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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 16.1-16.6


וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר׃Now Sarai Abram’s wife bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.


וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֵךְ וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃Now Sarai Abram’s wife bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.


וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם הִנֵּה־נָא עֲצָרַנִי יְהוָה מִלֶּדֶת בֹּא־נָא אֶל־שִׁפְחָתִי אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם לְקוֹל שָׂרָי׃And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be builded up through her.’ And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.


וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם אֶת־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית שִׁפְחָתָהּ מִקֵּץ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים לְשֶׁבֶת אַבְרָם בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַתִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָם אִישָׁהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃And Sarai Abram’s wife took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram her husband to be his wife.


וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָגָר וַתַּהַר וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וַתֵּקַל גְּבִרְתָּהּ בְּעֵינֶיהָ׃And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.


וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ אָנֹכִי נָתַתִּי שִׁפְחָתִי בְּחֵיקֶךָ וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וָאֵקַל בְּעֵינֶיהָ יִשְׁפֹּט יְהוָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶיךָ׃And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘My wrong be upon thee: I gave my handmaid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.’


וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־שָׂרַי הִנֵּה שִׁפְחָתֵךְ בְּיָדֵךְ עֲשִׂי־לָהּ הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינָיִךְ וַתְּעַנֶּהָ שָׂרַי וַתִּבְרַח מִפָּנֶיהָ׃But Abram said unto Sarai: ‘Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her that which is good in thine eyes.’ And Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her face.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.31. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָּל־תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵא עָשׂוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 12.31. Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God; for every abomination to the LORD, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.9, 4.4, 4.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃ 4.4. וַתָּבוֹאינָה נַעֲרוֹת אֶסְתֵּר וְסָרִיסֶיהָ וַיַּגִּידוּ לָהּ וַתִּתְחַלְחַל הַמַּלְכָּה מְאֹד וַתִּשְׁלַח בְּגָדִים לְהַלְבִּישׁ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַי וּלְהָסִיר שַׂקּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וְלֹא קִבֵּל׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women." 4.4. And Esther’s maidens and her chamberlains came and told it her; and the queen was exceedingly pained; and she sent raiment to clothe Mordecai; and to take his sackcloth from off him; but he accepted it not." 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.5, 2.15-2.22, 3.14-3.15, 6.9, 16.23, 19.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. וַתֵּרֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לִרְחֹץ עַל־הַיְאֹר וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלְכֹת עַל־יַד הַיְאֹר וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף וַתִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֲמָתָהּ וַתִּקָּחֶהָ 2.15. וַיִּשְׁמַע פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ לַהֲרֹג אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וַיִּבְרַח מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־מִדְיָן וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הַבְּאֵר׃ 2.16. וּלְכֹהֵן מִדְיָן שֶׁבַע בָּנוֹת וַתָּבֹאנָה וַתִּדְלֶנָה וַתְּמַלֶּאנָה אֶת־הָרְהָטִים לְהַשְׁקוֹת צֹאן אֲבִיהֶן׃ 2.17. וַיָּבֹאוּ הָרֹעִים וַיְגָרְשׁוּם וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹשִׁעָן וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־צֹאנָם׃ 2.18. וַתָּבֹאנָה אֶל־רְעוּאֵל אֲבִיהֶן וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ מִהַרְתֶּן בֹּא הַיּוֹם׃ 2.19. וַתֹּאמַרְןָ אִישׁ מִצְרִי הִצִּילָנוּ מִיַּד הָרֹעִים וְגַם־דָּלֹה דָלָה לָנוּ וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־הַצֹּאן׃ 2.21. וַיּוֹאֶל מֹשֶׁה לָשֶׁבֶת אֶת־הָאִישׁ וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־צִפֹּרָה בִתּוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה׃ 2.22. וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ גֵּרְשֹׁם כִּי אָמַר גֵּר הָיִיתִי בְּאֶרֶץ נָכְרִיָּה׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 6.9. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה כֵּן אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה מִקֹּצֶר רוּחַ וּמֵעֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.5. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." 2.15. Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian; and he sat down by a well." 2.16. Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock." 2.17. And the shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock." 2.18. And when they came to Reuel their father, he said: ‘How is it that ye are come so soon to-day?’" 2.19. And they said: ‘An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and moreover he drew water for us, and watered the flock.’" 2.20. And he said unto his daughters: ‘And where is he? Why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.’" 2.21. And Moses was content to dwell with the man; and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter." 2.22. And she bore a son, and he called his name Gershom; for he said: ‘I have been a stranger in a strange land.’" 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations." 6.9. And Moses spoke so unto the children of Israel; but they hearkened not unto Moses for impatience of spirit, and for cruel bondage." 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15"\n1 11.29 11.29 11 29 \n2 11.3 11.3 11 3 \n3 11.30 11.30 11 30 \n4 11.31 11.31 11 31 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n153 7.23 7.23 7 23 \n154 8.1 8.1 8 1 \n155 8.15 8.15 8 15 \n156 8.16 8.16 8 16 \n157 8.18 8.18 8 18 \n\n[158 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.28, 10.29, 12.1-12.16, 14.36, 21.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 10.29. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה לְחֹבָב בֶּן־רְעוּאֵל הַמִּדְיָנִי חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה נֹסְעִים אֲנַחְנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה אֹתוֹ אֶתֵּן לָכֶם לְכָה אִתָּנוּ וְהֵטַבְנוּ לָךְ כִּי־יְהוָה דִּבֶּר־טוֹב עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.2. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הֲרַק אַךְ־בְּמֹשֶׁה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה הֲלֹא גַּם־בָּנוּ דִבֵּר וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה׃ 12.3. וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה פִּתְאֹם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־מִרְיָם צְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתְּכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּם׃ 12.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 12.6. וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָא דְבָרָי אִם־יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֲכֶם יְהוָה בַּמַּרְאָה אֵלָיו אֶתְוַדָּע בַּחֲלוֹם אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ׃ 12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 12.9. וַיִּחַר אַף יְהוָה בָּם וַיֵּלַךְ׃ 12.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בִּי אֲדֹנִי אַל־נָא תָשֵׁת עָלֵינוּ חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר נוֹאַלְנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ׃ 12.12. אַל־נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת אֲשֶׁר בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם אִמּוֹ וַיֵּאָכֵל חֲצִי בְשָׂרוֹ׃ 12.13. וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר אֵל נָא רְפָא נָא לָהּ׃ 12.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאָבִיהָ יָרֹק יָרַק בְּפָנֶיהָ הֲלֹא תִכָּלֵם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּסָּגֵר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחַר תֵּאָסֵף׃ 12.15. וַתִּסָּגֵר מִרְיָם מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהָעָם לֹא נָסַע עַד־הֵאָסֵף מִרְיָם׃ 12.16. וְאַחַר נָסְעוּ הָעָם מֵחֲצֵרוֹת וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן׃ 14.36. וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח מֹשֶׁה לָתוּר אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וילונו [וַיַּלִּינוּ] עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה לְהוֹצִיא דִבָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 21.4. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵהֹר הָהָר דֶּרֶךְ יַם־סוּף לִסְבֹב אֶת־אֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם וַתִּקְצַר נֶפֶשׁ־הָעָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 10.29. And Moses said unto Hobab, the son of Reuel the Midianite, Moses’father-in-law: ‘We are journeying unto the place of which the LORD said: I will give it you; come thou with us, and we will do thee good; for the LORD hath spoken good concerning Israel.’" 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 12.2. And they said: ‘Hath the LORD indeed spoken only with Moses? hath He not spoken also with us?’ And the LORD heard it.—" 12.3. Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—" 12.4. And the LORD spoke suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam: ‘Come out ye three unto the tent of meeting.’ And they three came out." 12.5. And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth." 12.6. And He said: ‘Hear now My words: if there be a prophet among you, I the LORD do make Myself known unto him in a vision, I do speak with him in a dream." 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 12.9. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and He departed." 12.10. And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous." 12.11. And Aaron said unto Moses: ‘Oh my lord, lay not, I pray thee, sin upon us, for that we have done foolishly, and for that we have sinned." 12.12. Let her not, I pray, be as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother’s womb.’" 12.13. And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘Heal her now, O God, I beseech Thee.’" 12.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘If her father had but spit in her face, should she not hide in shame seven days? let her be shut up without the camp seven days, and after that she shall be brought in again.’" 12.15. And Miriam was shut up without the camp seven days; and the people journeyed not till Miriam was brought in again." 12.16. And afterward the people journeyed from Hazeroth, and pitched in the wilderness of Paran." 14.36. And the men, whom Moses sent to spy out the land, and who, when they returned, made all the congregation to murmur against him, by bringing up an evil report against the land," 21.4. And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom; and the soul of the people became impatient because of the way."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 10.8, 31.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.8. חֲכַם־לֵב יִקַּח מִצְוֺת וֶאֱוִיל שְׂפָתַיִם יִלָּבֵט׃ 10.8. The wise in heart will receive commandments; but a prating fool shall fall." 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 45.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

45.10. Kings' daughters are among thy favourites; At thy right hand doth stand the queen in gold of Ophir."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 11.1-11.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃ 11.1. וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃ 11.2. מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃ 11.3. וַיְהִי־לוֹ נָשִׁים שָׂרוֹת שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּפִלַגְשִׁים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיַּטּוּ נָשָׁיו אֶת־לִבּוֹ׃ 11.3. וַיִּתְפֹּשׂ אֲחִיָּה בַּשַּׂלְמָה הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּקְרָעֶהָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר קְרָעִים׃ 11.4. וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃ 11.4. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 11.6. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃ 11.7. אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 11.8. וְכֵן עָשָׂה לְכָל־נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 11.9. וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה בִּשְׁלֹמֹה כִּי־נָטָה לְבָבוֹ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּרְאָה אֵלָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃ 11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה־זֹּאת עִמָּךְ וְלֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ בְּרִיתִי וְחֻקֹּתַי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי עָלֶיךָ קָרֹעַ אֶקְרַע אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מֵעָלֶיךָ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ׃ 11.1. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;" 11.2. of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel: ‘Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods’; Solomon did cleave unto these in love." 11.3. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart." 11.4. For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father." 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites." 11.6. And Solomon did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father." 11.7. Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh the detestation of Moab, in the mount that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech the detestation of the children of Ammon." 11.8. And so did he for all his foreign wives, who offered and sacrificed unto their gods." 11.9. And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel, who had appeared unto him twice," 11.10. and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; but he kept not that which the LORD commanded." 11.11. Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon: ‘Forasmuch as this hath been in thy mind, and thou hast not kept My covet and My statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.42 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.42. וַתְּמַהֵר וַתָּקָם אֲבִיגַיִל וַתִּרְכַּב עַל־הַחֲמוֹר וְחָמֵשׁ נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הַהֹלְכוֹת לְרַגְלָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי דָוִד וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 25.42. And Avigayil hastened, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five girls of hers that went after her; and she went after the messengers of David, and became his wife."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.3, 11.2-11.3, 11.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.3. וְיוֹאָב וַאֲבִישַׁי אָחִיו הָרְגוּ לְאַבְנֵר עַל אֲשֶׁר הֵמִית אֶת־עֲשָׂהאֵל אֲחִיהֶם בְּגִבְעוֹן בַּמִּלְחָמָה׃ 3.3. וּמִשְׁנֵהוּ כִלְאָב לאביגל [לַאֲ‍בִיגַיִל] אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִי וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁי אַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי מֶלֶךְ גְּשׁוּר׃ 11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 11.3. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרֹשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת בַּת־שֶׁבַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11.27. וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 3.3. and his second, Kil᾽av, of Avigayil the wife of Naval the Karmelite; and the third, Avshalom the son of Ma῾akha the daughter of Talmay king of Geshur;" 11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon." 11.3. And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bat-sheva, the daughter of Eli῾am, the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite?" 11.27. And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bore him a son. But the thing that David had done was evil in the eyes of the Lord."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 51.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

51.3. כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה צִיּוֹן נִחַם כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶיהָ וַיָּשֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ כְּעֵדֶן וְעַרְבָתָהּ כְּגַן־יְהוָה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יִמָּצֵא בָהּ תּוֹדָה וְקוֹל זִמְרָה׃ 51.3. For the LORD hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all her waste places, And hath made her wilderness like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness shall be found therein, Thanksgiving, and the voice of melody."
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 8.30-8.31, 14.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.31. וּפִילַגְשׁוֹ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁכֶם יָלְדָה־לּוֹ גַם־הִיא בֵּן וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֲבִימֶלֶךְ׃ 14.3. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ הַאֵין בִּבְנוֹת אַחֶיךָ וּבְכָל־עַמִּי אִשָּׁה כִּי־אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ לָקַחַת אִשָּׁה מִפְּלִשְׁתִּים הָעֲרֵלִים וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְשׁוֹן אֶל־אָבִיו אוֹתָהּ קַח־לִי כִּי־הִיא יָשְׁרָה בְעֵינָי׃ 8.30. And Gid῾on had seventy sons begotten of his body: for he had many wives." 8.31. And his concubine that was in Shekhem, she also bore him a son, whose name he called Avimelekh." 14.3. Then his father and his mother said to him, Is there no woman among the daughters of thy brethren, or among all my people, that thou goest to take a wife of the uncircumcised Pelishtim? And Shimshon said to his father, Get her for me; for she pleases me well."
14. Hesiod, Works And Days, 288-289, 287 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.3 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.3. מָה אֲמֻלָה לִבָּתֵךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בַּעֲשׂוֹתֵךְ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה מַעֲשֵׂה אִשָּׁה־זוֹנָה שַׁלָּטֶת׃ 16.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לִירוּשָׁלִַם מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ מֵאֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי אָבִיךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וְאִמֵּךְ חִתִּית׃ 16.3. and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD unto Jerusalem: Thine origin and thy nativity is of the land of the Canaanite; the Amorite was thy father, and thy mother was a Hittite."
16. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 2.3 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וּבְנֵי נָדָב סֶלֶד וְאַפָּיִם וַיָּמָת סֶלֶד לֹא בָנִים׃ 2.3. בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה עֵר וְאוֹנָן וְשֵׁלָה שְׁלוֹשָׁה נוֹלַד לוֹ מִבַּת־שׁוּעַ הַכְּנַעֲנִית וַיְהִי עֵר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיְמִיתֵהוּ׃ 2.3. The sons of Judah: Er, and O, and Shelah; which three were born unto him of Bath-shua the Canaanitess. And Er, Judah’s first-born, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and He slew him."
17. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Anon., Jubilees, 34.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

34.20. and Dinah also, his daughter, died after Joseph had perished. And there came these three mournings upon Israel in one month.
19. Septuagint, Judith, 4.4, 7.19, 7.25-7.31, 8.10-8.11, 8.30, 8.33, 10.2, 10.5, 11.5, 12.4, 12.6, 12.15, 13.9, 16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.4. So they sent to every district of Samaria, and to Kona and Beth-horon and Belmain and Jericho and to Choba and Aesora and the valley of Salem 7.19. The people of Israel cried out to the Lord their God, for their courage failed, because all their enemies had surrounded them and there was no way of escape from them. 7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 7.26. Now call them in and surrender the whole city to the army of Holofernes and to all his forces, to be plundered. 7.27. For it would be better for us to be captured by them; for we will be slaves, but our lives will be spared, and we shall not witness the death of our babes before our eyes, or see our wives and children draw their last breath. 7.28. We call to witness against you heaven and earth and our God, the Lord of our fathers, who punishes us according to our sins and the sins of our fathers. Let him not do this day the things which we have described! 7.29. Then great and general lamentation arose throughout the assembly, and they cried out to the Lord God with a loud voice. 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 7.31. But if these days pass by, and no help comes for us, I will do what you say. 8.10. she sent her maid, who was in charge of all she possessed, to summon Chabris and Charmis, the elders of her city. 8.11. They came to her, and she said to them, "Listen to me, rulers of the people of Bethulia! What you have said to the people today is not right; you have even sworn and pronounced this oath between God and you, promising to surrender the city to our enemies unless the Lord turns and helps us within so many days. 8.30. But the people were very thirsty, and they compelled us to do for them what we have promised, and made us take an oath which we cannot break. 8.33. Stand at the city gate tonight, and I will go out with my maid; and within the days after which you have promised to surrender the city to our enemies, the Lord will deliver Israel by my hand. 10.2. she rose from where she lay prostrate and called her maid and went down into the house where she lived on sabbaths and on her feast days; 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 11.5. Judith replied to him, "Accept the words of your servant, and let your maidservant speak in your presence, and I will tell nothing false to my lord this night. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 12.6. and sent to Holofernes and said, "Let my lord now command that your servant be permitted to go out and pray. 12.15. So she got up and arrayed herself in all her woman's finery, and her maid went and spread on the ground for her before Holofernes the soft fleeces which she had received from Bagoas for her daily use, so that she might recline on them when she ate. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid 16.23. She became more and more famous, and grew old in her husband's house, until she was one hundred and five years old. She set her maid free. She died in Bethulia, and they buried her in the cave of her husband Manasseh
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 251, 250 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

250. For which reason I will not delay to deck a new bride for you, that she may fulfil what is wanting on my part. And if the prayers which we will offer up for the birth of children be blessed with success, then the children which are born shall be your own legitimate children, but by adoption they shall be by all means mine.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 157, 6, 131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

131. Do you not see that the law pronounces the camel to be an unclean beast, because it chews the cud and does not part the Hoof. And yet, if we considered this sentence as it is expressed in its literal sense, I do not see what reason there is in it when it is interpreted; but if we look at it in its allegorical meaning, it is very clear and inevitable.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-5, 51, 6-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 10-12, 125, 13-18, 180, 19, 2, 20-27, 3, 34-39, 4, 40-44, 48-49, 5, 50-51, 53, 56-58, 6, 61, 63, 65, 7, 71-73, 8-9, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. But Sarah the wife of Abraham had not borne him any child. And she had an Egyptian handmaiden, who name was Hagar. And Sarah said unto Abraham, Behold, the Lord has closed me up, so that I should not bear children; go in unto my handmaiden that thou mayest have children by Her.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. for as the sun, when he has arisen, hides the stars, pouring forth his own light altogether over our sight, so also when the beams of the light-giving God, unmingled as they are, and entirely pure, and visible at the greatest distance, shone upon the eye of the soul, being comprehensible only by the intellect, then the eye of the soul can see nothing else; for the knowledge of the living God having beamed upon it, out-dazzles everything else, so that even those things which are most brilliant by their own intrinsic light appear to be dark in comparison.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 28, 60, 125 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 20, 141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

141. for "I have brought forth a son," not like the Egyptian women, in the flower of my age and in the height of my bodily vigour, but like the Hebrew souls, "in my old Age," when all the objects of the outward senses and all mortal things are faded, and when the objects of the intellect and immortal things are in their full vigour and worthy of all estimation and honour.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 15, 61-62, 77-80, 130 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

130. Having now discussed at sufficient length the subject of change and alteration of names, we will turn to the matters which come next in order in our proposed examination. Immediately after the events which we have just mentioned, came the birth of Isaac; for after God had given to his mother the name of Sarrah instead of Sarah, he said to Abraham, "I will give unto thee a Son." We must consider each of the things here indicated particularly.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 2, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And the power of this number does not exist only in the instances already mentioned, but it also pervades the most excellent of the sciences, the knowledge of grammar and music. For the lyre with seven strings, bearing a proportion to the assemblage of the seven planets, perfects its admirable harmonies, being almost the chief of all instruments which are conversant about music. And of the elements of grammar, those which are properly called vowels are, correctly speaking, seven in number, since they can be sounded by themselves, and when they are combined with other letters, they make complete sounds; for they fill up the deficiency existing in semi-vowels, making the sounds whole; and they change and alter the natures of the mutes inspiring them with their own power, in order that what has no sound may become endowed with sound.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 61, 58 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

58. On which account, a man would not be wrong who called our minds the sun of our composition; as the mind, if it does not rise and shed its own light in man, who may be looked upon as a small world, leaves a great darkness diffused over all existing things, and suffers nothing to be brought to light. XVII.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 69, 36 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. For, as it is impossible to see without light, since neither colours nor eyes are sufficient for the comprehension of things which we arrive at by means of sight (for nature has made light beforehand to serve as a link to connect the two, by which the eye is brought near and adapted to colour, for the powers of both eye and of colour are equally useless in darkness), so in the same manner is the eye of the soul unable to comprehend anything whatever of the actions in accordance with virtue, unless it takes to itself labour as a coadjutor, as the eye borrows the assistance of light; for this, being placed in the middle, between the intellect and the good object which the intellect desires, and understanding the whole nature of both the one and the other, does itself bring about friendship and harmony, two perfect goods between the two things on either hand of it. VII.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.200, 2.147, 3.1-3.6, 3.178, 4.112 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.200. These things, then, are comprehended in express words of command. But there is another meaning figuratively concealed under the enigmatical expressions. And the words employed are visible symbols of what is invisible and uncertain. Now the victim which is to be sacrificed as a whole burnt offering must be a male, because a male is both more akin to domination than a female and more nearly related to the efficient cause; for the female is imperfect, subject, seen more as the passive than as the active partner. 2.147. But those who are in the habit of turning plain stories into allegory, argue that the passover figuratively represents the purification of the soul; for they say that the lover of wisdom is never practising anything else except a passing over from the body and the passions. 3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature. 4.112. Now both these things are symbols; the former of a soul devoted to pleasure, and the latter of one which loves perseverance and temperance. For the road which leads to pleasure is a down-hill one and very easy, being rather an absorbing gulf than a path. But the path which leads to temperance is up hill and laborious, but above all other roads advantageous. And the one leads men downwards, and prevents those who travel by it from retracing their steps until they have arrived at the very lowest bottom, but the other leads to heaven; making those who do not weary before they reach it immortal, if they are only able to endure its rugged and difficult ascent.ABOUT Reptile
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 188-227, 187 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

187. We ought to rebuke in no measured language those who celebrate nobility of birth as the greatest of all blessings, and the cause also of great blessings, if in the first place they think those men nobly born who are sprung from persons who were rich and glorious in the days of old, when those very ancestors themselves, from whom they boast to be descended, were not made happy by their unlimited abundance; since, in truth, that which is really good does not naturally or necessarily lodge in any external thing, nor in any of the things which belong to the body, and indeed I may even say not in every part of the soul, but only in the domit and most important portion of it.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 28, 78, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. but the deliberate intention of the philosopher is at once displayed from the appellation given to them; for with strict regard to etymology, they are called therapeutae and therapeutrides, either because they process an art of medicine more excellent than that in general use in cities (for that only heals bodies, but the other heals souls which are under the mastery of terrible and almost incurable diseases, which pleasures and appetites, fears and griefs, and covetousness, and follies, and injustice, and all the rest of the innumerable multitude of other passions and vices, have inflicted upon them), or else because they have been instructed by nature and the sacred laws to serve the living God, who is superior to the good, and more simple than the one, and more ancient than the unit;
35. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.60, 1.63-1.67, 3.103, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.60. And of this tree Moses expressly says, that it is placed in the middle of the paradise; but as to the other tree, that namely of the knowledge of good and evil, he has not specified whether it is within or outside of the Paradise; but after he has used the following expression, "and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," he says no more, not mentioning where it is placed, in order that any one who is uninitiated in the principles of natural philosophy, may not be made to marvel at his knowledge. 1.63. And a river goes forth out of Eden to water the Paradise. From thence it is separated into four heads: the name of the one is Pheison. That is the one which encircles the whole land of Evilat. There is the country where there is gold, and the gold of that land is good. There also are the carbuncle and the sapphire stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon; this is that which encircles the whole land of Ethiopia. And the third river is the Tigris. This is the river which flows in front of the Assyrians. And the fourth river is the Euphrates." In these words Moses intends to sketch out the particular virtues. And they also are four in number, prudence, temperance, courage, and justice. Now the greatest river from which the four branches flow off, is generic virtue, which we have already called goodness; and the four branches are the same number of virtues. 1.64. Generic virtue, therefore, derives its beginning from Eden, which is the wisdom of God; which rejoices and exults, and triumphs, being delighted at and honoured on account of nothing else, except its Father, God, and the four particular virtues, are branches from the generic virtue, which like a river waters all the good actions of each, with an abundant stream of benefits. 1.65. Let us examine the expressions of the writer: "A river," says he, "goes forth out of Eden, to water the Paradise." This river is generic goodness; and this issues forth out of the Eden of the wisdom of God, and that is the word of God. For it is according to the word of God, that generic virtue was created. And generic virtue waters the Paradise: that is to say, it waters the particular virtues. But it does not derive its beginnings from any principle of locality, but from a principle of preeminence. For each of the virtues is really and truly a ruler and a queen. And the expression, "is separated," is equivalent to "is marked off by fixed boundaries;" since wisdom appoints them settled limits with reference to what is to be done. Courage with respect to what is to be endured; temperance with reference to what is to be chosen; and justice in respect of what is to be distributed. XX. 1.66. The name of one river is Pheison. This is that river which encircles all the land of Evilat; there is the country where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good; there also are the carbuncle and the sapphire stone." One of the four virtues is prudence, which Moses here calls Pheison: because the soul abstains, from, and guards against, acts of iniquity. And it meanders in a circle, and flows all round the land of Evilat; that is to say, it preserves a mild, and gentle, and favourable constitution. And as of all fusible essences, the most excellent and the most illustrious is gold, so also the virtue of the soul which enjoys the highest reputation, is prudence. 1.67. And when he uses the expression, "that is the country where there is gold," he is not speaking geographically, that is, where gold exists, but that is the country in which that valuable possession exists, brilliant as gold, tried in the fire, and valuable, namely, prudence. And this is confessed to be the most valuable possession of God. But with reference to the geographical position of virtue, there are two personages, each invested with distinctive qualities. One, the being who has prudence, the other, the being who exerts it; and these he likens to the carbuncle and the emerald. XXI.
36. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 22, 139 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

139. On which account Moses, after he had previously mentioned with respect to Enos that "he hoped to call upon the name of the Lord his God," adds in express words, "This is the book of the generation of Men;" speaking with perfect correctness: for it is written in the book of God that man is the only creature with a good hope. So that arguing by contraries, he who has no good hope is not a man. The definition, therefore, of our concrete being is that it is a living rational mortal being; but the definition of man, according to Moses, is a disposition of the soul hoping in the truly living God.
37. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 181 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

181. among whom we must enroll Balaam, for he also is a child of the earth, and not a shoot of heaven, and a proof of this is, that he, being influenced by omens and false prophecies, not even when the eye of his soul, which had been closed, recovered its sight, and "saw the angel of God standing against him in the way;"45 not even then did he turn back and desist from doing wrong, but giving way to a mighty torrent of folly, he was washed away and swallowed up by it.
38. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

113. And again Moses says, "Its fruit shall be impure for three days, it shall not be Eaten;" as if in fact it were customary for it to be purified for ever. We must, therefore, say that this is one of those expressions which have a concealed meaning, since the words themselves are not quite consistent with it; for the expression is an ambiguous one; for it bears one sense of this kind, the fruit shall remain for three years; and then there is a distinct injunction, "it shall not be eaten before it is purified." But there is also another meaning, "the fruit of the tree shall for three years be unpurified, and while in that state it shall not be eaten.
39. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.185, 1.187 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.185. After which, before he built his altar, where the birds of prey flew about, as desirous of blood, a divine voice came to him, declaring that their neighbors would be grievous to his posterity, when they should be in Egypt, for four hundred years; during which time they should be afflicted, but afterwards should overcome their enemies, should conquer the Canaanites in war, and possess themselves of their land, and of their cities. 1.187. and God required of him to be of good courage, and said that he would add to all the rest of the benefits that he had bestowed upon him, ever since he led him out of Mesopotamia, the gift of children. Accordingly Sarai, at God’s command, brought to his bed one of her handmaidens, a woman of Egyptian descent, in order to obtain children by her;
40. New Testament, Matthew, 15.1-15.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread.
41. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 38.14, 45.1-45.2, 45.4-45.5, 52.3, 53.6, 53.15 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

38.14. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם וְנָחוֹר לָהֶם נָשִׁים וגו' (בראשית יא, כט), אַבְרָם הָיָה גָּדוֹל מִנָּחוֹר שָׁנָה אַחַת, וְנָחוֹר הָיָה גָדוֹל מֵהָרָן שָׁנָה אַחַת, נִמְצָא הָרָן גָּדוֹל מֵאַבְרָהָם שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, שָׁנָה לְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל מִלְכָּה וְשָׁנָה לְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל יִסְכָּה. הָרָן מוֹלִיד לְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים, וְאַבְרָם אֵינוֹ מוֹלִיד, אֶתְמְהָא. (בראשית יא, ל): וַתְּהִי שָׂרַי עֲקָרָה וגו': אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֵין לָהּ, הֲוָה לָהּ. וַתְּהִי שָׂרָה עֲקָרָה אֵין לָהּ וָלָד, הֲוָה לָהּ, וַה' פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה וגו'. (שמואל א א, ה): וַיְהִי לִפְנִינָה יְלָדִים וּלְחַנָּה אֵין יְלָדִים, וַהֲוָה לָהּ, (שמואל א ב, כא): כִּי פָקַד ה' אֶת חַנָּה וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד וגו'. (ירמיה ל, יז): צִיּוֹן הִיא דֹּרֵשׁ אֵין לָהּ, וַהֲוָה לָהּ (ישעיה נט, כ): וּבָא לְצִיּוֹן גּוֹאֵל, (ישעיה נד, א): רָנִי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי. 45.1. וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וגו' (בראשית טז, א), (משלי לא, י): אֵשֶׁת חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וגו' וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ, מַהוּ מִכְרָהּ, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר עִבּוּרָהּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל טז, ג): מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ, אַבְרָם הָיָה גָּדוֹל מִנָּחוֹר שָׁנָה, וְנָחוֹר הָיָה גָּדוֹל מֵהָרָן שָׁנָה, נִמְצָא אַבְרָם גָּדוֹל מֵהָרָן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, שָׁנָה לְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל מִלְכָּה וְשָׁנָה לְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל יִסְכָּה, וְהָרָן מוֹלִיד לְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַבְרָם אֵינוֹ מוֹלִיד, וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר לוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא יָלְדָה, אֲבָל אִלּוּ נִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר יָלָדָה. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר לֹא לוֹ וְלֹא לְאַחֵר, וּמַה דִּכְתִיב: לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ, לוֹ וְלָהּ. (בראשית טז, א): וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, שִׁפְחַת מְלוֹג הָיְתָה וְהָיָה חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ וְלֹא הָיָה רַשַּׁאי לְמָכְרָהּ. בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ מַהוּ דְּתָנָא עַבְדֵי מְלוֹג, אֲמַר לְהוֹן כְּמָה דְתֵימָא מְלוֹג מְלוֹג. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי הָגָר בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל פַּרְעֹה הָיְתָה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה פַּרְעֹה מַעֲשִׂים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשָׂרָה בְּבֵיתוֹ, נָטַל בִּתּוֹ וּנְתָנָהּ לוֹ, אָמַר מוּטָב שֶׁתְּהֵא בִּתִּי שִׁפְחָה בְּבַיִת זֶה וְלֹא גְבִירָה בְּבַיִת אַחֵר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, הָא אַגְרִיךְ. אַף אֲבִימֶלֶךְ כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה נִסִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשָׂרָה בְּבֵיתוֹ נָטַל בִּתּוֹ וּנְתָנָהּ לוֹ, אָמַר מוּטָב שֶׁתְּהֵא בִּתִּי שִׁפְחָה בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְלֹא גְבִירָה בְּבַיִת אַחֶרֶת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מה, י): בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בִּיקְרוֹתֶיךָ נִצְּבָה שֵׁגָל לִימִינְךָ בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר. 45.1. וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם ה' הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי (בראשית טז, יג), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר שִׁמְעוֹן, מֵעוֹלָם לֹא נִזְקַק הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָשִׂיחַ עִם הָאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא עִם אוֹתָהּ הַצַּדֶּקֶת, וְאַף הִיא עַל יְדֵי עִלָּה. רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בֵּירִי כַּמָּה כִרְכּוּרִים כִּרְכֵּר בִּשְׁבִיל לְהָשִׂיחַ עִמָּהּ. (בראשית יח, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ. וְהָכְתִיב: וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם ה' הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ. וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית כה, כג): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לָהּ, רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר חָמָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן זִמְרָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֵׁם. אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ אַתָּה הוּא רוֹאֶה בְּעֶלְבּוֹן שֶׁל עֲלוּבִין. כִּי אָמְרָה הֲגַם הֲלֹם רָאִיתִי אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי, אָמְרָה לֹא דַּיִי שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתִּי לְדִבּוּר, אֶלָּא לְמַלְכוּת, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמואל ב ז, יח): כִּי הֲבִאֹתַנִי עַד הֲלֹם. רָאִיתִי אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי, לֹא דַיִּי שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתִּי עִם גְּבִרְתִּי לִרְאוֹת הַמַּלְאָךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ גְּבִרְתִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה עִמִּי לֹא רָאֲתָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא דַיִּי שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתִּי עִם גְּבִרְתִּי, אֶלָּא בֵּינִי לְבֵין עַצְמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מָשָׁל לְמַטְרוֹנָה שֶׁאָמַר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ עִבְרִי לְפָנַי, עָבְרָה לְפָנָיו, וְהָיְתָה מִסְתַּמֶּכֶת עַל שִׁפְחָתָהּ וְצִמְצְמָה פָּנֶיהָ וְלֹא רָאֲתָה הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַשִּׁפְחָה רָאֲתָה. 45.2. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל אַבְרָם הִנֵּה נָא עֲצָרַנִי ה' מִלֶּדֶת (בראשית טז, ב), אָמְרָה יָדְעַת אֲנָא מֵהֵיכָן הִיא סִבָּתִי, לֹא כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים לִי קָמֵיעַ הִיא צְרִיכָה, הִימוּס הִיא צְרִיכָה, אֶלָּא הִנֵּה נָא עֲצָרַנִי ה' מִלֶּדֶת. תָּנֵי, כָּל מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֵּן כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מֵת, כְּאִלּוּ הוּא הָרוּס. כְּאִלּוּ מֵת, (בראשית ל, א): וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל אֶל יַעֲקֹב הָבָה לִי בָנִים וגו', כְּאִלּוּ הוּא הָרוּס, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טז, ב): אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה, וְאֵין בּוֹנִין אֶלָּא אֶת הֶהָרוּס. (בראשית טז, ב): וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם לְקוֹל שָׂרָי, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמַר לְקוֹל רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמואל א טו, א): וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע לְקוֹל דִּבְרֵי ה'. 45.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל הָגָר וַתַּהַר (בראשית טז, ד), רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא אָמַר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִתְעַבְּרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַבֶּרֶת מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית יט, לו): וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא שָׁלְטוּ בְּעַצְמָן וְהוֹצִיאוּ עֶרְוָתָן וְנִתְעַבְּרוּ כְּמִבִּיאָה שְׁנִיָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן פָּזִי הַקּוֹצִין הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן לֹא מִתְנַכְּשִׁין וְלֹא נִזְרָעִים, מֵאֵילֵיהֶן הֵן יוֹצְאִים וּמִתַּמְּרִים וְעוֹלִים. הַחִטִּים הַלָּלוּ כַּמָּה צַעַר וְכַמָּה יְגִיעַ עַד שֶׁלֹא יַעֲלוּ. וְלָמָּה נִתְעַקְּרוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי שִׁילָא דִּכְפַר תְּמַרְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְשִׂיחָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ב, יד): יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע, יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי, לָמָּה עִקַּרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, בִּשְׁבִיל (שיר השירים ב, יד): הַרְאִינִי אֶת מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִנִי אֶת קוֹלֵךְ. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בַּר פַּפָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִתְרַפְּקוֹת עַל בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בְּנוֹיָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ רֹב הַשָּׁנִים בְּלֹא שִׁעְבּוּד. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּהָנוּ בַּעֲלֵיהֶן מֵהֶן, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מְקַבֶּלֶת עֻבָּרִין הִיא מִתְכַּעֶרֶת וּמִתְעַזֶּבֶת, שֶׁכָּל תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה שָׂרָה הָיְתָה כְּכַלָּה בְּתוֹךְ חֻפָּתָהּ, וְהָיוּ מַטְרוֹנִיּוֹת בָּאוֹת לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה וְהָיְתָה שָׂרָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם צְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל עֲלוּבָה, וְהָיְתָה הָגָר אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם שָׂרַי גְבִרְתִּי אֵין סִתְרָהּ כְּגִלּוּיָהּ, נִרְאֵית צַדֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, אִלּוּ הָיְתָה צַדֶּקֶת רְאוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים שֶׁלֹא נִתְעַבְּרָה וַאֲנִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי, וְהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת עִם דָּא אֲנָא מִסַּב וּמִתַּן, הַלְוַאי מִסַּב וּמִתַּן עִם מָרָהּ. 45.5. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל אַבְרָם חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ (בראשית טז, ה), רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן חוֹמְסֵנִי אַתָּה בִּדְבָרִים, לָמָּה, שֶׁאַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ בִּקְלוֹנִי וְשׁוֹתֵק. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר בָּעֵי דִינִי גַבָּךְ. מָשָׁל לִשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם חֲבוּשִׁים בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַד, תְּבַע דִּיקָיוֹן דִּידִי, אֲמַר אַפְקוּהוּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַבְרֵיהּ יִבְעֵי דִינִי גַּבָּךְ, אִלּוּ אֲמַרְתְּ תָּבוֹעַ דִּיקָיוֹן דִּידָן, כְּמָה דְּאַפְקָךְ כֵּן אַפְקַנִי, וְכַדּוּ דַאֲמַרְתְּ תְּבַע דִּיקָיוֹן דִּידִי, לָךְ אַפֵּיק לִי לָא אַפֵּיק. כָּךְ אִלּוּ אֲמַרְתְּ וְאָנוּ הוֹלְכִים עֲרִירִים, כְּמָה דִּיהַב לָךְ כֵּן יְהַב לִי, וְכַדּוּ דַּאֲמַרְתְּ (בראשית טו, ב): אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי, לָךְ יָהֵיב וְלִי לָא יָהֵיב. מָשָׁל לִשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהָלְכוּ לִלְווֹת זֶרַע מִן הַמֶּלֶךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תַּשְׁאֵל לִי זֶרַע, אֲמַר וְיַהֲבוּן לֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַבְרֵיהּ יִבָּעֵי דִינִי גַּבָּךְ, אִלּוּ אֲמַרְתְּ תַּשְׁאֵל לָנוּ זֶרַע, כְּמָה דְּיָהֵיב לָךְ כֵּן הֲוָה יָהֵיב לִי, הָכָא נָמֵי אִלּוּ אֲמַרְתְּ הֵן לָנוּ לֹא נָתַתָּ זֶרַע, כְּמָה דְּיָהֵיב לָךְ הֲוָה יָהֵיב לִי, וְכַדּוּ דַּאֲמַרְתְּ (בראשית טו, ג): הֵן לִי לֹא נָתַתָּ זֶרַע, לָךְ יָהֵיב לִי לָא יָהֵיב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָבוּן אָמַר חִמְּסָה בְּפָנָיו. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אַרְבַּע מִדּוֹת נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּנָשִׁים, גַּרְגְּרָנִיּוֹת, צַיְּתָנִיּוֹת, עַצְלָנִיּוֹת, קַנְאָנִיּוֹת. גַּרְגְּרָנִיּוֹת, מֵחַוָּה (בראשית ג, ו): וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל. צַיְּתָנִיּוֹת (בראשית יח, י): וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת. עַצְלָנִיּוֹת (בראשית יח, ו): מַהֲרִי שְׁלשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת. קַנְאָנִיּוֹת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ל, א): וַתְּקַנֵּא רָחֵל בַּאֲחוֹתָהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר אַף אִסְטְטָנִיּוֹת וְדַבְּרָנִיּוֹת. אִסְטְטָנִיּוֹת וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל אַבְרָם חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ. וְדַבְּרָנִיּוֹת (במדבר יב, א): וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמשֶׁה. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אַף גַּנָּבִיּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לא, יט): וַתִּגְנֹב רָחֵל אֶת הַתְּרָפִים. יוֹצְאָנִיּוֹת (בראשית לד, א): וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא, כָּל מִי שֶׁהִרְתִּיק אַחַר מִדַּת הַדִּין לֹא יָצָא שָׁפוּי מִתַּחַת יָדֶיהָ, רְאוּיָה הָיְתָה שָׂרָה לְהַגִּיעַ לְשָׁנָיו שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁאָמְרָה (בראשית טז, ה): יִשְׁפֹּט ה' בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶיךָ, נִמְנְעוּ מֵחַיֶּיהָ שְׁלשִׁים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה שָׁנָה. כְּתִיב (בראשית טז, ד): וַיָּבֹא אֶל הָגָר וַתַּהַר, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (בראשית טז, יא): הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִכְנִיסָה בָּהּ שָׂרָה עַיִן רָעָה וְהִפִּילָה עֻבָּרָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ, וּבְנֵךְ כְּתִיב. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אִלּוּ אֱלִישָׁע הַנָּבִיא אָמַר כֵּן בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ דַּיִּי, אֶלָּא שֶׁזָּכְתָה לְדַבֵּר עִמָּהּ הַמַּלְאָךְ. 52.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּסַּע מִשָּׁם אַבְרָהָם, (משלי י, ח): חֲכַם לֵב יִקַּח מִצְוֹת. חֲכַם לֵב, זֶה אַבְרָהָם. יִקַּח מִצְוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁחָרַב מְקוֹמָהּ שֶׁל סְדוֹם וּפָסְקוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא חָסֵר קִילוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלוּם, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַפְסִיק צְדָקָה מִבֵּיתִי, הָלַךְ וְנָטָה לוֹ אֹהֶל בִּגְרָר. (משלי י, ח): וֶאֱוִיל שְׂפָתַיִם יִלָּבֵט, זֶה לוֹט, שֶׁהָיָה אֱוִיל בִּשְׂפָתָיו, שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לִבְנוֹתָיו דָּבָר שֶׁלָּקָה בּוֹ הָעוֹלָם אָנוּ בָּאִים לַעֲשׂוֹת, אֶלָּא יִלָּבֵט, מַה גָּרַם לוֹ, יִלָּבֵט, הֵבִיא עָלָיו לִבְטֵי לְבוֹטִים, מַה לְּהַלָּן (דברי הימים ב כג, יט): לֹא יָבוֹא טָמֵא לְכָל דָּבָר, אַף כָּאן לֹא יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל ה'. 53.6. וַה' פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק, כְּתִיב (במדבר ה, כח): וְאִם לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע, זוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל פַּרְעֹה וּלְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וְיָצָאת טְהוֹרָה אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁתִּפָּקֵד. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אַף עַל גַּב דְּאָמַר רַבִּי הוּנָא מַלְאָךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַתַּאֲוָה, אֲבָל שָׂרָה לֹא נִצְרְכָה לַדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ אֶלָּא הוּא בִּכְבוֹדוֹ, וַה' פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה. (בראשית כא, ב): וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד שָׂרָה לְאַבְרָהָם בֵּן לִזְקֻנָיו, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹא גָּנְבָה זֶרַע מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר. בֵּן לִזְקֻנָיו, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה זִיו אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ דּוֹמֶה לוֹ. (בראשית כא, ב): לַמּוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי חָמָא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר לְתִשְׁעָה חֳדָשִׁים נוֹלַד שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִין גָּרוּף מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אֲבִימֶלֶךְ. רַבִּי חָמָא אָמַר לְשִׁבְעָה שֶׁהֵם תִּשְׁעָה מְקֻטָּעִים. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בַּחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם נוֹלַד, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן מוֹעֵד, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (דברים טז, ו): כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם. 53.15. וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַנַּעַר וַיִּגְדָּל (בראשית כא, כ), רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִים וְרַקִּים מִעוּטִים, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִם, הָדֵין אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא מַהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים הַנַּעַר, הָיָה הַדָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אֶלָּא אֶת הַנַּעַר. אָמַר לוֹ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָּבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק מִכֶּם, שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִדְרשׁ, אֶלָא אֶת הַנַּעַר, הוּא וְחַמָּרָיו וְגַמָּלָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ. (בראשית כא, כ): וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת, רָבֶה וְקַשְׁיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ [נסח אחר: וקשיותו אמו], רָבֶה, מִתְלַמֵּד בְּקֶּשֶׁת, רָבֶה עַל כָּל הַמּוֹרִים בַּקֶּשֶׁת. (בראשית כא, כא): וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק זְרוֹק חוּטְרָא לַאֲוִירָא וְעַל עִקְרֵיהּ הוּא קָאֵים, כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁכָּתוּב (בראשית טז, א): וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, לְפִיכָךְ (בראשית כא, כא): וַתִּקַּח לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם. 45.2. ...2. \"And Sarai said to Abram, 'Look, the Lord has kept me from bearing' (Gen.16:2) as follows: \"Said she, I know the source of my affliction: It is not as people say [of a barren woman], 'she needs a talisman, she needs a charm', but Look, the Lord has kept me from bearing.'\"" 45.4. ...Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai said Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter. When he saw the deeds on behalf of Sarah in his house, he took his daughter and gave her to him, saying, 'better that my daughter by a maidservant in this house than a mistress in another house.' This is what is written: \"She had an Egyptian handmaid whose name was Hagar.\" [In other words:] ha agrikh: 'This is your reward.'"
42. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Ephrem, Commentary On Genesis, 6.3, 9.3, 16.9 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

44. Anon., Tanhuma, 14



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116
abba bar kahana, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159
abel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 271
abimelech Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369, 378, 379, 385
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
abraham, self-control of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
abraham, vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
abraham Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116; Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287, 299; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168, 169; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 147, 149, 151; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 2; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
abram Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
adam Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
adoption Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 378
allegorical commentary Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33
allegory/allegoresis, pedagogical Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
allegory Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151
allegory of the law Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 147
allusions, biblical Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
amidah Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 6
arabs Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 299
bar qappara Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
beneficent power, quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 40
beneficent power, the bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 40
bethulia, people of Gera, Judith (2014) 271
biblical, narrative Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
biblical women, servants of Gera, Judith (2014) 271
bilhah Gera, Judith (2014) 271
brachylogy, dialectic Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
brevity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
bride Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
canaan/canaanites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116
chastity Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
childlessness Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159, 166
children, significance of bearing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
children (child) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205
christian/s, women Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 6
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 370
coming of age Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
commandments Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
concubinage Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 369
concubine Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159
consolatory literature Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
constellation Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
covenant, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
creation Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
crying out Gera, Judith (2014) 271
daughter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
david Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
de abrahamo, prologue of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
de abrahamo, rhetoric in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
de abrahamo, structure of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33
death Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
despair and low spirits Gera, Judith (2014) 271
education Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
egypt, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
egypt, negative depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
egypt Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 236
elect/election Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
embalming Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 236
encomia, on sarah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
encyclical studies, hagar representing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
enoch Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37
esau Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 166; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 271
etymologies, of noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
etymology, hebrew Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
eulogies for women Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 369
eve, excellence, patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 198
exogamy, and jewish separatism Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287
exposition of the law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 147
external goods, the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
famine Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
five-day moratorium Gera, Judith (2014) 271
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
genealogy of virtues, genesis, title of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
genesis rabbah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
god, accused Gera, Judith (2014) 271
god, angel of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
god Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205
greek language Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159
hagar, as encyclical studies Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
hagar, hebrew mind-set of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 369, 379
hagar, noble birth of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 378, 379
hagar, sarahs acquisition of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 379
hagar, sarahs offer of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369, 378, 379, 385
hagar Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199, 368, 369; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277; Gera, Judith (2014) 271; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168, 169; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159, 178; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 149, 151; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 2
hannah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
haran Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
heaven Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 166
hebrew, hagar having mindset of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 369, 379
hebrew bible, portrayal of masculinity in Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
hebrews/israelites, and mixed marriages Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116
hermeneutic Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369, 378, 379, 385
huna Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
husband Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
hybridity Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 198
immorality (sexual) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
inclusiveness, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287, 299
infertility Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
inheritance Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
intermarriage, biblical figures Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116
intermarriage, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287
isaac, nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
isaac Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 2; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
isaac (patriarch) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205
ishmael, as illegitimate Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 378
ishmael, as legitimate Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 378
ishmael Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 2; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
israel, nation/people Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
itureans, jabesh, men of Gera, Judith (2014) 271
jacob, practice and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
jacob Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
judah, son of jacob Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116
judah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
kingly power, the kings, victory over Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33, 40
kinship relations, and jewish identity Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 299
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 271
law Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
leah Gera, Judith (2014) 271; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 166
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
literal interpretation, living laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 147
lot Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
love, wifely Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
macrology Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
magical charm Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 271
maids and female servants, terminology Gera, Judith (2014) 271
maids and female servants Gera, Judith (2014) 271
marriage, reproduction as purpose of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
masculinity/masculinity studies Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
matriarchs Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
miracle Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
moab and moabites, in book of ruth Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 299
mosaic law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
moses Gera, Judith (2014) 271; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116; Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 236; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205
multiculturalism, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287, 299
multiple masculinities theory Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 39
nahor Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
names of god, masculine participle Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
naomi and ruth Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 299
narrative Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
nature, isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
noah, name of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
oaths Gera, Judith (2014) 271
offspring Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
og Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
origen Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
origins, of jews Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287
pardon Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
patriarchs, jewish, marriages of Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287
performance Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159
pharaoh, daughter of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205; Gera, Judith (2014) 271
pharaoh, hagar as gift of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 379
pharaoh, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
pharaoh Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
philo, influences on, greek and roman Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369
philo, influences on, jewish Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 369
philo of alexandria Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 198; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
piety Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
pinhas, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 236
piyyut Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158
powers of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
practice, jacob and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
pre-eminence, argument from Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
prefaces, secondary Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
pregnancy Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159
preliminary studies Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
prologue of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
promise Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168, 169
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168, 169
purity/impurity Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
purity Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
questions and answers on genesis and exodus (qge) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33
quotations, biblical Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 40
rabbis (sages) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
rachel Gera, Judith (2014) 271
reasoning Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
rebecca Gera, Judith (2014) 271
repent Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
reproduction, as marriages purpose Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
rest, noahs name meaning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
rest, sabbath and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
rewards of abraham, lineage as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 369
rhetoric of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
righteous/ness Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
rome, influence of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
ruth and naomi Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 299
sabbath Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
sarah, abrahams wife Gera, Judith (2014) 271
sarah, as virtue Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
sarah, childlessness of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369
sarah, death of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33, 40
sarah, encomium on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
sarah, hagar offered by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369, 378, 379, 385
sarah, virtues of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33, 40, 368, 369, 378, 379, 385
sarah, wifely love of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
sarah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116; Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 299; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168, 169; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 147, 149, 151
sarah (sarai) Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158, 159, 166, 178
sarah (sarai, wife of abraham) viii Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 2, 6
sari Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204, 205
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 271
self-control Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
separatism, jewish Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287, 299
servants, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 271
sexual relations Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168, 169
shechem/shechemites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 116
shimon bar yohai, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
simeon Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287
simeon bar yohai Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
sin Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
socratic, argument Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
sodom Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
solomon Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 287
soul, the eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
soul Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
speeches, inserted or expanded Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 369
spies in canaan Gera, Judith (2014) 271
structure of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33
synagogue Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158
talisman Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 205
temples and textuality Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 198
testament genre Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 198
the cosmos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
the three visitors, literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 250
the three visitors Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40, 250
torah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
triads, second Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
triads Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37
uzziah Gera, Judith (2014) 271
verbosity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266
virgin/virginity' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 168
virginity Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151
virtue, specific/generic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
virtue Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277
water shortage Gera, Judith (2014) 271
wife Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204
wifely love Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
wisdom Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 277; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 266; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 151
yannai Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158, 159, 166
zilpah Gera, Judith (2014) 271
zion Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 204; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 158
νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
νόμος ἔμψυχος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
παθήματα Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς ὄμμα Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 199
φιλανδρία Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368, 385
ἐγκώμιον Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 368
ὁ ὤν Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
ῥητός Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 33
– death of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 236
– doublets Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
– of biblical names Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178
– pun Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 159
– redaction of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 178