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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 17.5


וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

78 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.16, 12.5, 18.16, 26.3, 26.5-26.11, 30.6, 30.11-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.16. וּמַלְתֶּם אֵת עָרְלַת לְבַבְכֶם וְעָרְפְּכֶם לֹא תַקְשׁוּ עוֹד׃ 12.5. כִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִכָּל־שִׁבְטֵיכֶם לָשׂוּם אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שָׁם לְשִׁכְנוֹ תִדְרְשׁוּ וּבָאתָ שָׁמָּה׃ 18.16. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַלְתָּ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל לֵאמֹר לֹא אֹסֵף לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת לֹא־אֶרְאֶה עוֹד וְלֹא אָמוּת׃ 26.3. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 26.11. וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 30.6. וּמָל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְאֶת־לְבַב זַרְעֶךָ לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ לְמַעַן חַיֶּיךָ׃ 30.11. כִּי הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לֹא־נִפְלֵאת הִוא מִמְּךָ וְלֹא רְחֹקָה הִוא׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 10.16. Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked." 12.5. But unto the place which the LORD your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there, even unto His habitation shall ye seek, and thither thou shalt come;" 18.16. according to all that thou didst desire of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying: ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.’" 26.3. And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’" 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage." 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey." 26.10. And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God." 26.11. And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee." 30.6. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live." 30.11. For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too hard for thee, neither is it far off." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.3, 2.24, 3.12, 3.14-3.15, 6.4, 12.13, 13.16, 16.21-16.25, 19.6, 24.1-24.8, 24.11, 24.15-24.17, 33.7-33.11, 34.11-34.16, 34.26, 34.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וְלֹא־יָכְלָה עוֹד הַצְּפִינוֹ וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ תֵּבַת גֹּמֶא וַתַּחְמְרָה בַחֵמָר וּבַזָּפֶת וַתָּשֶׂם בָּהּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתָּשֶׂם בַּסּוּף עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃ 2.24. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְזֶה־לְּךָ הָאוֹת כִּי אָנֹכִי שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־הָעָם מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הָהָר הַזֶּה׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 6.4. וְגַם הֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתָּם לָתֵת לָהֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן אֵת אֶרֶץ מְגֻרֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־גָּרוּ בָהּ׃ 12.13. וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם שָׁם וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף לְמַשְׁחִית בְּהַכֹּתִי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 13.16. וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 16.21. וַיִּלְקְטוּ אֹתוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר אִישׁ כְּפִי אָכְלוֹ וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָס׃ 16.22. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר לָאֶחָד וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמֹשֶׁה׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 16.24. וַיַּנִּיחוּ אֹתוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה וְלֹא הִבְאִישׁ וְרִמָּה לֹא־הָיְתָה בּוֹ׃ 16.25. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אִכְלֻהוּ הַיּוֹם כִּי־שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאֻהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.1. וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר׃ 24.1. וְאֶל־מֹשֶׁה אָמַר עֲלֵה אֶל־יְהוָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק׃ 24.2. וְנִגַּשׁ מֹשֶׁה לְבַדּוֹ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהֵם לֹא יִגָּשׁוּ וְהָעָם לֹא יַעֲלוּ עִמּוֹ׃ 24.3. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְסַפֵּר לָעָם אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וְאֵת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וַיַּעַן כָּל־הָעָם קוֹל אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 24.15. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָהָר וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־הָהָר׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.7. וּמֹשֶׁה יִקַּח אֶת־הָאֹהֶל וְנָטָה־לוֹ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה הַרְחֵק מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְקָרָא לוֹ אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהָיָה כָּל־מְבַקֵּשׁ יְהוָה יֵצֵא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 33.8. וְהָיָה כְּצֵאת מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָאֹהֶל יָקוּמוּ כָּל־הָעָם וְנִצְּבוּ אִישׁ פֶּתַח אָהֳלוֹ וְהִבִּיטוּ אַחֲרֵי מֹשֶׁה עַד־בֹּאוֹ הָאֹהֱלָה׃ 33.9. וְהָיָה כְּבֹא מֹשֶׁה הָאֹהֱלָה יֵרֵד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן וְעָמַד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְדִבֶּר עִם־מֹשֶׁה׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 34.11. שְׁמָר־לְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם הִנְנִי גֹרֵשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 34.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּא עָלֶיהָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה לְמוֹקֵשׁ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 34.13. כִּי אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם תִּתֹּצוּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָיו תִּכְרֹתוּן׃ 34.14. כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר כִּי יְהוָה קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ אֵל קַנָּא הוּא׃ 34.15. פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וְזָנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְזָבְחוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְקָרָא לְךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחוֹ׃ 34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 34.28. וַיְהִי־שָׁם עִם־יְהוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים׃ 2.3. And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by the river’s brink." 2.24. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covet with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob." 3.12. And He said: ‘Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.’" 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations." 6.4. And I have also established My covet with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their sojournings, wherein they sojourned." 12.13. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt." 13.16. And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between your eyes; for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.’" 16.21. And they gathered it morning by morning, every man according to his eating; and as the sun waxed hot, it melted." 16.22. And it came to pass that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one; and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses." 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 16.24. And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade; and it did not rot, neither was there any worm therein." 16.25. And Moses said: ‘Eat that to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the LORD; to-day ye shall not find it in the field." 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 24.1. And unto Moses He said: ‘Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off;" 24.2. and Moses alone shall come near unto the LORD; but they shall not come near; neither shall the people go up with him.’" 24.3. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the ordices; and all the people answered with one voice, and said: ‘All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink." 24.15. And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 33.7. Now Moses used to take the tent and to pitch it without the camp, afar off from the camp; and he called it The tent of meeting. And it came to pass, that every one that sought the LORD went out unto the tent of meeting, which was without the camp." 33.8. And it came to pass, when Moses went out unto the Tent, that all the people rose up, and stood, every man at his tent door, and looked after Moses, until he was gone into the Tent." 33.9. And it came to pass, when Moses entered into the Tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the Tent; and [the LORD] spoke with Moses." 33.10. And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the door of the Tent, all the people rose up and worshipped, every man at his tent door." 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent." 34.11. Observe thou that which I am commanding thee this day; behold, I am driving out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite." 34.12. Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest they be for a snare in the midst of thee." 34.13. But ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and ye shall cut down their Asherim." 34.14. For thou shalt bow down to no other god; for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God;" 34.15. lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land, and they go astray after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and they call thee, and thou eat of their sacrifice;" 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods." 34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’" 34.28. And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covet, the ten words."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15"\n1 1.20 1.20 1 20 \n2 1.21 1.21 1 21 \n3 1.26 1.26 1 26 \n4 1.27 1.27 1 27 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n239 9.24 9.24 9 24 \n240 9.25 9.25 9 25 \n241 9.26 9.26 9 26 \n242 9.27 9.27 9 27 \n243 9.9 9.9 9 9 \n\n[244 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.23-19.25, 20.26, 25.20-25.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 25.21. וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלֹשׁ הַשָּׁנִים׃ 25.22. וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֵת הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁמִינִת וַאֲכַלְתֶּם מִן־הַתְּבוּאָה יָשָׁן עַד הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת עַד־בּוֹא תְּבוּאָתָהּ תֹּאכְלוּ יָשָׁן׃ 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine." 25.20. And if ye shall say: ‘What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we may not sow, nor gather in our increase’;" 25.21. then I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth produce for the three years." 25.22. And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat of the produce, the old store; until the ninth year, until her produce come in, ye shall eat the old store."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.1-12.15, 22.20-22.21, 22.25, 22.28, 22.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.2. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הֲרַק אַךְ־בְּמֹשֶׁה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה הֲלֹא גַּם־בָּנוּ דִבֵּר וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה׃ 12.3. וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה פִּתְאֹם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־מִרְיָם צְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתְּכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּם׃ 12.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 12.6. וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָא דְבָרָי אִם־יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֲכֶם יְהוָה בַּמַּרְאָה אֵלָיו אֶתְוַדָּע בַּחֲלוֹם אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ׃ 12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 12.9. וַיִּחַר אַף יְהוָה בָּם וַיֵּלַךְ׃ 12.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בִּי אֲדֹנִי אַל־נָא תָשֵׁת עָלֵינוּ חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר נוֹאַלְנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ׃ 12.12. אַל־נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת אֲשֶׁר בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם אִמּוֹ וַיֵּאָכֵל חֲצִי בְשָׂרוֹ׃ 12.13. וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר אֵל נָא רְפָא נָא לָהּ׃ 12.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאָבִיהָ יָרֹק יָרַק בְּפָנֶיהָ הֲלֹא תִכָּלֵם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּסָּגֵר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחַר תֵּאָסֵף׃ 12.15. וַתִּסָּגֵר מִרְיָם מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהָעָם לֹא נָסַע עַד־הֵאָסֵף מִרְיָם׃ 22.21. וַיָּקָם בִּלְעָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבֹשׁ אֶת־אֲתֹנוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ עִם־שָׂרֵי מוֹאָב׃ 22.25. וַתֵּרֶא הָאָתוֹן אֶת־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַתִּלָּחֵץ אֶל־הַקִּיר וַתִּלְחַץ אֶת־רֶגֶל בִּלְעָם אֶל־הַקִּיר וַיֹּסֶף לְהַכֹּתָהּ׃ 22.28. וַיִּפְתַּח יְהוָה אֶת־פִּי הָאָתוֹן וַתֹּאמֶר לְבִלְעָם מֶה־עָשִׂיתִי לְךָ כִּי הִכִּיתַנִי זֶה שָׁלֹשׁ רְגָלִים׃ 22.31. וַיְגַל יְהוָה אֶת־עֵינֵי בִלְעָם וַיַּרְא אֶת־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה נִצָּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלֻפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיִּקֹּד וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְאַפָּיו׃ 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 12.2. And they said: ‘Hath the LORD indeed spoken only with Moses? hath He not spoken also with us?’ And the LORD heard it.—" 12.3. Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—" 12.4. And the LORD spoke suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam: ‘Come out ye three unto the tent of meeting.’ And they three came out." 12.5. And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth." 12.6. And He said: ‘Hear now My words: if there be a prophet among you, I the LORD do make Myself known unto him in a vision, I do speak with him in a dream." 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 12.9. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and He departed." 12.10. And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous." 12.11. And Aaron said unto Moses: ‘Oh my lord, lay not, I pray thee, sin upon us, for that we have done foolishly, and for that we have sinned." 12.12. Let her not, I pray, be as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother’s womb.’" 12.13. And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘Heal her now, O God, I beseech Thee.’" 12.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘If her father had but spit in her face, should she not hide in shame seven days? let her be shut up without the camp seven days, and after that she shall be brought in again.’" 12.15. And Miriam was shut up without the camp seven days; and the people journeyed not till Miriam was brought in again." 22.20. And God came unto Balaam at night, and said unto him: ‘If the men are come to call thee, rise up, go with them; but only the word which I speak unto thee, that shalt thou do.’" 22.21. And Balaam rose up in the morning, and saddled his ass, and went with the princes of Moab." 22.25. And the ass saw the angel of the LORD, and she thrust herself unto the wall, and crushed Balaam’s foot against the wall; and he smote her again." 22.28. And the LORD opened the mouth of the ass, and she said unto Balaam: ‘What have I done unto thee, that thou hast smitten me these three times?’" 22.31. Then the LORD opened the eyes of Balaam, and he saw the angel of the LORD standing in the way, with his sword drawn in his hand; and he bowed his head, and fell on his face."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 15.8, 16.19, 19.17, 21.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.8. זֶבַח רְשָׁעִים תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה וּתְפִלַּת יְשָׁרִים רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 16.19. טוֹב שְׁפַל־רוּחַ אֶת־עניים [עֲנָוִים] מֵחַלֵּק שָׁלָל אֶת־גֵּאִים׃ 19.17. מַלְוֵה יְהוָה חוֹנֵן דָּל וּגְמֻלוֹ יְשַׁלֶּם־לוֹ׃ 21.3. אֵין חָכְמָה וְאֵין תְּבוּנָה וְאֵין עֵצָה לְנֶגֶד יְהוָה׃ 21.3. עֲשֹׂה צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט נִבְחָר לַיהוָה מִזָּבַח׃ 15.8. The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the LORD; But the prayer of the upright is His delight." 16.19. Better it is to be of a lowly spirit with the humble, Than to divide the spoil with the proud." 19.17. He that is gracious unto the poor lendeth unto the LORD; And his good deed will He repay unto him." 21.3. To do righteousness and justice Is more acceptable to the LORD than sacrifice."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 89.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

89.4. כָּרַתִּי בְרִית לִבְחִירִי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְדָוִד עַבְדִּי׃ 89.4. נֵאַרְתָּה בְּרִית עַבְדֶּךָ חִלַּלְתָּ לָאָרֶץ נִזְרוֹ׃ 89.4. I have made a covet with My chosen, I have sworn unto David My servant:"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.4-3.15, 9.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ גִּבְעֹנָה לִזְבֹּחַ שָׁם כִּי הִיא הַבָּמָה הַגְּדוֹלָה אֶלֶף עֹלוֹת יַעֲלֶה שְׁלֹמֹה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַהוּא׃ 3.5. בְּגִבְעוֹן נִרְאָה יְהֹוָה אֶל־שְׁלֹמֹה בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים שְׁאַל מָה אֶתֶּן־לָךְ׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁלֹמֹה אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ עִם־עַבְדְּךָ דָוִד אָבִי חֶסֶד גָּדוֹל כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ בֶּאֱמֶת וּבִצְדָקָה וּבְיִשְׁרַת לֵבָב עִמָּךְ וַתִּשְׁמָר־לוֹ אֶת־הַחֶסֶד הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה וַתִּתֶּן־לוֹ בֵן יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 3.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי אַתָּה הִמְלַכְתָּ אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ תַּחַת דָּוִד אָבִי וְאָנֹכִי נַעַר קָטֹן לֹא אֵדַע צֵאת וָבֹא׃ 3.8. וְעַבְדְּךָ בְּתוֹךְ עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתָּ עַם־רָב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמָּנֶה וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃ 3.9. וְנָתַתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לֵב שֹׁמֵעַ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ לְהָבִין בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֵלָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתָּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ עֹשֶׁר וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ הָבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט׃ 3.12. הִנֵּה עָשִׂיתִי כִּדְבָרֶיךָ הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ לֵב חָכָם וְנָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר כָּמוֹךָ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְאַחֲרֶיךָ לֹא־יָקוּם כָּמוֹךָ׃ 3.13. וְגַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ נָתַתִּי לָךְ גַּם־עֹשֶׁר גַּם־כָּבוֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיָה כָמוֹךָ אִישׁ בַּמְּלָכִים כָּל־יָמֶיךָ׃ 3.14. וְאִם תֵּלֵךְ בִּדְרָכַי לִשְׁמֹר חֻקַּי וּמִצְוֺתַי כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ דָּוִיד אָבִיךָ וְהַאַרַכְתִּי אֶת־יָמֶיךָ׃ 3.15. וַיִּקַץ שְׁלֹמֹה וְהִנֵּה חֲלוֹם וַיָּבוֹא יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־אֲדֹנָי וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלָמִים וַיַּעַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־עֲבָדָיו׃ 9.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־תְּפִלָּתְךָ וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתְךָ אֲשֶׁר הִתְחַנַּנְתָּה לְפָנַי הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִתָה לָשׂוּם־שְׁמִי שָׁם עַד־עוֹלָם וְהָיוּ עֵינַי וְלִבִּי שָׁם כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 3.4. And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place; a thousand burnt-offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar." 3.5. In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said: ‘Ask what I shall give thee.’" 3.6. And Solomon said: ‘Thou hast shown unto Thy servant David my father great kindness, according as he walked before Thee in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with Thee; and Thou hast kept for him this great kindness, that Thou hast given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day." 3.7. And now, O LORD my God, Thou hast made Thy servant king instead of David my father; and I am but a little child; I know not how to go out or come in." 3.8. And Thy servant is in the midst of Thy people which Thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude." 3.9. Give Thy servant therefore an understanding heart to judge Thy people, that I may discern between good and evil; for who is able to judge this Thy great people?’" 3.10. And the speech pleased the LORD, that Solomon had asked this thing." 3.11. And God said unto him: ‘Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern justice;" 3.12. behold, I have done according to thy word: lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there hath been none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee." 3.13. And I have also given thee that which thou hast not asked, both riches and honour—so that there hath not been any among the kings like unto thee—all thy days." 3.14. And if thou wilt walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as thy father David did walk, then I will lengthen thy days.’" 3.15. And Solomon awoke, and, behold, it was a dream; and he came to Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covet of the LORD, and offered up burnt-offerings, and offered peace-offerings, and made a feast to all his servants." 9.3. And the LORD said unto him: ‘I have heard thy prayer and thy supplication, that thou hast made before Me: I have hallowed this house, which thou hast built, to put My name there for ever; and Mine eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 3.3, 3.21, 28.6, 28.8, 28.17, 28.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.3. וְנֵר אֱלֹהִים טֶרֶם יִכְבֶּה וּשְׁמוּאֵל שֹׁכֵב בְּהֵיכַל יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם אֲרוֹן אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.6. וַיִּשְׁאַל שָׁאוּל בַּיהוָה וְלֹא עָנָהוּ יְהוָה גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת גַּם בָּאוּרִים גַּם בַּנְּבִיאִם׃ 28.8. וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר קסומי־[קָסֳמִי־] נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלָיִךְ׃ 28.17. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיָדִי וַיִּקְרַע יְהוָה אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיָּדֶךָ וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְרֵעֲךָ לְדָוִד׃ 28.25. וַתַּגֵּשׁ לִפְנֵי־שָׁאוּל וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא׃ 3.3. and the lamp of God had not yet gone out in the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was, and Shemu᾽el was laid down to sleep;" 28.6. And when Sha᾽ul inquired of the Lord, the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by the Urim, nor by prophets." 28.8. And Sha᾽ul disguised himself, and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine for me by means of the familiar spirit, and bring him up for me, whom I shall name to thee." 28.17. And the Lord has done for himself, as he spoke by me: for the Lord has rent the kingdom out of thy hand, and given it to thy neighbour, to David:" 28.25. and she brought it before Sha᾽ul, and before his servants; and they did eat. Then they rose up, and went away that night."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever."
11. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.4. הִנֵּה עֻפְּלָה לֹא־יָשְׁרָה נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה׃ 2.4. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; But the righteous shall live by his faith."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.1-6.13, 41.4, 41.7-41.8, 41.10, 41.14, 42.5-42.6, 42.8-42.9, 42.12-42.13, 45.11-45.13, 47.8, 49.6-49.7, 51.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4. וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 6.5. וָאֹמַר אוֹי־לִי כִי־נִדְמֵיתִי כִּי אִישׁ טְמֵא־שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי וּבְתוֹךְ עַם־טְמֵא שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב כִּי אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת רָאוּ עֵינָי׃ 6.6. וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.7. וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָגַע זֶה עַל־שְׂפָתֶיךָ וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּר׃ 6.8. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל אֲדֹנָי אֹמֵר אֶת־מִי אֶשְׁלַח וּמִי יֵלֶךְ־לָנוּ וָאֹמַר הִנְנִי שְׁלָחֵנִי׃ 6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃ 6.11. וָאֹמַר עַד־מָתַי אֲדֹנָי וַיֹּאמֶר עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־שָׁאוּ עָרִים מֵאֵין יוֹשֵׁב וּבָתִּים מֵאֵין אָדָם וְהָאֲדָמָה תִּשָּׁאֶה שְׁמָמָה׃ 6.12. וְרִחַק יְהוָה אֶת־הָאָדָם וְרַבָּה הָעֲזוּבָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.13. וְעוֹד בָּהּ עֲשִׂרִיָּה וְשָׁבָה וְהָיְתָה לְבָעֵר כָּאֵלָה וְכָאַלּוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁלֶּכֶת מַצֶּבֶת בָּם זֶרַע קֹדֶשׁ מַצַּבְתָּהּ׃ 41.4. מִי־פָעַל וְעָשָׂה קֹרֵא הַדֹּרוֹת מֵרֹאשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה רִאשׁוֹן וְאֶת־אַחֲרֹנִים אֲנִי־הוּא׃ 41.7. וַיְחַזֵּק חָרָשׁ אֶת־צֹרֵף מַחֲלִיק פַּטִּישׁ אֶת־הוֹלֶם פָּעַם אֹמֵר לַדֶּבֶק טוֹב הוּא וַיְחַזְּקֵהוּ בְמַסְמְרִים לֹא יִמּוֹט׃ 41.8. וְאַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתִּיךָ זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהֲבִי׃ 41.14. אַל־תִּירְאִי תּוֹלַעַת יַעֲקֹב מְתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי עֲזַרְתִּיךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 42.5. כֹּה־אָמַר הָאֵל יְהוָה בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנוֹטֵיהֶם רֹקַע הָאָרֶץ וְצֶאֱצָאֶיהָ נֹתֵן נְשָׁמָה לָעָם עָלֶיהָ וְרוּחַ לַהֹלְכִים בָּהּ׃ 42.6. אֲנִי יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ בְצֶדֶק וְאַחְזֵק בְּיָדֶךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ לִבְרִית עָם לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם׃ 42.8. אֲנִי יְהוָה הוּא שְׁמִי וּכְבוֹדִי לְאַחֵר לֹא־אֶתֵּן וּתְהִלָּתִי לַפְּסִילִים׃ 42.9. הָרִאשֹׁנוֹת הִנֵּה־בָאוּ וַחֲדָשׁוֹת אֲנִי מַגִּיד בְּטֶרֶם תִּצְמַחְנָה אַשְׁמִיע אֶתְכֶם׃ 42.12. יָשִׂימוּ לַיהוָה כָּבוֹד וּתְהִלָּתוֹ בָּאִיִּים יַגִּידוּ׃ 42.13. יְהוָה כַּגִּבּוֹר יֵצֵא כְּאִישׁ מִלְחָמוֹת יָעִיר קִנְאָה יָרִיעַ אַף־יַצְרִיחַ עַל־אֹיְבָיו יִתְגַּבָּר׃ 45.11. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃ 45.12. אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי אֲנִי יָדַי נָטוּ שָׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם צִוֵּיתִי׃ 45.13. אָנֹכִי הַעִירֹתִהוּ בְצֶדֶק וְכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲיַשֵּׁר הוּא־יִבְנֶה עִירִי וְגָלוּתִי יְשַׁלֵּחַ לֹא בִמְחִיר וְלֹא בְשֹׁחַד אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 47.8. וְעַתָּה שִׁמְעִי־זֹאת עֲדִינָה הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת לָבֶטַח הָאֹמְרָה בִּלְבָבָהּ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד לֹא אֵשֵׁב אַלְמָנָה וְלֹא אֵדַע שְׁכוֹל׃ 49.6. וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 49.7. כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃ 51.2. בָּנַיִךְ עֻלְּפוּ שָׁכְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת כְּתוֹא מִכְמָר הַמְלֵאִים חֲמַת־יְהוָה גַּעֲרַת אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 51.2. הַבִּיטוּ אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם וְאֶל־שָׂרָה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶם כִּי־אֶחָד קְרָאתִיו וַאֲבָרְכֵהוּ וְאַרְבֵּהוּ׃ 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly." 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 6.4. And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke." 6.5. Then said I: Woe is me! for I am undone; Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For mine eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts." 6.6. Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar;" 6.7. and he touched my mouth with it, and said: Lo, this hath touched thy lips; And thine iniquity is taken away, And thy sin expiated." 6.8. And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying: Whom shall I send, And who will go for us? Then I said: ‘Here am I; send me.’" 6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 6.11. Then said I: ‘Lord, how long?’ And He answered: ‘Until cities be waste without inhabitant, and houses without man, And the land become utterly waste," 6.12. And the LORD have removed men far away, and the forsaken places be many in the midst of the land." 6.13. And if there be yet a tenth in it, it shall again be eaten up; as a terebinth, and as an oak, whose stock remaineth, when they cast their leaves, so the holy seed shall be the stock thereof.’" 41.4. Who hath wrought and done it? He that called the generations from the beginning. I, the LORD, who am the first, And with the last am the same." 41.7. So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, And he that smootheth with the hammer him that smiteth the anvil, Saying of the soldering: ‘It is good’; And he fastened it with nails, that it should not be moved." 41.8. But thou, Israel, My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, The seed of Abraham My friend;" 41.10. Fear thou not, for I am with thee, Be not dismayed, for I am thy God; I strengthen thee, yea, I help thee; Yea, I uphold thee with My victorious right hand." 41.14. Fear not, thou worm Jacob, And ye men of Israel; I help thee, saith the LORD, And thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel." 42.5. Thus saith God the LORD, He that created the heavens, and stretched them forth, He that spread forth the earth and that which cometh out of it, He that giveth breath unto the people upon it, And spirit to them that walk therein:" 42.6. I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, And have taken hold of thy hand, And kept thee, and set thee for a covet of the people, For a light of the nations;" 42.8. I am the LORD, that is My name; And My glory will I not give to another, Neither My praise to graven images." 42.9. Behold, the former things are come to pass, And new things do I declare; Before they spring forth I tell you of them." 42.12. Let them give glory unto the LORD, And declare His praise in the islands." 42.13. The LORD will go forth as a mighty man, He will stir up jealousy like a man of war; He will cry, yea, He will shout aloud, He will prove Himself mighty against His enemies." 45.11. Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." 45.12. I, even I, have made the earth, And created man upon it; I, even My hands, have stretched out the heavens, And all their host have I commanded." 45.13. I have roused him up in victory, And I make level all his ways; He shall build My city, And he shall let Mine exiles go free, Not for price nor reward, Saith the LORD of hosts." 47.8. Now therefore hear this, thou that art given to pleasures, That sittest securely, That sayest in thy heart: ‘I am, and there is none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, Neither shall I know the loss of children’;" 49.6. Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’" 49.7. Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee." 51.2. Look unto Abraham your father, And unto Sarah that bore you; For when he was but one I called him, And I blessed him, and made him many."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.4-1.10, 4.4, 23.25, 23.28, 27.9, 29.8, 31.31-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 1.5. בְּטֶרֶם אצורך [אֶצָּרְךָ] בַבֶּטֶן יְדַעְתִּיךָ וּבְטֶרֶם תֵּצֵא מֵרֶחֶם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּיךָ נָבִיא לַגּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 1.6. וָאֹמַר אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה הִנֵּה לֹא־יָדַעְתִּי דַּבֵּר כִּי־נַעַר אָנֹכִי׃ 1.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי אַל־תֹּאמַר נַעַר אָנֹכִי כִּי עַל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ תֵּלֵךְ וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוְּךָ תְּדַבֵּר׃ 1.8. אַל־תִּירָא מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי־אִתְּךָ אֲנִי לְהַצִּלֶךָ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 1.9. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיךָ׃ 4.4. הִמֹּלוּ לַיהֹוָה וְהָסִרוּ עָרְלוֹת לְבַבְכֶם אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם פֶּן־תֵּצֵא כָאֵשׁ חֲמָתִי וּבָעֲרָה וְאֵין מְכַבֶּה מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם׃ 23.25. שָׁמַעְתִּי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אָמְרוּ הַנְּבִאִים הַנִּבְּאִים בִּשְׁמִי שֶׁקֶר לֵאמֹר חָלַמְתִּי חָלָמְתִּי׃ 23.28. הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ חֲלוֹם יְסַפֵּר חֲלוֹם וַאֲשֶׁר דְּבָרִי אִתּוֹ יְדַבֵּר דְּבָרִי אֱמֶת מַה־לַתֶּבֶן אֶת־הַבָּר נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 27.9. וְאַתֶּם אַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־נְבִיאֵיכֶם וְאֶל־קֹסְמֵיכֶם וְאֶל חֲלֹמֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶל־עֹנְנֵיכֶם וְאֶל־כַּשָּׁפֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם אֹמְרִים אֲלֵיכֶם לֵאמֹר לֹא תַעַבְדוּ אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 29.8. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל־יַשִּׁיאוּ לָכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְקֹסְמֵיכֶם וְאַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חֲלֹמֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם מַחְלְמִים׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 1.4. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 1.5. Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, And before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; I have appointed thee a prophet unto the nations." 1.6. Then said I: ‘Ah, Lord GOD! behold, I cannot speak; for I am a child.’" 1.7. But the LORD said unto me: Say not: I am a child; For to whomsoever I shall send thee thou shalt go, And whatsoever I shall command thee thou shalt speak." 1.8. Be not afraid of them; For I am with thee to deliver thee, Saith the LORD." 1.9. Then the LORD put forth His hand, and touched my mouth; and the LORD said unto me: Behold, I have put My words in thy mouth;" 1.10. See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, To root out and to pull down, And to destroy and to overthrow; To build, and to plant." 4.4. Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, Because of the evil of your doings." 23.25. I have heard what the prophets have said, That prophesy lies in My name, saying: ‘I have dreamed, I have dreamed.’" 23.28. The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream; And he that hath My word; let him speak My word faithfully. What hath the straw to do with the wheat? Saith the LORD." 27.9. But as for you, hearken ye not to your prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreams, nor to your soothsayers, nor to your sorcerers, that speak unto you, saying: Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon;" 29.8. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Let not your prophets that are in the midst of you, and your diviners, beguile you, neither hearken ye to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 6.16, 7.13-7.14, 13.2-13.3, 13.6, 13.8-13.10, 13.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.16. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה כִּי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְהִכִּיתָ אֶת־מִדְיָן כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד׃ 7.13. וַיָּבֹא גִדְעוֹן וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ מְסַפֵּר לְרֵעֵהוּ חֲלוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה חֲלוֹם חָלַמְתִּי וְהִנֵּה צלול [צְלִיל] לֶחֶם שְׂעֹרִים מִתְהַפֵּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן וַיָּבֹא עַד־הָאֹהֶל וַיַּכֵּהוּ וַיִּפֹּל וַיַּהַפְכֵהוּ לְמַעְלָה וְנָפַל הָאֹהֶל׃ 7.14. וַיַּעַן רֵעֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין זֹאת בִּלְתִּי אִם־חֶרֶב גִּדְעוֹן בֶּן־יוֹאָשׁ אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָתַן הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־מִדְיָן וְאֶת־כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 13.2. וַיְהִי בַעֲלוֹת הַלַּהַב מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וַיַּעַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה בְּלַהַב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם אָרְצָה׃ 13.2. וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִצָּרְעָה מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי וּשְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלָדָה׃ 13.3. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה־נָא אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן׃ 13.6. וַתָּבֹא הָאִשָּׁה וַתֹּאמֶר לְאִישָׁהּ לֵאמֹר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּא אֵלַי וּמַרְאֵהוּ כְּמַרְאֵה מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים נוֹרָא מְאֹד וְלֹא שְׁאִלְתִּיהוּ אֵי־מִזֶּה הוּא וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹ לֹא־הִגִּיד לִי׃ 13.8. וַיֶּעְתַּר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר בִּי אֲדוֹנָי אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַחְתָּ יָבוֹא־נָא עוֹד אֵלֵינוּ וְיוֹרֵנוּ מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לַנַּעַר הַיּוּלָּד׃ 13.9. וַיִּשְׁמַע הָאֱלֹהִים בְּקוֹל מָנוֹחַ וַיָּבֹא מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים עוֹד אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּשָּׂדֶה וּמָנוֹחַ אִישָׁהּ אֵין עִמָּהּ׃ 6.16. And the Lord said to him, Surely I will be with thee, and thou shalt smite Midyan as one man." 7.13. And when Gid῾on was come, behold, there was a man that told a dream to his fellow, and said, Behold, I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a slice of barley bread was rolling through the camp of Midyan, and it came to a tent, and smote it so that it fell, and overturned it, so that the tent tumbled down." 7.14. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else but the sword of Gid῾on the son of Yo᾽ash, a man of Yisra᾽el: for into his hand has God delivered Midyan, and all the camp." 13.2. And there was a certain man of Żor῾a, of the family of the Dani, whose name was Manoaĥ; and his wife was barren, and bore not." 13.3. And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman, and said to her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son." 13.6. Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of an angel of God, very terrible: but I asked him not from where he was, neither did he tell me his name:" 13.8. Then Manoaĥ entreated the Lord, and said, O my Lord, let the man of God whom Thou didst send come again to us, and teach us what we shall do to the child that shall be born." 13.9. And God hearkened to the voice of Manoaĥ; and the angel of God came again to the woman as she sat in the field: but Manoaĥ her husband was not with her." 13.10. And the woman made haste, and ran, and told her husband, and said to him, Behold, the man has appeared to me, that came to me the other day." 13.20. For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoaĥ and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground."
15. Hesiod, Works And Days, 288-289, 287 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne
16. Homer, Iliad, 5.127-5.128, 24.130-24.132 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5.127. /for in thy breast have I put the might of thy father, the dauntless might, such as the horseman Tydeus, wielder of the shield, was wont to have. And the mist moreover have I taken from thine eyes that afore was upon them, to the end that thou mayest well discern both god and man. Wherefore now if any god come hither to make trial of thee 5.128. /for in thy breast have I put the might of thy father, the dauntless might, such as the horseman Tydeus, wielder of the shield, was wont to have. And the mist moreover have I taken from thine eyes that afore was upon them, to the end that thou mayest well discern both god and man. Wherefore now if any god come hither to make trial of thee 24.130. /neither of the couch? Good were it for thee even to have dalliance in a woman's embrace. For, I tell thee, thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by thee and mighty fate. But hearken thou forthwith unto me, for I am a messenger unto thee from Zeus. He declareth that that the gods are angered with thee 24.131. /neither of the couch? Good were it for thee even to have dalliance in a woman's embrace. For, I tell thee, thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by thee and mighty fate. But hearken thou forthwith unto me, for I am a messenger unto thee from Zeus. He declareth that that the gods are angered with thee 24.132. /neither of the couch? Good were it for thee even to have dalliance in a woman's embrace. For, I tell thee, thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by thee and mighty fate. But hearken thou forthwith unto me, for I am a messenger unto thee from Zeus. He declareth that that the gods are angered with thee
17. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 36.17-36.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

36.17. וַיַּעַל עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־מֶלֶךְ כשדיים [כַּשְׂדִּים] וַיַּהֲרֹג בַּחוּרֵיהֶם בַּחֶרֶב בְּבֵית מִקְדָּשָׁם וְלֹא חָמַל עַל־בָּחוּר וּבְתוּלָה זָקֵן וְיָשֵׁשׁ הַכֹּל נָתַן בְּיָדוֹ׃ 36.18. וְכֹל כְּלֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים הַגְּדֹלִים וְהַקְּטַנִּים וְאֹצְרוֹת בֵּית יְהוָה וְאֹצְרוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׂרָיו הַכֹּל הֵבִיא בָבֶל׃ 36.17. Therefore He brought upon them the king of the Chaldeans, who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon young man or maiden, old man or hoary-headed; He gave them all into his hand." 36.18. And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon."
18. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 10.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.2. כִּי הַתְּרָפִים דִּבְּרוּ־אָוֶן וְהַקּוֹסְמִים חָזוּ שֶׁקֶר וַחֲלֹמוֹת הַשָּׁוא יְדַבֵּרוּ הֶבֶל יְנַחֵמוּן עַל־כֵּן נָסְעוּ כְמוֹ־צֹאן יַעֲנוּ כִּי־אֵין רֹעֶה׃ 10.2. For the teraphim have spoken vanity, And the diviners have seen a lie, And the dreams speak falsely, They comfort in vain; Therefore they go their way like sheep, They are afflicted, because there is no shepherd."
19. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

20. Anon., Jubilees, 11.4, 12.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.4. and to build strong cities, and walls, and towers, and individuals (began) to exalt themselves above the nation, and to found the beginnings of kingdoms 12.12. And in the sixtieth year of the life of Abram, that is, in the fourth week, in the fourth year thereof, Abram arose by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he burned all that was in the house, and no man knew it.
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.8, 7.14, 7.16, 11.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.8, 7.14, 7.16, 11.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On The Periods 4Q180, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 5.4-5.29, 9.20-9.27, 10.10, 10.16, 10.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.4. אִשְׁתִּיו חַמְרָא וְשַׁבַּחוּ לֵאלָהֵי דַּהֲבָא וְכַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא׃ 5.5. בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה נפקו [נְפַקָה] אֶצְבְּעָן דִּי יַד־אֱנָשׁ וְכָתְבָן לָקֳבֵל נֶבְרַשְׁתָּא עַל־גִּירָא דִּי־כְתַל הֵיכְלָא דִּי מַלְכָּא וּמַלְכָּא חָזֵה פַּס יְדָה דִּי כָתְבָה׃ 5.6. אֱדַיִן מַלְכָּא זִיוֺהִי שְׁנוֹהִי וְרַעיֹנֹהִי יְבַהֲלוּנֵּהּ וְקִטְרֵי חַרְצֵהּ מִשְׁתָּרַיִן וְאַרְכֻבָּתֵהּ דָּא לְדָא נָקְשָׁן׃ 5.7. קָרֵא מַלְכָּא בְּחַיִל לְהֶעָלָה לְאָשְׁפַיָּא כשדיא [כַּשְׂדָּאֵי] וְגָזְרַיָּא עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר לְחַכִּימֵי בָבֶל דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִקְרֵה כְּתָבָה דְנָה וּפִשְׁרֵהּ יְחַוִּנַּנִי אַרְגְּוָנָא יִלְבַּשׁ והמונכא [וְהַמְנִיכָא] דִי־דַהֲבָא עַל־צַוְּארֵהּ וְתַלְתִּי בְמַלְכוּתָא יִשְׁלַט׃ 5.8. אֱדַיִן עללין [עָלִּין] כֹּל חַכִּימֵי מַלְכָּא וְלָא־כָהֲלִין כְּתָבָא לְמִקְרֵא ופשרא [וּפִשְׁרֵהּ] לְהוֹדָעָה לְמַלְכָּא׃ 5.9. אֱדַיִן מַלְכָּא בֵלְשַׁאצַּר שַׂגִּיא מִתְבָּהַל וְזִיוֺהִי שָׁנַיִן עֲלוֹהִי וְרַבְרְבָנוֹהִי מִשְׁתַּבְּשִׁין׃ 5.11. אִיתַי גְּבַר בְּמַלְכוּתָךְ דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בֵּהּ וּבְיוֹמֵי אֲבוּךְ נַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת־אֱלָהִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ וּמַלְכָּא נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּךְ רַב חַרְטֻמִּין אָשְׁפִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין גָּזְרִין הֲקִימֵהּ אֲבוּךְ מַלְכָּא׃ 5.12. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי רוּחַ יַתִּירָה וּמַנְדַּע וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ מְפַשַּׁר חֶלְמִין וַאַחֲוָיַת אֲחִידָן וּמְשָׁרֵא קִטְרִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ בְּדָנִיֵּאל דִּי־מַלְכָּא שָׂם־שְׁמֵהּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר כְּעַן דָּנִיֵּאל יִתְקְרֵי וּפִשְׁרָה יְהַחֲוֵה׃ 5.13. בֵּאדַיִן דָּנִיֵּאל הֻעַל קֳדָם מַלְכָּא עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר לְדָנִיֵּאל אנתה־[אַנְתְּ־] הוּא דָנִיֵּאל דִּי־מִן־בְּנֵי גָלוּתָא דִּי יְהוּד דִּי הַיְתִי מַלְכָּא אַבִי מִן־יְהוּד׃ 5.14. וְשִׁמְעֵת עליך [עֲלָךְ] דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין בָּךְ וְנַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה יַתִּירָה הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בָּךְ׃ 5.15. וּכְעַן הֻעַלּוּ קָדָמַי חַכִּימַיָּא אָשְׁפַיָּא דִּי־כְתָבָה דְנָה יִקְרוֹן וּפִשְׁרֵהּ לְהוֹדָעֻתַנִי וְלָא־כָהֲלִין פְּשַׁר־מִלְּתָא לְהַחֲוָיָה׃ 5.16. וַאֲנָה שִׁמְעֵת עליך [עֲלָךְ] דִּי־תוכל [תִיכּוּל] פִּשְׁרִין לְמִפְשַׁר וְקִטְרִין לְמִשְׁרֵא כְּעַן הֵן תוכל [תִּכוּל] כְּתָבָא לְמִקְרֵא וּפִשְׁרֵהּ לְהוֹדָעֻתַנִי אַרְגְּוָנָא תִלְבַּשׁ והמונכא [וְהַמְנִיכָא] דִי־דַהֲבָא עַל־צַוְּארָךְ וְתַלְתָּא בְמַלְכוּתָא תִּשְׁלַט׃ 5.17. בֵּאדַיִן עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר קֳדָם מַלְכָּא מַתְּנָתָךְ לָךְ לֶהֶוְיָן וּנְבָזְבְּיָתָךְ לְאָחֳרָן הַב בְּרַם כְּתָבָא אֶקְרֵא לְמַלְכָּא וּפִשְׁרָא אֲהוֹדְעִנֵּהּ׃ 5.18. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] מַלְכוּתָא וּרְבוּתָא וִיקָרָא וְהַדְרָה יְהַב לִנְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּךְ׃ 5.19. וּמִן־רְבוּתָא דִּי יְהַב־לֵהּ כֹּל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא הֲווֹ זאעין [זָיְעִין] וְדָחֲלִין מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי דִּי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָא קָטֵל וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מַחֵא וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מָרִים וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מַשְׁפִּיל׃ 5.21. וּמִן־בְּנֵי אֲנָשָׁא טְרִיד וְלִבְבֵהּ עִם־חֵיוְתָא שוי [שַׁוִּיְו] וְעִם־עֲרָדַיָּא מְדוֹרֵהּ עִשְׂבָּא כְתוֹרִין יְטַעֲמוּנֵּהּ וּמִטַּל שְׁמַיָּא גִּשְׁמֵהּ יִצְטַבַּע עַד דִּי־יְדַע דִּי־שַׁלִּיט אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] בְּמַלְכוּת אֲנָשָׁא וּלְמַן־דִּי יִצְבֵּה יְהָקֵים עליה [עֲלַהּ׃] 5.22. ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] בְּרֵהּ בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר לָא הַשְׁפֵּלְתְּ לִבְבָךְ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי כָל־דְּנָה יְדַעְתָּ׃ 5.23. וְעַל מָרֵא־שְׁמַיָּא הִתְרוֹמַמְתָּ וּלְמָאנַיָּא דִי־בַיְתֵהּ הַיְתִיו קדמיך [קָדָמָךְ] ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] ורברבניך [וְרַבְרְבָנָךְ] שֵׁגְלָתָךְ וּלְחֵנָתָךְ חַמְרָא שָׁתַיִן בְּהוֹן וְלֵאלָהֵי כַסְפָּא־וְדַהֲבָא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא דִּי לָא־חָזַיִן וְלָא־שָׁמְעִין וְלָא יָדְעִין שַׁבַּחְתָּ וְלֵאלָהָא דִּי־נִשְׁמְתָךְ בִּידֵהּ וְכָל־אֹרְחָתָךְ לֵהּ לָא הַדַּרְתָּ׃ 5.24. בֵּאדַיִן מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי שְׁלִיַחַ פַּסָּא דִי־יְדָא וּכְתָבָא דְנָה רְשִׁים׃ 5.25. וּדְנָה כְתָבָא דִּי רְשִׁים מְנֵא מְנֵא תְּקֵל וּפַרְסִין׃ 5.26. דְּנָה פְּשַׁר־מִלְּתָא מְנֵא מְנָה־אֱלָהָא מַלְכוּתָךְ וְהַשְׁלְמַהּ׃ 5.27. תְּקֵל תְּקִילְתָּה בְמֹאזַנְיָא וְהִשְׁתְּכַחַתְּ חַסִּיר׃ 5.28. פְּרֵס פְּרִיסַת מַלְכוּתָךְ וִיהִיבַת לְמָדַי וּפָרָס׃ 5.29. בֵּאדַיִן אֲמַר בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר וְהַלְבִּישׁוּ לְדָנִיֵּאל אַרְגְּוָנָא והמונכא [וְהַמְנִיכָא] דִי־דַהֲבָא עַל־צַוְּארֵהּ וְהַכְרִזוּ עֲלוֹהִי דִּי־לֶהֱוֵא שַׁלִּיט תַּלְתָּא בְּמַלְכוּתָא׃ 9.21. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 9.22. וַיָּבֶן וַיְדַבֵּר עִמִּי וַיֹּאמַר דָּנִיֵּאל עַתָּה יָצָאתִי לְהַשְׂכִּילְךָ בִינָה׃ 9.23. בִּתְחִלַּת תַּחֲנוּנֶיךָ יָצָא דָבָר וַאֲנִי בָּאתִי לְהַגִּיד כִּי חֲמוּדוֹת אָתָּה וּבִין בַּדָּבָר וְהָבֵן בַּמַּרְאֶה׃ 9.24. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל־עַמְּךָ וְעַל־עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם [וּלְהָתֵם] חטאות [חַטָּאת] וּלְכַפֵּר עָוֺן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים׃ 9.25. וְתֵדַע וְתַשְׂכֵּל מִן־מֹצָא דָבָר לְהָשִׁיב וְלִבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַד־מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעָה וְשָׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם תָּשׁוּב וְנִבְנְתָה רְחוֹב וְחָרוּץ וּבְצוֹק הָעִתִּים׃ 9.26. וְאַחֲרֵי הַשָּׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם יִכָּרֵת מָשִׁיחַ וְאֵין לוֹ וְהָעִיר וְהַקֹּדֶשׁ יַשְׁחִית עַם נָגִיד הַבָּא וְקִצּוֹ בַשֶּׁטֶף וְעַד קֵץ מִלְחָמָה נֶחֱרֶצֶת שֹׁמֵמוֹת׃ 9.27. וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד־כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל־שֹׁמֵם׃ 10.16. וְהִנֵּה כִּדְמוּת בְּנֵי אָדָם נֹגֵעַ עַל־שְׂפָתָי וָאֶפְתַּח־פִּי וָאֲדַבְּרָה וָאֹמְרָה אֶל־הָעֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי אֲדֹנִי בַּמַּרְאָה נֶהֶפְכוּ צִירַי עָלַי וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.18. וַיֹּסֶף וַיִּגַּע־בִּי כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם וַיְחַזְּקֵנִי׃ 5.4. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone." 5.5. In the same hour came forth fingers of a man’s hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall of the king’s palace; and the king saw the palm of the hand that wrote." 5.6. Then the king’s countece was changed in him, and his thoughts affrighted him; and the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote one against another." 5.7. The king cried aloud to bring in the enchanters, the Chaldeans, and the astrologers. The king spoke and said to the wise men of Babylon: ‘Whosoever shall read this writing, and declare unto me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall rule as one of three in the kingdom.’" 5.8. Then came in all the king’s wise men: but they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation." 5.9. Then was king Belshazzar greatly affrighted, and his countece was changed in him, and his lords were perplexed." 5.10. Now the queen by reason of the words of the king and his lords came into the banquet house; the queen spoke and said: ‘O king, live for ever! let not thy thoughts affright thee, nor let thy countece be changed;" 5.11. there is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; and the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, I say, thy father, made him master of the magicians, enchanters, Chaldeans, and astrologers;" 5.12. forasmuch as a surpassing spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and declaring of riddles, and loosing of knots, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar. Now let Daniel be called, and he will declare the interpretation.’" 5.13. Then was Daniel brought in before the king. The king spoke and said unto Daniel: ‘Art thou Daniel, who is of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought out of Judah?" 5.14. I have heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and understanding and surpassing wisdom is found in thee." 5.15. And now the wise men, the enchanters, have been brought in before me, that they should read this writing, and make known unto me the interpretation thereof; but they could not declare the interpretation of the thing." 5.16. But I have heard of thee, that thou canst give interpretations, and loose knots; now if thou canst read the writing, and make known to me the interpretation thereof, thou shalt be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold about thy neck, and shalt rule as one of three in the kingdom.’" 5.17. Then Daniel answered and said before the king: ‘Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; nevertheless I will read the writing unto the king, and make known to him the interpretation." 5.18. O thou king, God Most High gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father the kingdom, and greatness, and glory, and majesty;" 5.19. and because of the greatness that He gave him, all the peoples, nations, and languages trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew, and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he raised up, and whom he would he put down." 5.20. But when his heart was lifted up, and his spirit was hardened that he dealt proudly, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and his glory was taken from him;" 5.21. and he was driven from the sons of men, and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses; he was fed with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; until he knew that God Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and that He setteth up over it whomsoever He will." 5.22. And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thy heart, though thou knewest all this;" 5.23. but hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before thee, and thou and thy lords, thy consorts and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified;" 5.24. then was the palm of the hand sent from before Him, and this writing was inscribed." 5.25. And this is the writing that was inscribed: MENE MENE, TEKEL UPHARSIN." 5.26. This is the interpretation of the thing: MENE, God hath numbered thy kingdom, and brought it to an end." 5.27. TEKEL, Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting." 5.28. PERES, thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.’" 5.29. Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with purple, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made proclamation concerning him, that he should rule as one of three in the kingdom." 9.20. And while I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;" 9.21. yea, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering." 9.22. And he made me to understand, and talked with me, and said: ‘O Daniel, I am now come forth to make thee skilful of understanding." 9.23. At the beginning of thy supplications a word went forth, and I am come to declare it; for thou art greatly beloved; therefore look into the word, and understand the vision." 9.24. Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place." 9.25. Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again, with broad place and moat, but in troublous times." 9.26. And after the threescore and two weeks shall an anointed one be cut off, and be no more; and the people of a prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood; and unto the end of the war desolations are determined." 9.27. And he shall make a firm covet with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.’" 10.10. And, behold, a hand touched me, which set me tottering upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands." 10.16. And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips; then I opened my mouth, and spoke and said unto him that stood before me: ‘O my lord, by reason of the vision my pains are come upon me, and I retain no strength." 10.18. Then there touched me again one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me."
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 107-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-133, 136, 14, 144, 147, 15-16, 163, 167-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 20, 200-207, 21, 217, 22-29, 3, 30-47, 62-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-81, 9, 90-93, 97-98, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. for, as the poet Homer, though the number of poets is beyond all calculation, is called "the poet" by way of distinction, and as the black [ink] with which we write is called "the black," though in point of fact everything which is not white is black; and as that archon at Athens is especially called "the archon," who is the archon eponymus and the chief of the nine archons, from whom the chronology is dated; so in the same manner the sacred historian calls him who indulges in hope, "a man," by way of pre-eminence, passing over in silence the rest of the multitude of human beings, as not being worthy to receive the same appellation.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-6, 61, 7-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

56. for we are of the race of picked men of Israel, that sees God, of whom not one has Disagreed;" that the instrument of the universe, the whole world, may be melodiously sounded in musical harmony.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 76, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. for as the sun, when he has arisen, hides the stars, pouring forth his own light altogether over our sight, so also when the beams of the light-giving God, unmingled as they are, and entirely pure, and visible at the greatest distance, shone upon the eye of the soul, being comprehensible only by the intellect, then the eye of the soul can see nothing else; for the knowledge of the living God having beamed upon it, out-dazzles everything else, so that even those things which are most brilliant by their own intrinsic light appear to be dark in comparison.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 63-64, 62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

62. Accordingly, Abraham, as long as he was abiding in the land of the Chaldaeans, that is to say, in opinion, before he received his new name, and while he was still called Abram, was a man born of heaven, investigating the sublime nature of things on high, and all that took place in these regions, and the causes of them, and studying everything of that kind in the true spirit of philosophy; on which account he received an appellation corresponding to the pursuits to which he devoted himself: for the name Abram, being interpreted, signifies the sublime father, and is a name very fitting for the paternal mind, which in every direction contemplates sublime and heavenly things: for the mind is the father of our composite being, reaching as high as the sky and even farther.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. There are three different modes by which we proceed towards the most excellent end, namely, instruction, nature, and practice. There are also three persons, the oldest of the wise men who in the account given to us by Moses derive three names from these modes, whose lives I have now discussed, having examined the man who arrived at excellence in consequence of instruction, and him who was self-taught, and him who attained to the proposed end by practice. Accordingly, proceeding in regular order, I will now describe the life of the man occupied in civil affairs. And again, Moses has given us one of the patriarchs as deriving his name from this kind of life, in which he had been immersed from his earliest youth.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 100-126, 197, 36-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And the Lord said to Abraham, "Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house to a land which I will show thee; and I will make thee into a great nation. And I will bless thee, and I will magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and I will curse them that curse thee; and in thy name shall all the nations of the earth be Blessed.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 10-16, 166-167, 17, 180, 2-6, 60-69, 7, 70-78, 8-9, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. Abraham was ninety and nine years old; and the Lord appeared unto Abraham, and said unto him, I am thy God." The number of nine, when added to the number ninety, is very near to a hundred; in which number the self-taught race shone forth, namely Isaac, the most excellent joy of all enjoyments; for he was born when his father was a hundred years old.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 69, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. But the great Moses, thinking that a thing which has not been uncreated is as alien as possible from that which is visible before our eyes (for everything which is the subject of our senses exists in birth and in changes, and is not always in the same condition), has attributed eternity to that which is invisible and discerned only by our intellect as a kinsman and a brother, while of that which is the object of our external senses he had predicated generation as an appropriate description. Since, then, this world is visible and the object of our external senses, it follows of necessity that it must have been created; on which account it was not without a wise purpose that he recorded its creation, giving a very venerable account of God. III.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 92 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

92. What, then, are the portions of his angels, and what is that share which is the inheritance of the ruler and governor of all? The portion of those ministers are the specific virtues; but the portion of the ruler of all its his chosen people Israel. For he who sees God, being led on by his most surpassing beauty, has his inheritance and portion assigned to him in that which he sees.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 38, 44, 58, 37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. What is it then that the gravest philosophers, who have talked in the most grandiloquent manner about divine law and the honour due to God, have determined both to say and to allow to be said, If ye have in ye a mind which is equal to God, which regulating by its own power all the good and bad things which exist among men, occasionally mingles both in certain persons, and sometimes distributes both good and bad to some in an unalloyed state;
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 69, 36 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. For, as it is impossible to see without light, since neither colours nor eyes are sufficient for the comprehension of things which we arrive at by means of sight (for nature has made light beforehand to serve as a link to connect the two, by which the eye is brought near and adapted to colour, for the powers of both eye and of colour are equally useless in darkness), so in the same manner is the eye of the soul unable to comprehend anything whatever of the actions in accordance with virtue, unless it takes to itself labour as a coadjutor, as the eye borrows the assistance of light; for this, being placed in the middle, between the intellect and the good object which the intellect desires, and understanding the whole nature of both the one and the other, does itself bring about friendship and harmony, two perfect goods between the two things on either hand of it. VII.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 17, 55-56, 8-9, 16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

40. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.165, 1.193-1.195 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.165. It is becoming then for you to act thus; but as for ye, O souls, who have once tasted of divine love, as if you had even awakened from deep sleep, dissipate the mist that is before you; and hasten forward to that beautiful spectacle, putting aside slow and hesitating fear, in order to comprehend all the beautiful sounds and sights which the president of the games has prepared for your advantage. XXVII. 1.193. When, however, he comes into an assembly of friends, he does not begin to speak before he has first accosted each individual among them, and addressed him by name, so that they prick up their ears, and are quiet and attentive, listening to the oracles thus delivered, so as never to forget them or let them escape their memory: since in another passage of scripture we read, "Be silent and Listen. 1.194. In this manner, too, Moses is called up to the bush. For, the scripture says, "When he saw that he was turning aside to see, God called him out of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses: and he said, What is it, Lord?" And Abraham also, on the occasion of offering up his beloved and only son as a burnt-offering, when he was beginning to sacrifice him, and when he had given proof of his piety, was forbidden to destroy the self-taught race, Isaac by name, from among men; 1.195. for at the beginning of his account of this transaction, Moses says that "God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Behold, here am I. And he said unto him, Take now thy beloved son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and offer him up." And when he had brought the victim to the altar, then the angel of the Lord called him out of heaven, saying, "Abraham, Abraham," and he answered, "Behold, here am I. And he said, Lay not thy hand upon the child, and do nothing to Him.
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.97, 2.162-2.167, 2.192, 3.1-3.6, 4.69, 4.112 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.97. There is also a third symbol contained in this sacred dress, which it is important not to pass over in silence. For the priests of other deities are accustomed to offer up prayers and sacrifices solely for their own relations, and friends, and fellow citizens. But the high priest of the Jews offers them up not only on behalf of the whole race of mankind, but also on behalf of the different parts of nature, of the earth, of water, of air, and of fire; and pours forth his prayers and thanksgivings for them all, looking upon the world (as indeed it really i 2.162. There is also a festival on the day of the paschal feast, which succeeds the first day, and this is named the sheaf, from what takes place on it; for the sheaf is brought to the altar as a first fruit both of the country which the nation has received for its own, and also of the whole land; so as to be an offering both for the nation separately, and also a common one for the whole race of mankind; and so that the people by it worship the living God, both for themselves and for all the rest of mankind, because they have received the fertile earth for their inheritance; for in the country there is no barren soil but even all those parts which appear to be stony and rugged are surrounded with soft veins of great depth, which, by reason of their richness, are very well suited for the production of living Things.{20}{sections 163û174 were omitted in Yonge's translation because the edition on which Yonge based his translation, Mangey, lacked this material. These lines have been newly translated for this volume.} 2.163. The reason is that a priest has the same relation to a city that the nation of the Jews has to the entire inhabited world. For it serves as a priest--to state the truth--through the use of all purificatory offerings and the guidance both for body and soul of divine laws which have checked the pleasures of the stomach and those under the stomach and [tamed] the mob [of the Senses]{21}{there is a clear problem with the text here, i.e., the noun ochlon lacks a verb.} by having appointed reason as charioteer over the irrational senses; they also have driven back and overturned the undiscriminating and excessive urges of the soul, some by rather gentle instructions and philosophical exhortations, others by rather weighty and forcible rebukes and by fear of punishment, the fear which they brandish threateningly. 2.164. Apart from the fact that the legislation is in a certain way teaching about the priesthood and that the one who lives by the laws is at once considered a priest, or rather a high priest, in the judgment of truth, the following point is also remarkable. The multitude of gods, both male and female, honored in individual cities happens to be undetermined and indefinite. The poetic clan and the great company of humans have spoken fabulously about them, people for whom the search for truth is impractical and beyond their capability of investigation. Yet all do not reverence and honor the same gods, but different people different gods. The reason is that they do not consider as gods those belonging to another land but make the acceptance of them the occasion for laughter and a joke. They charge those who honor them with great foolishness since they completely violate sound sense. 2.165. But if he is, whom all Greeks together with all barbarians acknowledge with one judgment, the highest Father of both gods and humans and the Maker of the entire cosmos, whose nature--although it is invisible and unfathomable not only to sight but also to perception--all who spend their time with mathematics and other philosophy long to discover, leaving aside none of the things which contribute to the discovery and service of him, then it was necessary for all people to cling to him and not as if through some mechanical device to introduce other gods into participation of equal honors. 2.166. Since they slipped in the most essential matter, the nation of the Jews--to speak most accurately--set aright the false step of others by having looked beyond everything which has come into existence through creation since it is generate and corruptible in nature, and chose only the service of the ungenerate and eternal. The first reason for this is because it is excellent; the second is because it is profitable to be dedicated and associated with the Older rather than those who are younger and with the Ruler rather than those who are ruled and with the Maker rather those things which come into existence. 2.167. For this reason it amazes me that some dare to charge the nation with an anti-social stance, a nation which has made such an extensive use of fellowship and goodwill toward all people everywhere that they offer up prayers and feasts and first fruits on behalf of the common race of human beings and serve the really self-existent God both on behalf of themselves and of others who have run from the services which they should have rendered. 2.192. On this account it is that the law has given this festival the name of a warlike instrument, in order to show the proper gratitude to God as the giver of peace, who has abolished all seditions in cities, and in all parts of the universe, and has produced plenty and prosperity, not allowing a single spark that could tend to the destruction of the crops to be kindled into flame.THE NINTH FESTIVALXXXII. 3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. 4.69. And what in life is there equally beautiful with truth, which the all-wise legislator erected in the most sacred place, in that part of the dress of the chief priest, where the domit part of the soul lies, wishing to adorn it with the most beautiful and glorious of all ornaments? And next to truth he has placed power as akin to it, which he has in this case called manifestation, being the two images of the two kinds of speech which exist in us, the secret speech and the lettered speech, for the lettered speech requires manifestation, by which the secret thoughts in all our hearts are made known to our neighbour, but the secret speech has need of truth for the perfection of life and actions, by means of which the road to happiness is found out.XII. 4.112. Now both these things are symbols; the former of a soul devoted to pleasure, and the latter of one which loves perseverance and temperance. For the road which leads to pleasure is a down-hill one and very easy, being rather an absorbing gulf than a path. But the path which leads to temperance is up hill and laborious, but above all other roads advantageous. And the one leads men downwards, and prevents those who travel by it from retracing their steps until they have arrived at the very lowest bottom, but the other leads to heaven; making those who do not weary before they reach it immortal, if they are only able to endure its rugged and difficult ascent.ABOUT Reptile
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

86. And these men run into such extravagances of wickedness, that if they have not money, they make usurious advances even of food, lending it on condition of receiving back again more than they lent. Accordingly, such men will speedily afford a contribution to those who ask for one, preparing famine and scarcity against a time of plenty and abundance, and making a revenue of the hunger of the bellies of miserable men, weighing out the food as it were in a scale, and taking care not to give overweight.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.149, 2.127-2.129, 2.224 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.149. For, as he had abandoned the chief authority in Egypt, which he might have had as the grandson of the reigning king, on account of the iniquities which were being perpetrated in that country, and by reason of his nobleness of soul and of the greatness of his spirit, and the natural detestation of wickedness, scorning and rejecting all the hopes which he might have conceived from those who had adopted him, it seemed good to the Ruler and Governor of the universe to recompense him with the sovereign authority over a more populous and more powerful nation, which he was about to take to himself out of all other nations and to consecrate to the priesthood, that it might for ever offer up prayers for the whole universal race of mankind, for the sake of averting evil from them and procuring them a participation in blessings. 2.127. And this logeum is described as double with great correctness; for reason is double, both in the universe and also in the nature of mankind, in the universe there is that reason which is conversant about incorporeal species which are like patterns as it were, from which that world which is perceptible only by the intellect was made, and also that which is concerned with the visible objects of sight, which are copies and imitations of those species above mentioned, of which the world which is perceptible by the outward senses was made. Again, in man there is one reason which is kept back, and another which finds vent in utterance: and the one is, as it were a spring, and the other (that which is uttered 2.128. And the architect assigned a quadrangular form to the logeum, intimating under an exceedingly beautiful figure, that both the reason of nature, and also that of man, ought to penetrate everywhere, and ought never to waver in any case; in reference to which, it is that he has also assigned to it the two virtues that have been already enumerated, manifestation and truth; for the reason of nature is true, and calculated to make manifest, and to explain everything; and the reason of the wise man, imitating that other reason, ought naturally, and appropriately to be completely sincere, honouring truth, and not obscuring anything through envy, the knowledge of which can benefit those to whom it would be explained; 2.129. not but what he has also assigned their two appropriate virtues to those two kinds of reason which exist in each of us, namely, that which is uttered and that which is kept concealed, attributing clearness of manifestation to the uttered one, and truth to that which is concealed in the mind; for it is suitable to the mind that it should admit of no error or falsehood, and to explanation that it should not hinder anything that can conduce to the most accurate manifestation. 2.224. Accordingly, in this month, about the fourteenth day of the month, when the orb of the moon is usually about to become full, the public universal feast of the passover is celebrated, which in the Chaldaic language is called pascha; at which festival not only do private individuals bring victims to the altar and the priests sacrifice them, but also, by a particular ordice of this law, the whole nation is consecrated and officiates in offering sacrifice; every separate individual on this occasion bringing forward and offering up with his own hands the sacrifice due on his own behalf.
44. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 90, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. And this nation of suppliants is in the Chaldaic language called Israel, but when the name is translated into the Greek language it is called, "the seeing nation;" which appellation appears to me to be the most honourable of all things in the world, whether private or public;
45. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.46, 3.171, 3.203-3.208 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.46. Moreover, the plantation of this paradise is represented in the east; for right reason never sets, and is never extinguished, but it is its nature to be always rising. And as I imagine, the rising sun fills the darkness of the air with light, so also does virtue when it has arisen in the soul, irradiate its mist and dissipate the dense darkness.
46. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 3.43, 3.53 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

47. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 78 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

78. The good man, then, alone sees; in reference to whom the ancients also called the prophets, seers. But he who advanced further outwards, not only seeing, but seeing God, was called Israel; the meaning of which name is, "seeing God." But others, even if they ever do open their eyes, still bend them down towards the earth, pursuing only earthly things, and being bred up among material objects;
48. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. But some say that the proper name of the man who found him wandering in the plain is not mentioned, and they themselves are in some degree mistaken here, because they are unable clearly to discover the true way of this business, for if they had not been mutilated as to the eye of the soul, they would have known that of one who is truly a man, the most proper, and appropriate, and felicitous name is this very name of man, being the most appropriate appelation of a well regulated and rational mind.
49. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 181, 130 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

130. but when it changes so as to assume one uniform white appearance, it displays an involuntary change; since the mind, entirely deprived of the power of reasoning, not having left in it one single seed to beget understanding, like a man in a mist or in deep darkness, sees nothing that ought to be done; but, like a blind man, falling without seeing his way before him into all kinds of error, endures continual falls and disasters one after another, in spite of all its efforts. XXVIII.
50. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 76 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

76. and this is the greatest limit of those numbers which increase from the unit, and also the most perfect: so that the limit is the beginning of numbers, and the end, in those calculations, according to the first combination, is the number ten thousand; in reference to which fact, some persons have not erred greatly, who have compared the limit to the starting-place, and the number ten thousand to the goal, and all the numbers between these two to those who contend in a race; for they, beginning to start from the unit, as from the starting place, come to the number ten thousand as to the goal.
51. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.5, 13.1, 14.1-14.2, 15.1, 15.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.5. if it shall be my care to communicate to you some portion of that which I received, it shall turn to my reward for having ministered to such spirits, I was eager to send you a trifle, that along with your faith ye might have your knowledge also perfect. 13.1. Now let us see whether this people or the first people hath the inheritance, and whether the covet had reference to us or to them. 14.1. Yea verily, but as regards the covet which He swear to the fathers to give it to the people let us see whether He hath actually given it. He hath given it, but they themselves were not found worthy to receive it by reason of their sins. 14.2. For the prophet saith; And Moses was fasting in Mount Sinai forty days and forty nights, that he might receive the covet of the Lord to give to the people. And [Moses] received from the Lord the two tables which were written by the finger of the hand of the Lord in the spirit. And Moses took them, and brought them down to give them to the people. 15.1. Moreover concerning the Sabbath likewise it is written in the Ten Words, in which He spake to Moses face to face on Mount Sinai; And ye shall hallow the Sabbath of the Lord with pure hands and with a pure heart. 15.4. Give heed, children, what this meaneth; He ended in six days. He meaneth this, that in six thousand years the Lord shall bring all things to an end; for the day with Him signifyeth a thousand years; and this He himself beareth me witness, saying; Behold, the day of the Lord shall be as a thousand years. Therefore, children, in six days, that is in six thousand years, everything shall come to an end.
52. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.163-1.164, 1.183, 1.185, 1.187, 1.333, 2.91 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.163. Now, as soon as he came into Egypt, it happened to Abram as he supposed it would; for the fame of his wife’s beauty was greatly talked of; for which reason Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, would not be satisfied with what was reported of her, but would needs see her himself, and was preparing to enjoy her; 1.164. but God put a stop to his unjust inclinations, by sending upon him a distemper, and a sedition against his government. And when he inquired of the priests how he might be freed from these calamities, they told him that this his miserable condition was derived from the wrath of God, upon account of his inclinations to abuse the stranger’s wife. 1.183. 3. And God commended his virtue, and said, Thou shalt not however lose the rewards thou hast deserved to receive by such thy glorious actions. He answered, And what advantage will it be to me to have such rewards, when I have none to enjoy them after me?—for he was hitherto childless. And God promised that he should have a son, and that his posterity should be very numerous; insomuch that their number should be like the stars. 1.185. After which, before he built his altar, where the birds of prey flew about, as desirous of blood, a divine voice came to him, declaring that their neighbors would be grievous to his posterity, when they should be in Egypt, for four hundred years; during which time they should be afflicted, but afterwards should overcome their enemies, should conquer the Canaanites in war, and possess themselves of their land, and of their cities. 1.187. and God required of him to be of good courage, and said that he would add to all the rest of the benefits that he had bestowed upon him, ever since he led him out of Mesopotamia, the gift of children. Accordingly Sarai, at God’s command, brought to his bed one of her handmaidens, a woman of Egyptian descent, in order to obtain children by her; 1.333. He also commanded him to be called Israel, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that struggled with the divine angel. These promises were made at the prayer of Jacob; for when he perceived him to be the angel of God, he desired he would signify to him what should befall him hereafter. And when the angel had said what is before related, he disappeared; 2.91. 1. Joseph was now grown up to thirty years of age, and enjoyed great honors from the king, who called him Psothom Phanech, out of regard to his prodigious degree of wisdom; for that name denotes the revealer of secrets. He also married a wife of very high quality; for he married the daughter of Petephres, one of the priests of Heliopolis; she was a virgin, and her name was Asenath.
53. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.163 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment.
54. Mishnah, Avot, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty."
55. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. These bring [bikkurim] but do not read the declaration:The convert, since he cannot say: “Which the Lord has sworn to our fathers, to give to us” (Deuteronomy 26:3). If his mother was an Israelite, then he brings bikkurim and recites. When he prays privately, he says: “God of the fathers of Israel,” but when he is in the synagogue, he should say: “The God of your fathers.” But if his mother was an Israelite, he says: “The God of our fathers’."
56. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.14. Rabbi Judah said: an unmarried man must not tend cattle, nor may two unmarried men sleep together under the same cover. But the sages permit it. One whose business is with women must not be alone with women. And one should not teach his son a woman’s trade. Rabbi Meir says: one should always teach his son a clean and easy profession, and pray to Him to whom wealth and property belong. For a profession does not contain [the potential for] poverty and wealth, for poverty is not due to one’s profession nor is wealth due to the profession, but all depends on merit. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: have you ever seen a wild beast or a bird with a profession? Yet they are sustained without trouble. Now, were they not were created only to serve me, while I was created to serve my master: surely then I should make a living without trouble! But my evil acts have done me in and withheld my livelihood. Abba Gurion a man of Sidon says in the name of Abba Guria: one should not teach his son [to be] a donkey-driver, camel-driver, wagon-driver, sailor, shepherd, or shopkeeper, because their profession is the profession of robbers. Rabbi Judah says in his name: most donkey-drivers are wicked, while most camel-drivers are worthy men; and most sailors are pious. The best of doctors are destined for Gehenna, and the worthiest of butchers is Amalek’s partner. Rabbi Nehorai says: I will abandon every profession in the world and I will not teach my son anything but Torah, for a person enjoys its reward in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come. But all other professions are not so; for when a man comes to sickness or old age or suffering and cannot engage in his profession, he must die of starvation, whereas the Torah is not so, for it guards him from all evil in his youth and gives him a future and hope in his old age. of his youth what is said? “But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). of his old age what is said? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15). And it is also said of our father Abraham, “And Abraham was old … And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1). We find that Abraham our father observed the whole Torah before it was given, for it is said, “Because Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5)."
57. Mishnah, Nedarim, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. He may donate his terumah and his tithes with his consent. He may offer up for him the bird sacrifices of zavim and zavoth and the bird sacrifices of women after childbirth, sin-offerings and guilt-offerings. He may teach him midrash, halakhoth and aggadoth, but not Scripture, yet he may teach his sons and daughters Scripture And he may support his wife and children, even though he is liable for their maintece. But he may not feed his beasts, whether clean or unclean. Rabbi Eliezer says: he may feed an unclean beast of his, but not a clean one. They said to him: what is the difference between an unclean and a clean beast? He replied to them, a clean beast, its life belongs to heaven, but its body is his own; but an unclean animal its body and life belongs to heaven. They said to him: The life of an unclean beast too belongs to heaven and the body is his own for if he wishes, he can sell it to a non-Jew or feed dogs with it."
58. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.8-1.9, 2.9, 3.13-3.15, 4.13-4.14, 4.17, 4.21, 6.19, 7.15, 8.3, 14.1, 15.58, 16.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. who will also confirm you until the end, blameless in the day of ourLord Jesus Christ. 1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 3.13. each man's work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it,because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sortof work each man's work is. 3.14. If any man's work remains which hebuilt on it, he will receive a reward. 3.15. If any man's work isburned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but asthrough fire. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 4.14. I don'twrite these things to shame you, but to admonish you as my belovedchildren. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 14.1. Follow after love, and earnestly desire spiritual gifts, butespecially that you may prophesy. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord. 16.24. My love to all of you in Christ Jesus. Amen.
59. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.3-1.4, 2.8, 4.9, 5.8, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 2.8. Even so, affectionately longing for you, we were well pleased to impart to you, not the gospel of God only, but also our own souls, because you had become very dear to us. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 5.8. But let us, since we belong to the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and, for a helmet, the hope of salvation. 5.13. and to respect and honor them in love for their work's sake. Be at peace among yourselves.
60. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.4, 2.8, 3.5-3.16, 4.10, 5.17, 6.6, 7.1, 8.7-8.8, 12.15, 12.19, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

61. New Testament, Acts, 7.48, 10.28, 17.24, 23.8, 26.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.48. However, the Most High doesn't dwell in temples made with hands, as the prophet says 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 26.19. Therefore, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision
62. New Testament, James, 2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God.
63. New Testament, Philemon, 5, 7, 9, 16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

64. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11-2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead.
65. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.3, 2.5, 2.11-2.22, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.11. Therefore remember that once you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called "uncircumcision" by that which is called "circumcision," (in the flesh, made by hands); 2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 2.19. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God 2.20. being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; 2.21. in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 2.22. in whom you also are built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit. 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel
66. New Testament, Galatians, 2.15-2.20, 3.6, 3.15-3.18, 4.22-4.31, 5.13-5.14, 5.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.17. But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselvesalso were found sinners, is Christ a servant of sin? Certainly not! 2.18. For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I provemyself a law-breaker. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness
67. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.1-7.5, 8.6-8.13, 9.1, 9.11, 9.13, 9.15, 9.19-9.21, 9.24, 10.16-10.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him 7.2. to whom also Abraham divided a tenth part of all (being first, by interpretation, king of righteousness, and then also king of Salem, which is king of peace; 7.3. without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God), remains a priest continually. 7.4. Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Abraham, the patriarch, gave a tenth out of the best spoils. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 8.6. But now he has obtained a more excellent ministry, by so much as he is also the mediator of a better covet, which has been enacted on better promises. 8.7. For if that first covet had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second. 8.8. For finding fault with them, he said, "Behold, the days come," says the Lord,"That I will make a new covet with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; 8.9. Not according to the covet that I made with their fathers, In the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; For they didn't continue in my covet, And I disregarded them," says the Lord. 8.10. For this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel . After those days," says the Lord; "I will put my laws into their mind, I will also write them on their heart. I will be to them a God, And they will be to me a people. 8.11. They will not teach every man his fellow citizen, Every man his brother, saying, 'Know the Lord,' For all will know me, From the least of them to the greatest of them. 8.12. For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness. I will remember their sins and lawless deeds no more. 8.13. In that he says, "A new covet," he has made the first old. But that which is becoming old and grows aged is near to vanishing away. 9.1. Now indeed even the first covet had ordices of divine service, and an earthly sanctuary. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation 9.13. For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify to the cleanness of the flesh: 9.15. For this reason he is the mediator of a new covet, since a death has occurred for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covet, that those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. 9.19. For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people 9.20. saying, "This is the blood of the covet which God has commanded you. 9.21. Moreover he sprinkled the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry in like manner with the blood. 9.24. For Christ hasn't entered into holy places made with hands, which are representations of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; 10.16. This is the covet that I will make with them: 'After those days,' says the Lord, 'I will put my laws on their heart, I will also write them on their mind;'"then he says 10.17. I will remember their sins and their iniquities no more.
68. New Testament, Philippians, 1.6, 1.16, 2.12, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. being confident of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ. 1.16. The former insincerly preach Christ from selfish ambition, thinking that they add affliction to my chains; 2.12. So then, my beloved, even as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
69. New Testament, Romans, 2.5, 2.10, 2.12-2.13, 2.21-2.25, 2.27, 2.29, 3.17, 3.20-3.21, 3.29-3.30, 4.3-4.5, 4.9-4.11, 4.13-4.24, 5.20, 6.2, 7.10, 8.1-8.4, 8.6-8.8, 8.13, 9.4, 9.6-9.8, 9.13, 10.5-10.13, 11.1-11.2, 11.4, 11.11, 11.28-11.30, 12.9, 12.19, 13.8-13.10, 14.15, 14.19, 15.33, 16.5, 16.8-16.9, 16.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. But according to your hardness and unrepentant heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God; 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.12. For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without the law. As many as have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. 2.13. For it isn't the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.17. The way of peace, they haven't known. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 4.3. For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. 4.4. Now to him who works, the reward is not accounted as of grace, but as of debt. 4.5. But to him who doesn't work, but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.10. How then was it counted? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. 4.11. He received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while he was in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they be in uncircumcision, that righteousness might also be accounted to them. 4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4.14. For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of no effect. 4.15. For the law works wrath, for where there is no law, neither is there disobedience. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 4.17. As it is written, "I have made you a father of many nations." This is in the presence of him whom he believed: God, who gives life to the dead, and calls the things that are not, as though they were. 4.18. Who in hope believed against hope, to the end that he might become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, "So will your seed be. 4.19. Without being weakened in faith, he didn't consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb. 4.20. Yet, looking to the promise of God, he didn't waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to God 4.21. and being fully assured that what he had promised, he was able also to perform. 4.22. Therefore it also was "reckoned to him for righteousness. 4.23. Now it was not written that it was accounted to him for his sake alone 4.24. but for our sake also, to whom it will be accounted, who believe in him who raised Jesus, our Lord, from the dead 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 8.1. There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.2. God didn't reject his people, which he foreknew. Or don't you know what the Scripture says about Elijah? How he pleads with God against Israel: 11.4. But how does God answer him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal. 11.11. I ask then, did they stumble that they might fall? May it never be! But by their fall salvation has come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.30. For as you in time past were disobedient to God, but now have obtained mercy by their disobedience 12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.19. So then, let us follow after things which make for peace, and things by which we may build one another up. 15.33. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord.
70. New Testament, John, 5.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.24. Most assuredly I tell you, he who hears my word, and believes him who sent me, has eternal life, and doesn't come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.
71. New Testament, Luke, 1.55, 1.72-1.75 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.55. As he spoke to our fathers, To Abraham and his seed forever. 1.72. To show mercy towards our fathers, To remember his holy covet 1.73. The oath which he spoke to Abraham, our father 1.74. To grant to us that we, being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, should serve him without fear 1.75. In holiness and righteousness before him all the days of our life.
72. New Testament, Mark, 14.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.'
73. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”"
74. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

75. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. חייב בשמחה ואת שאינו לא שומע ולא מדבר ושוטה וקטן פטורין אף מן השמחה הואיל ופטורין מכל מצות האמורות בתורה מאי שנא לענין ראיה דפטירי ומאי שנא לענין שמחה דמחייבי,לענין ראיה גמר ראיה ראיה מהקהל דכתיב (דברים לא, יב) הקהל את העם האנשים והנשים והטף וכתיב (דברים לא, יא) בבא כל ישראל לראות,והתם מנלן דכתיב (דברים לא, יב) למען ישמעו ולמען ילמדו ותניא למען ישמעו פרט למדבר ואינו שומע ולמען ילמדו פרט לשומע ואינו מדבר,למימרא דכי לא משתעי לא גמר והא הנהו תרי אילמי דהוו בשבבותיה דרבי בני ברתיה דרבי יוחנן בן גודגדא ואמרי לה בני אחתיה דרבי יוחנן דכל אימת דהוה עייל רבי לבי מדרשא הוו עיילי ויתבי קמייהו ומניידי ברישייהו ומרחשין שפוותייהו,ובעי רבי רחמי עלייהו ואיתסו ואשתכח דהוו גמירי הלכתא וספרא וספרי וכולה הש"ס,אמר מר זוטרא קרי ביה למען ילמדו רב אשי אמר ודאי למען ילמדו הוא דאי סלקא דעתך למען ילמדו וכיון דלא משתעי לא גמר וכיון דלא שמע לא גמר,האי מלמען ישמעו נפקא אלא ודאי למען ילמדו הוא,אמר ר' תנחום חרש באזנו אחת פטור מן הראיה שנאמר (דברים לא, יא) באזניהם,והאי באזניהם מבעי ליה באזניהם דכולהו ישראל ההוא מנגד כל ישראל נפקא אי מנגד כל ישראל הוה אמינא אע"ג דלא שמעי כתב רחמנא באזניהם והוא דשמעי,ההוא מלמען ישמעו נפקא,אמר רבי תנחום חיגר ברגלו אחת פטור מן הראיה שנאמר רגלים,והא רגלים מבעי ליה פרט לבעלי קבין ההוא מפעמים נפקא דתניא פעמים אין פעמים אלא רגלים וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו כו, ו) תרמסנה רגל רגלי עני פעמי דלים ואומר (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב כמה נאין רגליהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנאמר (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,אמר רב כהנא דרש רב נתן בר מניומי משום ר' תנחום מאי דכתיב (בראשית לז, כד) והבור רק אין בו מים משמע שנאמר והבור רק איני יודע שאין בו מים אלא מים אין בו אבל נחשים ועקרבים יש בו,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יוחנן בן ברוקה ורבי אלעזר (בן) חסמא שהלכו להקביל פני ר' יהושע בפקיעין אמר להם מה חידוש היה בבית המדרש היום אמרו לו תלמידיך אנו ומימיך אנו שותין אמר להם אף על פי כן אי אפשר לבית המדרש בלא חידוש,שבת של מי היתה שבת של ר' אלעזר בן עזריה היתה ובמה היתה הגדה היום אמרו לו בפרשת הקהל ומה דרש בה,(דברים לא, יב) הקהל את העם האנשים והנשים והטף אם אנשים באים ללמוד נשים באות לשמוע טף למה באין כדי ליתן שכר למביאיהן אמר להם מרגלית טובה היתה בידכם ובקשתם לאבדה ממני,ועוד דרש (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת היום וה' האמירך היום,אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם דכתיב (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם שנאמר 3a. they are bobligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor areall bexempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah.The Gemara asks: bWhat is different with regard tothe mitzva of bappearance, thata deaf person and a mute bare exemptfrom this mitzva? bAnd what is different with regard tothe mitzva of brejoicing, that they are obligated? /b,The Gemara explains: bWith regard totheir exemption from the obligation of bappearance,the itanna bderivesthis ihalakhaby means of a verbal analogy between the term bappearancestated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term bappearancestated with regard to the mitzva bof assembly,i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on iSukkotin the year following the Sabbatical Year. bAs it is written,with regard to the mitzva of assembly: b“Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones”(Deuteronomy 31:12), band it is writtenin that context: b“When all of Israel come to appear”(Deuteronomy 31:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.,The Gemara asks: bAnd there,with regard to the mitzva of assembly, bfrom where do wederive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? bAs it is writtenthere: b“That they may hear, and that they may learn”(Deuteronomy 31:12), band it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the phrase b“that they may hear” excludes one who speaks but does not hear;and the phrase b“and that they may learn” excludes one who hears but does not speak,as he is unable to learn.,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that one whois bnotable to bspeakis bnotable to blearn? Butconsider the following incident. There were btwo mute people who were in the neighborhood of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. They were the bsons of the daughter of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda, and some saythat they were the bsons of the sister of Rabbi Yoḥaben Gudgeda. bWhenever RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould enter the study hall they wouldalso benter and sit beforethe Sages, band they would nod their headsas if they understood band move their lips. /b, bAnd RabbiYehuda HaNasi bprayed forGod to have bmercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learnedand were proficient in ihalakha /i,i.e., Mishna; iSifra /i,the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; iSifrei /i,the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; band the entire Talmud.This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn., bMar Zutra saidthat one should bread intothe verse: bThat they may teach [ iyelamdu /i],instead of: “That they may learn [ iyilmedu /i]” (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. bRav Ashi saidthat the verse bis certainlyto be read: bThat they may teach. As, if it enters your mindthat one should read: b“That they may learn,”as it is written, bandyou will explain that bsince he is notable to bspeak heis bnotable to blearn,and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that bsince he is notable to bhear he is notable to blearn,you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: “That they may hear,” not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.,However, this is incorrect, for if so, bthisexemption of a mute could also be bderived from: “That they may hear,”as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. bRather,the verse bis certainlyto be read as: b“That they may teach,”which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others., bRabbi Tanḥum said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt fromthe mitzva of bappearancein the Temple, bas it is statedwith regard to the mitzva of assembly: “When all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel bin their ears”(Deuteronomy 31:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this ihalakhaapplies to the mitzva of appearance as well.,The Gemara asks: bBut thisphrase: b“In their ears,” is necessaryto teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter bthe ears of the entire Jewish people.Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the ihalakhaconcerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: bThat ihalakha /i, that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, bis derived fromthe phrase: b“Before all Israel”(Deuteronomy 31:11). The Gemara asks: bIfthat ihalakhawere derived bfrom: “Before all Israel,” I would saythat the mitzva applies beven though they cannot hear;therefore, bthe Merciful One writes: “In their ears,” and thatindicates that btheymust be able to bhear.If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the ihalakhaof someone who is deaf in one ear.,The Gemara answers: bThat ihalakha /i, that the people must hear, bis derived from: “That they may hear”(Deuteronomy 31:12). Therefore, the phrase: “In their ears,” is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well., bRabbi Tanḥum said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt fromthe mitzva of bappearance, as it is stated:“Three btimes [ iregalim /i]shall you keep a feast for Me in the year” (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is iraglayim /i, it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of one’s legs.,The Gemara asks: bButthe term b“ iregalim /i” is necessaryto bexclude people with artificial legs.Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: bThat ihalakhais bderived from:“Three boccasions [ ipe’amim /i]in the year all your males will appear before the Lord God” (Exodus 23:17). The term ipe’amimcan also mean legs, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the term b“ ipe’amim /i”: iPe’amimmeans nothing otherthan blegs. And so it says: “The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps [ ipa’amei /i] of the needy”(Isaiah 26:6), band it says: “How beautiful are your feet [ ife’amayikh /i] in sandals, daughter of the prince”(Song of Songs 7:2).,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bRava taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “How beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince [ inadiv /i]”? How pleasant are the feet [ iraglehen /i] of the Jewish people when they ascend toJerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival [ iregel /i]. “Daughter of the prince”:this is referring to bthe daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham”(Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only b“the God of Abraham,” and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather,the verse mentions b“the God of Abraham,” ashe bwas the first of the converts.Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called “the princes of the peoples.”,The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tanḥum. bRav Kahana saidthat bRabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tanḥum: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenwith regard to Joseph: “And they took him, and cast him into the pit; band the pit was empty, there was no water in it”(Genesis 37:24). bBy inference from that which is stated: “And the pit was empty,” don’t I know that there was no water in it? Rather,this teaches that bthere was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥisma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Peki’in.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: What novelidea bwastaught btoday in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drinkfrom byour water,i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? bHe said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty. /b,He asked them: bWhose week was it,i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: bIt was Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s week.He inquired: bAnd on whatsubject bwas the lecture today? They said to him:He spoke babout the portion ofthe mitzva of bassembly.Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: bAnd whatverse bdid he interpret homiletically with regard tothis mitzva?,They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: b“Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones”(Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: bIf men come to learn,and bwomen,who might not understand, bcomeat least bto hear, why do the little ones come?They come bin orderfor God to bgive a reward to those who bring them,i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them:This bgood pearlof wisdom bwas in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me? /b,Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥisma said to him: bAdditionally,Rabbi Elazar binterpretedthe following verses bhomiletically: “You have affirmed, this day,that bthe Lordis your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordices, and listen to His voice. bAnd the Lord has affirmed you, this day,to be His treasure, as He promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvot” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18).,Rabbi Elazar explained: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entity in the world,as you singled Me out as separate and unique. bAndtherefore bI will make you a single entity in the world,as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. bYou have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). bAndtherefore bI will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated: /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19a. מאימתי מחייבין עליהן משיראו פני הבית כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר בכורים מקצתן בחוץ ומקצתן בפנים שבחוץ הרי הן כחולין לכל דבריהם שבפנים הרי הן כהקדש לכל דבריהם,אמר רב ששת בכורים הנחה מעכבת בהן קרייה אין מעכבת בהן,כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר שלשה דברים משום שלשה זקנים רבי ישמעאל אומר יכול יעלה אדם מעשר שני בזמן הזה בירושלים ויאכלנו ודין הוא בכור טעון הבאת מקום ומעשר שני טעון הבאת מקום מה בכור אינו אלא בפני הבית אף מעשר אינו אלא בפני הבית,מה לבכור שכן טעון מתן דמים ואימורין לגבי מזבח בכורים יוכיחו מה לבכורים שכן טעונים הנחה,ת"ל (דברים טז, ז) ואכלת [שם] לפני ה' אלהיך וגו' מקיש מעשר לבכור מה בכור אינו אלא לפני הבית אף מעשר אינו אלא לפני הבית ואם איתא ליפרוך מה לבכורים שכן טעונין קרייה והנחה,א"ר אשי נהי דעיכובא ליכא מצוה מי ליכא ולימא מצוה וליפרוך אלא אמר רב אשי כיון דאיכא בכורי הגר דבעי למימר (דברים כו, ג) אשר נשבע [ה'] לאבותינו ולא מצי אמר לא פסיקא ליה,וליהדר דינא ותיתי במה הצד משום דאיכא למיפרך מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בהן צד מזבח,ומאי קסבר אי קסבר קדושה ראשונה קדשה לשעתה וקדשה לעתיד לבא אפי' בכור נמי אי קסבר קדושה ראשונה קדשה לשעתה ולא קדשה לעתיד לבא אפילו בכור נמי תבעי,אמר רבינא לעולם קסבר קדשה לשעתה ולא קדשה לעתיד לבא והכא בבכור שנזרק דמו קודם חורבן הבית וחרב הבית ועדיין בשרו קיים ומקשינן בשרו לדמו מה דמו במזבח אף בשרו במזבח ומקיש מעשר לבכור,וכי דבר הלמד בהקש חוזר ומלמד בהקש מעשר דגן חולין הוא 19a. bfrom when isa non-priest who eats first fruits bliableto receive death at the hand of Heaven bfor theirconsumption? One is liable bfrom whenthe fruits bwill enter inside the Temple.The Gemara notes: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this ihalakhastated? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthis itanna /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to bfirst fruits, some of whichare boutside and some of whichare binsidethe Temple, the halakhic status of those bthat are outsidethe Temple is blikethat of bnon-sacredproduce bfor all matters concerning them,and the halakhic status of those bthat are insidethe Temple is blikethat of bconsecratedproduce bfor all matters concerning them. /b,§ bRav Sheshet says:With regard to bfirst fruits,the lack of bplacementalongside the altar binvalidates them;while the lack of brecitationof the accompanying Torah verses bdoes not invalidate them. /b,The Gemara notes: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this ihalakhastated? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthis itanna /i,Rabbi Yishmael, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says three statements in the name of three elders,and one of those statements is that which bRabbi Yishmael says:One bmighthave thought that ba person would bring second-titheproduce bup to Jerusalem in the present,after the destruction of the Temple, band eat it. Andostensibly, bitcould be derived by means of ba logical inferencethat one may not do so: bA firstbornoffering brequires bringingit btothe bplace,to Jerusalem, and eating it there, bandsecond b-titheproduce brequires bringingit btothe bplace; just asthe bfirstbornoffering may be eaten there bonly in the presence of the Temple, so too,second b-titheproduce may be eaten there bonly in the presence of the Temple. /b,Rabbi Yishmael continues and counters: bWhatis notable babout a firstborn?Bringing the firstborn to Jerusalem is required only in the presence of the Temple, because it is notable in bthat it requires placement ofits bblood andits bsacrificial portions upon the altar;will you say the same with regard to second-tithe produce, which requires only that it be consumed in Jerusalem? He then suggests: bFirst fruits will provethat placement of blood upon the altar is not a factor, as they do not require placement of blood upon the altar, and yet they are brought to Jerusalem only in the presence of the Temple. Rabbi Yishmael counters: bWhatis notable babout first fruits?They are notable bin that they require placementalongside the altar. Perhaps, since second-tithe produce does not require placement at all, even in the present one must bring it to Jerusalem and eat it there.,Rabbi Yishmael concludes: Therefore, bthe verse states: “And you shall eat before the Lord your God… /bthe tithe of your grain…and the firstborn of your herd and your flock” (Deuteronomy 14:23); the Torah bjuxtaposessecond- btitheproduce btothe bfirstborn. Just asthe bfirstbornmay be eaten there bonly in the presence of the Temple, so too,second b-titheproduce may be eaten there bonly in the presence of the Temple.The Gemara explains: the proof of Rav Sheshet’s opinion from the ibaraitais: bAnd if it is sothat the lack of recitation of the Torah verses invalidates the ritual of first fruits, bletthe ibaraita brefutethe derivation by saying: bWhatis notable babout first fruits?They are notable bin that they require recitationof the Torah verses band placementalongside the altar., bRav Ashi said:There is no proof from the fact that recitation is not mentioned. bAlthoughthe lack of recitation bdoes not invalidatethe first fruits, bis there no mitzva?Everyone agrees that there is a mitzva to recite the Torah verses. bAndtherefore bletthe itanna bsaythat there is ba mitzvato recite the portion; band refutethe proof from first fruits in that manner, as in the case of second tithe there is no mitzva to recite Torah verses. bRather, Rav Ashi saidthat there is a different reason that recitation was omitted from the refutation: It is bthat there isthe case of bthe first fruits of a convert, who needs to recite:“I have come to the land bthat the Lord swore unto our fathers”(Deuteronomy 26:3), bandsince bhe cannot sayit, as the Lord did not swear to give the land to the ancestors of the convert, he brings the first fruits but does not read the portion. Therefore, the obligation to recite the Torah verses bis not clear-cut forthe itannaand he did not mention it.,The Gemara asks: Why was it necessary for the itannato derive that second-tithe produce is not brought to Jerusalem at present from the juxtaposition in the verse? bAnd let the derivation revertto its starting point, band derivethe ihalakha bthroughan analogy derived from bthe common factorof first fruits and the firstborn. Each of the sources neutralizes the significance of the notable factor in the other, leaving the common factor: One must bring them to Jerusalem. From there it may be derived that second-tithe produce, which one must also bring to Jerusalem, need not be brought there when the Temple is not standing. The Gemara answers: The juxtaposition is necessary bdue tothe fact bthatthis analogy bcan be refuted: Whatis notable babout the common factorthat is true bofboth first fruits and the firstborn? It is notable bin that they have an aspectinvolving the baltar,which is not so in the case of second tithe.,The Gemara asks: bAnd whatopinion bdoesRabbi Yishmael bholdthat led to his initial assumption that one is obligated to bring a firstborn animal to Jerusalem only when the Temple is standing? bIfhe bmaintainsin general that bthe initial consecrationof the Temple bsanctifiedJerusalem bfor its time and sanctifiedJerusalem bforever,and the location of the Temple remains sacred even after the Temple was destroyed, then one should balsobe obligated to bring ba firstbornanimal to the place of the Temple and sacrifice it on an altar and eat it. bIf he maintainsthat bthe initial consecrationof the Temple bsanctifiedJerusalem bfor its time but did not sanctifyJerusalem bforever,then he should braise a dilemma evenwith regard to ba firstborn,whether it may be eaten in Jerusalem., bRavina said: Actually,Rabbi Yishmael bmaintainsthat the initial consecration of the Temple bsanctifiedJerusalem bfor its time but did not sanctifyJerusalem bforever; andwhy is it obvious to him that the firstborn is not eaten? It is because bhere,he is stating the ihalakha bwith regard tothe case of ba firstborn whose blood was sprinkled before the destruction of the Temple, and the Temple wasthen bdestroyed, and its flesh is still intact. Andbased on a juxtaposition: “You shall sprinkle their blood upon the altar…and their flesh shall be for you” (Numbers 18:17–18), bwe comparethe status of bits flesh tothe status of bits blood; just as its bloodmust be sprinkled bata time when the baltaris standing, bso too its fleshmay be eaten only bata time when bthe altaris standing. bAnd he comparesthe status of second- btitheproduce btothe status of ba firstbornoffering, and derives that one may partake of second-tithe produce in Jerusalem only when the Temple is standing.,The Gemara asks: bAnd does a matter derived via juxtaposition then teachanother matter bvia juxtaposition?The principle with regard to the ihalakhotof consecrated matters is that a ihalakhaderived via one of the hermeneutical principles cannot serve as the basis for derivation of another ihalakha /i; each ihalakharequires its own source. The Gemara answers: Second btithe of grain is non-sacredproduce, and ihalakhotof non-sacred matters derived via hermeneutical principles may serve as the basis for deriving other ihalakhotusing hermeneutical principles.
77. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49b. כשם שניסוכו בקדושה כך שריפתו בקדושה מאי משמע אמר רבינא אתיא קדש קדש כתיב הכא (במדבר כח, ז) בקדש הסך נסך וכתיב התם (שמות כט, לד) ושרפת את הנותר באש לא יאכל כי קדש הוא,כמאן אזלא הא (דתניא) נסכים בתחילה מועלין בהן ירדו לשיתין אין מועלין בהן לימא רבי אלעזר בר צדוק היא דאי רבנן הא נחתו להו לתהום,אפילו תימא רבנן בדאיקלט,ואיכא דאמרי לימא רבנן היא ולא ר' אלעזר בר צדוק דאי רבי אלעזר אכתי בקדושתייהו קיימי אפילו תימא רבי אלעזר אין לך דבר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בו אמר ריש לקיש בזמן שמנסכין יין על גבי מזבח פוקקין את השיתין לקיים מה שנאמר בקדש הסך נסך שכר לה',מאי משמע אמר רב פפא שכר לשון שתיה לשון שביעה לשון שכרות אמר רב פפא שמע מינה כי שבע איניש חמרא מגרוניה שבע אמר רבא צורבא מרבנן דלא נפישא ליה חמרא ליגמע גמועי רבא אכסא דברכתא אגמע גמועי,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב מה יפו פעמותיהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנא' (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך למה נמשלו דברי תורה כירך לומר לך מה ירך בסתר אף דברי תורה בסתר,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (מיכה ו, ח) הגיד לך אדם מה טוב ומה ה' דורש ממך כי אם עשות משפט ואהבת חסד והצנע לכת עם אלהיך עשות משפט זה הדין ואהבת חסד זו גמילות חסדים והצנע לכת עם אלהיך זו הוצאת המת והכנסת כלה לחופה והלא דברים ק"ו ומה דברים שדרכן לעשותן בפרהסיא אמרה תורה הצנע לכת דברים שדרכן לעשותן בצנעא על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ר אלעזר גדול העושה צדקה יותר מכל הקרבנות שנאמר (משלי כא, ג) עשה צדקה ומשפט נבחר לה' מזבח וא"ר אלעזר גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה שנאמר (הושע י, יב) זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד אם אדם זורע ספק אוכל ספק אינו אוכל אדם קוצר ודאי אוכל,וא"ר אלעזר אין צדקה משתלמת אלא לפי חסד שבה שנאמר זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד,ת"ר בשלשה דברים גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה צדקה בממונו גמילות חסדים בין בגופו בין בממונו צדקה לעניים גמילות חסדים בין לעניים בין לעשירים צדקה לחיים גמילות חסדים בין לחיים בין למתים,וא"ר אלעזר כל העושה צדקה ומשפט כאילו מילא כל העולם כולו חסד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ה) אוהב צדקה ומשפט חסד ה' מלאה הארץ שמא תאמר כל הבא לקפוץ קופץ ת"ל (תהלים לו, ח) מה יקר חסדך אלהים (חסד ה' מלאה הארץ) וגו' יכול אף ירא שמים כן ת"ל (תהלים קג, יז) וחסד ה' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו,א"ר חמא בר פפא כל אדם שיש עליו חן בידוע שהוא ירא שמים שנא' חסד ה' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה וכי יש תורה של חסד יש תורה שאינה של חסד אלא תורה לשמה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא לשמה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד איכא דאמרי תורה ללמדה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא ללמדה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד:,כמעשהו בחול כו': ואמאי נייתי במקודשת אמר זעירי קסבר אין שיעור למים וכלי שרת מקדשין שלא מדעת 49b. bjust as its pouring is in sanctity, so too must its burning be in sanctity. From wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to burning? bRavina said: It is derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the term bsanctitywritten with regard to libations and bsanctitywritten with regard to leftover offerings. bIt is written here,with regard to libations: b“In sanctity shall you pour a libation”(Numbers 28:7), band it is written there,with regard to leftover offerings: b“You shall burn the leftovers in fire; they are not to be eaten, for they are sanctity”(Exodus 29:34). Through the verbal analogy it is derived that leftover libations must also be burned.,The Gemara notes: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin this mishna? With regard to blibations, initially,prior to being poured, bonecan bmisuse consecrated property with them,as is the case with all consecrated items. However, once bthey descended to the drainpipes, one does notviolate the prohibition against bmisuseof bconsecrated property with them,because the mitzva was already fulfilled. bLet us saythat the mishna bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar bar Tzadok,who holds that the libations did not descend to the depths but would collect between the ramp and the altar and would be collected once every seventy years. bAs, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,how could the libations be misused? bDidn’t theyalready bdescend to the depthsthrough the drainpipes?,The Gemara rejects this: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,it could be referring btoa case bwheresome of the wine landed outside the drainpipes and bwas collectedin the space between the ramp and the altar., bAnd some saya different version of this exchange. bLet us saythat the mishna bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis and notin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar bar Tzadok. As, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar,then the wine that collected between the ramp and the altar bremains in its sanctity,as it must be burned, and the prohibition against misuse would still apply. The Gemara rejects this: bEvenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar, there is no item whose mitzva has been performed with which onecan violate the prohibition against bmisuse of consecrated property. Reish Lakish said: When they pour wine onto the altar, they plugthe top of bthe drainpipesso that the wine does not descend to the depths, in order bto fulfill that which is stated: “In sanctity shall you pour a libation of strong drink [ ishekhar /i] unto the Lord”(Numbers 28:7).,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to plugging the drainpipes? bRav Pappa said: iShekhar /iis ban expression of drinking, of satiation, of intoxication.In order to underscore all three aspects of the libations, the space between the altar and the ramp would fill with wine. bRav Pappa said: Conclude from this that when a person is satiated fromdrinking bwine,it is bfrom his throatbeing filled with wine that he is bsatiated.Unlike food, wine does not satiate a person when it fills his stomach. bRava said:Therefore, blet a youngTorah bscholar, who does nothave bmuch wine, swallowhis wine binlarge bswigs,filling his throat each time, as he will thereby maximize his enjoyment. And bRavahimself, when drinking ba cup of blessing, would swallowlarge bswigsso as to drink the wine accompanying the mitzva in an optimal manner.,§ Apropos the homiletic interpretations of the verses from Song of Songs with regard to the drainpipes, the Gemara cites additional interpretations. bRava taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “How beautiful are your steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter”(Song of Songs 7:2)? bHow beautiful are the feet of the Jewish people at the time when they ascendto Jerusalem bfor the Festival. “O prince’s daughter”;this is referring to bthe daughter of Abraham our Patriarch, who was called prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered, the people of the God of Abraham”(Psalms 47:10). The verse calls the Jewish people the people of bthe God of Abraham and not the God of Isaac and Jacob.Why are the Jewish people associated specifically with Abraham? bRatherthan referring to the three Patriarchs, the verse is referring to bthe God of Abraham, who was first of the converts,and therefore it is reasonable for the princes of other nations to gather around him.,In bthe school of Rav Ait was btaught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The hidden of your thighs”(Song of Songs 7:2)? bWhy are matters of Torah likened to a thigh?It is bto tell youthat bjust asthe bthigh isalways bconcealed,covered by clothes, so btoo, matters of Torahare optimal when recited bin privateand not in public., bAnd this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God”(Micah 6:8)? b“To do justly”; this is justice. “To love mercy”; this is acts of kindness. “To walk humbly with your God”; this isreferring to btaking theindigent bdead outfor burial band accompanyinga poor bbride toher bwedding canopy,both of which must be performed without fanfare. The Gemara summarizes: bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred ia fortiori /i? If,with regard to bmatters that tend to be conducted in public,as the multitudes participate in funerals and weddings, bthe Torah says: Walk humbly,then in bmatters that tend to be conducted in private,e.g., giving charity and studying Torah, ball the more soshould they be conducted privately.,§ bRabbi Elazar said: One who performsacts of bcharity is greater thanone who sacrifices balltypes of bofferings, as it is stated: “To perform charity and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than an offering”(Proverbs 21:3), including all types of offerings. bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Acts of kindness,assisting someone in need, bare greater than charity, as it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness”(Hosea 10:12). This means: bIf a person sows,it is buncertainwhether bhewill beat orwhether bhewill bnot eat,since much can go wrong before the seed becomes food. However, if ba person reaps, he certainly eats.In this verse, charity is likened to sowing, while acts of kindness are likened to reaping., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said:The reward for bcharity is paidfrom Heaven bonly in accordance with the kindnessand generosity included bthereinand in accordance with the effort and the consideration that went into the giving. It is not merely in accordance with the sum of money, bas it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness.” /b, bThe Sages taughtthat bacts of kindness are superior to charity in three respects: Charitycan be performed only bwith one’s money,while bacts of kindnesscan be performed bboth with his person and with his money. Charityis given bto the poor,while bacts of kindnessare performed bboth for the poor and for the rich. Charityis given to the bliving,while bacts of kindnessare performed bboth for the living and for the dead. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Anyone who performs charity and justice isconsidered bas though he filled the whole world in its entirety with kindness, as it is stated: “He loves charity and justice; the earth is full of the kindness of the Lord”(Psalms 33:5). bLest you say that anyone who comes to leapand perform an act of kindness may simply bleapand do so without scrutiny, bthe verse states: “How precious is your kindness, O God”(Psalms 36:8). It is a precious and rare occurrence to perform an act of kindness properly. One bmighthave thought that beven a God-fearingindividual does not always encounter the opportunity to perform acts of kindness. Therefore, bthe verse states: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him”(Psalms 103:17)., bRabbi Ḥama bar Pappa said:With regard to bany person who has grace about him, it is certain that he is God-fearing, as it is stated: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him.”When one sees that a certain individual is endowed with grace and kindness, one can be certain that he is a God-fearing person. bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and a Torah of kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Gemara asks: bIs there, then, a Torah of kindness and a Torah that is not of kindness? Rather,it is bTorahstudied bfor its own sake that is a Torah of kindness,as one studies it wholeheartedly; and it is Torah studied bnot for its own sakebut for some ulterior motive bthat is a Torah that is not of kindness. Some saythat it is bTorahstudied in order bto teach itto others bthat is a Torah of kindness;it is Torah studied bwiththe intent of bnot teaching itto others bthat is a Torah that is not of kindness. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAs its performance during the week,so is its performance on Shabbat, except that on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, on Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecrated and would place it in the Temple chamber, and water would be drawn from there on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: bAnd whyshould one do so? bLethim bbringthe water bin a consecratedbarrel. bZe’iri said:The itannain the mishna bholds that there is norequisite bmeasure for the waterto be poured for libation, and therefore more than three ilogcould be consecrated; bandthat bTemple vessels consecratetheir content if it is fit to be consecrated, even bwithout intentto consecrate it.
78. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.45 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.45. As Celsus, however, is of opinion that it matters nothing whether the highest being be called Jupiter, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth, or Ammoun (as the Egyptians term him), or Papp us (as the Scythians entitle him), let us discuss the point for a little, reminding the reader at the same time of what has been said above upon this question, when the language of Celsus led us to consider the subject. And now we maintain that the nature of names is not, as Aristotle supposes, an enactment of those who impose them. For the languages which are prevalent among men do not derive their origin from men, as is evident to those who are able to ascertain the nature of the charms which are appropriated by the inventors of the languages differently, according to the various tongues, and to the varying pronunciations of the names, on which we have spoken briefly in the preceding pages, remarking that when those names which in a certain language were possessed of a natural power were translated into another, they were no longer able to accomplish what they did before when uttered in their native tongues. And the same peculiarity is found to apply to men; for if we were to translate the name of one who was called from his birth by a certain appellation in the Greek language into the Egyptian or Roman, or any other tongue, we could not make him do or suffer the same things which he would have done or suffered under the appellation first bestowed upon him. Nay, even if we translated into the Greek language the name of an individual who had been originally invoked in the Roman tongue, we could not produce the result which the incantation professed itself capable of accomplishing had it preserved the name first conferred upon him. And if these statements are true when spoken of the names of men, what are we to think of those which are transferred, for any cause whatever, to the Deity? For example, something is transferred from the name Abraham when translated into Greek, and something is signified by that of Isaac, and also by that of Jacob; and accordingly, if any one, either in an invocation or in swearing an oath, were to use the expression, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, he would produce certain effects, either owing to the nature of these names or to their powers, since even demons are vanquished and become submissive to him who pronounces these names; whereas if we say, the god of the chosen father of the echo, and the god of laughter, and the god of him who strikes with the heel, the mention of the name is attended with no result, as is the case with other names possessed of no power. And in the same way, if we translate the word Israel into Greek or any other language, we shall produce no result; but if we retain it as it is, and join it to those expressions to which such as are skilled in these matters think it ought to be united, there would then follow some result from the pronunciation of the word which would accord with the professions of those who employ such invocations. And we may say the same also of the pronunciation of Sabaoth, a word which is frequently employed in incantations; for if we translate the term into Lord of hosts, or Lord of armies, or Almighty (different acceptation of it having been proposed by the interpreters), we shall accomplish nothing; whereas if we retain the original pronunciation, we shall, as those who are skilled in such matters maintain, produce some effect. And the same observation holds good of Adonai. If, then, neither Sabaoth nor Adonai, when rendered into what appears to be their meaning in the Greek tongue, can accomplish anything, how much less would be the result among those who regard it as a matter of indifference whether the highest being be called Jupiter, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth!


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abahu Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218
abraham, as model of trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57
abraham, as universal exemplar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
abraham, encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
abraham, eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106
abraham, faith of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
abraham, gods promise to, according to josephus Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 457
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57
abraham, name largely omitted by philo Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 269
abraham, pharaoh contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
abraham, symbolism of sarah and hagar O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
abraham, vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41, 49, 50, 75, 82, 106, 199, 215, 222, 223, 227
abraham Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32; Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 122, 128; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 203, 204; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 38; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 587, 589; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 209
abraham (biblical) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
abram/abraham, change of name Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 241, 242
abram/abraham, perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 370
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
abram Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133
acceptance of, sinaitic revelation Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
agamemnon Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
age and youth Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
aggada Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 587
aggadah, in biblical interpretation Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
alexandria Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 241, 242; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
allegorical commentary, parallels between de abrahamo and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
allegorical commentary Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11, 240, 241
allegory/allegoresis Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 231
allegory Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
allusions, biblical, and quotations, overlap of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41
allusions, biblical Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41
am haaret Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
amorarim, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218
amorarim, palestinian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218
antichrist O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
aphou the fire, st (monk) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 587
apparitions Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 371
aqedah, in philo, a drama Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 269
aristarchus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 122, 128
ashi Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218
assyrian kingdom O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
astrology, vs. understanding of the sage Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 106, 215
astrology Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 215
athanasius (bishop of alexandria) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
athetesis, of biblical verses Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
athetesis Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 122, 128
attributes, divine, incomprehensible Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 18
attributes, divine, ineffable Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 18
audience, of exposition of the law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
babylon, symbolism of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
baptism van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
beneficent power, classifying philos use of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41
beneficent power, quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 38, 41
beneficent power, the bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 38, 41, 49, 50
benjamin Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 241, 242
bible, allusions in poetry and other literature Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
biblical texts, aggadah and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
biography/biographical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 345
bold type and bold italics Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41
cairo (fustat) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
cairo genizah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
caleb Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
chaldean (hebrew language) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 243
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75, 106
chapter, philonic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 17, 22
charity Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
chilton, bruce Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 43
chodollogomor, chosen father of sound Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 106, 215, 223, 243
chosenness Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 223; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
christ, symbolized in jewish bible O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
circumcision, eighth–day Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 30, 38
circumcision Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 43; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 134
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 370, 457, 562
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 237
commandments Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 207
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 134
composite, running Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
contract, relation to trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57
contradiction Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
conversion van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
cornelius van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
covenant, abrahams name change and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 82, 215, 222
covenant, mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 209
covenant, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 215, 222
covenant, recasting of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
covenant, with abrahams descendants Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
covenant Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 207, 209
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57
critical signs Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
cult of ištar, non-alignment with priestly sabbath Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 60
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
de abrahamo, interconnections within Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
de abrahamo, philonic parallels in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
de abrahamo, place of, in philos life Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
death of the body Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 345
descent from abraham Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
deuteronomy, synchronic interpretation of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 138
dialogue on the rationality of animals, diction, problem of Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
diaspora, jewish Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
diatribe, on love of home Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 208
dream figures, human Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 371
egypt, abrahams marriage preserved in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 237
egypt, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 243
egypt, in israels history Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
egypt, literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 237
egypt, negative depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234
egypt, positive depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 38, 234, 237, 243
eilberg-schwartz, howard Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 43
elect mevin Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 260
encomia, on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
encyclical studies, hagar representing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
enoch, triad including Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49
enos, transliteration of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 82
enos, triad including Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49
ephraim Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
epictetus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
epistle of barnabas, and covenant Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 282
epistle of barnabas, and sabbath Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 282
epistolary conventions Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
erga nomou Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
eschatology/eschatological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 345
eschatology Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57
eternity Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 17
ethical, divine-human trust as Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 69
etymologies, of abraham and abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 106, 215, 222, 223, 227, 243
etymologies, of harran Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 215, 227
etymologies, of israel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
etymologies, of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 243
etymologies of hebrew names O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 203, 204
eve, excellence, patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
exegesis, originality of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 50
exegesis, traditional vs. original Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 50
exegesis Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
exile Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
exposition of the law, relation of, to other philonic works Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
external goods, the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
eyes, interior Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106
eyes, light and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106
eyes Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 222
faith, and faithfulness Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
faith Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
faithfulness, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57
fall, no hard fall from sin Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
fall, result of embodiment Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
fall Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
famine Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234
father Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 231
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 207
flood narrative, in bible Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 60
friendship Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
genealogical anxiety, centrality of the body and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218, 219
genealogical anxiety, iranian context and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218, 219
genealogical anxiety, negativity towards converts and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218, 219
genealogy Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124
genesis Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
gentiles, and the torah/law Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
gentiles van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
geography Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
glory, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
god, ideas about, as theme Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49
god, love of, for humanity Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 222
god, oath of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
god, primal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75, 405
god-given Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 260
gomorrah, rewards of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237, 405
grace, divine O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 203, 204
graeco-roman (world/period) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 589
greek bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 82
hagar, as encyclical studies Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
hagar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 569
halakhah, sinaitic revelation and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
haran Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 133
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218, 219
harran, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 215, 227
harran, spelling of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 82
harran Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
hearing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 227
hebrew, and chaldean Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 243
hebrew, greek compared to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 82
hebrew, philos knowledge of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 222
hebrew bible Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 122
heinemann, yitshak Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
history O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
homosexuals, christian intolerance of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 69; deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 134
hoshea Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
humanity, god loving Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 222
imagery, missionary Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 218
inauguration (of the covenant, temple) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 207, 209
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
isaac, nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11, 17, 242, 370, 569; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 124; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 370
israel, and gentiles deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 134
israel, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
israel, people of, sinaitic revelation and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
israel, seer of god Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 241, 242
israel deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 134
jacob, practice and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11, 241, 242; Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
jerusalem Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
jethro Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
jew Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
jews, alexandrian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 122
jews, gods promises to O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 203, 204
jews van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
jews and jewish tradition, and priestly role Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 241, 242
joshua Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
judaeo-arabic Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
judaization Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
judgement, final O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 204
justification Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
knowledge Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 260
land, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 216
land (of israel, promised) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 209
laughter Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 207
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199, 208
lemma Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 22
lent Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 455
le´vi-strauss, claude Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 43
light, sight and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106
literal sense Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
love, of god for humanity Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 222
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 69
mamluks (dynasty) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
manasseh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
manoah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 55
many-named, prophet Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
many-named Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
mark (bishop of philae) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
marriage, preservation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 237
meditation, vision of Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 260
memra, personified wisdom related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
memra, philos logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
memra, shekhinah (and voice) related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
memra-logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
metaphor Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 43
methodology Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 82
midrash-pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 587, 589
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 215, 222, 223, 227
migrations of abraham, as spiritual Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 215
migrations of abraham, literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 208
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 50, 75, 106, 199, 208, 215, 222, 223, 227
mind Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 345
mist Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 222
moses Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 231; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 209
moses b. judah of alexandria (r. moses grasso) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
muslim, muslims, relations with Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 643
myth, names, philos omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 208, 234
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 17, 240, 241, 242
names, divine (lack of) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 18
names, improper (catachresis) Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 18
names, proper Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 370
nature, isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 57, 69
newborn, convert as Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 219
newborn, metaphor Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 219
noah, triad including Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49
noubades van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
nubians van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
oath of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 405
obelus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
omissions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 222
ontological Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 260
pagan/pagans van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
paraphrase Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 41
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 207, 209
paul, st (biblical) van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 587, 589
paul the apostle Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 345
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242
perception of god, by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 215, 222
perception of god, god aiding Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106, 215, 222
perception of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75, 106
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 242, 370
personified wisdom, memra (and torah) related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
peter, st van der Vliet and Dijkstra, The Coptic Life of Aaron: Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary (2020) 211
pharaoh, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
philo, de abrahamos place in life of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 75
philo, influences on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 49, 50
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
philo of alexandria Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 231
philology Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 128
philos colleagues Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 122, 128
philos logos, memra and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 97
piety, as highest virtue Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 208
piety of abraham, proofs of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
piety of abraham, rewards for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
piety of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 106
pistis, as fruit of the spirit Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 69
pistis Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 32
platonism Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 18