 181
humanity,abraham loving Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 257, 259
humanity,love of,as virtue Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252
humanity,piety and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 257, 259
humanity,three orders of temperament of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 267
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 257, 259
imitatio dei' Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 151
intelligible Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
isaac,as legitimate Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 254
isaac,as reward Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 254, 259, 303
isaac,joy symbolized by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253
isaac,name of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253
ishmael,as illegitimate Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 254
isis Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
israel,cultic activity Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
israel,etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 265
israel,sacred spaces (see also tabernacle,temple) Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
israel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
jacob Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 434
jerusalem,paradise and Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
jesus,as lord Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 21
jesus,divinity of Pierce et al. (2022), Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature, 21
jesus Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53
jews,oppression of,in christian empire Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 181
job Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 260
josiah,king of judah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
joy,isaac symbolizing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253
judah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
justice Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 271
kingship Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
lamprias (brother of plutarch) Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
laughter,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 255, 256, 257
laughter Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 255, 256
leo the great,theology of,depicted in art Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
levant Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46, 63
life,post-mortem Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
light,and shadow Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 263, 264, 275
light,sight and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 263, 264, 275, 276
light Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
literal interpretation,ethical interpretation as part of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 286
literal meaning Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
lord,referring to christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
lot,abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276, 277
lot,as the progressive man Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276
lot,two visitors of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276
love,for god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 273, 274
love,vs. fear Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269, 273, 274
mamre Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226; Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 181, 183
manasseh,king of judah Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
mark (gospel) Vargas (2021), Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time, 166
marketplace of the gentiles Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 293
mastema ix Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
maximus Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276
menelaos Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226
mesu/mes- Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
michael Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 183
middot Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 263, 271, 272
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 50
mind Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
monad and dyad Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 266
moses Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
multiple masculinities theory,narrative criticism Vargas (2021), Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time, 166
mysteries Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 261, 266
names of god,adonai Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 277
names of god,elohim Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 271, 277
names of god,father Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 255, 261, 264, 267, 268
names of god,masculine participle Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 261, 264, 275, 286
names of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 263
nautical metaphors Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 258, 266
neuter participle,powers and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 261, 263, 265, 271, 277
neuter participle Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 264, 275, 286
noah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
nut (deity) Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46
oak Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 46
omissions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 277
opinion Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 266
oracles,biblical Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 121
osiris Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 63
pallium,signification in medieval christian art Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
pan (gnostic) Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 226
paradise,heaven and Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
paradise,location of Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
paradise,post-mortem destination Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
parallelism Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53
passivity,vs. activity,in worship Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 267, 268
paul Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 260; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 224, 226
perception of god,by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 270
perception of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266
pharaoh,abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
pharaoh,as inhospitable Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
pharaoh,punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 250
philo,first-person references made by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 257, 268
philo,influences on Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44, 50
philo of alexandria Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233
piety,humanity and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 257, 259
piety,mosaic law and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 273
piety of abraham,emigration as sign of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23
piety of abraham,hospitality and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 252, 257, 259
piety of abraham,love of humanity and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 257, 259
piety of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32, 44, 112
powers of god,beneficent Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 263, 265, 266, 267, 268, 271, 273
powers of god,creative Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 267, 268, 269, 271, 275, 276
powers of god,kingly Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 261, 262, 263, 265, 267, 269, 271, 275, 276
powers of god,love and fear related to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 273, 274
powers of god,measured out Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 271, 272
powers of god,names of god and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 261, 263, 265, 271, 277
powers of god,number of,variable Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 271
powers of god,perception of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267
powers of god,punitive Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 265, 271
powers of god,ruling Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 262, 263, 265, 267, 269, 271, 273, 274
powers of god,senior Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 112, 264, 265
powers of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 270, 271, 272, 275, 276
praise,of god Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
prayers,daily Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
priest,priesthood Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 54
prokeimena Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
prophecy,and direct divine speech Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 374
prophecy,prophetic dreams and visions Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
prophecy,prophetic formula Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 121
prophetologion,arabic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
prophetologion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
prophets,ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
pseudo-augustine Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276
pseudo-dionysius Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 276
punishment,avoidance of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 269
punishment,gods powers doling out Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 265, 269, 271
pythagorean-platonist tradition Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 261, 266
quarreling Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 53
questions and answers on genesis and exodus (qge) Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 275
quotations,biblical Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 38
rabbinic texts Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
raphael Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 183
reading,lectionary Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 458
resurrection,entrants of paradise Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 35
revelation Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 233; Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 237
revelation and guidance Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 121
rewards of abraham,for hospitality Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 252, 254, 260
rewards of abraham,lineage as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 252, 254, 260
rhetoric of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 23, 268, 286
rome,influence of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 254
rosenblum,jordan Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 102
sacrifice of isaac,as abrahams greatest deed Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 303
sacrifice of isaac,literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 303
sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 303
santa maria maggiore (basilica),depiction of biblical history on mosaic panels Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 91
sarah,as virtue Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 250
sarah,chaldean background of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 256
sarah,hidden bread baked by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 253, 254