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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.5


וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

46 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ עַל־כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.3. Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; Thy name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore do the maidens love thee.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 12.31, 26.5-26.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 12.31. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָּל־תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵא עָשׂוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 12.31. Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God; for every abomination to the LORD, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods." 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage." 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey." 26.10. And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.1, 3.14-3.15, 12.37-12.38, 16.18, 16.23, 16.35, 19.6, 20.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 12.37. וַיִּסְעוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵרַעְמְסֵס סֻכֹּתָה כְּשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף רַגְלִי הַגְּבָרִים לְבַד מִטָּף׃ 12.38. וְגַם־עֵרֶב רַב עָלָה אִתָּם וְצֹאן וּבָקָר מִקְנֶה כָּבֵד מְאֹד׃ 16.18. וַיָּמֹדּוּ בָעֹמֶר וְלֹא הֶעְדִּיף הַמַּרְבֶּה וְהַמַּמְעִיט לֹא הֶחְסִיר אִישׁ לְפִי־אָכְלוֹ לָקָטוּ׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 16.35. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָכְלוּ אֶת־הַמָּן אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה עַד־בֹּאָם אֶל־אֶרֶץ נוֹשָׁבֶת אֶת־הַמָּן אָכְלוּ עַד־בֹּאָם אֶל־קְצֵה אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 20.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר־אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ וְנִשְׁמָעָה וְאַל־יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים פֶּן־נָמוּת׃ 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations." 12.37. And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside children." 12.38. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle." 16.18. And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating." 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 16.35. And the children of Israel did eat the manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat the manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan." 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 20.16. And they said unto Moses: ‘Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.3, 1.4, 2.7, 2.14, 2.24, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 4.19, 5, 6, 6.2, 6.6, 6.21, 7, 8, 9, 9.10, 10, 10.11, 11, 11.29, 11.31, 11.31-12.9, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.5, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.22, 15.6, 15.7, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.15, 17.4, 17.5, 17.8, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.21, 18.22, 18.25, 19.1, 19.20, 19.24, 19.25, 19.28, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16, 20.17, 20.18, 21.1, 21.2, 21.6, 21.12, 21.21, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.16, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.6, 24, 24.1, 24.3, 24.4, 24.7, 25.1, 25.22, 26.5, 26.34, 27.46, 28.1, 28.2, 28.6, 36.2, 37.36, 38.2, 38.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 14.5, 14.20, 14.23, 24.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.5. עֵד אֱמוּנִים לֹא יְכַזֵּב וְיָפִיחַ כְּזָבִים עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 14.23. בְּכָל־עֶצֶב יִהְיֶה מוֹתָר וּדְבַר־שְׂפָתַיִם אַךְ־לְמַחְסוֹר׃ 24.28. אַל־תְּהִי עֵד־חִנָּם בְּרֵעֶךָ וַהֲפִתִּיתָ בִּשְׂפָתֶיךָ׃ 14.5. A faithful witness will not lie; But a false witness breatheth forth lies." 14.20. The poor is hated even of his own neighbour; But the rich hath many friends. ." 14.23. In all labour there is profit; But the talk of the lips tendeth only to penury." 24.28. Be not a witness against thy neighbour without cause; And deceive not with thy lips."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 80.2-80.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

80.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים צְבָאוֹת הֲשִׁיבֵנוּ הָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ וְנִוָּשֵׁעָה׃ 80.2. רֹעֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל הַאֲזִינָה נֹהֵג כַּצֹּאן יוֹסֵף יֹשֵׁב הַכְּרוּבִים הוֹפִיעָה׃ 80.3. לִפְנֵי אֶפְרַיִם וּבִנְיָמִן וּמְנַשֶּׁה עוֹרְרָה אֶת־גְּבוּרָתֶךָ וּלְכָה לִישֻׁעָתָה לָּנוּ׃ 80.2. Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, Thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; Thou that art enthroned upon the cherubim, shine forth." 80.3. Before Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh, stir up Thy might, And come to save us."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.13-29.14, 29.16, 29.18-29.19, 29.22, 37.34, 37.36, 49.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 29.14. לָכֵן הִנְנִי יוֹסִף לְהַפְלִיא אֶת־הָעָם־הַזֶּה הַפְלֵא וָפֶלֶא וְאָבְדָה חָכְמַת חֲכָמָיו וּבִינַת נְבֹנָיו תִּסְתַּתָּר׃ 29.16. הַפְכְּכֶם אִם־כְּחֹמֶר הַיֹּצֵר יֵחָשֵׁב כִּי־יֹאמַר מַעֲשֶׂה לְעֹשֵׂהוּ לֹא עָשָׂנִי וְיֵצֶר אָמַר לְיוֹצְרוֹ לֹא הֵבִין׃ 29.18. וְשָׁמְעוּ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא הַחֵרְשִׁים דִּבְרֵי־סֵפֶר וּמֵאֹפֶל וּמֵחֹשֶׁךְ עֵינֵי עִוְרִים תִּרְאֶינָה׃ 29.19. וְיָסְפוּ עֲנָוִים בַּיהוָה שִׂמְחָה וְאֶבְיוֹנֵי אָדָם בִּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל יָגִילוּ׃ 29.22. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר פָּדָה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם לֹא־עַתָּה יֵבוֹשׁ יַעֲקֹב וְלֹא עַתָּה פָּנָיו יֶחֱוָרוּ׃ 37.34. בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בָּא בָּהּ יָשׁוּב וְאֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת לֹא יָבוֹא נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 37.36. וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּכֶּה בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה וּשְׁמֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 49.3. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי עַבְדִּי־אָתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר׃ 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;" 29.14. Therefore, behold, I will again do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder; and the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the prudence of their prudent men shall be hid." 29.16. O your perversity! Shall the potter be esteemed as clay; that the thing made should say of him that made it: ‘He made me not’; Or the thing framed say of him that framed it: ‘He hath no understanding?’" 29.18. And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of a book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness." 29.19. The humble also shall increase their joy in the LORD, and the neediest among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel." 29.22. Therefore thus saith the LORD, who redeemed Abraham, concerning the house of Jacob: Jacob shall not now be ashamed, Neither shall his face now wax pale;" 37.34. By the way that he came, by the same shall he return, and he shall not come unto this city, saith the LORD." 37.36. And the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses." 49.3. And He said unto me: ‘Thou art My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.’"
9. Hesiod, Works And Days, 288-289, 287 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne
10. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.13 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.13. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־לִבִּי לִדְרוֹשׁ וְלָתוּר בַּחָכְמָה עַל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם הוּא עִנְיַן רָע נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ׃ 1.13. And I applied my heart to seek and to search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven; it is a sore task that God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised therewith."
11. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

203a. and incantations, and all soothsaying and sorcery. God with man does not mingle: but the spiritual is the means of all society and converse of men with gods and of gods with men, whether waking or asleep. Whosoever has skill in these affairs is a spiritual man to have it in other matters, as in common arts and crafts, is for the mechanical. Many and multifarious are these spirits, and one of them is Love.
14. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-36, 4-9, 1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 107-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-132, 136, 14, 144, 147, 15-16, 163, 167-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 20, 200-207, 21, 217, 22-29, 3, 30-47, 62-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-81, 9, 90, 93, 97-98, 10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

10. for, as the poet Homer, though the number of poets is beyond all calculation, is called "the poet" by way of distinction, and as the black [ink] with which we write is called "the black," though in point of fact everything which is not white is black; and as that archon at Athens is especially called "the archon," who is the archon eponymus and the chief of the nine archons, from whom the chronology is dated; so in the same manner the sacred historian calls him who indulges in hope, "a man," by way of pre-eminence, passing over in silence the rest of the multitude of human beings, as not being worthy to receive the same appellation.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 11-17, 2-5, 52-59, 6, 60-61, 7-10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 44, 150 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

150. In the first place it calls itself a severe day, having regard to the boy who is mocking it; for by him and by every fool the road which leads to virtue is looked upon as rough and difficult to travel and most painful, as one of the old poets testifies, saying:-- Vice one may take in troops with ease, But in fair virtue's front Immortal God has stationed toil, And care, and sweat, to bar the road. Long is the road and steep, And rough at first, which leads the steps Or mortal men thereto; But when you reach the height, the path Is easy which before was hard, And swift the onward course. XXXVII.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-126, 129, 13-14, 148-149, 15, 150-151, 154-157, 159, 16-17, 176-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-197, 2, 20, 201-202, 204, 206-209, 21, 210-212, 216-219, 22, 220-225, 23-29, 3, 30-39, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. And the Lord said to Abraham, "Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house to a land which I will show thee; and I will make thee into a great nation. And I will bless thee, and I will magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and I will curse them that curse thee; and in thy name shall all the nations of the earth be Blessed.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 54, 71, 80, 168 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

168. For I think that as the sun and the moon do continually give light, ever since they were originally commanded to do so at the time of the original creation of the universe, and as they constantly obey the divine injunction, for the sake of no other reason but because evil and disobedience are banished to a distance far from the boundaries of heaven: so in the same way would the fertile and productive regions of the earth yield an immense abundance in the various seasons of the year, without any skill or co-operation on the part of the husbandman. But at present the ever-flowing fountains of the graces of God have been checked, from the time when wickedness began to increase faster than the virtues, in order that they might not be supplying men who were unworthy to be benefited by them.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

8. If it is hard to depart from before the face and out of the sight of a mortal king, how can it be anything but extremely difficult to depart and quit the appearance of God, and to determine no longer to come into his sight. This indeed is to be left without any idea of him, and to be mutilated as to the eyes of the soul
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 58 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

58. On which account, a man would not be wrong who called our minds the sun of our composition; as the mind, if it does not rise and shed its own light in man, who may be looked upon as a small world, leaves a great darkness diffused over all existing things, and suffers nothing to be brought to light. XVII.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 69, 78, 36 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

36. For, as it is impossible to see without light, since neither colours nor eyes are sufficient for the comprehension of things which we arrive at by means of sight (for nature has made light beforehand to serve as a link to connect the two, by which the eye is brought near and adapted to colour, for the powers of both eye and of colour are equally useless in darkness), so in the same manner is the eye of the soul unable to comprehend anything whatever of the actions in accordance with virtue, unless it takes to itself labour as a coadjutor, as the eye borrows the assistance of light; for this, being placed in the middle, between the intellect and the good object which the intellect desires, and understanding the whole nature of both the one and the other, does itself bring about friendship and harmony, two perfect goods between the two things on either hand of it. VII.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.13-1.20, 1.52, 3.1-3.6, 4.112 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.13. Some persons have conceived that the sun, and the moon, and the other stars are independent gods, to whom they have attributed the causes of all things that exist. But Moses was well aware that the world was created, and was like a very large city, having rulers and subjects in it; the rulers being all the bodies which are in heaven, such as planets and fixed stars; 1.14. and the subjects being all the natures beneath the moon, hovering in the air and adjacent to the earth. But that the rulers aforesaid are not independent and absolute, but are the viceroys of one supreme Being, the Father of all, in imitation of whom they administer with propriety and success the charge committed to their care, as he also presides over all created things in strict accordance with justice and with law. Others, on the contrary, who have not discovered the supreme Governor, who thus rules everything, have attributed the causes of the different things which exist in the world to the subordinate powers, as if they had brought them to pass by their own independent act. 1.15. But the most sacred lawgiver changes their ignorance into knowledge, speaking in the following manner: "Thou shalt not, when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and all the host of heaven, be led astray and fall down and worship Them."{3}{#de 4:19.} With great felicity and propriety has he here called the reception of these bodies as gods, an error; 1.16. for they who see that the different seasons of the year owe their existence to the advances and retreats of the sun, in which periods also the generation of animals, and plants, and fruits, are perfected according to well-defined times, and who see also that the moon is the servant and successor of the sun, taking that care and superintendence of the world by night which the sun takes by day; and also that the other stars, in accordance with their sympathy with things on earth, labour continually and do ten thousand things which contribute to the duration of the existing state of things, have been led into an inextricable error, imagining that these bodies are the only gods. 1.17. But if they had taken pains to travel along the straight and true road, they would soon have known that just as the outward sense is the subordinate minister of the mind, so in the same manner all the objects of the outward senses are servants of that which is appreciable only by intellect, being well contented if they can attain to the second place in honour. 1.18. But it is altogether ridiculous to imagine that the mind, which is the smallest thing in us, being in fact invisible, is the ruler of those organs which belong to the external senses, but that the greatest and most perfect ruler of the whole universe is not the King of kings; that the being who sees, is not the ruler of those who do not see. 1.19. We must, therefore, look on all those bodies in the heaven, which the outward sense regards as gods, not as independent rulers, since they are assigned the work of lieutets, being by their intrinsic nature responsible to a higher power, but by reason of their virtue not actually called to render in an account of their doings. 1.20. So that, transcending all visible essence by means of our reason, let us press forward to the honour of that everlasting and invisible Being who can be comprehended and appreciated by the mind alone; who is not only the God of all gods, whether appreciable only by the intellect or visible to the outward senses, but is also the creator of them all. And if any one gives up the service due to the everlasting and uncreated God, transferring it to any more modern and created being, let him be set down as mad and as liable to the charge of the greatest impiety.IV. 1.52. Accordingly, having given equal rank and honour to all those who come over, and having granted to them the same favours that were bestowed on the native Jews, he recommends those who are ennobled by truth not only to treat them with respect, but even with especial friendship and excessive benevolence. And is not this a reasonable recommendation? What he says is this. "Those men, who have left their country, and their friends, and their relations for the sake of virtue and holiness, ought not to be left destitute of some other cities, and houses, and friends, but there ought to be places of refuge always ready for those who come over to religion; for the most effectual allurement and the most indissoluble bond of affectionate good will is the mutual honouring of the one God. 3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. 4.112. Now both these things are symbols; the former of a soul devoted to pleasure, and the latter of one which loves perseverance and temperance. For the road which leads to pleasure is a down-hill one and very easy, being rather an absorbing gulf than a path. But the path which leads to temperance is up hill and laborious, but above all other roads advantageous. And the one leads men downwards, and prevents those who travel by it from retracing their steps until they have arrived at the very lowest bottom, but the other leads to heaven; making those who do not weary before they reach it immortal, if they are only able to endure its rugged and difficult ascent.ABOUT Reptile
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 213-219, 55, 212 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

212. The most ancient person of the Jewish nation was a Chaldaean by birth, born of a father who was very skilful in astronomy, and famous among those men who pass their lives in the study of mathematics, who look upon the stars as gods, and worship the whole heaven and the whole world; thinking, that from them do all good and all evil proceed, to every individual among men; as they do not conceive that there is any cause whatever, except such as are included among the objects of the outward senses.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 59-60, 12 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

12. But they who apply themselves to this kind of worship, not because they are influenced to do so by custom, nor by the advice or recommendation of any particular persons, but because they are carried away by a certain heavenly love, give way to enthusiasm, behaving like so many revellers in bacchanalian or corybantian mysteries, until they see the object which they have been earnestly desiring.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.179 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2.179. And on the next day, in obedience to a command from God, he went into the temple, while all the people were standing around, and brought out the rods, the others differing in no respect from the state in which they were when they were put in; but the one on which the name of his brother was written had undergone a miraculous change; for like a fine plant it suddenly put forth shoots all over, and was weighed down with the abundance of its crop of fruit.
27. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 181, 189-191, 151 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

151. And after he had been deprived of all his property, he was condemned to banishment, and was exiled from the whole continent, and that is the greatest and most excellent portion of the inhabited world, and from every island that has any character for fertility or richness; for he was commanded to be sent into that most miserable of all the islands in the Aegaean Sea, called Gyara, and he would have been left there if he had not availed himself of the intercession of Lepidus, by whose means he obtained leave to exchange Gyara for Andros, which was very near it.
28. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.244 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

30. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 278, 48, 265 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

265. and this very frequently happens to the race of prophets; for the mind that is in us is removed from its place at the arrival of the divine Spirit, but is again restored to its previous habitation when that Spirit departs, for it is contrary to holy law for what is mortal to dwell with what is immortal. On this account the setting of our reason, and the darkness which surrounds it, causes a trance and a heaven-inflicted madness.
31. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 22 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

22. But some say that the proper name of the man who found him wandering in the plain is not mentioned, and they themselves are in some degree mistaken here, because they are unable clearly to discover the true way of this business, for if they had not been mutilated as to the eye of the soul, they would have known that of one who is truly a man, the most proper, and appropriate, and felicitous name is this very name of man, being the most appropriate appelation of a well regulated and rational mind.
32. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 77-79, 3 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

3. For as long as the pure rays of wisdom shine forth in the soul, by means of which the wise man sees God and his powers, no one of those who bring false news ever enters into the reason, but all such are kept at a distance outside of the sacred threshhold. But when the light of the intellect is dimmed and overshadowed, then the companions of darkness having become victorious, associate themselves with the dissolute and effeminate passions which the prophet calls the daughters of men, and they bear children to them and not to God.
33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.154, 12.258-12.264 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.154. 1. Now Abram, having no son of his own, adopted Lot, his brother Haran’s son, and his wife Sarai’s brother; and he left the land of Chaldea when he was seventy-five years old, and at the command of God went into Canaan, and therein he dwelt himself, and left it to his posterity. He was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his opinions; 12.258. So they sent ambassadors to Antiochus, and an epistle, whose contents are these: “To king Antiochus the god, Epiphanes, a memorial from the Sidonians, who live at Shechem. 12.259. Our forefathers, upon certain frequent plagues, and as following a certain ancient superstition, had a custom of observing that day which by the Jews is called the Sabbath. And when they had erected a temple at the mountain called Gerrizzim, though without a name, they offered upon it the proper sacrifices. 12.261. We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and Savior, to give order to Apollonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbance, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation, and from their customs; but let our temple, which at present hath no name at all be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. If this were once done, we should be no longer disturbed, but should be more intent on our own occupation with quietness, and so bring in a greater revenue to thee.” 12.262. When the Samaritans had petitioned for this, the king sent them back the following answer, in an epistle: “King Antiochus to Nicanor. The Sidonians, who live at Shechem, have sent me the memorial enclosed. 12.263. When therefore we were advising with our friends about it, the messengers sent by them represented to us that they are no way concerned with accusations which belong to the Jews, but choose to live after the customs of the Greeks. Accordingly, we declare them free from such accusations, and order that, agreeable to their petition, their temple be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius.” 12.264. He also sent the like epistle to Apollonius, the governor of that part of the country, in the forty-sixth year, and the eighteenth day of the month Hecatorabeom.
34. Mishnah, Avot, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. Ten miracles were wrought for our ancestors in Egypt, and ten at the sea. Ten plagues did the Holy one, blessed be He, bring upon the Egyptians in Egypt and ten at the sea. [With] ten trials did our ancestors try God, blessed be He, as it is said, “and they have tried Me these ten times and they have not listened to my voice” (Numbers 14:22)."
35. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 8.4, 8.14, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, Acts, 2.42, 7.2-7.5, 7.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran 7.3. and said to him, 'Get out of your land, and from your relatives, and come into a land which I will show you.' 7.4. Then he came out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and lived in Haran. From there, when his father was dead, God moved him into this land, where you are now living. 7.5. He gave him no inheritance in it, no, not so much as to set his foot on. He promised that he would give it to him in possession, and to his seed after him, when he still had no child. 7.7. 'I will judge the nation to which they will be in bondage,' said God, 'and after that will they come out, and serve me in this place.'
37. New Testament, Romans, 15.25, 15.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things.
38. Tosefta, Horayot, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 39.2, 39.11, 39.14, 42.8, 43.6-43.7, 46.3, 46.10, 47.7, 47.9-47.10, 48.4, 48.8-48.9, 49.4, 50.7, 52.3, 54.2, 55.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39.2. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם (בראשית יב, א), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה פָּתַח (שיר השירים א, ג): לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה לְמָה הָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ דוֹמֶה, לִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל אַפּוֹפִּילְסִימוֹן מֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל, וּמֻנַּחַת בְּזָוִית, וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה מִטַּלְטֶלֶת הָיָה רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ טַלְטֵל עַצְמְךָ מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וְשִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בָּעוֹלָם. 39.11. וְאֶעֶשֶׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב), אָמַר לוֹ וּמִנֹחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גּוֹי גָּדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמָּךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אֶתֶּנְךָ וַאֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חִוְיָת וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמְרוּ, שְׁלשָׁה גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ מַגְרֶמֶת לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם. מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ. וּלְפוּם דְּאָמְרִין אִינְשֵׁי מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, חֲלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר, נָפֶשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לֹא נֶפֶשׁ אַתְּ חָסֵר וְלֹא מָמוֹן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר, שֶׁיָּצָא מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בָּעוֹלָם. אַרְבָּעָה הֵם שֶׁיָּצָא לָהֶם מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, אַבְרָהָם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַהוּ מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, זָקֵן וּזְקֵנָה מִכָּאן בָּחוּר וּבְתוּלָה מִכָּאן. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (יהושע ו, כז): וַיְהִי ה' אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיְהִי שָׁמְעוֹ בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, מַהוּ, שׁוֹר מִכָּאן וּרְאֵם מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (דברים לג, יז): בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ וְקַרְנֵי רְאֵם קַרְנָיו. דָּוִד (דברי הימים א יד, יז): וַיֵּצֵא שֵׁם דָּוִיד בְּכָל הָאֲרָצוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הָיָה מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ מַקֵּל וְתַרְמִיל מִכָּאן וּמִגְדָּל מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (שיר השירים ד, ד): כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ. מָרְדְּכַי (אסתר ט, ד): כִּי גָּדוֹל מָרְדְּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּכָל הַמְדִינוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַה מּוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר מִכָּאן וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב מִכָּאן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן קוֹבֵעַ אֲנִי לְךָ בְּרָכָה בִּשְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, אֲבָל אֵין אַתְּ יוֹדֵעַ אִם שֶׁלִּי קוֹדֶמֶת אִם שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחוּיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי זְעֵירָא שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְשֶׁלִּי, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם אַחַר כָּךְ מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר הַבֶּט נָא שָׁמַיִם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא (בראשית טו, ה): הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהֵ"א בָּרָאתִי אֶת הָעוֹלָם הֲרֵינִי מוֹסִיף הֵ"א עַל שִׁמְךָ וְאַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן וְהָיוּ אוֹתוֹתֶיךָ מִנְיַן אֲבָרֶכְכָה, מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֹא שָׁם אָדָם פָּרָה מֵאַבְרָהָם עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ, וְלֹא שָׁמָהּ לוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ מֵאַבְרָהָם, כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל עֲקָרוֹת וְהֵם נִפְקָדוֹת, וְעַל הַחוֹלִים וְהֵם מַרְוִיחִים. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר לֹא סוֹף דָּבָר אַבְרָהָם הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַחוֹלֶה, אֶלָּא הַחוֹלֶה רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ וּמַרְוִיחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֲפִלּוּ סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ מְפָרְשׁוֹת בַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל הָיוּ נִצּוֹלוֹת בִּזְכוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם. וְלֹא שֶׁל יַיִן נֶסֶךְ הָיוּ, אֶתְמְהָא, אֶלָּא חָלָא מֵזִיל חַמְרָא, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּיִן עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים מָצוּי יַיִן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל נִמְכַּר בְּזוֹל. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַף לְאִיּוֹב עָשָׂה כֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב א, י): מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ, לֹא נָטַל אָדָם פְרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב וְנִצְטָרֵךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, קְרִי בֵיהּ בְּרֵכָה, מַה בְּרֵכָה זוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתְּ מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים וּמְטַהֲרָם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה כְּבָר כָּתוּב וַאֲבָרֶכְכָה, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ עַד כָּאן הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת עוֹלָמִי, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּחָזֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָא בָּרֵיךְ. 39.14. וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן (בראשית יב, ה), אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר זִמְרָא אִם מִתְכַּנְסִין כָּל בָּאֵי הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹא אֲפִלּוּ יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לִזְרֹק בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה, וְאַתְּ אָמַר וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ, וְאִם כֵּן שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ לָמָּה אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אֶלָּא לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מְקָרֵב אֶת הָעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים וּמְגַיְּרוֹ כְּאִלּוּ בְּרָאוֹ. וְיֹאמַר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֶת הָאֲנָשִׁים וְשָׂרָה מְגַיֶּרֶת אֶת הַנָּשִׁים. 42.8. וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט (בראשית יד, יג), רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ בְּשֵׁם בַּר קַפָּרָא הוּא עוֹג הוּא פָּלִיט, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ עוֹג שֶׁבָּא וּמָצָא אֶת אַבְרָם יוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוַת עוּגוֹת, הוּא לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם אֶלָּא אָמַר אַבְרָהָם זֶה קוּנְיוֹן הוּא, וְעַכְשָׁו אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לוֹ נִשְׁבָּה בֶּן אָחִיךָ וְהוּא יוֹצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה וְנֶהֱרַג וַאֲנִי נוֹטֵל אֶת שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַיֶּיךָ שְׂכַר פְּסִיעוֹתֶיךָ אַתָּה נוֹטֵל שֶׁאַתְּ מַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים בָּעוֹלָם, וְעַל שֶׁחָשַׁבְתָּ לַהֲרֹג אֶת הַצַּדִּיק חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה אֶלֶף אֲלָפִים וְרִבֵּי רְבָבוֹת מִבְּנֵי בָנָיו. וְאֵין סוֹפוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ לִפֹּל אֶלָּא בְּיָדָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ג, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֵלַי אַל תִּירָא אֹתוֹ כִּי בְיָדְךָ וגו'. (בראשית יד, יג): וַיַּגֵּד לְאַבְרָם הָעִבְרִי, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ מֵעֵבֶר אֶחָד וְהוּא מֵעֵבֶר אֶחָד. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר שֶׁהוּא מִבְּנֵי בָּנָיו שֶׁל עֵבֶר. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי שֶׁהוּא מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר, וְשֶׁהוּא מֵשִׂיחַ בִּלְשׁוֹן עִבְרִי. (בראשית יד, יג): וְהוּא שֹׁכֵן בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר בְּמֵשְׁרַיָא דְמַמְרֵא. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר בְּפָלָטִין דְּמַמְרֵא, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אַתְרָא הוּא דִּשְׁמֵיהּ מַמְרֵא, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה גַּבְרָא הוּא דִּשְׁמֵיהּ מַמְרֵא. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מַמְרֵא, רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן שֶׁהִמְרָה פָּנִים בְּאַבְרָהָם, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם לִמּוֹל, הָלַךְ וְנִמְלַךְ בִּשְׁלשֶׁת אֹהֲבָיו, אָמַר לוֹ עָנֵר כְּבָר בֶּן מֵאָה שָׁנָה אַתָּה וְאַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ וּמְצַעֵר אֶת עַצְמְךָ. אָמַר לוֹ אֶשְׁכּוֹל מַה אַתְּ הוֹלֵךְ וּמְסַיֵּם אֶת עַצְמְךָ בֵּין שׂוֹנְאֶיךָ. אָמַר לוֹ מַמְרֵא אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֶׁעָמַד לְךָ בְּכִבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ וּבַמְּלָכִים וּבָרֵעָבוֹן, וְהַדָּבָר הַזֶּה שֶׁאָמַר לְךָ לָמוּל אֵין אַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ לוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתָּה נָתַתָּה לוֹ עֵצָה לָמוּל, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֵינִי נִגְלָה עָלָיו לֹא בַּפָּלָטִין שֶׁל עָנֵר וְלֹא בַּפָּלָטִין שֶׁל אֶשְׁכּוֹל אֶלָּא בַּפָּלָטִין שֶׁלְּךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, א): וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו ה' בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא. 43.6. וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם וגו' (בראשית יד, יח), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מה, יג): וּבַת צֹר בְּמִנְחָה פָּנַיִךְ יְחַלּוּ עֲשִׁירֵי עָם. וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה מַצְדִּיק אֶת יוֹשְׁבָיו, מַלְכִּי צֶדֶק, (יהושע י, א): אֲדֹנִי צֶדֶק. צֶדֶק נִקְרֵאת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה א, כא): צֶדֶק יָלִין בָּהּ, מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, רַבִּי יִצְחָק הַבַּבְלִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁנּוֹלַד מָהוּל. (בראשית יד, יח): הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר הִלְכוֹת כְּהֻנָּה גְדוֹלָה גִּלָּה לוֹ, לֶחֶם, זֶה לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. וָיָיִן, אֵלּוּ הַנְּסָכִים. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי תּוֹרָה גִּלָּה לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, ה): לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחְמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי. וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר כָּל יַיִן שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה עוֹשֶׂה רוֹשֶׁם חוּץ מִזֶּה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אַף זֶה לֹא יָצָאנוּ מִיָּדוֹ, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם קָרָא עָלָיו (בראשית טו, יג): וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה. 43.7. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ (בראשית יד, יט), מִמִּי קְנָאָן, רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַב כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר כְּאִינָשׁ דַּאֲמַר פְּלַן עֵינוֹהִי יָאֵי, שַׂעֲרֵיהּ יָאֵי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, וּמִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִין הָיָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם אִמְּרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי לֹא הָיָה שְׁמִי נִכָּר לִבְרִיּוֹתַי וְהִכַּרְתָּ אוֹתִי בִּבְרִיּוֹתַי, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ אַתָּה שֻׁתָּף עִמִּי בִּבְרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: קוֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ. 46.3. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם, דַּיֶּךָּ אֲנִי וְאַתָּה בָּעוֹלָם, וְאִם אֵין אַתְּ מְקַבֵּל עָלֶיךָ לִמּוֹל דַּיִּי לְעוֹלָמִי עַד כָּאן וְדַיָּהּ לָעָרְלָה עַד כָּאן, וְדַיָּהּ לַמִּילָה שֶׁתְּהֵא עֲגוּמָה עַד כָּאן, אָמַר עַד שֶׁלֹא מַלְתִּי הָיוּ בָּאִים וּמִזְדַּוְּגִים לִי, תֹּאמַר מִשֶּׁמַּלְתִּי הֵן בָּאִין וּמִזְדַּוְּגִים לִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם דַּיֶּךּ שֶׁאֲנִי אֱלֹהֶיךָ, דַּיֶּךּ שֶׁאֲנִי פַּטְרוֹנְךָ. וְלֹא לְךָ לְעַצְמְךָ אֶלָּא דַּי לְעוֹלָמִי שֶׁאֲנִי אֱלוֹהוֹ. דַּיּוֹ לְעוֹלָמִי שֶׁאֲנִי פַּטְרוֹנוֹ. רַבִּי נָתָן וְרַבִּי אַחָא וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אֲנִי אֵל שַׁדַּי, אֲנִי הוּא שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְעוֹלָמִי וְלַשָּׁמַיִם דַּי לָאָרֶץ דַּי, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם דַּי עַד עַכְשָׁיו הָיוּ נִמְתָּחִים וְהוֹלְכִים. תָּנֵי מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אֲנִי הוּא שֶׁאֵין הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ כְּדַי לֵאלָהוּתִי, תַּרְגּוּם עֲקִילָס אַכַּסְיוֹס וְאַנְקוֹס. 47.7. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ וְאֵת כָּל יְלִידֵי בֵיתוֹ (בראשית יז, כג), אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמָּל אַבְרָהָם אוֹתָן יְלִידֵי בֵּיתוֹ, הֶעֱמִידָן גִּבְעָה עֲרָלוֹת וְזָרְחָה עֲלֵיהֶם חַמָּה וְהִתְלִיעוּ וְעָלָה רֵיחָן לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כִּקְטֹרֶת סַמִּים וּכְעוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא כָלִיל לָאִשִּׁים, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בָנָיו שֶׁל זֶה בָּאִים לִידֵי עֲבֵרוֹת וְלִידֵי מַעֲשִׂים רָעִים אֲנִי נִזְכַּר לָהֶם הָרֵיחַ הַזֶּה וּמִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיהֶם רַחֲמִים וּמְרַחֵם עֲלֵיהֶם. 47.9. בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִמּוֹל אַבְרָהָם (בראשית יז, כו), אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה (ישעיה מח, טז): לֹא מֵרֹאשׁ בַּסֵּתֶר דִּבַּרְתִּי, [אלא] אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִלּוּ מָל אַבְרָהָם בַּלַּיְלָה הָיוּ כָּל בְּנֵי דוֹרוֹ אוֹמְרִים בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ אִלּוּ הָיִינוּ רוֹאִים אוֹתוֹ לֹא הָיִינוּ מַנִּיחִים אוֹתוֹ לִמּוֹל, אֶלָּא בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, דִּרְגַשׁ לֵיהּ יְמַלֵּל. נִמּוֹל אַבְרָהָם, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הִרְגִּישׁ וְנִצְטָעֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכְפֹּל לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׂכָרוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מָל אַבְרָהָם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא נִמּוֹל, בָּדַק אֶת עַצְמוֹ וּמָצָא עַצְמוֹ מָהוּל. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּהַהִיא עִתָּא אֲקֵיל רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא לְרַבִּי לֵוִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ שַׁקְּרָנָא כַּזְבָּנָא אַתְּ, אֶלָּא הִרְגִּישׁ וְנִצְטָעֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכְפֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׂכָרוֹ. 48.4. רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (שמות כ, כא): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁבָּנָה מִזְבֵּחַ לִשְׁמִי הֲרֵינִי נִגְלָה עָלָיו וּמְבָרְכוֹ, אַבְרָהָם שֶׁמָּל עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁמִי עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו ה' בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא. 48.8. פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל (בראשית יח, א), פֶּתַח טוֹב פָּתַחְתָּ לָעוֹבְרִים וְלַשָּׁבִים, פֶּתַח טוֹב פָּתַחְתָּ לַגֵּרִים, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי אַתְּ לֹא בָרָאתִי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מ, כב): וַיִּמְתָּחֵם כָּאֹהֶל לָשָׁבֶת, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי אַתְּ לֹא בָרָאתִי גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, ה): לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ שָׂם אֹהֶל בָּהֶם, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵּי אַתְּ לֹא בָרָאתִי אֶת הַיָּרֵחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כה, ה): הֵן עַד יָרֵחַ וְלֹא יַאֲהִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא אַבְרָהָם יוֹשֵׁב עַל פֶּתַח גֵּיהִנֹּם וְאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ אָדָם מָהוּל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֵירֵד לְתוֹכָהּ, וְאוֹתָן שֶׁחָטְאוּ יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, מֶה עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם מַעֲבִיר אֶת הָעָרְלָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּי תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁמֵּתוּ עַד שֶׁלֹא מָלוּ, וְנוֹתְנָהּ עֲלֵיהֶם וּמוֹרִידָן לַגֵּיהִנֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים נה, כא): שָׁלַח יָדָיו בִּשְׁלֹמָיו חִלֵּל בְּרִיתוֹ. כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם, לִכְשֶׁיָּבוֹא אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (מלאכי ג, יט): כִּי הִנֵּה הַיּוֹם בָּא בֹּעֵר כַּתַּנּוּר. כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם, תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם הֲרֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת אֲמוּרוֹת, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם (שמות טז, כא): וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמֵס, בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת. אַתָּה אוֹמֵר אַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם הֲרֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת אֲמוּרוֹת. אוֹ חִילוּף, כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמֵס בְּשִׁשָּׁה שָׁעוֹת. אֲמַרְתְּ הֵיךְ אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת וַהֲלוֹא בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת אֵין חֹם אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת שָׁם, בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת טֻלָּא קָרִיר וְשִׁמְשָׁא שָׁרִיב, בְּשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת טֻלָּא וְשִׁמְשָׁא שְׁרִיבִין כַּחֲדָא, הָא אֵין עָלֶיךָ לוֹמַר כְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֲרוֹן אֶלָּא כְּלָשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן, כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם בְּשִׁשָּׁה שָׁעוֹת, וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמֵס בְּאַרְבַּע שָׁעוֹת, שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם שֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת בִּלְבָד שָׁם נָמָס. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין לַבְּרִיּוֹת צֵל תַּחְתָּיו. אָמַר רַבִּי יַנַּאי, נִקֵּב נֶקֶב מִגֵּיהִנֹּם וְהִרְתִּיחַ כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ עַל יוֹשְׁבָיו לְשָׁעָה קַלָּה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צַדִּיקִים בְּצַעַר וְהָעוֹלָם בְּרֶוַח, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁהַחִמּוּם יָפֶה לַמַּכָּה. 48.9. אָמַר עַד שֶׁלֹא מַלְתִּי הָיוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים בָּאִים אֶצְלִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁלֹא מַלְתָּה הָיוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם עֲרֵלִים בָּאִים, עַכְשָׁו אֲנִי וּבְנֵי פַּמַּלְיָא שֶׁלִּי נִגְלִים עָלֶיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, ב): וַיִּשָֹּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו, וַיַּרְא בַּשְּׁכִינָה, וַיַּרְא בַּמַּלְאָכִים. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא שְׁמוֹת חֳדָשִׁים עָלוּ מִבָּבֶל. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר אַף שְׁמוֹת מַלְאָכִים מִיכָאֵל רְפָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אֶחָד נִדְמָה לוֹ בִּדְמוּת סָדָקִי, וְאֶחָד נִדְמָה לוֹ בִּדְמוּת נָוָטִי, וְאֶחָד בִּדְמוּת עֲרָבִי, אָמַר אִם רוֹאֶה אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁכִינָה מַמְתֶּנֶת עֲלֵיהֶם אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אָדָם גְּדוֹלִים, וְאִם אֲנִי רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן חוֹלְקִים כָּבוֹד אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ, אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּגָנִין, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן חוֹלְקִין כָּבוֹד אֵלּו לְאֵלּוּ, יָדַע שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּגָנִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אֹהֶל פְּלָן שֶׁל אָבִינוּ אַבְרָהָם מְפֻלָּשׁ הָיָה, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר כְּהָדֵין דְּרוֹמִילוֹס, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן שֶׁהִפְלִיגוּ אֶת דַּרְכָּם לְהִתְקָרֵב דֶּרֶךְ כָּאן, אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֵן בָּאִים אֶצְלִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן שֶׁהִפְלִיגוּ, מִיָּד וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה. 49.4. כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה (בראשית יח, יט), רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זוֹ הוֹבְרָיָא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי זוֹ בִּקּוּר חוֹלִים. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מִתְּחִלָּה צֶדֶק לְבַסּוֹף מִשְׁפָּט. הָא כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, מִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִים אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, אָמַר לָהֶם אִמְרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אִם מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו וּבְרִיךְ, הֲוָה אָכֵיל וְשָׁתֵי וְאָזֵיל, וְאִי לָא הֲוָה מְקַבֵּל עֲלֵיהּ וּבָרִיךְ, הֲוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ הַב מַה דַּעֲלָךְ. וְאָמַר מָה אִית לָךְ עָלַי, הֲוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ, חַד קְסִיט דַּחֲמַר בַּעֲשָׂרָה פּוֹלָרִין, וְחַד לִיטְרָא דְּקוֹפָר בַּעֲשָׂרָה פוֹלָרִין, וְחַד עִגּוּל דְּרִפְתָּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה פוֹלָרִין. מַאן יָהֵיב לָךְ חַמְרָא בְּמַדְבְּרָא, מַאי יָהֵיב לָךְ קוֹפָר בְּמַדְבְּרָא, מַאן יָהֵיב לָךְ עִגּוּלָא בְּמַדְבְּרָא. מִן דַּהֲוָה חָמֵי הַהִיא עַקְתָא דַּהֲוָה עָקֵי לֵיהּ, הֲוָה אָמַר בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב לְכַתְּחִלָּה צְדָקָה וּלְבַסּוֹף מִשְׁפָּט. (בראשית יח, יט): לְמַעַן הָבִיא ה' עַל אַבְרָהָם וגו', תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר, כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בֵּן יָגֵעַ בַּתּוֹרָה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא מֵת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: לְמַעַן הָבִיא ה' עַל אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' עָלָיו. 50.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ גֶּשׁ הָלְאָה (בראשית יט, ט), קְרַב לְהַלָּן. (בראשית יט, ט): וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָאֶחָד בָּא לָגוּר וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שָׁפוֹט, דִּין שֶׁדָּנוּ רִאשׁוֹנִים אַתָּה בָּא לַהֲרֹס. רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי בֵּיבַי כָּךְ הִתְנוּ אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם בֵּינֵיהֶם, אָמְרוּ, כָּל אַכְסַנְיָא שֶׁהוּא בָּא לְכָאן יְהוּ בּוֹעֲלִים אוֹתוֹ וְנוֹטְלִים אֶת מָמוֹנוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (בראשית יח, יט): וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶּרֶךְ ה', אָנוּ בּוֹעֲלִים אוֹתוֹ וְנוֹטְלִים אֶת מָמוֹנוֹ. 52.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּסַּע מִשָּׁם אַבְרָהָם, (משלי י, ח): חֲכַם לֵב יִקַּח מִצְוֹת. חֲכַם לֵב, זֶה אַבְרָהָם. יִקַּח מִצְוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁחָרַב מְקוֹמָהּ שֶׁל סְדוֹם וּפָסְקוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא חָסֵר קִילוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלוּם, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַפְסִיק צְדָקָה מִבֵּיתִי, הָלַךְ וְנָטָה לוֹ אֹהֶל בִּגְרָר. (משלי י, ח): וֶאֱוִיל שְׂפָתַיִם יִלָּבֵט, זֶה לוֹט, שֶׁהָיָה אֱוִיל בִּשְׂפָתָיו, שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לִבְנוֹתָיו דָּבָר שֶׁלָּקָה בּוֹ הָעוֹלָם אָנוּ בָּאִים לַעֲשׂוֹת, אֶלָּא יִלָּבֵט, מַה גָּרַם לוֹ, יִלָּבֵט, הֵבִיא עָלָיו לִבְטֵי לְבוֹטִים, מַה לְּהַלָּן (דברי הימים ב כג, יט): לֹא יָבוֹא טָמֵא לְכָל דָּבָר, אַף כָּאן לֹא יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל ה'. 54.2. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֹּאמֶר אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וּפִיכֹל, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר פִּיכֹל שְׁמוֹ. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר פֶּה שֶׁכָּל צִבְאוֹתָיו נוֹשְׁקִים לוֹ עַל פִּיו. אֱלֹהִים עִמְּךָ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם אוֹמְרִין אִלּוּ הָיָה צַדִּיק לֹא הָיָה מוֹלִיד, אֶתְמָהָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוֹלִיד אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֱלֹהִים עִמְּךָ. וְאִלּוּ הָיָה צַדִּיק לֹא הָיָה שׁוֹמֵעַ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לוֹ (בראשית כא, יב): כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵלֶיךָ שָׂרָה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלָהּ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֱלֹהִים עִמְּךָ. וְאִלּוּ הָיָה צַדִּיק לֹא הָיָה דוֹחֶה אֶת בְּנוֹ בְּכוֹרוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ אֶת מַעֲשָׂיו, אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֱלֹהִים עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹשֶׂה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְפִי שֶׁחָרְבוּ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁל סְדוֹם וּפָסְקוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא חָסֵר קֵלָרִין שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלוּם, לְפִיכָךְ אֱלֹהִים עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה, הוֹאִיל וְהָאֱלֹהִים עִמְּךָ. (בראשית כא, כג): וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁבְעָה לִי בֵאלֹהִים הֵנָּה אִם תִּשְׁקֹר לִי וּלְנִינִי וּלְנֶכְדִי, עַד כָּאן רַחֲמֵי הָאָב עַל הַבֵּן. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא עַד כָּאן לָאַחִים הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא כְּתִיב (תהלים לח, כ): וְאֹיְבַי חַיִּים עָצֵמוּ, מַה שֶּׁנִּתַּן לְאַבְרָהָם לְשֶׁבַע דּוֹרוֹת נִתַּן לַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ לִשְׁלשָׁה, לָמָּה (שמות יג, יז): לֹא נָחָם אֱלֹהִים דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּים, שֶׁעֲדַיִן נֶכְדּוֹ קַיָּם. (בראשית כא, כג): כַּחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי עִמְּךָ, מַה חֶסֶד עָשָׂה לוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ (בראשית כ, טו): הִנֵּה אַרְצִי לְפָנֶיךָ, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו. 55.4. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַחַר הִרְהוּרֵי דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, מִי הִרְהֵר אַבְרָהָם הִרְהֵר וְאָמַר שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרַשְׁתִּי לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לְךָ שֶׁתַּקְרִיב אֶת בִּנְךָ וְלֹא תְעַכֵּב, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר, אֱלֹהִים וְהָאֱלֹהִים, הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ, מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אָמְרוּ, אַבְרָהָם זֶה שָׂמַח וְשִׂמַּח אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּקְרִיב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְלֹא יְעַכֵּב. יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל הָיוּ מִדַּיְּנִים זֶה עִם זֶה, זֶה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, וְזֶה אָמַר חָבִיב אֲנִי מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים. אָמַר לֵיהּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ, לָמָּה שֶׁהָיָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדִי לִמְחוֹת וְלֹא מָחִיתִי. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר יִצְחָק הַלְּוַאי הָיָה נִגְלָה עָלַי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁאֶחְתֹּךְ אֶחָד מֵאֵבָרַי וְלֹא אֲעַכֵּב, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם. br br[נֻסַּח אַחֵר: אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, אֲבָל אַתָּה נִמַּלְתָּ בְּקָטְנְךָ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְחוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ יִצְחָק כָּל מַה שֶּׁהִלְוֵיתָ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁלשָׁה טִפִּים דַּם הֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי עַכְשָׁו בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנָה אִלּוּ מְבַקֵּשׁ לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִשָּׁחֵט אֵינִי מְעַכֵּב, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַשָּׁעָה, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם.] 39.2. (2) \"Adonai said to Avram.\" (Gen. 12:1) R' B'rechia opened: \"Your ointments yield a sweet fragrance, Your name is like finest oil,\" (Song 1:3). Said R' B'rechia, \"To what was Avraham analogized? To a flask of balsam liquid with a closely fitting lid, resting in a corner, and whose aroma was not wafted; once it was moved, its aroma was wafted. Thus said the Holy One, Blessed be He, to Avraham: Move yourself from one place to another, and your name will be enlarged in the world. \"" 39.14. “And the souls that they had made in Haran.” Said Rabbi Elazar ben Zimra: Even if every creature on earth conspired to create (out of nothing) even one mosquito, they could not give it a soul--and you say “the souls that they had made.” Therefore (they must be) they must be those who lived with them and converted. And it it meant “converted” why did it say “made?” In order to teach you that each one who brings an idol worshipper and converts him, it is as though he created him. And why did it say “that they made” rather than “that he made?” Said Rav Huna: Abraham would convert the men, and Sarah would convert the women. " 43.6. And Malchitzedek king of Shalem – This is what is written “And the daughter of Tyre shall seek your presence with tribute, those who are the richest of the people.” (Tehillim 45:13) ‘Malchitzedek the king of Shalem’, this place makes its inhabitants righteous (matzdik) – Malchitzedek, Adonitzedek (Yehoshua 10:1). Jerusalem is called righteousness as it says, “…in which righteousness would lodge…” (Isaiah 1:21) ‘king of Shalem’ R’ Yitzchak the Bavli says (he is called this) because he was born circumcised. \"brought out bread and wine, and he was a priest to the Most High God\" (Bereshit 14:18) R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani and the Rabba argue, R’ Shmuel said that the laws of the High Priesthood were revealed to him – ‘bread’ is the show bread, ‘wine’ are the libations. The Rabba say that Torah was revealed to him as it says, “\"Come, partake of my bread and drink of the wine I have mingled.” (Mishle 9:5) ‘and he was a priest to the Most High God’ R’ Aba bar Kahana said every mention of wine written in the Torah makes an impact except for this, R’ Levi said that even this we did not escape, because from there He called upon him “…and they will enslave them and oppress them, for four hundred years.” (Bereshit 15:13)" 48.8. \"At the opening of the tent\" (Gen. 18:1). You have made a good opening for passersby. You have made a good opening for strangers/converts. For were it not for you, I would not have created heaven and earth, as it is said (Isa. 40:22]), \"Stretched them out like a tent to dwell in.\" For were it not for you, I would not have made the orb of the sun, as it is said (Ps. 19:5), \"He placed in them a tent for the sun.\" For were it not for you, I would not have made the moon, as it is said (Job 25:5), \"Even the moon is not bright [ya'ahil].\" R' Levi said, In the future, Avraham will be sitting at the entrance to Gehinnom, and he will not allow a circumcised Jew to go down into it. And those who have sinned too much, what does he/He do to them? He removes the foreskin from babies who have died before they were circumcised, places it on them, and causes them to go down to Gehinnom. Thus it is said (Ps. 55:21), \"He harmed his ally, he broke his pact.\" \"In the heat of the day\" (Gen. 18:1). When that day comes about which is written (Mal. 3:19), \"For lo! That day is at hand, burning like an oven.\" \"In the heat of the day.\" R' Yishmael taught, \"In the heat of the day,\" this refers to six hours of the day [noon]. So then how do I interpret (Ex. 16:21), \"when the sun grew hot, it would melt\"? To four hours. You say four hours; might it not be six hours? When it says, \"In the heat of the day,\" this refers to six hours. Or maybe it's the reverse -- \"In the heat of the day\" to four hours, and \"when the sun grew hot\" to six hours. You would say, how can you interpret \"In the heat of the day\" as four hours? Isn't it the case that, at four hours, there is heat only in a spot where the sun shines. At four hours, in the shade it is cool, and in the sun it is hot; at six hours, in the shade and the sun alike are hot. Thus you should not go by the latter version, but rather by the former: \"In the heat of the day\" is six hours, and \"when the sun grew hot\" is four hours, and only in a spot where the sun shone would it melt. R' Tanhuma said, at a time when people do not have shadows underneath [Yerush: omits \"underneath\"; Maharzu emends to \"except underneath\"]. R' Yanai said, He opened a fissure from Gehinnom and boiled the entire world, and its inhabitants to boot, for a brief moment; the Holy One, Blessed be He, said, the righteous ones are in distress, and the world is at ease? [From] this you say that heat is good for wounds." 55.4. After these things — misgivings were experienced on that occasion. Who then had misgivings? Avraham, saying to himself: ‘I have rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet I did not set aside a single bullock or ram for the Holy One of Blessing.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to him: ‘I know that even if you were commanded to offer your only son to Me, you would not refuse.’ - this is according to Rabbi Eleazar who said that the employment of va-e-lohim where E-lohim would suffice, implies both God and God’s Court. It was the ministering angels who spoke thus: ‘This Avraham rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet did not set aside for the Holy One of Blessing a single bullock or ram.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to them: ‘Even if we tell him to offer his own son, he will not refuse.’ Itzchak and Ishmael were engaged in a dispute: the latter argued, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at the age of thirteen’; while the other retorted, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at eight days.’ Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved, because I could have protested, yet I did not.’ At that moment Itzchak exclaimed: ‘O that God would appear to me and bid me cut off one of my limbs! then I would not refuse.’ Said God: ‘Even if I bid you sacrifice yourself, you will not refuse.’ [Another version: Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved than you, since I as circumcised at the age of thirteen, but you were circumcised as a baby and could not refuse.’ Itzchak retorted: ‘All that you did lend to the Holy One of Blessing was three drops of blood. But look, I am now thirty-seven years old, yet if God desired of me that I be slaughtered, I would not refuse.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing ‘This is the moment!’ Straightway, “God tested Avraham”.]"
40. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 336, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

99b. זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) [סביסקי]:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) [רבי יוחנן אמר] אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם 99b. bSing every day, sing every day,i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. bRav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says:From bwhat verseis this derived? It is bas it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. bHe laborsin Torah bin this place,this world, band his Torah labors for him in another place,the World-to-Come., bRabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil”(Job 5:7). Based on this verse, bI do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth,speech, or bwhether he was created for the toil of labor. Whenthe verse bstates: “For his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), byou must saythat bhe was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not knowwith regard to the toil of the mouth bwhether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. Whenthe verse bstates: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth”(Joshua 1:8), byou must saythat bhe was created for the toil of Torah. And that isthe meaning of bwhat Rava said: All bodies are like receptaclesto store items until use. bHappy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah. /b,The verse states: b“He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding”(Proverbs 6:32). bReish Lakish says: This isa reference to bone who studies Torah intermittently,who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, bas it is statedabout words of Torah: b“For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips”(Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat with regard to the verse: b“But the person who acts high-handedly,whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), bthisis a reference to bManasseh ben Hezekiah,king of Israel, bwho would sit and teach flawedinterpretations of Torah bnarratives. /b,Manasseh bsaid: But did Moses need to write onlyinsignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”(Genesis 36:22), or: b“And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz,son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found iduda’imin the field”(Genesis 30:14)? bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes”(Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import., bAnd aboutManasseh ben Hezekiah bit is stated explicitly in thetexts of btradition,the Prophets: b“Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope”(Isaiah 5:18). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says:This is a reference to bthe evil inclination. Initially, it seems likea flimsy bspinning [ ikuveya /i] thread and ultimately it seems likea sturdy bcart rope. /b,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse bthat we came todiscuss, bin any event, what isthe significance of the phrase in the verse b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”?The Gemara explains: bTimna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan”(Genesis 36:29), and: b“The chief of Timna”(Genesis 36:40), band each chief isa member of ba monarchy,albeit bwithout a crown.That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna bsought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said,referring to herself: bIt is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation.Ultimately, bAmalek,son of Eliphaz, bemerged from her,and that tribe bafflicted the Jewish people. What is the reasonthat the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact bthat they should not have rejected herwhen she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant., b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest”(Genesis 30:14). bRava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, saysthat bRav says: From hereit can be seen bthat the righteous do not extend their handsto engage bin robberyeven of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless iduda’im /i. The verse continues: b“And he found iduda’imin the field.”The Gemara asks: bWhat are iduda’im /i? Rav says:They are a plant called iyavruḥei /i. Levi says:They are bviolets. Rabbi Yonatan says:They are iseviskei /i. /b,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, bRabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages inthe study of bTorah for its own sake introduces peace into theheavenly bentourage above and into theearthly bentourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ ima’uzi /i], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me”(Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called ioz /i, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were., bRav says:It is bas though he built a palace ofheaven babove and ofearth bbelow, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth,and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who engages in Torah study balso protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advancesthe coming of bthe redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.” /b, bReish Lakish said:With regard to banyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he formedthat student, bas it is stated:“And Abram took Sarai his wife… band the souls that they formed in Haran”(Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. bRabbi Elazar says:It is bas though he fashioned [ iasa’an /i] the words of Torahthemselves, bas it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, iva’asitem otam /i”(Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. bRava says:It is bas though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “ iVa’asitem otam /i.” Do not read“ iva’asitem botam/i b”as: And you shall fashion them; brather,read it as iva’asitem batem/i b,meaning: You shall fashion yourself., bRabbi Abbahu says:With regard to banyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself, bas it is stated:“And the Lord said to Moses… band your rod, with which you struck the river,take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). bAndwas it bMoseswho bstruckthe river? bBut isn’tit written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that bAaron struckthe river? bRather,that verse serves bto say to you: Anyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include ban iepikoros /i. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt ischaracterized as one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately,due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like whatindividual does such a person conduct himself? He is blike Manasseh, son of Hezekiah,who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives., bAnd there are those who teachthis dispute bwith regard to the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: bOne who interprets the Torahinappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. bRav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar ischaracterized as the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, how would he characterize the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna? bLike whomdoes he conduct himself? bRav Yosef says:It is referring to one who conducts himself blike those who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bThey readthe Bible bfor theirown benefit and bthey studythe Mishna bfor theirown benefit., bAbaye said to him: Thatperson who questions the benefit provided by Sages is balsoin the category of one bwho interprets the Torahinappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, bas it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too concludethe same concept bfrom it, as it is stated:“If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, bthen I will spare the entire place for their sakes”(Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside., bRather,the iepikorosmentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself blike one who sits before his teacher and a ihalakha /ithat he learned bfrom another place happens to fallinto his consciousness bandthe student bsays: This is what we say there, and he does not saydeferentially: bThis is what the Master said,even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. bRava said:The term iepikorosis referring to one who conducts himself blike those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bNever /b
42. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.45 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.45. As Celsus, however, is of opinion that it matters nothing whether the highest being be called Jupiter, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth, or Ammoun (as the Egyptians term him), or Papp us (as the Scythians entitle him), let us discuss the point for a little, reminding the reader at the same time of what has been said above upon this question, when the language of Celsus led us to consider the subject. And now we maintain that the nature of names is not, as Aristotle supposes, an enactment of those who impose them. For the languages which are prevalent among men do not derive their origin from men, as is evident to those who are able to ascertain the nature of the charms which are appropriated by the inventors of the languages differently, according to the various tongues, and to the varying pronunciations of the names, on which we have spoken briefly in the preceding pages, remarking that when those names which in a certain language were possessed of a natural power were translated into another, they were no longer able to accomplish what they did before when uttered in their native tongues. And the same peculiarity is found to apply to men; for if we were to translate the name of one who was called from his birth by a certain appellation in the Greek language into the Egyptian or Roman, or any other tongue, we could not make him do or suffer the same things which he would have done or suffered under the appellation first bestowed upon him. Nay, even if we translated into the Greek language the name of an individual who had been originally invoked in the Roman tongue, we could not produce the result which the incantation professed itself capable of accomplishing had it preserved the name first conferred upon him. And if these statements are true when spoken of the names of men, what are we to think of those which are transferred, for any cause whatever, to the Deity? For example, something is transferred from the name Abraham when translated into Greek, and something is signified by that of Isaac, and also by that of Jacob; and accordingly, if any one, either in an invocation or in swearing an oath, were to use the expression, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, he would produce certain effects, either owing to the nature of these names or to their powers, since even demons are vanquished and become submissive to him who pronounces these names; whereas if we say, the god of the chosen father of the echo, and the god of laughter, and the god of him who strikes with the heel, the mention of the name is attended with no result, as is the case with other names possessed of no power. And in the same way, if we translate the word Israel into Greek or any other language, we shall produce no result; but if we retain it as it is, and join it to those expressions to which such as are skilled in these matters think it ought to be united, there would then follow some result from the pronunciation of the word which would accord with the professions of those who employ such invocations. And we may say the same also of the pronunciation of Sabaoth, a word which is frequently employed in incantations; for if we translate the term into Lord of hosts, or Lord of armies, or Almighty (different acceptation of it having been proposed by the interpreters), we shall accomplish nothing; whereas if we retain the original pronunciation, we shall, as those who are skilled in such matters maintain, produce some effect. And the same observation holds good of Adonai. If, then, neither Sabaoth nor Adonai, when rendered into what appears to be their meaning in the Greek tongue, can accomplish anything, how much less would be the result among those who regard it as a matter of indifference whether the highest being be called Jupiter, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth!
43. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

44. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 43

45. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.3.3

1.3.3. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַר קְרָיָיא בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית יב, א): לֶךְ לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ, לְמָה הָיָה דוֹמֶה, לִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פּוֹלְיָטוֹן שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת בְּזָוִית אַחַת וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, בָּא אֶחָד וְטִלְטְלָהּ מִמְּקוֹמָהּ וְהָיָה רֵיחָהּ נוֹדֵף, אַף כֵּן אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם, אַבְרָהָם הַרְבֵּה מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים יֵשׁ לְךָ, הַרְבֵּה מִצְווֹת יֵשׁ לְךָ, טַלְטֵל עַצְמְךָ בָּעוֹלָם וְשִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בְּעוֹלָמִי, לֶךְ לְךָ, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (בראשית יב, א): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵא לְךָ עֲלָמוֹת הַרְבֵּה, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית יב, ה): וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת לוֹט בֶּן אָחִיו וְאֶת כָּל רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, וַהֲלֹא אִם מִתְכַּנְּשִׁים כָּל הָעוֹלָם לִבְרֹאת יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לִבְרֹאתוֹ, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים שֶׁגִּיְּרוּ אַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וְאֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן. אָמַר רַבִּי חוֹנְיָא אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְגַיֵּר אֲנָשִׁים, וְשָׂרָה הַנָּשִׁים, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ מַכְנִיסָן לְבֵיתוֹ וּמַאֲכִילָן וּמַשְׁקָן וּמַאֲהִיבָן וּמְקָרְבָן וּמְגַיְּרָן וּמַכְנִיסָן תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁכָּל הַמַּכְנִיס בְּרִיָה אַחַת לְתוֹךְ כַּנְפֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה מַעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בְּרָאוֹ וִיצָרוֹ וְרִיקְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, מִמַּה שֶּׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא אוֹרָה לָעוֹלָם, שִׁמְךָ מִתְגַּדֵּל בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הִיא הָאוֹרָה, גְּאֻלָּה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאַתָּה מֵבִיא לָנוּ אוֹרָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים בָּאִים וּמִתְגַּיְּרִים וְנוֹסָפִים עָלֵינוּ, כְּגוֹן יִתְרוֹ וְרָחָב, יִתְרוֹ שָׁמַע וַאֲתָא, רָחָב שָׁמְעָה וְאַתְיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נֵס לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, הַרְבֵּה גֵרִים נִתְגַּיְּרוּ, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, כג): כִּי בִרְאוֹתוֹ יְלָדָיו מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי בְּקִרְבּוֹ יַקְדִּישׁוּ שְׁמִי, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: וְיָדְעוּ תֹעֵי רוּחַ בִּינָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לָנוּ בִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם, וּבִזַּת הַיָּם, וּבִזַּת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, וּבִזַּת שְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד מְלָכִים, אָנוּ אוֹהֲבִים אוֹתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם יוֹם הַמִּיתָה וְיוֹם הַנֶּחָמָה, אֲהֵבוּךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, בְּעַלֵּמוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ בַּעֲלֵי תְּשׁוּבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זוֹ כַּת הַשְּׁלִישִׁית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה יג, ט): וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (חבקוק ג, ב): ה' שָׁמַעְתִּי שִׁמְעֲךָ יָרֵאתִי ה' פָּעָלְךָ בְּקֶרֶב שָׁנִים וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, זֶה דּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם נֶחְשַׁבְנוּ כְּצֹאן טִבְחָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז, ח): כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת ה' אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ אֶת הַשְּׁבֻעָה וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַל כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, עַל שֶׁהֶעֱלַמְתָּ מֵהֶם מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ, עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת רֹאשׁ חוּלָה לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, מַה טַּעַם (תהלים מח, יד): שִׁיתוּ לִבְּכֶם לְחֵילָה, לְחוֹלָה כְּתִיב, צַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְצַדִּיקִים מִכָּאן וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאֶמְצָעָם, וְהֵם חָלִים לְפָנָיו בְּעַלְמוּת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים (תהלים מח, טו): כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בְּעַלֵימוּת וּבִזְרִיזוּת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, כְּאִילֵין עוּלֵימְתָא, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים סח, כו): בְּתוֹךְ עֲלָמוֹת תּוֹפֵפוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עַלְ-מוּת, תִּרְגֵּם עֲקִילַס אַתְנִסָיָא, עוֹלָם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מָוֶת, וּמְרַמְּזִין אֵלּוּ לְאֵלּוּ בָּאֶצְבַּע וְאוֹמְרִים: כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַלְ-מוּת, בִּשְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת יְנַהֲגֵנוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה דִּכְתִיב (דברים טו, ו): כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּרַכְךָ, וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה נח, יא): וְנָחֲךָ ה' תָּמִיד.
46. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None

35b. כאן קודם חזרה כאן לאחר חזרה ומשנה לא זזה ממקומה,רב מלכיא משמיה דרב אדא בר אהבה אמר מפני שמחליקין פניה בשומן חזיר רב חסדא אמר מפני שמעמידין אותה בחומץ רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שמעמידין אותה בשרף הערלה,כמאן כי האי תנא (דתניא) ר"א אומר המעמיד בשרף הערלה אסור מפני שהוא פירי,אפי' תימא ר' יהושע עד כאן לא פליג ר' יהושע עליה דר"א אלא בקטפא דגוזא אבל בקטפא דפירא מודי,והיינו דתנן א"ר יהושע שמעתי בפירוש שהמעמיד בשרף העלין ובשרף העיקרין מותר בשרף הפגין אסור מפני שהוא פירי,בין לרב חסדא בין לרב נחמן בר יצחק תתסר בהנאה קשיא,דרש רב נחמן בריה דרב חסדא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים א, ג) לריח שמניך טובים למה ת"ח דומה לצלוחית של פלייטין מגולה ריחה נודף מכוסה אין ריחה נודף,ולא עוד אלא דברים שמכוסין ממנו מתגלין לו שנאמר (שיר השירים א, ג) עלמות אהבוך קרי ביה עלומות ולא עוד אלא שמלאך המות אוהבו שנא' עלמות אהבוך קרי ביה על מות ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמות אחד העוה"ז ואחד העוה"ב שנא' עלמות קרי ביה עולמות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו דברים של עובדי כוכבים אסורין ואין איסורן איסור הנאה חלב שחלבו עובד כוכבים ואין ישראל רואהו והפת והשמן שלהן רבי ובית דינו התירו השמן,והשלקות וכבשין שדרכן לתת לתוכן יין וחומץ וטרית טרופה וציר שאין בה דגה כלבית שוטטת בו והחילק וקורט של חלתית ומלח שלקונדית הרי אלו אסורין ואין איסורן איסור הנאה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חלב למאי ניחוש לה אי משום איחלופי טהור חיור טמא ירוק ואי משום איערובי ניקום דאמר מר חלב טהור עומד חלב טמא אינו עומד,אי דקא בעי לגבינה ה"נ הכא במאי עסקינן דקא בעי ליה לכמכא,ונשקול מיניה קלי וניקום כיון דבטהור נמי איכא נסיובי דלא קיימי ליכא למיקם עלה דמילתא,ואב"א אפי' תימא דקבעי לה לגבינה איכא דקאי ביני אטפי:,והפת: א"ר כהנא א"ר יוחנן פת לא הותרה בב"ד מכלל דאיכא מאן דשרי,אין דכי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת יצא רבי לשדה והביא עובד כוכבים לפניו פת פורני מאפה סאה אמר רבי כמה נאה פת זו מה ראו חכמים לאוסרה מה ראו חכמים משום חתנות,אלא מה ראו חכמים לאוסרה בשדה כסבורין העם התיר רבי הפת ולא היא רבי לא התיר את הפת,רב יוסף ואיתימא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר לא כך היה מעשה אלא אמרו פעם אחת הלך רבי למקום אחד וראה פת דחוק לתלמידים אמר רבי אין כאן פלטר כסבורין העם לומר פלטר עובד כוכבים והוא לא אמר אלא פלטר ישראל,א"ר חלבו אפילו למ"ד פלטר עובד כוכבים לא אמרן אלא דליכא פלטר ישראל אבל במקום דאיכא פלטר ישראל לא ורבי יוחנן אמר אפי' למ"ד פלטר עובד כוכבים ה"מ בשדה אבל בעיר לא משום חתנות,איבו הוה מנכית ואכיל פת אבי מצרי אמר להו רבא ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תשתעו בהדיה דאיבו דקאכיל לחמא דארמאי:,והשמן שלהן: שמן רב אמר דניאל גזר עליו ושמואל אמר 35b. bHere,with regard to the mishna in iḤullin /i, Shmuel’s comment reflects the explanation of Rabbi Yehoshua bbeforeRabbi Yehoshua’s bretractionof the assertion that it is prohibited to derive benefit from the stomach contents of an animal carcass. bThere,with regard to the mishna in iAvoda Zara /i, Shmuel’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua bafterhis bretractionof that claim. bAndalthough this indicates that the mishna in iḤullinpresents an outdated ruling that was later rescinded, ba mishna does not move from its place.In other words, once it has been taught in a certain manner, the itannawill not change the text of a mishna in order to reflect a change of opinion, so as to avoid confusion.,The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the decree of the Sages. bRav Malkiyya says in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahava:The cheese is prohibited bbecausegentiles bsmooth its surface with pig fat. Rav Ḥisda says:It is bbecause they curdle it with vinegarproduced from their wine, from which it is prohibited to derive benefit. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:It is bbecause they curdle it with sapthat is subject to the prohibition against consuming bthe fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting [ iorla /i]. /b,Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is Rav Naḥman’s claim that the cheese of gentiles is prohibited because it is curdled in the sap of iorla /i? The Gemara answers: It is bin accordance with the opinion of this itanna /i, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iOrla1:7): bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to bone who curdlescheese bwith the sap of iorla /i,the cheese is bprohibited, becausethe sap bisconsidered to be bfruitof the tree.,The Gemara comments: bYoumay beven saythat the statement is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua,who disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as bRabbi Yehoshua disagrees with Rabbi Eliezer only with regard to the sap of a branch, but with regard to the sap of a fruitRabbi Yehoshua bconcedesthat it is prohibited as iorla /i. Rav Naḥman’s statement can be understood as referring specifically to the sap of the fruit, which would mean that it is in accordance with the opinions of both Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua.,The Gemara adds: bAnd this isin accordance with bthatwhich bwe learnedin the continuation of that mishna: bRabbi Yehoshua said: I heard explicitly thatwith regard to bone who curdlescheese bwith the sap of the leaves and the sap of the rootsof an iorlatree, the cheese bis permitted.But if it is curdled bwith the sap of unripe figs it is prohibited, becausethat sap bisconsidered to be bfruit. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty against the last two suggested reasons for the decree of the Sages. bAccording to both Rav Ḥisda,who holds that the cheese is prohibited because it is curdled with vinegar made from wine of gentiles, band Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak,who maintains that it is prohibited because it is curdled with the sap of iorla /i, bone should be prohibited fromderiving bbenefitfrom the cheese, as one may not derive benefit from either the wine of gentiles or iorla /i. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, this is bdifficult. /b,§ bRav Naḥman, son of Rav Ḥisda, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Your ointments have a goodly fragrance”(Song of Songs 1:3)? This is a metaphor for a Torah scholar: bTo what is a Torah scholar comparable? To a flask of ipelaitin /i:When it is bexposed, its scent diffuses;when it is bcovered, its scent does not diffuse. /b,The Gemara remarks: bAnd moreover,when a Torah scholar spreads his knowledge, bmatters that aregenerally bhidden from him are revealed to him, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i] love You”(Song of Songs 1:3), and one may bread intothe verse: bThe hidden [ ialumot /i]. And moreover, the Angel of Death loves him, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i] love You,”and one may bread intothe verse: The one appointed bover death [ ial mot /i]loves you. bAnd moreover,a Torah scholar binherits two worlds: Oneis bthis world, andthe other boneis bthe World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i]love You,” and one may bread intothe verse: bWorlds [ iolamot /i]. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna lists items belonging to gentiles which it is prohibited to consume, but from which it is permitted to derive benefit. bAnd these are itemsthat belong bto gentilesand are bprohibited, but their prohibition is notthat of ban item from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited: Milk that was milked by a gentile and a Jew did not see himperforming this action, band their bread and oil.The mishna notes that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band his court permitted the oilof gentiles entirely.,The mishna resumes its list: bAnd boiled and pickledvegetables, bwhoseusual bmannerof preparation involves badding wine and vinegar to them, and minced itarit /ifish, band brine that does not have a ikilbitfish floating in it, and iḥilak /i, and a sliver of iḥiltit /i, and isalkonditsalt(see 39b); all bthese are prohibited, but their prohibition is notthat of bitem from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: Concerning bmilk, with regard to whatneed bwe be concerned?Why is the milk prohibited? bIfit is bdue tothe concern that a gentile might bexchangethe milk of a kosher animal with the milk of a non-kosher animal, this concern is unfounded, as bkoshermilk is bwhitewhereas bnon-koshermilk has ba greentinge to it, and therefore they are easily distinguishable. bAnd ifit is prohibited bdue tothe concern that it might be bmixedwith non-kosher milk, let the Jew bcurdlethe milk obtained from the gentile, bas the Master said: Milkfrom ba kosheranimal bcurdles,but milk from ba non-kosheranimal bdoes not curdle. /b,The Gemara answers: bIf one desires toeat it as bcheese, indeed,one can simply curdle it, as the milk of non-kosher animals does not curdle. bWhat are we dealing with here?We are dealing with a case bwhere one desires touse the milk in ikamkha /i,also known as ikutaḥ /i, a food item that contains milk.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bButin that case, blet him take a bit ofmilk band curdleit, to test whether or not it has been mixed with the milk of a non-kosher animal: If it curdles completely, it is kosher; if some milk is left over, it is not. The Gemara explains: bSince there is also whey in kosher milk, which does not curdle, there is noway bto establishthe halakhic bmatter with regard to it.Even kosher milk will not curdle completely, and therefore this is not a reliable method to determine the halakhic status of the milk.,The Gemara presents an alternative suggestion: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that byoumay beven saythat the concern applies bwhere he intendsto use the milk btomake bcheese,as bthere ismilk bthat remains between the crevicesof curdled cheese, and therefore there is a concern that drops of non-kosher milk might be mixed with it.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd breadbelonging to gentiles is prohibited for consumption. bRav Kahana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:Unlike oil, bbread was not permitted by a court.The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat Rabbi Yoḥa states that bread was not permitted in court, can it be inferred bthat there isa different opinion bthatclaims that a court bdid permitit?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent out to the field, and a gentile brought before him a ise’aof bread baked in a large baker’s oven [ ipurnei /i]. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: How exquisite is thisloaf of bbread! What did the Sages seethat caused them bto prohibit it?The Gemara asks, incredulously: bWhat did the Sages seethat caused them to prohibit it? It was prohibited bdue tothe concern that Jews might befriend gentiles while breaking bread with them, which could lead to bmarriagewith gentiles.,The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was not asking why bread was prohibited in general. bRather,he asked: bWhat did the Sages seethat caused them bto prohibitbread even bin the field,where this concern does not apply? The Gemara notes that upon hearing of this incident bthe people thoughtthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bpermitted the breadof gentiles. bButthat bis not so; RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdid notactually bpermitsuch bbread.This is why Rabbi Yoḥa emphasized that the bread of gentiles was never permitted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s court.,The Gemara records an alternate version of this episode. bRav Yosef, and some say Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, says:The bincident did not occurin bthismanner. bRather, they said: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent to a certain place and sawthat bbreadwas bscarce for the studentsin the study hall. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there no baker [ ipalter /i] herewho can prepare bread? Upon hearing of this incident, bthe people thought to saythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker,which would indicate that bread baked by a professional baker is permitted, even if he is a gentile. bButin reality, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bstatedhis question bonlyin reference to ba Jewish baker. /b,The Gemara cites two qualifications of the leniency that people inferred from the above incident. bRabbi Ḥelbo said: Even according to the one whothought to bsaythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker, we saidthat the bread is permitted bonly where there is no Jewish baker, but in a place where there is a Jewish baker,the leniency would certainly bnotapply. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even according to the one whothought to bsaythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker, that statementapplies only bin the field, but in the cityit would bnotapply, and the bread would still be prohibited bdue tothe possibility of bmarriagewith a gentile.,The Gemara relates: bAivu would bite and eat breadof gentiles bat the boundariesof the fields. bRava said tothe students in the study hall, band some saythat it was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwho said to them: bDo not speak with Aivu, as he eats bread of Arameansin deliberate violation of a rabbinic decree.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd their oilwas originally prohibited but later permitted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and his court. The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the origin of the prohibition of boil. Rav says: Daniel decreedthat oil is prohibited, band Shmuel says: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham,astrologer,astronomy expert Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
abraham,babylonian science Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
abraham,call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
abraham,cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
abraham,discovers astrology and chaldean science Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
abraham,humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
abraham,mission to the nations Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103, 104, 105, 106
abraham,name largely omitted by philo Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 269
abraham,obedience of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
abraham,praise of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
abraham,vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199, 215, 227
abraham Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 104; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 108, 109; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13, 147; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
accad Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
adam Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
afterlife Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
alexander polyhistor,freudenthal,j. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
alexander polyhistor,ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
alexander polyhistor Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
allegory of the law Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 147
allusions,biblical Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
amorarim,missionary tradition Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
amorarim,palestinian Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 105, 176
amorarim,sources Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
angel Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
animating breath Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
antiochus,iv,persecution Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390
aqedah,in philo,a drama Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 269
astrology,vs. understanding of the sage Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
astrology Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
babel Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
beneficent power,quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 39, 40
beneficent power,the bible Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 39, 40
birth and renewal,imagery of Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
birth and renewal Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
blessing Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
body Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
canaan/canaanite Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
canaan Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
chaldeans,abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
chodollogomor,chosen father of sound Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
circumcise/circumcision Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
circumcision,abrahams Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 104
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 229
commandments Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 104
constituent parts Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
conversion Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 108, 109
corinth Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
corporeal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
covenant,abrahams name change and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
covenant,omission of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
covenant Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
creation Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
cultural benefactor topos,abraham Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
cultural benefactor topos,ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
daughters Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
de abrahamo,structure of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
diaspora Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
diatribe,on solitude Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 228
discoverer/inventor (heuretēs) topos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 39
dust Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
earthly origin Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
egypt Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
eleazar Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
elect/election Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
encyclical studies,hagar representing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
enoch,discoverer,inventor of astrology Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
erech Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
eternal vs. mortal Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
etymologies,of abraham and abram Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215, 227
etymologies,of harran Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215, 227
etymologies,of noah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
eupolemus,concerning the jews of assyria Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
eupolemus,cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124, 126
eupolemus,temple idealization Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124, 126
eve,excellence,patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
eve,journey of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
exiles Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
exposition of the law Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 147
external goods,the eye of the soul Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
faith/belief Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
four,the number Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
fragrances,paradise,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
gentile Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 108, 109
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
god,cosmos as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
god,obedience to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211, 212
god,primal Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
gomorrah,solitude embraced by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
graeco-roman (world/period) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
greek,language Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
hagar,as encyclical studies Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
hagar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
hannah Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
haran Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
harmonization,babylonian Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
harran,etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215, 227
harran Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 213, 220
hearing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 227
hospitality Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
imagery,birth and renewal Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
imagery,new creation Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
imagery,one-day/year-old Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
isaac,nature and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
isaac Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
ishmael Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
israel,israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
israel Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
jacob,practice and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
jerusalem church Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
joseph Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
kingly power,the kings,victory over Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 39, 40
laban Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
leah Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
learning and teaching,abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
lent Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
logos Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
lot Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
love,of heaven Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 213
love,wifely Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
macedonian Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
marriage,roman ideals of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
martyrdom Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 109
meaningless Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
metropolis Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390
migrations of abraham,abrahams solitude in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
migrations of abraham,allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 214, 215, 220, 227, 228
migrations of abraham,as spiritual Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212, 213, 214, 215
migrations of abraham,literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211, 212, 213, 214, 228, 229
migrations of abraham,second Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220, 228, 229
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 220, 227, 228, 229, 381
military campaigns,wives joining Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
missionaries,rabbinic Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 108, 109
missionary activities,ethos of Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103
missionary activities,images of Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103, 104, 105, 106
missionary activities,in antiquity Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103
missionary activities,tradition and Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 104
missionary activities Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103, 104, 105, 106, 176
mortal vs. eternal Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
moses Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
mourning customs,the multitude Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 229
names of god,masculine participle Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40, 220
nature,isaac and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
neuter participle Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
new creature/creation (phrase) Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
nimrod Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
noah,name of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
non-jews Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 104, 105, 176
patriarch Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
pentateuch Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
perception of god,by abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
perception of god,god aiding Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
perception of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
philo,influences on,greek and roman Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
philo Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
philo of byblos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
phoenicians,abrahams call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
phoenicians,abrahams migration from babylon Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,abrahams piety Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
phoenicians,alexander polyhistor Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,as anonymous Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,concerning the jews of assyria Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124, 126
phoenicians,discoverer,inventor (heuretēs) topos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
phoenicians,doran,r. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,enoch as discoverer/inventor of astrology Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
phoenicians,eusebius Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,freudenthal,j. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,general profile Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124, 126
phoenicians,samaritan authorship Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,sterling,g.e. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians,temple argarizin Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
phoenicians Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
piety,as highest virtue Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 214
piety of abraham,proofs of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
pomeroy,sarah Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
powers of god Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
practice,jacob and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
prayers,daily Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
pregnancy Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
prokeimena Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
proofs Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211, 381
prophetologion,arabic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
prophetologion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
proselytes,as immigrants Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211, 212
proselytes Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 109
ps.-eupolemus,abraham as cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
ps.-eupolemus,abraham as military hero Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 126
ps.-eupolemus,abraham in phoenicia Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124, 126
ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124, 126
punishment,exile as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
quotations,biblical Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 39, 40
rachel Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
reading,lectionary Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
rebecca Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13
resh laqish Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 105
rest,noahs name meaning Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
rest,sabbath and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
rhetoric,rhetorical Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
rome,exile as punishment in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
rome,influence of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
sabbath Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
samaritan petition,claim to be sidonians Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390
samaritans,interpretations of bible Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390
samaritans Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390
sarah,as migrant Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
sarah,chaldean background of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
sarah,constant presence of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
sarah,death of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
sarah,military campaigns of abraham and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
sarah,virtues of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40, 381
sarah,wifely love of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
sarah Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196; Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13, 147
sennaar,harran and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215, 227
sennaar,the senses Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
septuagint,lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 371
septuagint Sly (1990), Philo's Perception of Women, 13; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 470
servant,of moses Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 454
sex/sexual Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
shekhinah Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103, 105; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 109
shinar Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 124
sidonians Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 390
sinai Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
slaves,purchase of Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 104
sodom' Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 175
sodom,sodomite cities,destruction of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 39
solitude,diatribe on Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 228
solitude,god found in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 228
solitude,vs. public places Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
solitude Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 229
soul,journey of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212, 213, 214, 215
soul,the eyes of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
soul reflected by,wealth and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
sound,chosen father of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
specialists in physical philosophy Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
speech,articulate vs. internal Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
spirit Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 35
stars Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 227
structure of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
synopsis (bavli and yerushalmi) Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 108
the cosmos,as object of worship Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
the cosmos,god directing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 214, 215
the cosmos,the country,good men withdrawing to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212, 229
the sage,vs. the astrologer Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
the three visitors Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40
travel,wives accompanying husbands during Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
travel Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
triads,second Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
virtue,piety as highest Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 214
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 105
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 196
wealth,blind vs. sharp-sighted Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 212
wifely love Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
wilderness,migration to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220, 228, 229
yassa Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
yosi ben zimra Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 176
λόγιον Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
λόγος Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211, 215, 220
πίστις Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 211
τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς ὄμμα Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 199
τὸ ὄν Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 220
φιλανδρία Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 381
φυσικός Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
ἀστεῖος Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 228
ὁ ὤν Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 40, 220
ὤφθη Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 215
ῥητός Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 228