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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.10-12.20


nanAnd there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land.


וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon.


וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive.


אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’


וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair.


וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house.


וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels.


וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife.


וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?


לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’


nanAnd Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.14 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.6, 11.10, 12.31, 17.16, 21.22-21.23, 23.7-23.8, 26.5-26.9, 28.68-28.69, 32.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 12.31. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָּל־תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵא עָשׂוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 21.22. וְכִי־יִהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת וְהוּמָת וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵץ׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 28.68. וֶהֱשִׁיבְךָ יְהוָה מִצְרַיִם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ לֹא־תֹסִיף עוֹד לִרְאֹתָהּ וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם שָׁם לְאֹיְבֶיךָ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת וְאֵין קֹנֶה׃ 28.69. אֵלֶּה דִבְרֵי הַבְּרִית אֲ‍שֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה לִכְרֹת אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מִלְּבַד הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַת אִתָּם בְּחֹרֵב׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 11.10. For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou didst sow thy seed, and didst water it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs;" 12.31. Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God; for every abomination to the LORD, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 21.22. And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree;" 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage." 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey." 28.68. And the LORD shall bring thee back into Egypt in ships, by the way whereof I said unto thee: ‘Thou shalt see it no more again’; and there ye shall sell yourselves unto your enemies for bondmen and for bondwoman, and no man shall buy you." 28.69. These are the words of the covet which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covet which He made with them in Horeb." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.6. אֲשֶׁר הָגְלָה מִירוּשָׁלַיִם עִם־הַגֹּלָה אֲשֶׁר הָגְלְתָה עִם יְכָנְיָה מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר הֶגְלָה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 2.6. who had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captives that had been carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.1, 1.10-1.22, 3.14-3.15, 7.11, 9.11, 10.5, 12.12-12.13, 12.35-12.36, 12.40, 13.18, 14.10, 14.12-14.13, 15.6, 15.13, 16.3, 16.23, 19.6, 20.2, 39.27, 39.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. הָבָה נִתְחַכְּמָה לוֹ פֶּן־יִרְבֶּה וְהָיָה כִּי־תִקְרֶאנָה מִלְחָמָה וְנוֹסַף גַּם־הוּא עַל־שֹׂנְאֵינוּ וְנִלְחַם־בָּנוּ וְעָלָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַבָּאִים מִצְרָיְמָה אֵת יַעֲקֹב אִישׁ וּבֵיתוֹ בָּאוּ׃ 1.11. וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלָיו שָׂרֵי מִסִּים לְמַעַן עַנֹּתוֹ בְּסִבְלֹתָם וַיִּבֶן עָרֵי מִסְכְּנוֹת לְפַרְעֹה אֶת־פִּתֹם וְאֶת־רַעַמְסֵס׃ 1.12. וְכַאֲשֶׁר יְעַנּוּ אֹתוֹ כֵּן יִרְבֶּה וְכֵן יִפְרֹץ וַיָּקֻצוּ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.13. וַיַּעֲבִדוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 1.14. וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת־חַיֵּיהֶם בַּעֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים וּבְכָל־עֲבֹדָה בַּשָּׂדֶה אֵת כָּל־עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ בָהֶם בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 1.15. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם לַמְיַלְּדֹת הָעִבְרִיֹּת אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאַחַת שִׁפְרָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית פּוּעָה׃ 1.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בְּיַלֶּדְכֶן אֶת־הָעִבְרִיּוֹת וּרְאִיתֶן עַל־הָאָבְנָיִם אִם־בֵּן הוּא וַהֲמִתֶּן אֹתוֹ וְאִם־בַּת הִיא וָחָיָה׃ 1.17. וַתִּירֶאןָ הַמְיַלְּדֹת אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְלֹא עָשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶן מֶלֶךְ מִצְרָיִם וַתְּחַיֶּיןָ אֶת־הַיְלָדִים׃ 1.18. וַיִּקְרָא מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם לַמְיַלְּדֹת וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶן מַדּוּעַ עֲשִׂיתֶן הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַתְּחַיֶּיןָ אֶת־הַיְלָדִים׃ 1.19. וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הַמְיַלְּדֹת אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כִּי לֹא כַנָּשִׁים הַמִּצְרִיֹּת הָעִבְרִיֹּת כִּי־חָיוֹת הֵנָּה בְּטֶרֶם תָּבוֹא אֲלֵהֶן הַמְיַלֶּדֶת וְיָלָדוּ׃ 1.21. וַיְהִי כִּי־יָרְאוּ הַמְיַלְּדֹת אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם בָּתִּים׃ 1.22. וַיְצַו פַּרְעֹה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ לֵאמֹר כָּל־הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד הַיְאֹרָה תַּשְׁלִיכֻהוּ וְכָל־הַבַּת תְּחַיּוּן׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 9.11. וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַחַרְטֻמִּים לַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁחִין כִּי־הָיָה הַשְּׁחִין בַּחֲרְטֻמִּם וּבְכָל־מִצְרָיִם׃ 10.5. וְכִסָּה אֶת־עֵין הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא יוּכַל לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְאָכַל אֶת־יֶתֶר הַפְּלֵטָה הַנִּשְׁאֶרֶת לָכֶם מִן־הַבָּרָד וְאָכַל אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵץ הַצֹּמֵחַ לָכֶם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 12.12. וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה וְהִכֵּיתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 12.13. וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם שָׁם וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף לְמַשְׁחִית בְּהַכֹּתִי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.35. וּבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָשׂוּ כִּדְבַר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב וּשְׂמָלֹת׃ 12.36. וַיהוָה נָתַן אֶת־חֵן הָעָם בְּעֵינֵי מִצְרַיִם וַיַּשְׁאִלוּם וַיְנַצְּלוּ אֶת־מִצְרָיִם׃ 13.18. וַיַּסֵּב אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָעָם דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּדְבָּר יַם־סוּף וַחֲמֻשִׁים עָלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 14.12. הֲלֹא־זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְמִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר חֲדַל מִמֶּנּוּ וְנַעַבְדָה אֶת־מִצְרָיִם כִּי טוֹב לָנוּ עֲבֹד אֶת־מִצְרַיִם מִמֻּתֵנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 14.13. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ הִתְיַצְבוּ וּרְאוּ אֶת־יְשׁוּעַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אֲשֶׁר רְאִיתֶם אֶת־מִצְרַיִם הַיּוֹם לֹא תֹסִיפוּ לִרְאֹתָם עוֹד עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 15.6. יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃ 16.3. וַיִּשְׁבְּתוּ הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃ 16.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִי־יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ בְיַד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּשִׁבְתֵּנוּ עַל־סִיר הַבָּשָׂר בְּאָכְלֵנוּ לֶחֶם לָשֹׂבַע כִּי־הוֹצֵאתֶם אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית אֶת־כָּל־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה בָּרָעָב׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 39.27. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכָּתְנֹת שֵׁשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה אֹרֵג לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו׃ 1.1. NOW THESE are the names of the sons of Israel, who came into Egypt with Jacob; every man came with his household:" 1.10. come, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there befalleth us any war, they also join themselves unto our enemies, and fight against us, and get them up out of the land.’" 1.11. Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh store-cities, Pithom and Raamses." 1.12. But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread abroad. And they were adread because of the children of Israel." 1.13. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour." 1.14. And they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field; in all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigour." 1.15. And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah;" 1.16. and he said: ‘When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, ye shall look upon the birthstool: if it be a son, then ye shall kill him; but if it be a daughter, then she shall live.’" 1.17. But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men-children alive." 1.18. And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them: ‘Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men-children alive?’" 1.19. And the midwives said unto Pharaoh: ‘Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwife come unto them.’" 1.20. And God dealt well with the midwives; and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty." 1.21. And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses." 1.22. And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying: ‘Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.’" 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations." 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 9.11. And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boils were upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians." 10.5. and they shall cover the face of the earth, that one shall not be able to see the earth; and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field;" 12.12. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD." 12.13. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt." 12.35. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment." 12.36. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. And they despoiled the Egyptians." 12.40. Now the time that the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." 13.18. But God led the people about, by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea; and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt." 14.10. And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians were marching after them; and they were sore afraid; and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD." 14.12. Is not this the word that we spoke unto thee in Egypt, saying: Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it were better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness.’" 14.13. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which He will work for you to-day; for whereas ye have seen the Egyptians to-day, ye shall see them again no more for ever." 15.6. Thy right hand, O LORD, glorious in power, Thy right hand, O LORD, dasheth in pieces the enemy." 15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation." 16.3. and the children of Israel said unto them: ‘Would that we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pots, when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.’" 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 39.27. And they made the tunics of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for his sons," 39.30. And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a writing, like the engravings of a signet: HOLY TO THE LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 4.15, 4.26, 5, 5.1, 5.24, 5.29, 6, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.18, 7, 7.11, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 8, 8.1, 8.15, 8.16, 8.18, 9, 9.21, 10, 10.5, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.15, 10.18, 10.19, 10.30, 11, 11.2, 11.3, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.31-12.9, 11.32, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 14, 14.4, 14.5, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.22, 15, 15.5, 15.6, 15.13, 15.15, 15.18, 16, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.15, 17, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.9, 17.10, 17.15, 17.17, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 18.19, 18.20, 18.21, 18.22, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 20, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16, 20.17, 20.18, 21.2, 21.8, 22, 22.2, 22.12, 22.13, 22.16, 22.17, 23.1, 23.2, 23.3, 23.6, 24.1, 25.21, 26.1, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 28.11, 28.18, 29.31, 37, 37.25, 38.5, 39, 39.7, 39.8, 39.9, 39.10, 39.11, 39.12, 39.13, 39.14, 39.15, 39.16, 39.17, 39.18, 40, 41, 41.8, 41.9, 41.57, 42, 43, 44, 45, 45.6, 46, 47, 47.4, 47.18, 48, 49, 50, 50.20, 50.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.8-10.11, 18.3, 19.24, 20.26, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 10.9. יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל־תֵּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 10.11. וּלְהוֹרֹת אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 18.3. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 26.13. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃ 10.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron, saying:" 10.9. ’Drink no wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tent of meeting, that ye die not; it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations." 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 10.11. and that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.’" 18.3. After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine." 26.13. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.10. Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, Like a woman in travail; For now shalt thou go forth out of the city, And shalt dwell in the field, And shalt come even unto Babylon; There shalt thou be rescued; There shall the LORD redeem thee from the hand of thine enemies."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.2, 11.5, 20.15, 21.18, 22.5, 22.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 11.5. זָכַרְנוּ אֶת־הַדָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־נֹאכַל בְּמִצְרַיִם חִנָּם אֵת הַקִּשֻּׁאִים וְאֵת הָאֲבַטִּחִים וְאֶת־הֶחָצִיר וְאֶת־הַבְּצָלִים וְאֶת־הַשּׁוּמִים׃ 20.15. וַיֵּרְדוּ אֲבֹתֵינוּ מִצְרַיְמָה וַנֵּשֶׁב בְּמִצְרַיִם יָמִים רַבִּים וַיָּרֵעוּ לָנוּ מִצְרַיִם וְלַאֲבֹתֵינוּ׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 22.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים אֶל־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר פְּתוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַנָּהָר אֶרֶץ בְּנֵי־עַמּוֹ לִקְרֹא־לוֹ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה עַם יָצָא מִמִּצְרַיִם הִנֵּה כִסָּה אֶת־עֵין הָאָרֶץ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב מִמֻּלִי׃ 22.11. הִנֵּה הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיְכַס אֶת־עֵין הָאָרֶץ עַתָּה לְכָה קָבָה־לִּי אֹתוֹ אוּלַי אוּכַל לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּיו׃ 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 11.5. We remember the fish, which we were wont to eat in Egypt for nought; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic;" 20.15. how our fathers went down into Egypt, and we dwelt in Egypt a long time; and the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and our fathers;" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;" 22.5. And he sent messengers unto Balaam the son of Beor, to Pethor, which is by the River, to the land of the children of his people, to call him, saying: ‘Behold, there is a people come out from Egypt; behold, they cover the face of the earth, and they abide over against me." 22.11. Behold the people that is come out of Egypt, it covereth the face of the earth; now, come curse me them; peradventure I shall be able to fight against them, and shall drive them out.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 10.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.8. חֲכַם־לֵב יִקַּח מִצְוֺת וֶאֱוִיל שְׂפָתַיִם יִלָּבֵט׃ 10.8. The wise in heart will receive commandments; but a prating fool shall fall."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 105.23-105.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

105.23. וַיָּבֹא יִשְׂרָאֵל מִצְרָיִם וְיַעֲקֹב גָּר בְּאֶרֶץ־חָם׃ 105.24. וַיֶּפֶר אֶת־עַמּוֹ מְאֹד וַיַּעֲצִמֵהוּ מִצָּרָיו׃ 105.25. הָפַךְ לִבָּם לִשְׂנֹא עַמּוֹ לְהִתְנַכֵּל בַּעֲבָדָיו׃ 105.23. Israel also came into Egypt; And Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham." 105.24. And He increased His people greatly, And made them too mighty for their adversaries." 105.25. He turned their heart to hate His people, To deal craftily with His servants."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 9.16, 14.25-14.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.16. פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עָלָה וַיִּלְכֹּד אֶת־גֶּזֶר וַיִּשְׂרְפָהּ בָּאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּעִיר הָרָג וַיִּתְּנָהּ שִׁלֻּחִים לְבִתּוֹ אֵשֶׁת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 14.25. וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁית לַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם עָלָה שושק [שִׁישַׁק] מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 14.26. וַיִּקַּח אֶת־אֹצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וְאֶת־אוֹצְרוֹת בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶת־הַכֹּל לָקָח וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כָּל־מָגִנֵּי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 9.16. Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a portion unto his daughter, Solomon’s wife." 14.25. And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem;" 14.26. and he took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king’s house; he even took away all; and he took away all the shields of gold which Solomon had made."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 21.11-21.16, 25.28-25.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.11. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד וַיִּבְרַח בַּיּוֹם־הַהוּא מִפְּנֵי שָׁאוּל וַיָּבֹא אֶל־אָכִישׁ מֶלֶךְ גַּת׃ 21.12. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי אָכִישׁ אֵלָיו הֲלוֹא־זֶה דָוִד מֶלֶךְ הָאָרֶץ הֲלוֹא לָזֶה יַעֲנוּ בַמְּחֹלוֹת לֵאמֹר הִכָּה שָׁאוּל באלפו [בַּאֲלָפָיו] וְדָוִד ברבבתו [בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃] 21.13. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּוִד אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בִּלְבָבוֹ וַיִּרָא מְאֹד מִפְּנֵי אָכִישׁ מֶלֶךְ־גַּת׃ 21.14. וַיְשַׁנּוֹ אֶת־טַעְמוֹ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּתְהֹלֵל בְּיָדָם ויתו [וַיְתָיו] עַל־דַּלְתוֹת הַשַּׁעַר וַיּוֹרֶד רִירוֹ אֶל־זְקָנוֹ׃ 21.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אָכִישׁ אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הִנֵּה תִרְאוּ אִישׁ מִשְׁתַּגֵּעַ לָמָּה תָּבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֵלָי׃ 21.16. חֲסַר מְשֻׁגָּעִים אָנִי כִּי־הֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־זֶה לְהִשְׁתַּגֵּעַ עָלָי הֲזֶה יָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִי׃ 25.28. שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע אֲמָתֶךָ כִּי עָשֹׂה־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי בַּיִת נֶאֱמָן כִּי־מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהוָה אֲדֹנִי נִלְחָם וְרָעָה לֹא־תִמָּצֵא בְךָ מִיָּמֶיךָ׃ 25.29. וַיָּקָם אָדָם לִרְדָפְךָ וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ וְהָיְתָה נֶפֶשׁ אֲדֹנִי צְרוּרָה בִּצְרוֹר הַחַיִּים אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאֵת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה בְּתוֹךְ כַּף הַקָּלַע׃ 21.11. And David arose, and fled that day from before Sha᾽ul, and went to Akhish the king of Gat." 21.12. And the servants of Akhish said to him, Is not this David the king of the land? did they not sing one to another of him in dances, saying, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, but David his ten thousands?" 21.13. And David laid up these words in his heart, and was sore afraid of Akhish the king of Gat." 21.14. And he changed his be-haviour before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scratched on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle run down upon his beard." 21.15. Then said Akhish to his servants, Lo, you see the man is mad: why then have you brought him to me?" 21.16. Am I short of mad men, that you have brought this fellow to play the mad man in my presence? Shall this fellow come into my house?" 25.28. I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thy handmaid: for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fights the battles of the Lord, and evil has not been found in thee all thy days." 25.29. Though a man rises to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: yet the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bond of life with the Lord thy God; and the souls of thy enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the hollow of a sling." 25.30. And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he has spoken concerning thee, and shall have appointed thee ruler over Yisra᾽el;"
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 18.21, 18.24, 19.35-19.36, 23.29-23.30, 23.33-23.34, 24.12, 25.1-25.7, 25.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.21. עַתָּה הִנֵּה בָטַחְתָּ לְּךָ עַל־מִשְׁעֶנֶת הַקָּנֶה הָרָצוּץ הַזֶּה עַל־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יִסָּמֵךְ אִישׁ עָלָיו וּבָא בְכַפּוֹ וּנְקָבָהּ כֵּן פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם לְכָל־הַבֹּטְחִים עָלָיו׃ 18.24. וְאֵיךְ תָּשִׁיב אֵת פְּנֵי פַחַת אַחַד עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי הַקְּטַנִּים וַתִּבְטַח לְךָ עַל־מִצְרַיִם לְרֶכֶב וּלְפָרָשִׁים׃ 19.35. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה שְׁמוֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 19.36. וַיִּסַּע וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיָּשָׁב סַנְחֵרִיב מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּנִינְוֵה׃ 23.29. בְּיָמָיו עָלָה פַרְעֹה נְכֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר עַל־נְהַר־פְּרָת וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיְמִיתֵהוּ בִּמְגִדּוֹ כִּרְאֹתוֹ אֹתוֹ׃ 23.33. וַיַּאַסְרֵהוּ פַרְעֹה נְכֹה בְרִבְלָה בְּאֶרֶץ חֲמָת במלך [מִמְּלֹךְ] בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וַיִּתֶּן־עֹנֶשׁ עַל־הָאָרֶץ מֵאָה כִכַּר־כֶּסֶף וְכִכַּר זָהָב׃ 23.34. וַיַּמְלֵךְ פַּרְעֹה נְכֹה אֶת־אֶלְיָקִים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ תַּחַת יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ אָבִיו וַיַּסֵּב אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יְהוֹיָקִים וְאֶת־יְהוֹאָחָז לָקָח וַיָּבֹא מִצְרַיִם וַיָּמָת שָׁם׃ 24.12. וַיֵּצֵא יְהוֹיָכִין מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל הוּא וְאִמּוֹ וַעֲבָדָיו וְשָׂרָיו וְסָרִיסָיו וַיִּקַּח אֹתוֹ מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל בִּשְׁנַת שְׁמֹנֶה לְמָלְכוֹ׃ 25.1. וְאֶת־חוֹמֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם סָבִיב נָתְצוּ כָּל־חֵיל כַּשְׂדִּים אֲשֶׁר רַב־טַבָּחִים׃ 25.1. וַיְהִי בִשְׁנַת הַתְּשִׁיעִית לְמָלְכוֹ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂירִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּא נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל הוּא וְכָל־חֵילוֹ עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּחַן עָלֶיהָ וַיִּבְנוּ עָלֶיהָ דָּיֵק סָבִיב׃ 25.2. וַיִּקַּח אֹתָם נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב־טַבָּחִים וַיֹּלֶךְ אֹתָם עַל־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל רִבְלָתָה׃ 25.2. וַתָּבֹא הָעִיר בַּמָּצוֹר עַד עַשְׁתֵּי עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ׃ 25.3. בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ וַיֶּחֱזַק הָרָעָב בָּעִיר וְלֹא־הָיָה לֶחֶם לְעַם הָאָרֶץ׃ 25.3. וַאֲרֻחָתוֹ אֲרֻחַת תָּמִיד נִתְּנָה־לּוֹ מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיָּו׃ 25.4. וַתִּבָּקַע הָעִיר וְכָל־אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַלַּיְלָה דֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר בֵּין הַחֹמֹתַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־גַּן הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַשְׂדִּים עַל־הָעִיר סָבִיב וַיֵּלֶךְ דֶּרֶךְ הָעֲרָבָה׃ 25.5. וַיִּרְדְּפוּ חֵיל־כַּשְׂדִּים אַחַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּשִּׂגוּ אֹתוֹ בְּעַרְבוֹת יְרֵחוֹ וְכָל־חֵילוֹ נָפֹצוּ מֵעָלָיו׃ 25.6. וַיִּתְפְּשׂוּ אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲלוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל רִבְלָתָה וַיְדַבְּרוּ אִתּוֹ מִשְׁפָּט׃ 25.7. וְאֶת־בְּנֵי צִדְקִיָּהוּ שָׁחֲטוּ לְעֵינָיו וְאֶת־עֵינֵי צִדְקִיָּהוּ עִוֵּר וַיַּאַסְרֵהוּ בַנְחֻשְׁתַּיִם וַיְבִאֵהוּ בָּבֶל׃ 25.9. וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־בֵּית־יְהוָה וְאֶת־בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵת כָּל־בָּתֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאֶת־כָּל־בֵּית גָּדוֹל שָׂרַף בָּאֵשׁ׃ 18.21. Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even upon Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it; so is Pharaoh king of Egypt unto all that trust on him." 18.24. How then canst thou turn away the face of one captain, even of the least of my masters servants? and yet thou puttest thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen!" 19.35. And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses." 19.36. So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh." 23.29. In his days Pharaoh-necoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates; and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him." 23.30. And his servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own sepulchre. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father’s stead." 23.33. And Pharaoh-necoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a fine of a hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold." 23.34. And Pharaoh-necoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and changed his name to Jehoiakim; but he took Jehoahaz away; and he came to Egypt, and died there." 24.12. And Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers; and the king of Babylon took him in the eighth year of his reign." 25.1. And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about." 25.2. So the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah." 25.3. On the ninth day of the [fourth] month the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land." 25.4. Then a breach was made in the city, and all the men of war [fled] by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the king’s garden—now the Chaldeans were against the city round about—and the king went by the way of the Arabah." 25.5. But the army of the Chaldeans pursued after the king, and overtook him in the plains of Jericho; and all his army was scattered from him." 25.6. Then they took the king, and carried him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah; and they gave judgment upon him." 25.7. And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, and put out the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him in fetters, and carried him to Babylon." 25.9. And he burnt the house of the LORD, and the king’s house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, even every great man’s house, burnt he with fire."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.3, 11.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.3. וְיוֹאָב וַאֲבִישַׁי אָחִיו הָרְגוּ לְאַבְנֵר עַל אֲשֶׁר הֵמִית אֶת־עֲשָׂהאֵל אֲחִיהֶם בְּגִבְעוֹן בַּמִּלְחָמָה׃ 3.3. וּמִשְׁנֵהוּ כִלְאָב לאביגל [לַאֲ‍בִיגַיִל] אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִי וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁי אַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי מֶלֶךְ גְּשׁוּר׃ 11.21. מִי־הִכָּה אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־יְרֻבֶּשֶׁת הֲלוֹא־אִשָּׁה הִשְׁלִיכָה עָלָיו פֶּלַח רֶכֶב מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמָת בְּתֵבֵץ לָמָּה נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הַחוֹמָה וְאָמַרְתָּ גַּם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת׃ 3.3. and his second, Kil᾽av, of Avigayil the wife of Naval the Karmelite; and the third, Avshalom the son of Ma῾akha the daughter of Talmay king of Geshur;" 11.21. Who smote Avimelekh the son of Yerubbeshet? did not a woman cast an upper millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Teveż? why did you go so near the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriyya the Ĥittite is dead also."
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.17, 11.6, 19.18-19.25, 31.1, 36.6, 36.9, 37.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.17. וְרָעוּ כְבָשִׂים כְּדָבְרָם וְחָרְבוֹת מֵחִים גָּרִים יֹאכֵלוּ׃ 11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 19.18. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיוּ חָמֵשׁ עָרִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מְדַבְּרוֹת שְׂפַת כְּנַעַן וְנִשְׁבָּעוֹת לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת עִיר הַהֶרֶס יֵאָמֵר לְאֶחָת׃ 19.19. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה בְּתוֹךְ אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וּמַצֵּבָה אֵצֶל־גְּבוּלָהּ לַיהוָה׃ 19.21. וְנוֹדַע יְהוָה לְמִצְרַיִם וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְעָבְדוּ זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְנָדְרוּ־נֵדֶר לַיהוָה וְשִׁלֵּמוּ׃ 19.22. וְנָגַף יְהוָה אֶת־מִצְרַיִם נָגֹף וְרָפוֹא וְשָׁבוּ עַד־יְהוָה וְנֶעְתַּר לָהֶם וּרְפָאָם׃ 19.23. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא תִּהְיֶה מְסִלָּה מִמִּצְרַיִם אַשּׁוּרָה וּבָא־אַשּׁוּר בְּמִצְרַיִם וּמִצְרַיִם בְּאַשּׁוּר וְעָבְדוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־אַשּׁוּר׃ 19.24. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁלִישִׁיָּה לְמִצְרַיִם וּלְאַשּׁוּר בְּרָכָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.25. אֲשֶׁר בֵּרֲכוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת לֵאמֹר בָּרוּךְ עַמִּי מִצְרַיִם וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי אַשּׁוּר וְנַחֲלָתִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.1. הוֹי הַיֹּרְדִים מִצְרַיִם לְעֶזְרָה עַל־סוּסִים יִשָּׁעֵנוּ וַיִּבְטְחוּ עַל־רֶכֶב כִּי רָב וְעַל פָּרָשִׁים כִּי־עָצְמוּ מְאֹד וְלֹא שָׁעוּ עַל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־יְהוָה לֹא דָרָשׁוּ׃ 36.6. הִנֵּה בָטַחְתָּ עַל־מִשְׁעֶנֶת הַקָּנֶה הָרָצוּץ הַזֶּה עַל־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יִסָּמֵךְ אִישׁ עָלָיו וּבָא בְכַפּוֹ וּנְקָבָהּ כֵּן פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם לְכָל־הַבֹּטְחִים עָלָיו׃ 36.9. וְאֵיךְ תָּשִׁיב אֵת פְּנֵי פַחַת אַחַד עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי הַקְטַנִּים וַתִּבְטַח לְךָ עַל־מִצְרַיִם לְרֶכֶב וּלְפָרָשִׁים׃ 37.36. וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּכֶּה בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה וּשְׁמֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 5.17. Then shall the lambs feed as in their pasture, And the waste places of the fat ones shall wanderers eat." 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them." 19.18. In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the LORD of hosts; one shall be called The city of destruction." 19.19. In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD." 19.20. And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the LORD of hosts in the land of Egypt; for they shall cry unto the LORD because of the oppressors, and He will send them a saviour, and a defender, who will deliver them." 19.21. And the LORD shall make Himself known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day; yea, they shall worship with sacrifice and offering, and shall vow a vow unto the LORD, and shall perform it." 19.22. And the LORD will smite Egypt, smiting and healing; and they shall return unto the LORD, and He will be entreated of them, and will heal them." 19.23. In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria; and the Egyptians shall worship with the Assyrians." 19.24. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth;" 19.25. for that the LORD of hosts hath blessed him, saying: ‘Blessed be Egypt My people and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance.’" 31.1. Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help, And rely on horses, And trust in chariots, because they are many, And in horsemen, because they are exceeding mighty; But they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, Neither seek the LORD!" 36.6. Behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even upon Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it; so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust on him." 36.9. How then canst thou turn away the face of one captain, even of the least of my master’s servants? yet thou puttest thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen!" 37.36. And the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses."
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.3, 7.34, 25.8-25.12, 35.7, 42.15, 42.17, 42.19, 43.2, 43.5, 44.7, 44.27, 49.18, 50.40 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.3. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי יְהוֹיָקִים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה עַד־תֹּם עַשְׁתֵּי עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לְצִדְקִיָּהוּ בֶן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה עַד־גְּלוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי׃ 7.34. וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי מֵעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וּמֵחֻצוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה כִּי לְחָרְבָּה תִּהְיֶה הָאָרֶץ׃ 25.8. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שְׁמַעְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרָי׃ 25.9. הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחוֹת צָפוֹן נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְאֶל־נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל עַבְדִּי וַהֲבִאֹתִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְעַל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ וְעַל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה סָבִיב וְהַחֲרַמְתִּים וְשַׂמְתִּים לְשַׁמָּה וְלִשְׁרֵקָה וּלְחָרְבוֹת עוֹלָם׃ 25.11. וְהָיְתָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְחָרְבָּה לְשַׁמָּה וְעָבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.12. וְהָיָה כִמְלֹאות שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה אֶפְקֹד עַל־מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וְעַל־הַגּוֹי הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲוֺנָם וְעַל־אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים וְשַׂמְתִּי אֹתוֹ לְשִׁמְמוֹת עוֹלָם׃ 35.7. וּבַיִת לֹא־תִבְנוּ וְזֶרַע לֹא־תִזְרָעוּ וְכֶרֶם לֹא־תִטָּעוּ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כִּי בָּאֳהָלִים תֵּשְׁבוּ כָּל־יְמֵיכֶם לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּ יָמִים רַבִּים עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם גָּרִים שָׁם׃ 42.15. וְעַתָּה לָכֵן שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה שְׁאֵרִית יְהוּדָה כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם־אַתֶּם שׂוֹם תְּשִׂמוּן פְּנֵיכֶם לָבֹא מִצְרַיִם וּבָאתֶם לָגוּר שָׁם׃ 42.17. וְיִהְיוּ כָל־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־שָׂמוּ אֶת־פְּנֵיהֶם לָבוֹא מִצְרַיִם לָגוּר שָׁם יָמוּתוּ בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶם שָׂרִיד וּפָלִיט מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 42.19. דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם שְׁאֵרִית יְהוּדָה אַל־תָּבֹאוּ מִצְרָיִם יָדֹעַ תֵּדְעוּ כִּי־הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם׃ 43.2. וַיֹּאמֶר עֲזַרְיָה בֶן־הוֹשַׁעְיָה וְיוֹחָנָן בֶּן־קָרֵחַ וְכָל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הַזֵּדִים אֹמְרִים אֶל־יִרְמְיָהוּ שֶׁקֶר אַתָּה מְדַבֵּר לֹא שְׁלָחֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לֵאמֹר לֹא־תָבֹאוּ מִצְרַיִם לָגוּר שָׁם׃ 43.5. וַיִּקַּח יוֹחָנָן בֶּן־קָרֵחַ וְכָל־שָׂרֵי הַחֲיָלִים אֵת כָּל־שְׁאֵרִית יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁבוּ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר נִדְּחוּ־שָׁם לָגוּר בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה׃ 44.7. וְעַתָּה כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָמָה אַתֶּם עֹשִׂים רָעָה גְדוֹלָה אֶל־נַפְשֹׁתֵכֶם לְהַכְרִית לָכֶם אִישׁ־וְאִשָּׁה עוֹלֵל וְיוֹנֵק מִתּוֹךְ יְהוּדָה לְבִלְתִּי הוֹתִיר לָכֶם שְׁאֵרִית׃ 44.27. הִנְנִי שֹׁקֵד עֲלֵיהֶם לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה וְתַמּוּ כָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב עַד־כְּלוֹתָם׃ 49.18. כְּמַהְפֵּכַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה וּשְׁכֵנֶיהָ אָמַר יְהוָה לֹא־יֵשֵׁב שָׁם אִישׁ וְלֹא־יָגוּר בָּהּ בֶּן־אָדָם׃ 1.3. It came also in the days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, unto the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah the son of Josiah, king of Judah, unto the carrying away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month." 7.34. Then will I cause to cease from the cities of Judah, and from the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride; for the land shall be desolate." 25.8. Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts: Because ye have not heard My words," 25.9. behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and I will send unto Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, My servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about; and I will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and a hissing, and perpetual desolations." 25.10. Moreover I will cause to cease from among them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the lamp." 25.11. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and a waste; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." 25.12. And it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will make it perpetual desolations." 35.7. neither shall ye build house, nor sow seed, nor plant vineyard, nor have any; but all your days ye shall dwell in tents, that ye may live many days in the land wherein ye sojourn." 42.15. now therefore hear ye the word of the LORD, O remt of Judah: Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: If ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there;" 42.17. So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there; they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I will bring upon them." 42.19. The LORD hath spoken concerning you, O remt of Judah: Go ye not into Egypt; know certainly that I have forewarned you this day." 43.2. then spoke Azariah the son of Hoshaiah, and Joha the son of Kareah, and all the proud men, saying unto Jeremiah: ‘Thou speakest falsely; the LORD our God hath not sent thee to say: Ye shall not go into Egypt to sojourn there;" 43.5. But Joha the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remt of Judah, that were returned from all the nations whither they had been driven to sojourn in the land of Judah:" 44.7. Therefore now thus saith the LORD, the God of hosts, the God of Israel: Wherefore commit ye this great evil against your own souls, to cut off from you man and woman, infant and suckling, out of the midst of Judah, to leave you none remaining;" 44.27. Behold, I watch over them for evil, and not for good; and all the men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them." 49.18. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah And the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD, No man shall abide there, Neither shall any son of man dwell therein." 50.40. As when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah And the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD; So shall no man abide there, Neither shall any son of man dwell therein."
17. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.5-24.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.5. וָאֶשְׁלַח אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וָאֶגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחַר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 24.6. וָאוֹצִיא אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם וַתָּבֹאוּ הַיָּמָּה וַיִּרְדְּפוּ מִצְרַיִם אַחֲרֵי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים יַם־סוּף׃ 24.7. וַיִּצְעֲקוּ אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּשֶׂם מַאֲפֵל בֵּינֵיכֶם וּבֵין הַמִּצְרִים וַיָּבֵא עָלָיו אֶת־הַיָּם וַיְכַסֵּהוּ וַתִּרְאֶינָה עֵינֵיכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי בְּמִצְרָיִם וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר יָמִים רַבִּים׃ 24.5. And I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt, according to that which I did in the midst thereof; and afterward I brought you out." 24.6. And I brought your fathers out of Egypt; and ye came unto the sea; and the Egyptians pursued after your fathers with chariots and with horsemen unto the Red Sea." 24.7. And when they cried out unto the LORD, He put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them; and your eyes saw what I did in Egypt; and ye dwelt in the wilderness many days."
18. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.13, 3.15, 3.19-3.20, 3.22-3.23, 3.25, 3.27, 4.9, 5.27, 9.53-9.54, 16.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.13. וַיֶּאֱסֹף אֵלָיו אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַעֲמָלֵק וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּךְ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־עִיר הַתְּמָרִים׃ 3.15. וַיִּזְעֲקוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּקֶם יְהוָה לָהֶם מוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־אֵהוּד בֶּן־גֵּרָא בֶּן־הַיְמִינִי אִישׁ אִטֵּר יַד־יְמִינוֹ וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיָדוֹ מִנְחָה לְעֶגְלוֹן מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב׃ 3.19. וְהוּא שָׁב מִן־הַפְּסִילִים אֲשֶׁר אֶת־הַגִּלְגָּל וַיֹּאמֶר דְּבַר־סֵתֶר לִי אֵלֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָס וַיֵּצְאוּ מֵעָלָיו כָּל־הָעֹמְדִים עָלָיו׃ 3.22. וַיָּבֹא גַם־הַנִּצָּב אַחַר הַלַּהַב וַיִּסְגֹּר הַחֵלֶב בְּעַד הַלַּהַב כִּי לֹא שָׁלַף הַחֶרֶב מִבִּטְנוֹ וַיֵּצֵא הַפַּרְשְׁדֹנָה׃ 3.23. וַיֵּצֵא אֵהוּד הַמִּסְדְּרוֹנָה וַיִּסְגֹּר דַּלְתוֹת הָעַלִיָּה בַּעֲדוֹ וְנָעָל׃ 3.25. וַיָּחִילוּ עַד־בּוֹשׁ וְהְנֵּה אֵינֶנּוּ פֹתֵחַ דַּלְתוֹת הָעֲלִיָּה וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־הַמַּפְתֵּחַ וַיִּפְתָּחוּ וְהִנֵּה אֲדֹנֵיהֶם נֹפֵל אַרְצָה מֵת׃ 3.27. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאוֹ וַיִּתְקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר בְּהַר אֶפְרָיִם וַיֵּרְדוּ עִמּוֹ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הָהָר וְהוּא לִפְנֵיהֶם׃ 4.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָלֹךְ אֵלֵךְ עִמָּךְ אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא תִהְיֶה תִּפְאַרְתְּךָ עַל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ כִּי בְיַד־אִשָּׁה יִמְכֹּר יְהוָה אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתָּקָם דְּבוֹרָה וַתֵּלֶך עִם־בָּרָק קֶדְשָׁה׃ 5.27. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד׃ 9.53. וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ אִשָּׁה אַחַת פֶּלַח רֶכֶב עַל־רֹאשׁ אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וַתָּרִץ אֶת־גֻּלְגָּלְתּוֹ׃ 9.54. וַיִּקְרָא מְהֵרָה אֶל־הַנַּעַר נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁלֹף חַרְבְּךָ וּמוֹתְתֵנִי פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ לִי אִשָּׁה הֲרָגָתְהוּ וַיִּדְקְרֵהוּ נַעֲרוֹ וַיָּמֹת׃ 16.19. וַתְּיַשְּׁנֵהוּ עַל־בִּרְכֶּיהָ וַתִּקְרָא לָאִישׁ וַתְּגַלַּח אֶת־שֶׁבַע מַחְלְפוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ וַתָּחֶל לְעַנּוֹתוֹ וַיָּסַר כֹּחוֹ מֵעָלָיו׃ 3.13. And he gathered to him the children of ῾Ammon and ῾Amaleq, and went and smote Yisra᾽el, and they seized the city of palm trees." 3.15. But when the children of Yisra᾽el cried to the Lord, the Lord raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera, a Binyamini, a left-handed man, and by him the children of Yisra᾽el sent a present to ῾Eglon the king of Mo᾽av." 3.19. But he himself turned back after reaching the carved stones that were by Gilgal, and said, I have a secret errand to thee, O king. The latter said, Keep silence, and all that stood by him went out from him." 3.20. And Ehud came to him; and he was sitting in a cool upper chamber, which he had for himself alone. And Ehud said, I have a message from God to thee. So he arose out of his seat." 3.22. and the haft also went in after the blade; and the fat closed upon the blade, so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly; and the dirt came out." 3.23. Then Ehud went out to the vestibule, and shut the doors of the chamber upon him, and locked them." 3.25. And they waited till it was late: and, behold, he opened not the doors of the chamber; therefore they took a key, and opened them: and, behold, their lord was fallen down dead on the earth." 3.27. And it came to pass, when he arrived, that he blew a shofar in the mountain of Efrayim, and the children of Yisra᾽el went down with him from the mount, and he before them." 4.9. And she said, I will surely go with thee: however thou shalt scarcely attain honour on the journey that thou goest; for the Lord shall yield Sisera into the hand of a woman. And Devora arose, and went with Baraq to Qedesh." 5.27. At her feet he bent, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bent, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down, bereft of life." 9.53. And a woman cast an upper millstone upon Avimelekh’s head, and crushed his skull." 9.54. Then he called hastily to the lad, his armourbearer, and said to him, Draw thy sword, and slay me, so that men should not say of me, A woman slew him. And his lad pierced him, and he died." 16.19. And she made him sleep upon her knees; and she called for a man, and she caused him to shave off the seven locks of his head; and she began to torment him, and his strength went from him."
19. Homer, Iliad, 3.154-3.160 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3.154. /Because of old age had they now ceased from battle, but speakers they were full good, like unto cicalas that in a forest sit upon a tree and pour forth their lily-like voice; even in such wise sat the leaders of the Trojans upon the wall. Now when they saw Helen coming upon the wall 3.155. /softly they spake winged words one to another:Small blame that Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans should for such a woman long time suffer woes; wondrously like is she to the immortal goddesses to look upon. But even so, for all that she is such an one, let her depart upon the ships 3.156. /softly they spake winged words one to another:Small blame that Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans should for such a woman long time suffer woes; wondrously like is she to the immortal goddesses to look upon. But even so, for all that she is such an one, let her depart upon the ships 3.157. /softly they spake winged words one to another:Small blame that Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans should for such a woman long time suffer woes; wondrously like is she to the immortal goddesses to look upon. But even so, for all that she is such an one, let her depart upon the ships 3.158. /softly they spake winged words one to another:Small blame that Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans should for such a woman long time suffer woes; wondrously like is she to the immortal goddesses to look upon. But even so, for all that she is such an one, let her depart upon the ships 3.159. /softly they spake winged words one to another:Small blame that Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans should for such a woman long time suffer woes; wondrously like is she to the immortal goddesses to look upon. But even so, for all that she is such an one, let her depart upon the ships 3.160. /neither be left here to be a bane to us and to our children after us. So they said, but Priam spake, and called Helen to him:Come hither, dear child, and sit before me, that thou mayest see thy former lord and thy kinsfolk and thy people—thou art nowise to blame in my eyes; it is the gods, methinks, that are to blame
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 12.10, 12.12, 12.14, 16.26, 17.15, 17.17, 20.4-20.10, 23.1-23.3, 23.8, 23.19-23.21, 23.27 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.12. וְהַנָּשִׂיא אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכָם אֶל־כָּתֵף יִשָּׂא בָּעֲלָטָה וְיֵצֵא בַּקִּיר יַחְתְּרוּ לְהוֹצִיא בוֹ פָּנָיו יְכַסֶּה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאֶה לַעַיִן הוּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.14. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָיו עזרה [עֶזְרוֹ] וְכָל־אֲגַפָּיו אֱזָרֶה לְכָל־רוּחַ וְחֶרֶב אָרִיק אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 16.26. וַתִּזְנִי אֶל־בְּנֵי־מִצְרַיִם שְׁכֵנַיִךְ גִּדְלֵי בָשָׂר וַתַּרְבִּי אֶת־תַּזְנֻתֵךְ לְהַכְעִיסֵנִי׃ 17.15. וַיִּמְרָד־בּוֹ לִשְׁלֹחַ מַלְאָכָיו מִצְרַיִם לָתֶת־לוֹ סוּסִים וְעַם־רָב הֲיִצְלָח הֲיִמָּלֵט הָעֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וְהֵפֵר בְּרִית וְנִמְלָט׃ 17.17. וְלֹא בְחַיִל גָּדוֹל וּבְקָהָל רָב יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ פַרְעֹה בַּמִּלְחָמָה בִּשְׁפֹּךְ סֹלְלָה וּבִבְנוֹת דָּיֵק לְהַכְרִית נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת׃ 20.4. כִּי בְהַר־קָדְשִׁי בְּהַר מְרוֹם יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה שָׁם יַעַבְדֻנִי כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כֻּלֹּה בָּאָרֶץ שָׁם אֶרְצֵם וְשָׁם אֶדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־תְּרוּמֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶת־רֵאשִׁית מַשְׂאוֹתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־קָדְשֵׁיכֶם׃ 20.4. הֲתִשְׁפֹּט אֹתָם הֲתִשְׁפּוֹט בֶּן־אָדָם אֶת־תּוֹעֲבֹת אֲבוֹתָם הוֹדִיעֵם׃ 20.5. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בְּיוֹם בָּחֳרִי בְיִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֶשָּׂא יָדִי לְזֶרַע בֵּית יַעֲקֹב וָאִוָּדַע לָהֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וָאֶשָּׂא יָדִי לָהֶם לֵאמֹר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.6. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נָשָׂאתִי יָדִי לָהֶם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֶל־אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־תַּרְתִּי לָהֶם זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ צְבִי הִיא לְכָל־הָאֲרָצוֹת׃ 20.7. וָאֹמַר אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ שִׁקּוּצֵי עֵינָיו הַשְׁלִיכוּ וּבְגִלּוּלֵי מִצְרַיִם אַל־תִּטַּמָּאוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.8. וַיַּמְרוּ־בִי וְלֹא אָבוּ לִּשְׁמֹעַ אֵלַי אִישׁ אֶת־שִׁקּוּצֵי עֵינֵיהֶם לֹא הִשְׁלִיכוּ וְאֶת־גִּלּוּלֵי מִצְרַיִם לֹא עָזָבוּ וָאֹמַר לִשְׁפֹּךְ חֲמָתִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְכַלּוֹת אַפִּי בָּהֶם בְּתוֹךְ אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 20.9. וָאַעַשׂ לְמַעַן שְׁמִי לְבִלְתִּי הֵחֵל לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה בְתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר נוֹדַעְתִּי אֲלֵיהֶם לְעֵינֵיהֶם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 23.1. הֵמָּה גִּלּוּ עֶרְוָתָהּ בָּנֶיהָ וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ לָקָחוּ וְאוֹתָהּ בַּחֶרֶב הָרָגוּ וַתְּהִי־שֵׁם לַנָּשִׁים וּשְׁפוּטִים עָשׂוּ בָהּ׃ 23.1. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 23.2. וַתַּעְגְּבָה עַל פִּלַגְשֵׁיהֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׂר־חֲמוֹרִים בְּשָׂרָם וְזִרְמַת סוּסִים זִרְמָתָם׃ 23.2. בֶּן־אָדָם שְׁתַּיִם נָשִׁים בְּנוֹת אֵם־אַחַת הָיוּ׃ 23.3. וַתִּזְנֶינָה בְמִצְרַיִם בִּנְעוּרֵיהֶן זָנוּ שָׁמָּה מֹעֲכוּ שְׁדֵיהֶן וְשָׁם עִשּׂוּ דַּדֵּי בְּתוּלֵיהֶן׃ 23.3. עָשֹׂה אֵלֶּה לָךְ בִּזְנוֹתֵךְ אַחֲרֵי גוֹיִם עַל אֲשֶׁר־נִטְמֵאת בְּגִלּוּלֵיהֶם׃ 23.8. וְאֶת־תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא עָזָבָה כִּי אוֹתָהּ שָׁכְבוּ בִנְעוּרֶיהָ וְהֵמָּה עִשּׂוּ דַּדֵּי בְתוּלֶיהָ וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ תַזְנוּתָם עָלֶיהָ׃ 23.19. וַתַּרְבֶּה אֶת־תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ לִזְכֹּר אֶת־יְמֵי נְעוּרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר זָנְתָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 23.21. וַתִּפְקְדִי אֵת זִמַּת נְעוּרָיִךְ בַּעְשׂוֹת מִמִּצְרַיִם דַּדַּיִךְ לְמַעַן שְׁדֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ׃ 23.27. וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי זִמָּתֵךְ מִמֵּךְ וְאֶת־זְנוּתֵךְ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְלֹא־תִשְׂאִי עֵינַיִךְ אֲלֵיהֶם וּמִצְרַיִם לֹא תִזְכְּרִי־עוֹד׃ 12.10. Say thou unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Concerning the prince, even this burden, in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel among whom they are," 12.12. And the prince that is among them shall bear upon his shoulder, and go forth in the darkness; they shall dig through the wall to carry out thereby; he shall cover his face, that he see not the ground with his eyes." 12.14. And I will disperse toward every wind all that are round about him to help him, and all his troops; and I will draw out the sword after them." 16.26. Thou hast also played the harlot with the Egyptians, thy neighbours, great of flesh; and hast multiplied thy harlotry, to provoke Me." 17.15. But he rebelled against him in sending his ambassadors into Egypt, that they might give him horses and much people. Shall he prosper? shall he escape that doeth such things? shall he break the covet, and yet escape?" 17.17. Neither shall Pharaoh with his mighty army and great company succour him in the war, when they cast up mounds and build forts, to cut off many souls;" 20.4. Wilt thou judge them, son of man, wilt thou judge them? cause them to know the abominations of their fathers;" 20.5. and say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: In the day when I chose Israel, and lifted up My hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob, and made Myself known unto them in the land of Egypt, when I lifted up My hand unto them, saying: I am the LORD your God;" 20.6. in that day I lifted up My hand unto them, to bring them forth out of the land of Egypt into a land that I had sought out for them, flowing with milk and honey, which is the beauty of all lands;" 20.7. and I said unto them: Cast ye away every man the detestable things of his eyes, and defile not yourselves with the idols of Egypt; I am the LORD your God." 20.8. But they rebelled against Me, and would not hearken unto Me; they did not every man cast away the detestable things of their eyes, neither did they forsake the idols of Egypt; then I said I would pour out My fury upon them, to spend My anger upon them in the midst of the land of Egypt." 20.9. But I wrought for My name’s sake, that it should not be profaned in the sight of the nations, among whom they were, in whose sight I made Myself known unto them, so as to bring them forth out of the land of Egypt." 20.10. So I caused them to go forth out of the land of Egypt, and brought them into the wilderness." 23.1. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 23.2. ’Son of man, there were two women, the daughters of one mother;" 23.3. and they committed harlotries in Egypt; they committed harlotries in their youth; there were their bosoms pressed, and there their virgin breasts were bruised." 23.8. Neither hath she left her harlotries brought from Egypt; for in her youth they lay with her, and they bruised her virgin breasts; and they poured out their lust upon her." 23.19. Yet she multiplied her harlotries, remembering the days of her youth, wherein she had played the harlot in the land of Egypt." 23.20. And she doted upon concubinage with them, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses." 23.21. Thus thou didst call to remembrance the lewdness of thy youth, when they from Egypt bruised thy breasts for the bosom of thy youth." 23.27. Thus will I make thy lewdness to cease from thee, and thy harlotry brought from the land of Egypt, so that thou shalt not lift up thine eyes unto them, nor remember Egypt any more."
21. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 1.3 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.3. וַיְהִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה בְּיַד־חַגַּי הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 1.3. Then came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:"
22. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.1. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הִתְיַחְשׂוּ וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה הָגְלוּ לְבָבֶל בְּמַעֲלָם׃ 9.1. וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים יְדַעְיָה וִיהוֹיָרִיב וְיָכִין׃ 9.1. So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel; and Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their transgression."
23. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 12.2-12.3, 12.9, 36.6, 36.11-36.14 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.2. וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁית לַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם עָלָה שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם כִּי מָעֲלוּ בַּיהוָה׃ 12.3. בְּאֶלֶף וּמָאתַיִם רֶכֶב וּבְשִׁשִּׁים אֶלֶף פָּרָשִׁים וְאֵין מִסְפָּר לָעָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּאוּ עִמּוֹ מִמִּצְרַיִם לוּבִים סֻכִּיִּים וְכוּשִׁים׃ 12.9. וַיַּעַל שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקַּח אֶת־אֹצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וְאֶת־אֹצְרוֹת בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־הַכֹּל לָקָח וַיִּקַּח אֶת־מָגִנֵּי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 36.6. עָלָיו עָלָה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיַּאַסְרֵהוּ בַּנְחֻשְׁתַּיִם לְהֹלִיכוֹ בָּבֶלָה׃ 36.11. בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִים וְאַחַת שָׁנָה צִדְקִיָּהוּ בְמָלְכוֹ וְאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מָלַךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 36.12. וַיַּעַשׂ הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לֹא נִכְנַע מִלִּפְנֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא מִפִּי יְהוָה׃ 36.13. וְגַם בַּמֶּלֶךְ נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מָרָד אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁבִּיעוֹ בֵּאלֹהִים וַיֶּקֶשׁ אֶת־עָרְפּוֹ וַיְאַמֵּץ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ מִשּׁוּב אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.14. גַּם כָּל־שָׂרֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הִרְבּוּ לִמְעָול־מַעַל כְּכֹל תֹּעֲבוֹת הַגּוֹיִם וַיְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְדִּישׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 12.2. And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had dealt treacherously with the LORD," 12.3. with twelve hundred chariots, and threescore thousand horsemen; and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt; the Lubim, the Sukkiim, and the Ethiopians." 12.9. So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king’s house; he took all away; he took away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made." 36.6. Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon." 36.11. Zedekiah was twenty and one years old when he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem;" 36.12. and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD his God; he humbled not himself before Jeremiah the prophet speaking from the mouth of the LORD." 36.13. And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God; but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the LORD, the God of Israel." 36.14. Moreover all the chiefs of the priests, and the people, transgressed very greatly after all the abominations of the nations; and they polluted the house of the LORD which He had hallowed in Jerusalem."
24. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 1.1-1.5, 1.7-1.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1. כְּפוֹרֵי זָהָב שְׁלֹשִׁים כְּפוֹרֵי כֶסֶף מִשְׁנִים אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים אָלֶף׃ 1.1. וּבִשְׁנַת אַחַת לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס לִכְלוֹת דְּבַר־יְהוָה מִפִּי יִרְמְיָה הֵעִיר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ־פָּרַס וַיַּעֲבֶר־קוֹל בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וְגַם־בְּמִכְתָּב לֵאמֹר׃ 1.2. כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס כֹּל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ נָתַן לִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהוּא־פָקַד עָלַי לִבְנוֹת־לוֹ בַיִת בִּירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה׃ 1.3. מִי־בָכֶם מִכָּל־עַמּוֹ יְהִי אֱלֹהָיו עִמּוֹ וְיַעַל לִירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה וְיִבֶן אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.4. וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁאָר מִכָּל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר הוּא גָר־שָׁם יְנַשְּׂאוּהוּ אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמוֹ בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב וּבִרְכוּשׁ וּבִבְהֵמָה עִם־הַנְּדָבָה לְבֵית הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.5. וַיָּקוּמוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לִיהוּדָה וּבִנְיָמִן וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם לְכֹל הֵעִיר הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־רוּחוֹ לַעֲלוֹת לִבְנוֹת אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.7. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ כּוֹרֶשׁ הוֹצִיא אֶת־כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּבֵית אֱלֹהָיו׃ 1.8. וַיּוֹצִיאֵם כּוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס עַל־יַד מִתְרְדָת הַגִּזְבָּר וַיִּסְפְּרֵם לְשֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר הַנָּשִׂיא לִיהוּדָה׃ 1.1. NOW IN the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying:" 1.2. ’Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD, the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah." 1.3. Whosoever there is among you of all His people—his God be with him—let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD, the God of Israel, He is the God who is in Jerusalem." 1.4. And whosoever is left, in any place where he sojourneth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill-offering for the house of God which is in Jerusalem.’" 1.5. Then rose up the heads of fathers’houses of Judah and Benjamin, and the priests, and the Levites, even all whose spirit God had stirred to go up to build the house of the LORD which is in Jerusalem." 1.7. Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;" 1.8. even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah."
25. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.8-9.11 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.8. וּמָצָאתָ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ וְכָרוֹת עִמּוֹ הַבְּרִית לָתֵת אֶת־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי לָתֵת לְזַרְעוֹ וַתָּקֶם אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ כִּי צַדִּיק אָתָּה׃ 9.9. וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־עֳנִי אֲבֹתֵינוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־זַעֲקָתָם שָׁמַעְתָּ עַל־יַם־סוּף׃ 9.11. וְהַיָּם בָּקַעְתָּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְרוּ בְתוֹךְ־הַיָּם בַּיַּבָּשָׁה וְאֶת־רֹדְפֵיהֶם הִשְׁלַכְתָּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אֶבֶן בְּמַיִם עַזִּים׃ 9.8. and foundest his heart faithful before Thee, and madest a covet with him to give the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite, and the Girgashite, even to give it unto his seed, and hast performed Thy words; for Thou art righteous;" 9.9. And Thou sawest the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest their cry by the Red Sea;" 9.10. and didst show signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land; for Thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them; and didst get Thee a name, as it is this day." 9.11. And Thou didst divide the sea before them, so that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; and their pursuers Thou didst cast into the depths, as a stone into the mighty waters."
26. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.7, 6.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.7. וְהִנֵּה הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי יֹצֵא וּמַלְאָךְ אַחֵר יֹצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ׃ 2.7. And, behold, the angel that spoke with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him," 6.10. ’Take of them of the captivity, even of Heldai, of Tobijah, and of Jedaiah, that are come from Babylon; and come thou the same day, and go into the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah;"
27. Herodotus, Histories, 9.82 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.82. This other story is also told. When Xerxes fled from Hellas, he left to Mardonius his own establishment. Pausanias, seeing Mardonius' establishment with its display of gold and silver and gaily colored tapestry, ordered the bakers and the cooks to prepare a dinner such as they were accustomed to do for Mardonius. ,They did his bidding, but Pausanias, when he saw golden and silver couches richly covered, and tables of gold and silver, and all the magnificent service of the banquet, was amazed at the splendor before him, and for a joke commanded his own servants to prepare a dinner in Laconian fashion. When that meal, so different from the other, was ready, Pausanias burst out laughing and sent for the generals of the Greeks. ,When these had assembled, Pausanias pointed to the manner in which each dinner was served and said: “Men of Hellas, I have brought you here because I desired to show you the foolishness of the leader of the Medes who, with such provisions for life as you see, came here to take away from us our possessions which are so pitiful.” In this way, it is said, Pausanias spoke to the generals of the Greeks.
28. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

29. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.14 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Apgen, 17, 16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Genesis Apocryphon, 17, 16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Septuagint, Judith, 1.9, 4.12, 5.11, 7.9, 8.29, 8.32-8.34, 9.2-9.3, 9.8-9.10, 9.13, 10.5-10.10, 10.23, 11.5, 11.7, 11.10, 11.12-11.13, 11.17, 12.1, 12.8, 12.15, 13.1-13.9, 13.14-13.15, 16.5, 16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.9. and all who were in Samaria and its surrounding towns, and beyond the Jordan as far as Jerusalem and Bethany and Chelous and Kadesh and the river of Egypt, and Tahpanhes and Raamses and the whole land of Goshen 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 5.11. So the king of Egypt became hostile to them; he took advantage of them and set them to making bricks, and humbled them and made slaves of them. 7.9. Let our lord hear a word, lest his army be defeated. 8.29. Today is not the first time your wisdom has been shown, but from the beginning of your life all the people have recognized your understanding, for your heart's disposition is right. 8.32. Judith said to them, "Listen to me. I am about to do a thing which will go down through all generations of our descendants. 8.33. Stand at the city gate tonight, and I will go out with my maid; and within the days after which you have promised to surrender the city to our enemies, the Lord will deliver Israel by my hand. 8.34. Only, do not try to find out what I plan; for I will not tell you until I have finished what I am about to do. 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 10.6. Then they went out to the city gate of Bethulia, and found Uzziah standing there with the elders of the city, Chabris and Charmis. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her 10.8. May the God of our fathers grant you favor and fulfil your plans, that the people of Israel may glory and Jerusalem may be exalted." And she worshiped God. 10.9. Then she said to them, "Order the gate of the city to be opened for me, and I will go out and accomplish the things about which you spoke with me." So they ordered the young men to open the gate for her, as she had said. 10.10. When they had done this, Judith went out, she and her maid with her; and the men of the city watched her until she had gone down the mountain and passed through the valley and they could no longer see her. 10.23. And when Judith came into the presence of Holofernes and his servants, they all marveled at the beauty of her face; and she prostrated herself and made obeisance to him, and his slaves raised her up. 11.5. Judith replied to him, "Accept the words of your servant, and let your maidservant speak in your presence, and I will tell nothing false to my lord this night. 11.7. Nebuchadnezzar the king of the whole earth lives, and as his power endures, who had sent you to direct every living soul, not only do men serve him because of you, but also the beasts of the field and the cattle and the birds of the air will live by your power under Nebuchadnezzar and all his house. 11.10. Therefore, my lord and master, do not disregard what he said, but keep it in your mind, for it is true: our nation cannot be punished, nor can the sword prevail against them, unless they sin against their God. 11.12. Since their food supply is exhausted and their water has almost given out, they have planned to kill their cattle and have determined to use all that God by his laws has forbidden them to eat. 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 11.17. For your servant is religious, and serves the God of heaven day and night; therefore, my lord, I will remain with you, and every night your servant will go out into the valley, and I will pray to God and he will tell me when they have committed their sins. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.8. When she came up from the spring she prayed the Lord God of Israel to direct her way for the raising up of her people. 12.15. So she got up and arrayed herself in all her woman's finery, and her maid went and spread on the ground for her before Holofernes the soft fleeces which she had received from Bagoas for her daily use, so that she might recline on them when she ate. 13.1. When evening came, his slaves quickly withdrew, and Bagoas closed the tent from outside and shut out the attendants from his master's presence; and they went to bed, for they all were weary because the banquet had lasted long. 13.2. So Judith was left alone in the tent, with Holofernes stretched out on his bed, for he was overcome with wine. 13.3. Now Judith had told her maid to stand outside the bedchamber and to wait for her to come out, as she did every day; for she said she would be going out for her prayers. And she had said the same thing to Bagoas. 13.4. So every one went out, and no one, either small or great, was left in the bedchamber. Then Judith, standing beside his bed, said in her heart, "O Lord God of all might, look in this hour upon the work of my hands for the exaltation of Jerusalem. 13.5. For now is the time to help thy inheritance, and to carry out my undertaking for the destruction of the enemies who have risen up against us. 13.6. She went up to the post at the end of the bed, above Holofernes' head, and took down his sword that hung there. 13.7. She came close to his bed and took hold of the hair of his head, and said, "Give me strength this day, O Lord God of Israel! 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid 13.14. Then she said to them with a loud voice, "Praise God, O praise him! Praise God, who has not withdrawn his mercy from the house of Israel, but has destroyed our enemies by my hand this very night! 13.15. Then she took the head out of the bag and showed it to them, and said, "See, here is the head of Holofernes, the commander of the Assyrian army, and here is the canopy beneath which he lay in his drunken stupor. The Lord has struck him down by the hand of a woman. 16.5. He boasted that he would burn up my territory, and kill my young men with the sword, and dash my infants to the ground and seize my children as prey, and take my virgins as booty. 16.14. Let all thy creatures serve thee, for thou didst speak, and they were made. Thou didst send forth thy Spirit, and it formed them; there is none that can resist thy voice.
33. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 17.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. Some of the guards said that when she also was about to be seized and put to death she threw herself into the flames so that no one might touch her body.
34. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.8. The Greeks in the city, though wronged in no way, when they saw an unexpected tumult around these people and the crowds that suddenly were forming, were not strong enough to help them, for they lived under tyranny. They did try to console them, being grieved at the situation, and expected that matters would change;
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 107-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-133, 136, 14, 144, 147, 15-16, 163, 167-169, 17, 170-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 20, 200-207, 21, 217, 22-29, 3, 30-48, 52-54, 6, 60, 62-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-81, 9, 90-93, 97-98, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. for, as the poet Homer, though the number of poets is beyond all calculation, is called "the poet" by way of distinction, and as the black [ink] with which we write is called "the black," though in point of fact everything which is not white is black; and as that archon at Athens is especially called "the archon," who is the archon eponymus and the chief of the nine archons, from whom the chronology is dated; so in the same manner the sacred historian calls him who indulges in hope, "a man," by way of pre-eminence, passing over in silence the rest of the multitude of human beings, as not being worthy to receive the same appellation.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. But when Abram, instead of an inquirer into natural philosophy, became a wise man and a lover of God, having his name changed to Abraham, which being interpreted means the great father of sounds; for language when uttered sounds, and the father of language is the mind, which has attained to what is virtuous. And when Sarai instead of being my authority, had her name also changed to Sarah, the meaning of which is princess, and this change is equivalent to becoming generic and imperishable virtue, instead of virtue special and perishable: 7. and the neglect of divine things is evident to those who see clearly; for they, having fashioned an infinite variety of appearances by the arts of painting and sculpture, have surrounded them with temples and shrines, and have erected altars, and adorned them with images and statues, and erections of that kind, giving celestial honours to all sorts of iimate things
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 129 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

129. And the name is, as the Hebrews say, Phanuel, which translated into our language means, "turning away from God." For any strong building which is erected by means of plausible arguments is not built for the sake of any other object except that of averting and alienating the mind from the honour due to God, than which object what can be more iniquitous?
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. But neither is wealth, which it is not possible to employ, of any advantage to its possessors, nor is the fertility of wisdom of any service to us, unless it also brings forth such things as are serviceable to us. For some persons it judges to be in every respect worthy of living in its company; but others appear to have not yet arrived at such an age, as to be able to support so highly praised and well regulated a charge; whom, however, it permits to enter upon the preliminaries of marriage, holding out to them a hope that they may hereafter consummate the wedlock.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

111. And Moses indeed, in the same manner, when he saw the king of Egypt, that arrogant man with his six hundred chariots, that is to say, with the six carefully arranged motions of the organic body, and with the governors who were appointed to manage them, who, while none of all created things are by nature calculated to stand still, think nevertheless that they may look upon everything as solidly settled and admitting of no alteration; when he, I say, saw that this king had met with the punishment due to his impiety, and that the people, who were practisers of virtue, had escaped from the attacks of their enemies, and had been saved by mighty power beyond their expectation, he then sang a hymn to God as a just and true judge, beginning a hymn in a manner most becoming and most exactly suited to the events that had happened, because the horse and his rider he had thrown into the Sea;" having utterly destroyed that mind which rode upon the irrational impulses of that four-footed and restive animal, passion, and had become an ally, and defender, and protector of the seeing soul, so as to bestow upon it complete safety.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 78, 77 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

77. We will now speak of his wife, Sarah, for she too had her name changed to Sarrah by the addition of the one element, the letter rho. These, then, are the names, and we must now explain what they mean. Sarah, being interpreted, signifies "my authority," but Sarrah signifies "princess;" the former name
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. But Moses, rejecting both of these methods, the one as inconsiderate, careless, and unphilosophical, and the other as mendacious and full of trickery, made the beginning of his laws entirely beautiful, and in all respects admirable, neither at once declaring what ought to be done or the contrary, nor (since it was necessary to mould beforehand the dispositions of those who were to use his laws) inventing fables himself or adopting those which had been invented by others.
42. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

65. and after that he concludes his account in these words, "This is the book of the generation of heaven and of earth when they were made, on the day in which God made the heaven and the earth; and these things were done in the first day, so that the seventh day is referred to the unit which is the first day and the beginning of the whole. I have dwelt at length on this topic, with the object of showing more plainly the opinion which Cain thought it right to build up like a city. XIX.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.277 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.277. But some have not only put themselves forward as rivals to human virtue, but have proceeded to such a pitch of folly as to oppose themselves also to divine virtue. Therefore Pharaoh, the king of the land of Egypt, is spoken of as the leader of the company which is devoted to the passions; for it is said to the prophet, "Behold, he is going forth to the river, and thou shalt stand in the way to meet him, on the bank of the River;
44. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.97, 2.162-2.167, 2.192, 4.224 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.97. There is also a third symbol contained in this sacred dress, which it is important not to pass over in silence. For the priests of other deities are accustomed to offer up prayers and sacrifices solely for their own relations, and friends, and fellow citizens. But the high priest of the Jews offers them up not only on behalf of the whole race of mankind, but also on behalf of the different parts of nature, of the earth, of water, of air, and of fire; and pours forth his prayers and thanksgivings for them all, looking upon the world (as indeed it really i 2.162. There is also a festival on the day of the paschal feast, which succeeds the first day, and this is named the sheaf, from what takes place on it; for the sheaf is brought to the altar as a first fruit both of the country which the nation has received for its own, and also of the whole land; so as to be an offering both for the nation separately, and also a common one for the whole race of mankind; and so that the people by it worship the living God, both for themselves and for all the rest of mankind, because they have received the fertile earth for their inheritance; for in the country there is no barren soil but even all those parts which appear to be stony and rugged are surrounded with soft veins of great depth, which, by reason of their richness, are very well suited for the production of living Things.{20}{sections 163û174 were omitted in Yonge's translation because the edition on which Yonge based his translation, Mangey, lacked this material. These lines have been newly translated for this volume.} 2.163. The reason is that a priest has the same relation to a city that the nation of the Jews has to the entire inhabited world. For it serves as a priest--to state the truth--through the use of all purificatory offerings and the guidance both for body and soul of divine laws which have checked the pleasures of the stomach and those under the stomach and [tamed] the mob [of the Senses]{21}{there is a clear problem with the text here, i.e., the noun ochlon lacks a verb.} by having appointed reason as charioteer over the irrational senses; they also have driven back and overturned the undiscriminating and excessive urges of the soul, some by rather gentle instructions and philosophical exhortations, others by rather weighty and forcible rebukes and by fear of punishment, the fear which they brandish threateningly. 2.164. Apart from the fact that the legislation is in a certain way teaching about the priesthood and that the one who lives by the laws is at once considered a priest, or rather a high priest, in the judgment of truth, the following point is also remarkable. The multitude of gods, both male and female, honored in individual cities happens to be undetermined and indefinite. The poetic clan and the great company of humans have spoken fabulously about them, people for whom the search for truth is impractical and beyond their capability of investigation. Yet all do not reverence and honor the same gods, but different people different gods. The reason is that they do not consider as gods those belonging to another land but make the acceptance of them the occasion for laughter and a joke. They charge those who honor them with great foolishness since they completely violate sound sense. 2.165. But if he is, whom all Greeks together with all barbarians acknowledge with one judgment, the highest Father of both gods and humans and the Maker of the entire cosmos, whose nature--although it is invisible and unfathomable not only to sight but also to perception--all who spend their time with mathematics and other philosophy long to discover, leaving aside none of the things which contribute to the discovery and service of him, then it was necessary for all people to cling to him and not as if through some mechanical device to introduce other gods into participation of equal honors. 2.166. Since they slipped in the most essential matter, the nation of the Jews--to speak most accurately--set aright the false step of others by having looked beyond everything which has come into existence through creation since it is generate and corruptible in nature, and chose only the service of the ungenerate and eternal. The first reason for this is because it is excellent; the second is because it is profitable to be dedicated and associated with the Older rather than those who are younger and with the Ruler rather than those who are ruled and with the Maker rather those things which come into existence. 2.167. For this reason it amazes me that some dare to charge the nation with an anti-social stance, a nation which has made such an extensive use of fellowship and goodwill toward all people everywhere that they offer up prayers and feasts and first fruits on behalf of the common race of human beings and serve the really self-existent God both on behalf of themselves and of others who have run from the services which they should have rendered. 2.192. On this account it is that the law has given this festival the name of a warlike instrument, in order to show the proper gratitude to God as the giver of peace, who has abolished all seditions in cities, and in all parts of the universe, and has produced plenty and prosperity, not allowing a single spark that could tend to the destruction of the crops to be kindled into flame.THE NINTH FESTIVALXXXII. 4.224. From all which it is plain that the nation of the Jews is allied with and friendly to all those who are of the same sentiments, and all who are peaceful in their intentions; and that it is not to be despised as one that submits to those who begin to treat it with injustice out of cowardice; but when it goes forth to defend itself, it distinguishes between those who are habitually plotting against it and those who are not;
45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 216, 86, 188 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

188. For when God determined to establish this in us out of his own exceeding mercy and love for the human race, he would not find any temple upon earth more beautiful or more suited for its abode than reason: for the mind makes, as it were, an image of the good and consecrates it within itself, and if any persons disbelieve in it of those who have either never tasted wisdom at all, or else have done so only with the edges of their lips (for silver and gold, and honours, and offices, and vigour and beauty of body, resemble those men who are appointed to situations of authority and power, in order to serve virtue as if she were their queen), never having obtained a sight of the most brilliant of all lights.
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.34-1.36, 1.149, 1.190, 2.248 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.34. for, as I have said before, the Jews were strangers in Egypt, the founders of their race having migrated from Babylon and the upper satrapies in the time of the famine, by reason of their want of food, and come and settled in Egypt, and having in a manner taken refuge like suppliants in the country as in a sacred asylum, fleeing for protection to the good faith of the king and the compassion of the inhabitants; 1.35. for strangers, in my opinion, should be looked upon as refugees, and as the suppliants of those who receive them in their country; and, besides, being suppliants, these men were likewise sojourners in the land, and friends desiring to be admitted to equal honours with the citizens, and neighbours differing but little in their character from original natives. 1.36. The men, therefore, who had left their homes and come into Egypt, as if they were to dwell in that land as in a second country in perfect security, the king of the country reduced to slavery, and, as if he had taken them prisoners by the laws of war, or had bought them from masters in whose house they had been bred, he oppressed them and treated them as slaves, though they were not only free men, but also strangers, and suppliants, and sojourners, having no respect for nor any awe of God, who presides over the rights of free men, and of strangers, and of suppliants, and of hospitality, and who beholds all such actions as his. 1.149. For, as he had abandoned the chief authority in Egypt, which he might have had as the grandson of the reigning king, on account of the iniquities which were being perpetrated in that country, and by reason of his nobleness of soul and of the greatness of his spirit, and the natural detestation of wickedness, scorning and rejecting all the hopes which he might have conceived from those who had adopted him, it seemed good to the Ruler and Governor of the universe to recompense him with the sovereign authority over a more populous and more powerful nation, which he was about to take to himself out of all other nations and to consecrate to the priesthood, that it might for ever offer up prayers for the whole universal race of mankind, for the sake of averting evil from them and procuring them a participation in blessings. 1.190. And the intellect too of those persons who have tasted of holiness has a similar nature; for it has learned to look upwards and to soar on high, and is continually keeping its eye fixed on sublime objects, and investigating divine things, and ridiculing, and scorning all earthly beauty, thinking the last only toys, and divine things the only real and proper objects worthy of its attention. 2.248. And while they were all in this state of mind, a still greater evil was impending over them; for the king of the Egyptians, having collected a power which was far from contemptible, a vast army of cavalry and infantry, sallied forth in pursuit of them, and made haste to overtake them, that he might avenge himself on them for the departure which he had been compelled by undeniable communications from God to permit them to take. But, as it should seem, the disposition of wicked men is unstable, so that, like any thing in a lightly-balanced scale, it inclines on very slight causes to different directions at different times.
47. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 4, 53-54, 141 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

141. And when every one, as was very natural, was indigt at this, and when the city was mightily offended, that the folly of some individuals should attach to it so as to dim its reputation, Flaccus determined to send for some of the most honourable men of the people, and, on the next day to bring forward before them those who had distributed the bribes, that he might investigate the truth about Isidorus, and also that he might make a defence of his own system of government, and prove that he had been unjustly calumniated; and when they heard the proclamation there came not only the magistrates but also the whole city, except that portion which was about to be convicted of having been the agents of corruption or the corrupted. And they who had been employed in this honourable service, being raised up on the platform
48. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 90 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

90. But I suppose you imitated Hercules in your unwearied labours and your incessant displays of valour and virtue; you, O most wretched of men! having filled every continent and every island with good laws, and principles of justice, and wealth, and comfort, and prosperity, and abundance of other blessings, you, wretched man, full of all cowardice and iniquity, who have emptied every city of all the things which can conduce to stability and prosperity, and have made them full of everything which leads to trouble and confusion, and the most utter misery and desolation.
49. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.13, 3.38 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

50. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 3.53, 4.60-4.70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 78 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

78. The good man, then, alone sees; in reference to whom the ancients also called the prophets, seers. But he who advanced further outwards, not only seeing, but seeing God, was called Israel; the meaning of which name is, "seeing God." But others, even if they ever do open their eyes, still bend them down towards the earth, pursuing only earthly things, and being bred up among material objects;
52. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 95, 94 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

94. But that all these things should happen when the king of Egypt dies, should be a most strange thing; for it would be natural that when the tyrant died, all those who have been tyrannised over by him should rejoice and exult; but at that time they are said to groan. "For after many days the king of Egypt died, and the children of Israel Groaned.
53. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.154, 1.162-1.165 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.154. 1. Now Abram, having no son of his own, adopted Lot, his brother Haran’s son, and his wife Sarai’s brother; and he left the land of Chaldea when he was seventy-five years old, and at the command of God went into Canaan, and therein he dwelt himself, and left it to his posterity. He was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and not mistaken in his opinions; 1.162. Now, seeing he was to take Sarai with him, and was afraid of the madness of the Egyptians with regard to women, lest the king should kill him on occasion of his wife’s great beauty, he contrived this device:—he pretended to be her brother, and directed her in a dissembling way to pretend the same, for he said it would be for their benefit. 1.163. Now, as soon as he came into Egypt, it happened to Abram as he supposed it would; for the fame of his wife’s beauty was greatly talked of; for which reason Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, would not be satisfied with what was reported of her, but would needs see her himself, and was preparing to enjoy her; 1.164. but God put a stop to his unjust inclinations, by sending upon him a distemper, and a sedition against his government. And when he inquired of the priests how he might be freed from these calamities, they told him that this his miserable condition was derived from the wrath of God, upon account of his inclinations to abuse the stranger’s wife. 1.165. He then, out of fear, asked Sarai who she was, and who it was that she brought along with her. And when he had found out the truth, he excused himself to Abram, that supposing the woman to be his sister, and not his wife, he set his affections on her, as desiring an affinity with him by marrying her, but not as incited by lust to abuse her. He also made him a large present in money, and gave him leave to enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation his virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been before.
54. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.317, 4.459, 4.483-4.485, 4.533, 5.225-5.235, 5.375-5.389, 5.391-5.392, 6.103-6.104, 6.301, 6.423-6.426, 7.432 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.317. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. 4.459. 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.483. The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484. It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces [or shadows] of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. 4.485. And thus what is related of this land of Sodom hath these marks of credibility which our very sight affords us. 4.533. There is also there showed, at the distance of six furlongs from the city, a very large turpentine tree and the report goes, that this tree has continued ever since the creation of the world. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time. 5.226. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight; this encompassed the holy house and the altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests. 5.227. Moreover, those that had the gonorrhea and the leprosy were excluded out of the city entirely; women also, when their courses were upon them, were shut out of the temple; nor when they were free from that impurity, were they allowed to go beyond the limit before-mentioned; men also, that were not thoroughly pure, were prohibited to come into the inner [court of the] temple; nay, the priests themselves that were not pure were prohibited to come into it also. 5.228. 7. Now all those of the stock of the priests that could not minister by reason of some defect in their bodies, came within the partition, together with those that had no such imperfection, and had their share with them by reason of their stock, but still made use of none except their own private garments; for nobody but he that officiated had on his sacred garments; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. 5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. 5.375. 4. While Josephus was making this exhortation to the Jews, many of them jested upon him from the wall, and many reproached him; nay, some threw their darts at him: but when he could not himself persuade them by such open good advice, he betook himself to the histories belonging to their own nation 5.376. and cried out aloud, “O miserable creatures! are you so unmindful of those that used to assist you, that you will fight by your weapons and by your hands against the Romans? When did we ever conquer any other nation by such means? 5.377. and when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not avenge them when they had been injured? Will not you turn again, and look back, and consider whence it is that you fight with such violence, and how great a Supporter you have profanely abused? Will not you recall to mind the prodigious things done for your forefathers and this holy place, and how great enemies of yours were by him subdued under you? 5.378. I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears, that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. 5.379. In old times there was one Necao, king of Egypt, who was also called Pharaoh; he came with a prodigious army of soldiers, and seized queen Sarah, the mother of our nation. 5.381. Was not our queen sent back, without any defilement, to her husband, the very next evening?—while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place which you have defiled by shedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen; and he also trembled at those visions which he saw in the night season, and bestowed both silver and gold on the Hebrews, as on a people beloved by God. 5.382. Shall I say nothing, or shall I mention the removal of our fathers into Egypt, who, when they were used tyrannically, and were fallen under the power of foreign kings for four hundred years together, and might have defended themselves by war and by fighting, did yet do nothing but commit themselves to God? 5.383. Who is there that does not know that Egypt was overrun with all sorts of wild beasts, and consumed by all sorts of distempers? how their land did not bring forth its fruit? how the Nile failed of water? how the ten plagues of Egypt followed one upon another? and how by those means our fathers were sent away under a guard, without any bloodshed, and without running any dangers, because God conducted them as his peculiar servants? 5.384. Moreover, did not Palestine groan under the ravage the Assyrians made, when they carried away our sacred ark? asdid their idol Dagon, and as also did that entire nation of those that carried it away 5.385. how they were smitten with a loathsome distemper in the secret parts of their bodies, when their very bowels came down together with what they had eaten, till those hands that stole it away were obliged to bring it back again, and that with the sound of cymbals and timbrels, and other oblations, in order to appease the anger of God for their violation of his holy ark. 5.386. It was God who then became our General, and accomplished these great things for our fathers, and this because they did not meddle with war and fighting, but committed it to him to judge about their affairs. 5.387. When Sennacherib, king of Assyria, brought along with him all Asia, and encompassed this city round with his army, did he fall by the hands of men? 5.388. were not those hands lifted up to God in prayers, without meddling with their arms, when an angel of God destroyed that prodigious army in one night? when the Assyrian king, as he rose the next day, found a hundred fourscore and five thousand dead bodies, and when he, with the remainder of his army, fled away from the Hebrews, though they were unarmed, and did not pursue them. 5.389. You are also acquainted with the slavery we were under at Babylon, where the people were captives for seventy years; yet were they not delivered into freedom again before God made Cyrus his gracious instrument in bringing it about; accordingly they were set free by him, and did again restore the worship of their Deliverer at his temple. 5.391. for example, when the king of Babylon besieged this very city, and our king Zedekiah fought against him, contrary to what predictions were made to him by Jeremiah the prophet, he was at once taken prisoner, and saw the city and the temple demolished. Yet how much greater was the moderation of that king, than is that of your present governors, and that of the people then under him, than is that of you at this time! 5.392. for when Jeremiah cried out aloud, how very angry God was at them, because of their transgressions, and told them that they should be taken prisoners, unless they would surrender up their city, neither did the king nor the people put him to death; 6.103. But still, John, it is never dishonorable to repent, and amend what hath been done amiss, even at the last extremity. Thou hast an instance before thee in Jechoniah, the king of the Jews, if thou hast a mind to save the city 6.104. who, when the king of Babylon made war against him, did of his own accord go out of this city before it was taken, and did undergo a voluntary captivity with his family, that the sanctuary might not be delivered up to the enemy, and that he might not see the house of God set on fire; 6.301. began on a sudden to cry aloud, “A voice from the east, a voice from the west, a voice from the four winds, a voice against Jerusalem and the holy house, a voice against the bridegrooms and the brides, and a voice against this whole people!” This was his cry, as he went about by day and by night, in all the lanes of the city. 6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company 6.424. found the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; 6.425. which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy; 6.426. for as to those that have the leprosy, or the gonorrhea, or women that have their monthly courses, or such as are otherwise polluted, it is not lawful for them to be partakers of this sacrifice; 7.432. There had been also a certain ancient prediction made by [a prophet] whose name was Isaiah, about six hundred years before, that this temple should be built by a man that was a Jew in Egypt. And this is the history of the building of that temple.
55. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement."
57. New Testament, Acts, 7.43 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.43. You took up the tent of Moloch, The star of your god Rephan, The figures which you made to worship. I will carry you away beyond Babylon.'
58. New Testament, Matthew, 1.11-1.12, 2.13-2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers, at the time of the exile to Babylon. 1.12. After the exile to Babylon, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel. Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel. 2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2.14. He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt 2.15. and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son. 2.16. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry, and sent out, and killed all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all the surrounding countryside, from two years old and under, according to the exact time which he had learned from the wise men. 2.17. Then that which was spoken by Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled, saying 2.18. A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children; She wouldn't be comforted, Because they are no more. 2.19. But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying 2.20. Arise and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel, for those who sought the young child's life are dead. 2.21. He arose and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. 2.22. But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in the place of his father, Herod, he was afraid to go there. Being warned in a dream, he withdrew into the region of Galilee 2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene.
59. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 41.2, 45.1-45.2, 45.4, 47.9, 49.2, 52.3, 53.6, 68.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

41.2. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ בְּשֵׁם בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר, פַּרְעֹה בְּרָאתָן לָקָה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מְצָאַנִי זָקֵן אֶחָד מֻכֶּה שְׁחִין בְּצִפּוֹרִין, וְאָמַר לִי עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי שְׁחִין הֵם, וְאֵין לְךָ קָשֶׁה מִכֻּלָּם שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה רָעָה לוֹ אֶלָּא רָאתָן בִּלְבָד, וּבוֹ לָקָה פַּרְעֹה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא אֲפִלּוּ קוֹרוֹת בֵּיתוֹ לָקוּ, וְהַכֹּל הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים עַל דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה עָלוּ דְּטוּלְמוּסִין לְמִקְרַב לִמְסָאנָא דְּמַטְרוֹנָא. וְכָל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה הָיְתָה שָׂרָה שְׁטוּחָה עַל פָּנֶיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת, רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אַבְרָהָם יָצָא בְּהַבְטָחָה, וַאֲנִי יָצָאתִי בֶּאֱמוּנָה. אַבְרָהָם יָצָא חוּץ לַסִּירָה, וַאֲנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַסִּירָה. אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִילֵךְ אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה, וְהַכֹּל אוֹמְרִים עַל דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה הָיָה מַלְאָךְ עוֹמֵד וּמַגְלֵב בְּיָדוֹ, הֲוָה אָמַר לָהּ אִין אֲמַרְתְּ מְחֵי מָחִינָא, אִין אֲמַרְתְּ נִשְׁבּוֹק שָׁבֵיקְנָא, וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ אֲנִי וְלֹא הָיָה פּוֹרֵשׁ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר תָּנֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּפַרְעֹה שֶׁלָּקָה בְּצָרַעַת, וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ בְּעִצּוּר, מִנַּיִן לִתֵּן אֶת הָאָמוּר שֶׁל זֶה בָּזֶה וְשֶׁל זֶה בָּזֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר עַל דְּבַר שָׂרָה, עַל דְּבַר, עַל דְּבַר, לִגְזֵרָה שָׁוָה. 45.1. וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וגו' (בראשית טז, א), (משלי לא, י): אֵשֶׁת חַיִל מִי יִמְצָא וגו' וְרָחֹק מִפְּנִינִים מִכְרָהּ, מַהוּ מִכְרָהּ, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר עִבּוּרָהּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל טז, ג): מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ, אַבְרָם הָיָה גָּדוֹל מִנָּחוֹר שָׁנָה, וְנָחוֹר הָיָה גָּדוֹל מֵהָרָן שָׁנָה, נִמְצָא אַבְרָם גָּדוֹל מֵהָרָן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, שָׁנָה לְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל מִלְכָּה וְשָׁנָה לְעִבּוּרָהּ שֶׁל יִסְכָּה, וְהָרָן מוֹלִיד לְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַבְרָם אֵינוֹ מוֹלִיד, וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר לוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא יָלְדָה, אֲבָל אִלּוּ נִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר יָלָדָה. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר לֹא לוֹ וְלֹא לְאַחֵר, וּמַה דִּכְתִיב: לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ, לוֹ וְלָהּ. (בראשית טז, א): וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, שִׁפְחַת מְלוֹג הָיְתָה וְהָיָה חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ וְלֹא הָיָה רַשַּׁאי לְמָכְרָהּ. בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ מַהוּ דְּתָנָא עַבְדֵי מְלוֹג, אֲמַר לְהוֹן כְּמָה דְתֵימָא מְלוֹג מְלוֹג. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי הָגָר בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל פַּרְעֹה הָיְתָה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה פַּרְעֹה מַעֲשִׂים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשָׂרָה בְּבֵיתוֹ, נָטַל בִּתּוֹ וּנְתָנָהּ לוֹ, אָמַר מוּטָב שֶׁתְּהֵא בִּתִּי שִׁפְחָה בְּבַיִת זֶה וְלֹא גְבִירָה בְּבַיִת אַחֵר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, הָא אַגְרִיךְ. אַף אֲבִימֶלֶךְ כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה נִסִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְשָׂרָה בְּבֵיתוֹ נָטַל בִּתּוֹ וּנְתָנָהּ לוֹ, אָמַר מוּטָב שֶׁתְּהֵא בִּתִּי שִׁפְחָה בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְלֹא גְבִירָה בְּבַיִת אַחֶרֶת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מה, י): בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים בִּיקְרוֹתֶיךָ נִצְּבָה שֵׁגָל לִימִינְךָ בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר. 45.1. וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם ה' הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי (בראשית טז, יג), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר שִׁמְעוֹן, מֵעוֹלָם לֹא נִזְקַק הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָשִׂיחַ עִם הָאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא עִם אוֹתָהּ הַצַּדֶּקֶת, וְאַף הִיא עַל יְדֵי עִלָּה. רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בֵּירִי כַּמָּה כִרְכּוּרִים כִּרְכֵּר בִּשְׁבִיל לְהָשִׂיחַ עִמָּהּ. (בראשית יח, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ. וְהָכְתִיב: וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם ה' הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ. וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית כה, כג): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לָהּ, רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר חָמָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן זִמְרָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֵׁם. אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ אַתָּה הוּא רוֹאֶה בְּעֶלְבּוֹן שֶׁל עֲלוּבִין. כִּי אָמְרָה הֲגַם הֲלֹם רָאִיתִי אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי, אָמְרָה לֹא דַּיִי שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתִּי לְדִבּוּר, אֶלָּא לְמַלְכוּת, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמואל ב ז, יח): כִּי הֲבִאֹתַנִי עַד הֲלֹם. רָאִיתִי אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי, לֹא דַיִּי שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתִּי עִם גְּבִרְתִּי לִרְאוֹת הַמַּלְאָךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ גְּבִרְתִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה עִמִּי לֹא רָאֲתָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא דַיִּי שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתִּי עִם גְּבִרְתִּי, אֶלָּא בֵּינִי לְבֵין עַצְמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מָשָׁל לְמַטְרוֹנָה שֶׁאָמַר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ עִבְרִי לְפָנַי, עָבְרָה לְפָנָיו, וְהָיְתָה מִסְתַּמֶּכֶת עַל שִׁפְחָתָהּ וְצִמְצְמָה פָּנֶיהָ וְלֹא רָאֲתָה הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַשִּׁפְחָה רָאֲתָה. 45.2. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל אַבְרָם הִנֵּה נָא עֲצָרַנִי ה' מִלֶּדֶת (בראשית טז, ב), אָמְרָה יָדְעַת אֲנָא מֵהֵיכָן הִיא סִבָּתִי, לֹא כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים לִי קָמֵיעַ הִיא צְרִיכָה, הִימוּס הִיא צְרִיכָה, אֶלָּא הִנֵּה נָא עֲצָרַנִי ה' מִלֶּדֶת. תָּנֵי, כָּל מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בֵּן כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מֵת, כְּאִלּוּ הוּא הָרוּס. כְּאִלּוּ מֵת, (בראשית ל, א): וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל אֶל יַעֲקֹב הָבָה לִי בָנִים וגו', כְּאִלּוּ הוּא הָרוּס, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טז, ב): אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה, וְאֵין בּוֹנִין אֶלָּא אֶת הֶהָרוּס. (בראשית טז, ב): וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם לְקוֹל שָׂרָי, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמַר לְקוֹל רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמואל א טו, א): וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע לְקוֹל דִּבְרֵי ה'. 45.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל הָגָר וַתַּהַר (בראשית טז, ד), רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חַיָּתָא אָמַר מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה נִתְעַבְּרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָאִשָּׁה מִתְעַבֶּרֶת מִבִּיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית יט, לו): וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא שָׁלְטוּ בְּעַצְמָן וְהוֹצִיאוּ עֶרְוָתָן וְנִתְעַבְּרוּ כְּמִבִּיאָה שְׁנִיָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן פָּזִי הַקּוֹצִין הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן לֹא מִתְנַכְּשִׁין וְלֹא נִזְרָעִים, מֵאֵילֵיהֶן הֵן יוֹצְאִים וּמִתַּמְּרִים וְעוֹלִים. הַחִטִּים הַלָּלוּ כַּמָּה צַעַר וְכַמָּה יְגִיעַ עַד שֶׁלֹא יַעֲלוּ. וְלָמָּה נִתְעַקְּרוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי שִׁילָא דִּכְפַר תְּמַרְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְשִׂיחָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ב, יד): יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע, יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי, לָמָּה עִקַּרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, בִּשְׁבִיל (שיר השירים ב, יד): הַרְאִינִי אֶת מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִנִי אֶת קוֹלֵךְ. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בַּר פַּפָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִתְרַפְּקוֹת עַל בַּעֲלֵיהֶן בְּנוֹיָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא מִשֵּׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ רֹב הַשָּׁנִים בְּלֹא שִׁעְבּוּד. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אָבוּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּהָנוּ בַּעֲלֵיהֶן מֵהֶן, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מְקַבֶּלֶת עֻבָּרִין הִיא מִתְכַּעֶרֶת וּמִתְעַזֶּבֶת, שֶׁכָּל תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה שָׂרָה הָיְתָה כְּכַלָּה בְּתוֹךְ חֻפָּתָהּ, וְהָיוּ מַטְרוֹנִיּוֹת בָּאוֹת לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה וְהָיְתָה שָׂרָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם צְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל עֲלוּבָה, וְהָיְתָה הָגָר אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם שָׂרַי גְבִרְתִּי אֵין סִתְרָהּ כְּגִלּוּיָהּ, נִרְאֵית צַדֶּקֶת וְאֵינָהּ צַדֶּקֶת, אִלּוּ הָיְתָה צַדֶּקֶת רְאוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים שֶׁלֹא נִתְעַבְּרָה וַאֲנִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד נִתְעַבַּרְתִּי, וְהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת עִם דָּא אֲנָא מִסַּב וּמִתַּן, הַלְוַאי מִסַּב וּמִתַּן עִם מָרָהּ. 47.9. בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִמּוֹל אַבְרָהָם (בראשית יז, כו), אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה (ישעיה מח, טז): לֹא מֵרֹאשׁ בַּסֵּתֶר דִּבַּרְתִּי, [אלא] אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִלּוּ מָל אַבְרָהָם בַּלַּיְלָה הָיוּ כָּל בְּנֵי דוֹרוֹ אוֹמְרִים בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ אִלּוּ הָיִינוּ רוֹאִים אוֹתוֹ לֹא הָיִינוּ מַנִּיחִים אוֹתוֹ לִמּוֹל, אֶלָּא בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, דִּרְגַשׁ לֵיהּ יְמַלֵּל. נִמּוֹל אַבְרָהָם, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הִרְגִּישׁ וְנִצְטָעֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכְפֹּל לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׂכָרוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מָל אַבְרָהָם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא נִמּוֹל, בָּדַק אֶת עַצְמוֹ וּמָצָא עַצְמוֹ מָהוּל. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּהַהִיא עִתָּא אֲקֵיל רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא לְרַבִּי לֵוִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ שַׁקְּרָנָא כַּזְבָּנָא אַתְּ, אֶלָּא הִרְגִּישׁ וְנִצְטָעֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכְפֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׂכָרוֹ. 49.2. כְּתִיב (תהלים כה, יד): סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם, אֵיזֶהוּ סוֹד ה' זוֹ מִילָה, שֶׁלֹא גָּלָה אוֹתָהּ מֵאָדָם וְעַד עֶשְׂרִים דּוֹר עַד שֶׁעָמַד אַבְרָהָם וּנְתָנָהּ לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יז, ב): וְאֶתְּנָה בְרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם תִּמּוֹל תִּטֹּל סוֹד ה', מַה סוֹד ה', ס' שִׁשִּׁים, ו' שִׁשָּׁה, ד' אַרְבָּעָה, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים, שִׁבְעִים אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמְּךָ בִּזְכוּת הַמִּילָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י, כב): בְּשִׁבְעִים נֶפֶשׁ יָרְדוּ אֲבֹתֶיךָ, מַעֲמִיד אֲנִי מֵהֶם שִׁבְעִים זְקֵנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יא, טז): אֶסְפָה לִי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמַעֲמִיד אֲנִי מֵהֶן משֶׁה שֶׁהוּא הוֹגֶה בַּתּוֹרָה בְּשִׁבְעִים לָשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים א, ה): הוֹאִיל משֶׁה בֵּאֵר וגו', בִּזְכוּת מִי בִּזְכוּת הַמִּילָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם דַּיּוֹ לְעֶבֶד שֶׁיְהֵא כְּרַבּוֹ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו וּמִי יִמּוֹל אוֹתִי, אָמַר אַתָּה בְּעַצְמְךָ, מִיָּד נָטַל אַבְרָהָם סַכִּין וְהָיָה אוֹחֵז בְּעָרְלָתוֹ וּבָא לַחְתֹּךְ וְהָיָה מִתְיָרֵא שֶׁהָיָה זָקֵן, מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וְאָחַז עִמּוֹ, וְהָיָה אַבְרָהָם חוֹתֵךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה ט, ז ח): אַתָּה ה' הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בְּאַבְרָם וגו', וְכָרוֹת לוֹ הַבְּרִית אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וְכָרוֹת עִמּוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹחֵז בּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו, בִּתְּחִלָּה הָיָה סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו, וְאַחַר כָּךְ לַיְשָׁרִים, (משלי ג, לב): וְלַיְשָׁרִים סוֹדוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ לַנְּבִיאִים (עמוס ג, ז): כִּי לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה ה' אֱלֹהִים דָּבָר כִּי אִם גָּלָה סוֹדוֹ אֶל עֲבָדָיו הַנְּבִיאִים, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם זֶה יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כב, יב): עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה. אַבְרָהָם זֶה יָשָׁר מִן הַיְשָׁרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים א, ד): מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ. אַבְרָהָם זֶה נָבִיא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כ, ז): וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת הָאִישׁ כִּי נָבִיא הוּא, וְאֵינִי מְגַלֶּה לוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁנָּתַן אוּסְיָא לְאוֹהֲבוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן בִּקֵּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ לָקֹץ מִתּוֹכָהּ חֲמִשָּׁה אִילָנֵי סְרַק, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אִלּוּ מִן פַּטְרִיקוֹן שֶׁלּוֹ הָיִיתִי מְבַקֵּשׁ לֹא הָיָה מְעַכֵּב וּמַה בְּכָךְ וְנִמְלַךְ בּוֹ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּבָר נָתַתִּי אֶת הָאָרֶץ מַתָּנָה לְאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טו, יח): לְזַרְעֲךָ נָתַתִּי אֶת הָאָרֶץ, וַחֲמִשָּׁה כְּרָכִים הַלָּלוּ בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ הֵם, וְאִלּוּ מִפַּטְרִיקוֹן שֶׁלּוֹ הָיִיתִי מְבַקֵּשׁ לֹא הָיָה מְעַכֵּב בְּיָדִי וּמַה בְּכָךְ וְנִמְלַךְ בּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁלשָׁה אוֹהֲבִים וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתָּן, פַּעַם אַחַת בִּקֵּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתָּן, נָטַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹן וּטְרָדוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַפָּלָטִין, שֵׁנִי חֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְנָתַן סְפָרְגִים שֶׁלּוֹ עָלָיו, שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁהָיָה חָבִיב לוֹ יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי אָמַר אֵינִי עוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּךְ, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן (בראשית ג, כד): וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת הָאָדָם. נֹחַ (בראשית ז, טז): וַיִּסְגֹּר ה' בַּעֲדוֹ. אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהָיָה חָבִיב עָלָיו יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ סַנְקַתֶּדְרִיס אֶחָד וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ, פַּעַם אַחַת בִּקֵּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּלוּם עָשִׂיתִי אוֹתוֹ סַנְקַתֶּדְרִיס שֶׁלִּי אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי יֵשׁ שָׁם לוֹט בֶּן אָחִיו וְאֵינִי מְגַלֶּה לוֹ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי כְּבָר קָרָאתִי אוֹתוֹ אֲבִיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יז, ה): כִּי אַב הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ, דָּנִים אֶת הַבֵּן חוּץ מִן הָאָב. מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, גִּלִּיתִי לוֹ. גֵּיהִנֹּם, גִּלִּיתִי לוֹ. דִּינָהּ שֶׁל סְדוֹם לְמָחָר, וְאֵינִי מְגַלֶּה לוֹ. רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי נָתָן אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ הִלְכוֹת עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת הָיָה אַבְרָהָם יוֹדֵעַ. רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ שֵׁם חָדָשׁ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָתִיד לִקְרוֹא לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ג, יז): בָּעֵת הַהִיא יִקְרְאוּ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם כִּסֵּא ה', הָיָה אַבְרָהָם יוֹדֵעַ. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבָּנָן דְּתַמָּן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵין יוֹם וָיוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְחַדֵּשׁ הֲלָכָה בְּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (איוב לז, ב): שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ בְּרֹגֶז קֹלוֹ וְהֶגֶה מִפִּיו יֵצֵא, וְאֵין הֶגֶה אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע א, ח): וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה, אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָן הֲלָכוֹת הָיָה אַבְרָהָם יוֹדֵעַ. 52.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּסַּע מִשָּׁם אַבְרָהָם, (משלי י, ח): חֲכַם לֵב יִקַּח מִצְוֹת. חֲכַם לֵב, זֶה אַבְרָהָם. יִקַּח מִצְוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁחָרַב מְקוֹמָהּ שֶׁל סְדוֹם וּפָסְקוּ הָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא חָסֵר קִילוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלוּם, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַפְסִיק צְדָקָה מִבֵּיתִי, הָלַךְ וְנָטָה לוֹ אֹהֶל בִּגְרָר. (משלי י, ח): וֶאֱוִיל שְׂפָתַיִם יִלָּבֵט, זֶה לוֹט, שֶׁהָיָה אֱוִיל בִּשְׂפָתָיו, שֶׁהָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לִבְנוֹתָיו דָּבָר שֶׁלָּקָה בּוֹ הָעוֹלָם אָנוּ בָּאִים לַעֲשׂוֹת, אֶלָּא יִלָּבֵט, מַה גָּרַם לוֹ, יִלָּבֵט, הֵבִיא עָלָיו לִבְטֵי לְבוֹטִים, מַה לְּהַלָּן (דברי הימים ב כג, יט): לֹא יָבוֹא טָמֵא לְכָל דָּבָר, אַף כָּאן לֹא יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל ה'. 53.6. וַה' פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק, כְּתִיב (במדבר ה, כח): וְאִם לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע, זוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל פַּרְעֹה וּלְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וְיָצָאת טְהוֹרָה אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁתִּפָּקֵד. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אַף עַל גַּב דְּאָמַר רַבִּי הוּנָא מַלְאָךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַתַּאֲוָה, אֲבָל שָׂרָה לֹא נִצְרְכָה לַדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ אֶלָּא הוּא בִּכְבוֹדוֹ, וַה' פָּקַד אֶת שָׂרָה. (בראשית כא, ב): וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד שָׂרָה לְאַבְרָהָם בֵּן לִזְקֻנָיו, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹא גָּנְבָה זֶרַע מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר. בֵּן לִזְקֻנָיו, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה זִיו אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ דּוֹמֶה לוֹ. (בראשית כא, ב): לַמּוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי חָמָא, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר לְתִשְׁעָה חֳדָשִׁים נוֹלַד שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִין גָּרוּף מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אֲבִימֶלֶךְ. רַבִּי חָמָא אָמַר לְשִׁבְעָה שֶׁהֵם תִּשְׁעָה מְקֻטָּעִים. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בַּחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם נוֹלַד, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן מוֹעֵד, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (דברים טז, ו): כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם. 68.11. וַיִּקַח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם (בראשית כח, יא), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁנֵים עֶשְׂרֵה אֲבָנִים נָטַל, כָּךְ גָּזַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁהוּא מַעֲמִיד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם לֹא הֶעֱמִידָן, יִצְחָק לֹא הֶעֱמִידָן, אֲנִי אִם מִתְאַחוֹת הֵן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁאֲנִי מַעֲמִיד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְאַחוּ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ, יָדַע שֶׁהוּא מַעֲמִיד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר נָטַל שָׁלשׁ אֲבָנִים, אָמַר, אַבְרָהָם יִחֵד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, יִצְחָק יִחֵד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, וַאֲנִי אִם מִתְאַחוֹת הֵן שָׁלשׁ אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְיַחֵד שְׁמוֹ עָלַי, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְאַחוּ, יָדַע שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְיַחֵד שְׁמוֹ עָלָיו. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מִעוּט אֲבָנִים שְׁנַיִם, אַבְרָהָם יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ פְּסֹלֶת, יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְכָל בְּנֵי קְטוּרָה. וְיִצְחָק יָצָא עֵשָׂו וְכָל אַלּוּפָיו. וַאֲנִי אִם מִתְאַחוֹת שְׁתֵּי אֲבָנִים זוֹ לָזוֹ, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא הֵימֶנִּי פְּסֹלֶת. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר זִמְרָא אָמַר עֲשָׂאָן כְּמִין מַרְזֵב וְנָתַן תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְיָרֵא מִן הַחַיּוֹת. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר כְּתִיב (מיכה א, ג): כִּי הִנֵּה ה' יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְיָרַד וְדָרַךְ עַל בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ וגו', מִי שֶׁנִּגְלָה עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אוֹתָן הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁנָּתַן יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ נַעֲשׂוּ תַּחְתָּיו כְּמִטָּה וּכְפַרְנוֹס, מָה רְטִיבָה הִרְטִיב (שיר השירים א, יז): קֹרוֹת בָּתֵּינוּ אֲרָזִים וגו'. צַדִּיקִים וְצַדִּיקוֹת נְבִיאִים וּנְבִיאוֹת שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ. וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר כָּאן שָׁכַב אֲבָל כָּל אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיָה טָמוּן בְּבֵית עֵבֶר לֹא שָׁכָב. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר כָּאן שָׁכַב, אֲבָל כָּל עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה שֶׁעָמַד בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל לָבָן לֹא שָׁכָב, וּמָה הָיָה אוֹמֵר, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁבְּסֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (תהלים קכד, א): שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת לְדָוִד לוּלֵי ה' שֶׁהָיָה לָנוּ יֹאמַר נָא יִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל סָבָא. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר כָּל סֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים הָיָה אוֹמֵר, מַה טַּעַם (תהלים כב, ד): וְאַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ יוֹשֵׁב תְּהִלּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל סָבָא. 45.2. ...2. \"And Sarai said to Abram, 'Look, the Lord has kept me from bearing' (Gen.16:2) as follows: \"Said she, I know the source of my affliction: It is not as people say [of a barren woman], 'she needs a talisman, she needs a charm', but Look, the Lord has kept me from bearing.'\"" 45.4. ...Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai said Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter. When he saw the deeds on behalf of Sarah in his house, he took his daughter and gave her to him, saying, 'better that my daughter by a maidservant in this house than a mistress in another house.' This is what is written: \"She had an Egyptian handmaid whose name was Hagar.\" [In other words:] ha agrikh: 'This is your reward.'"
60. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 311 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

61. Alexander of Lycopolis, Tractatus De Placitis Manichaeorum, 24 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

24. Christ, too, they do not acknowledge; yet they speak of Christ, but they take some other element, and giving to the Word, designating His sacred person, some other signification than that in which it is rightly received, they say that He is mind. But if, when they speak of Him as that which is known, and that which knows, and wisdom as having the same meaning, they are found to agree with those things which the Church doctors say of Him, how comes it then that they reject all that is called ancient history? But let us see whether they make Him to be something adventitious and new, and which has come on from without, and by accident, as the opinion of some is. For they who hold this opinion say, as seems very plausible, that the seventh year, when the powers of perception became distinct, He made His entrance into the body. But if Christ be mind, as they imagine, then will He be both Christ and not Christ. For before that mind and sense entered, He was not. But if Christ, as they will have it, be mind, then into Him already existing does the mind make its entrance, and thus, again, according to their opinion, will it be mind. Christ, therefore, is and is not at the same time. But if, according to the more approved sect of them, mind is all things which are, since they assume matter to be not produced, and coeval so to speak with God, this first mind and matter they hold to be Christ; if, indeed, Christ be the mind, which is all things, and matter is one of those things which are, and is itself not produced. They say it was by way of appearance, and in this manner, that the divine virtue in matter was affixed to the cross; and that He Himself did not undergo this punishment, since it was impossible that He should suffer this; which assertion Manichaeus himself has taken in hand to teach in a book written upon the subject, that the divine virtue was enclosed in matter, and again departs from it. the mode of this they invent. That it should be said, indeed, in the doctrine of the Church, that He gave Himself up for the remission of sins, obtains credit from the vulgar, and appears likewise in the Greek histories, which say that some surrendered themselves to death in order to ensure safety to their countrymen. And of this doctrine the Jewish history has an example, which prepares the son of Abraham as a sacrifice to God. But to subject Christ to His passion merely for the sake of display, betrays great ignorance, for the Word is God's representative, to teach and inform us of actual verities.
62. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
63. Babylonian Talmud, Nazir, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23b. ומדינים כבריח ארמון אח נפשע מקרית עוז זה לוט שפירש מאברהם ומדינים כבריח ארמון שהטיל מדינים כבריחין וארמון (דברים כג, ד) לא יבא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה',דרש רבא ואיתימא רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, א) לתאוה יבקש נפרד ובכל תושיה יתגלע לתאוה יבקש נפרד זה לוט ובכל תושיה יתגלע שנתגלה קלונו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות דתנן עמוני ומואבי אסורין ואיסורן איסור עולם,אמר עולא תמר זינתה זמרי זינה,תמר זינתה יצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים זמרי זינה נפלו עליו כמה רבבות מישראל,אמר ר"נ בר יצחק גדולה עבירה לשמה ממצוה שלא לשמה והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמן שמתוך שלא לשמן בא לשמן,אלא אימא כמצוה שלא לשמה דכתיב (שופטים ה, כד) תבורך מנשים יעל אשת חבר הקני מנשים באהל תבורך מאן נשים שבאהל שרה רבקה רחל ולאה,א"ר יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותה שעה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב וגו',והא קא מתהניא מבעילה דיליה א"ר יוחנן כל טובתן של רשעים אינה אלא רעה אצל צדיקים,שנאמר (בראשית לא, כט) השמר לך מדבר עם יעקב מטוב ועד רע בשלמא רע שפיר אלא טוב אמאי לא אלא לאו ש"מ טובתו רעה היא ש"מ:,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמן שמתוך שלא לשמן בא לשמן שבשכר מ"ב קרבנות שהקריב בלק הרשע זכה ויצאה ממנו רות וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא רות בת בנו של עגלון מלך מואב היתה,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מנין שאין הקב"ה מקפח אפי' שכר שיחה נאה דאילו בכירה דקריתיה מואב א"ל רחמנא (דברים ב, ט) אל תצר את מואב ואל תתגר בם מלחמה מלחמה הוא דלא אבל צעורי צערינן,ואילו צעירה דקריתיה בן עמי אמר ליה (דברים ב, יט) אל תצורם ואל תתגר בם אפילו צעורי לא תצערינן כלל,א"ר חייא בר אבין א"ר יהושע בן קרחה לעולם יקדים אדם לדבר מצוה שבשכר לילה אחת שקדמתה בכירה לצעירה 23b. band their contentions are like the bars of a castle”(Proverbs 18:19)? b“A brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city,” this is Lot,called Abraham’s brother (see Genesis 14:14), bwho separated from Abraham. “And their contentions are like the bars of a castle,”this is bbecauseLot bbrought contentionbetween the Jewish people and his own descendants blike bars,which lock the gates of ba castle.Just as no one can enter a locked castle, so too Lot’s descendants, Ammon and Moab, were prevented from joining the Jewish people, as it states: b“An Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord”(Deuteronomy 23:4).,On the same issue, bRava expoundeda verse bhomiletically, and some sayit was bRabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who separates himself seeks his own desire, and snarls against all sound wisdom”(Proverbs 18:1)? b“He who separates himself seeks his own desire,” this is Lot,who separated from Abraham. b“And snarls [ iyitgala /i] against all sound wisdom,”this too describes Lot, bas his shame waseventually brevealed [ initgala /i] in the synagogues,when his actions recorded in the Torah are read in public, band in the study halls,where the ihalakhotof his descendants are taught. bAs we learnedin a mishna: bAn Ammonite and a Moabite are prohibitedfrom entering the congregation by marrying a Jewish woman, band their prohibition is permanent. /b,§ In relation to the preceding discussion with regard to the daughters of Lot, who acted in a wanton manner for the sake of a mitzva, the Gemara cites that which bUlla said: Tamar engaged in licentioussexual intercourse with her father-in-law, Judah (see Genesis, chapter 38), and bZimriben Salu also bengaged in licentioussexual intercourse with a Midianite woman (see Numbers, chapter 25).,Yet despite the similarity between their actions, bTamar engaged in licentioussexual intercourse for the sake of a mitzva, to have children, and therefore she merited that bkingsof the House of David bdescended from her.King David’s lineage traces back to Tamar’s son Peretz (see Ruth 4:18–22). bAndshe also merited to be the ancestor of bprophets,e.g., Isaiah, who was related to the royal family. Conversely, with regard to bZimri,who bengaged in licentioussexual intercourse for the purpose of a transgression, bseveral multitudes of Israel fell due to him;twenty-four thousand in a plague (see Numbers 25:9). This shows that a great deal depends on one’s intentions.,§ bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Greater is a transgressioncommitted bfor its own sake,i.e., for the sake of Heaven, bthan a mitzvaperformed bnot for its own sake.The Gemara questions this comparison: bBut didn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav said: A person should always occupy himself with Torah and mitzvot even not for their own sake, asit is bthroughacts performed bnot for their own sakethat good deeds bfor their own sake comeabout? How, then, can any transgression be considered greater than a mitzva not for the sake of Heaven?, bRather,one must emend the above statement and bsayas follows: A transgression for the sake of Heaven is bequivalent to a mitzva not for its own sake.The proof is bas it is written: “Blessed above women shall Yael be, the wife of Hever the Kenite, above women in the tent she shall be blessed”(Judges 5:24), and it is taught: bWho arethese b“women in the tent?”They are bSarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.Yael’s forbidden intercourse with Sisera for the sake of Heaven is compared to the sexual intercourse in which the Matriarchs engaged.,The Gemara asks: How is it derived that Yael engaged in sexual intercourse with Sisera? As bRabbi Yoḥa said: That wicked one,Sisera, bengaged in seven acts of sexual intercoursewith Yael bat that time, as it is stated: “Between her feet he sunk, he fell, he lay;between her feet he sunk, he fell; where he sunk, there he fell down dead” (Judges 5:27). Each mention of falling is referring to another act of intercourse.,The Gemara asks: bButYael at least benjoyed the sexual intercoursewith bhim;why is the verse so effusive in her praise? bRabbi Yoḥa said: All the good of the wicked,i.e., anything good received from wicked people, bis nothing otherthan bevil for the righteous,and therefore she certainly derived no pleasure from the act.,The Gemara asks: From where is this principle derived? bAsit bis statedin the verse that God warned Laban the Aramean, when he was chasing Jacob: b“Guard yourself from speaking to Jacob, from good to evil”(Genesis 31:24). bGranted,with regard to the warning against speaking bevil,it is bfinethat Laban was warned not to harm Jacob. bHowever, why shouldn’the say anything bgoodto Jacob? bRather,must one bnot conclude fromthis verse that even Laban’s bgood is badin Jacob’s eyes? The Gemara concludes: bLearn from thisthat it is so.,§ The Gemara returns to analyze in greater detail btheabove matter bitself. Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: A person should always occupy himself with Torah and mitzvot even not for their own sake, as throughthese acts performed bnot for their own sake,good deeds bfor their own sake comeabout. The proof for this is bthat in reward for the forty-two offerings that the wicked Balak sacrificed(see Numbers, chapter 23), although he did not do so for the sake of Heaven but to facilitate the cursing of the Jewish people, nevertheless bhe merited that Ruth descended from him.Not only was he the forebear of a righteous convert, but also of King David. bAndthis is as bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Ruth was the daughter of the son of Eglon, king of Moab,who descended from Balak, king of Moab., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not depriveone of beventhe breward for proper speech,i.e., for speaking in a refined manner? bAs whilethere is the case of Lot’s belderdaughter, bwho calledher son bMoab [ imo’av /i],which alludes to his shameful origins, as ime’avmeans: From father, band the Merciful One says toMoses: b“Do not besiege Moab, nor contend with them in war”(Deuteronomy 2:9), which indicates: It is bwar that is notpermitted; bhowever,with regard to bharassing,the Jews were permitted bto harass them. /b, bAnd whilethere is the case of Lot’s byoungerdaughter, bwho calledher son bBen-Ami,son of my people, without explicitly mentioning her father. With regard to her descendants, God bsaid toMoses: b“Do not harass them, nor contend with them”(Deuteronomy 2:19), which means bevenas far as bharassingis concerned, byou may not harass them at all. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: A person should always come firstwith regard bto a matter of a mitzva, as in reward ofthe bone night that the elderdaughter of Lot bpreceded the youngerfor the sake of a mitzva
64. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

103a. בין עומד בין יושב בין מוטה והחולצת מן הסומא חליצתה כשרה אבל במנעל הנפרם שאין חופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שאינו מקבל את רוב הרגל ובסמיכת הידים ובאנפיליא של בגד וחולצת מן הקטן חליצתה פסולה,קב הקיטע מני רבי מאיר היא דתנן הקיטע יוצא בקב שלו דברי רבי מאיר ר' יוסי אוסר,באנפיליא של בגד אתאן לרבנן,אמר אביי מדסיפא רבנן רישא נמי רבנן ורישא במחופה עור,אמר ליה רבא אבל אין מחופה עור מאי פסול אי הכי אדתני סיפא באנפיליא של בגד ליפלוג בדידה בד"א במחופה עור אבל אין מחופה עור פסול,אלא אמר רבא מדרישא רבי מאיר סיפא נמי רבי מאיר האי מגין והאי לא מגין,אמר אמימר האי מאן דחליץ צריך למדחסיה לכרעיה,אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והתניא בין עומד בין יושב בין מוטה אימא ולעולם דדחיס לכרעיה,ואמר אמימר האי מאן דמסגי על ליחתא דכרעיה לא חליץ אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והתניא סמוכות הרגלים לאו דחליץ בה איהו לא דיהיב ליה לאחר וחליץ,אמר רב אשי למאי דקאמר אמימר לאו בר אובא חליץ ולאו בר קיפוף חליץ:,מן הארכובה ולמטה כו': ורמינהי רגלים פרט לבעלי קבין,שאני הכא דכתיב (דברים כה, ט) מעל רגלו אי הכי למעלה מן הארכובה נמי מעל ולא מעל דמעל,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה האי איסתוירא עד ארעא נחית דאי סלקא דעתך מיפסק פסיק הוה ליה איהו מעל ושוקא מעל דמעל אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא מיפסק פסיק כל דבהדי כרעא ככרעא דמי:,מן הארכובה ולמעלה: מתיב רב כהנא (דברים כח, נז) ובשליתה היוצאת מבין רגליה אמר אביי בשעה שכורעת לילד נועצת עקביה בירכותיה ויולדת,ת"ש (שמואל ב יט, כה) לא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו לישנא מעליא תא שמע (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו לישנא מעליא,ת"ש (שופטים ג, כד) אך מסיך הוא רגליו בחדר המקירה לישנא מעליא בין רגליה כו' לישנא מעליא,אמר רבי יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותו היום שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב בין רגליה כרע נפל באשר כרע שם נפל שדוד והא קא מתהניא מעבירה אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי כל טובתן של רשעים 103a. bwhetherthe iyavamis bstanding or sitting or leaning; anda woman bwho performs iḥalitza /ion a bblind iyavam /i; in all of these cases bher iḥalitzais valid. Butif she performs iḥalitzawhen he is wearing ba shoethat is so btorn that it does not cover most of the foot; or using a broken sandal that does not hold most of the foot; or using a hand blanketthat the amputee wears on his hands, similar to a leather shoe, in order to drag himself using them; bor using a soft shoe [ ianpileya /i]made bof cloth; ora woman bwho performs ihalitzawitha iyavamwho is ba minor;in all these cases bher iḥalitzais disqualified. /b,The Gemara comments: bWho isthe itannawho holds that ban amputee’s prostheticis considered a shoe? bIt is Rabbi Meir, as we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat65b): bOne with an amputated leg may go outon Shabbat bwith his wooden leg,as it has the legal status of a shoe; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir.He reasons that the prosthesis functions like the shoe of any other person, indicating that Rabbi Meir is not especially concerned about the material from which the shoe is made. And bRabbi Yosei,on the other hand, bprohibitsthe amputee from going out on Shabbat with his wooden leg, as he does not consider it a shoe that is being worn, but rather a wooden object that is being carried.,The Gemara asks how Rabbi Meir can be the itannaof the ibaraita /i, as the continuation of the ibaraitastates iḥalitzais disqualified if performed bwith an ianpileya /imade bof cloth,as this cloth shoe is not to be considered a shoe. If so, have bwe come tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who rule in accordance with Rabbi Yosei, and render it prohibited to use any shoes for iḥalitzathat are not made of leather?,In an attempt to resolve the contradiction bAbaye said: Since the latter clauseof the ibaraita bisin accordance with bthe Rabbis,who rule like Rabbi Yosei, bthe first clause is alsoin accordance with bthe Rabbis. Andtherefore bthe first clause,which permits the amputee’s prosthesis, is breferring toa prosthetic foot bcovered in leather,as it constitutes a shoe due to its leather exterior., bRava said to him: Butaccording to your explanation, if the prosthesis is bnot covered in leather, whatwould its status be? It would be bunfit. If so, rather than teachingin the blatter clause: iAnpileya /imade bof clothis invalid for iḥalitza /i, bletit bdistinguish withinthe matter bitselfand say: bIn whatcase bis this statementthat a wooden prosthesis is fit bsaid?It is binthe case of a prosthetic leg bcovered in leather, butif it is bnot covered in leather, it is unfit. /b, bRather,the fact that the ibaraitawas not taught in that manner indicates that Abaye’s explanation is incorrect. Therefore, bRava saidthat the contradiction should be reconciled in another way: bSince the first clauseof the ibaraitais in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir,that the shoes need not be made of leather, bthe latter clause is alsotaught in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir /b, and the distinction between a wooden prosthetic and an ianpileyaof cloth is: bThisprosthesis bprotectsthe foot, band thatsoft shoe bdoes not protectthe foot, as it does not have a hard sole. Rabbi Meir does not require that the shoe be of leather, but he does require that it be protective footwear.,With regard to the statement in the ibaraitathat indicates that iḥalitzamay be performed even if the iyavamis not standing, bAmeimar said: The one who performs iḥalitza /iby having his iyevamaremove his shoe bmust press his footto the ground, and while in this position the iyevamawill remove his shoe., bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taughtin the ibaraitaabove: She may perform iḥalitza bwhether he was standing or sitting or leaning?One who is leaning cannot easily press his foot into the ground. He answered him: bSaythat the man may perform iḥalitzawhile in any of these positions, but that bactuallythis is true only if bhe presses his footto the ground, which is admittedly more difficult to do while leaning., bAnd Ameimaralso bsaidabout this issue: bSomeone who walks on the backs of his feet,meaning he is clubfooted and his foot is twisted upside down, bcannot perform iḥalitza /i. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bLeg supportscan be used for iḥalitza /i. bDoes this not mean thatthis lame individual bperforms iḥalitzausing thesesupports on his knees? This would indicate that even one with twisted feet can perform iḥalitza /i. The Gemara answers: bNo,the intention is that if bhe gave these supports to anotherwhose foot is shaped normally band hewore them while bperforming iḥalitza /i,it is valid. That other one is allowed to perform iḥalitzawhile wearing these supports because they are also considered shoes, but one whose foot is misshapen may not perform iḥalitzawith them, as it functions for him as a foot, not a shoe., bRav Ashi said: According to what Ameimar said, bar Uva cannot perform iḥalitzaand bar Kipof cannot perform iḥalitza /i,as these two, who were famous eulogizers in Rav Ashi’s generation, had feet that became so crooked that they were unable to walk normally.,It was taught in the mishna that if one’s leg was amputated bfrom the knee downand his iyevamaperformed iḥalitzawith him, the iḥalitzais valid. The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraitathat comments on the pilgrimage one makes to Jerusalem during a Festival. The Torah states: “Three bFestivals [ iregalim /i]you shall celebrate for Me in the year” (Exodus 23:14). The ibaraitacomments on the verse: Festivals are referred to in the verse as iregalim /i, which literally means feet, indicating that one must actually make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem by foot [ iregel /i] during the Festival, which comes to bexclude people who have prostheses.This indicates that a prosthetic foot is not called a iregel /i, which seems to contradict the mishna that allows iḥalitzaon a prosthetic from the knee down.,The Gemara answers: bIt is different here,with respect to iḥalitza /i, bas it is written:“She removes the shoe bfrom on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i]”(Deuteronomy 25:9), which indicates that not only can his actual foot be used for performing iḥalitza /i, but also the part above it, i.e., the calf. The Gemara objects: bIf that is so,that one may use a part of his leg above his foot to perform iḥalitza /i, then if one’s leg was amputated bfrom above the knee,he should balsobe eligible for iḥalitza /i; and yet, the same mishna taught that only one with a leg amputated from below the knee is eligible for iḥalitza /i. The Gemara answers that the verse states: b“From onhis foot,” meaning above his foot, bbut not: From on that which is onhis foot; the wording indicates that it can be above his foot until the knee, but not any further above that., bRav Pappa said: Learn from here that the heel bone [ iistavira /i] reaches to the groundwhere it connects to the foot, bfor if it enters your mindto say bthat it is separate and divided,and there is another bone in between, bthen thatankle bone bis “from onthe foot” band the calfwould be prohibited for iḥalitza /i, as it would be considered: bFrom on that which is onhis foot. bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou say that it is separate and dividedfrom the calf, because banything that is connected with thesole of the bfoot is considered like the foot,then the ankle is certainly part of the foot, making the calf the area that is “from on the foot.”,It was taught in the mishna that if one’s legs were amputated bfrom the knee and above,the iḥalitzais invalid. This implies that the iregelincludes the calf but not the thigh. bRav Kahana raised an objectionfrom the verse: b“And against her afterbirth that emerges from between her legs [ iragleha /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:57), implying that iregelincludes even the thighs. bAbaye said:The verse actually means between her feet, as bwhena woman bcrouches to give birth, she pushes her heels into her thighs and she gives birth,so it appears as if the fetus emerges from between her feet.,The Gemara continues its challenge. bComeand bhearanother verse: b“He had neither dressed his feet [ iraglav /i], nor trimmed his beard”(II Samuel 19:25). The phrase “dressed his feet [ iraglav /i]” is referring to treating his pubic hair, implying that even the area around the thigh is referred to as iregel /i. The Gemara answers: This is ba euphemism.The Gemara attempts another challenge: bComeand bhearfrom another verse: b“And Saul went in to cover his feet [ iraglav /i]”(I Samuel 24:3), meaning: To urinate, implying that iregelrefers even to the thighs. The Gemara answers: This is also ba euphemism. /b, bComeand bhearthe meaning of: His feet, from the following verse regarding the Moabite king, Eglon, which states: b“Surely he is covering his feet [ iraglav /i] in the cabinet of the cool chamber”(Judges 3:24). The Gemara answers: This is ba euphemism.The Gemara attempts another proof from a verse regarding Sisera’s encounter with Yael: b“At her feet [ iragleha /i]he sunk, he fell” (Judges 5:27), which indicates that they had sexual intercourse, and implies that iregelincludes the thigh. The Gemara answers: This is also ba euphemism. /b,The Gemara elaborates on what happened when Sisera was in Yael’s tent. bRabbi Yoḥa said: That wickedman, Sisera, bhadsexual bintercoursewith Yael bseven times that day, as it is stated: “At her feet he sunk, he fell, he lay; at her feet he sunk, he fell; where he sunk, there he fell down dead”(Judges 5:27). Each instance of the terms “sunk,” “fell,” or “lay” in the verse indicates an act of intercourse, as Yael sought to tire and weaken Sisera to enable her to kill him. The Gemara asks: bButhow could Yael do this even for the noble purpose of killing the wicked Sisera, as bshe derived pleasure fromthe btransgressionof licentious sexual relations with a gentile? bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Everyact that is a bbenefit for the wicked /b
65. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 6.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

66. Origen, Homilies On Genesis, 6.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

67. Ephrem, Commentary On Genesis, 9.3, 16.9 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 351
abimelech, king of gerar Gera, Judith (2014) 406
abimelech Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
abraham, as universal exemplar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
abraham, call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, criticism of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
abraham, cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 128
abraham, defense of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
abraham, discovers astrology and chaldean science Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 128
abraham, encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72
abraham, gentleness of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 333
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 333, 381
abraham, name largely omitted by philo Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 269
abraham, passivity of, in egypt Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 236
abraham, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283
abraham, pharaoh contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 232, 237
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
abraham, servants of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 333
abraham, the intellect represented by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238
abraham, vs. abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50, 72
abraham, wealth of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 333
abraham/abram Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 162, 201
abraham Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288; Gera, Judith (2014) 208, 320, 351; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
accad Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
achior, talks to holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 208, 351
achior Gera, Judith (2014) 208
ahasuerus, in lxx Gera, Judith (2014) 344
alexander (iii) the great Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
alexander polyhistor, freudenthal, j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
alexander polyhistor, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
alexander polyhistor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
alexandria, jews of, as outsiders Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 236, 333
allegorical interpretation, in de abrahamo vs. other works Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
allusions, biblical Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
angels Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
aqedah, in philo, a drama Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 269
ark of the covenant Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283
arm/hand, finger Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
arm/hand Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
army, assyrian Gera, Judith (2014) 208
assyria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
assyrians Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283
attributes, divine, judgement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
attributes, divine, suppression of judgement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
audience, of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
babel Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
babylonians, jews (synagogues, talmud) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 623
babylonians Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
barak Gera, Judith (2014) 320
beneficent power, quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 38, 40
beneficent power, the bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 38, 40, 50
bethulia, elders Gera, Judith (2014) 351
bethulia, people of Gera, Judith (2014) 406
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151, 162, 598, 616, 617, 621, 623
biblical commentaries and exegesis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598, 616, 617, 621, 623
biblical women, beautiful and dangerous Gera, Judith (2014) 344, 345
biblical women, lie and deceive Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 351
biblical women, save lives Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 351
biography Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 406
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 345
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 344, 351
book of judith, biblical influences Gera, Judith (2014) 320
canaan Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 616, 617, 621
canaan and canaanites Gera, Judith (2014) 208
canaanites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 623
church fathers Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 78
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 349
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 237
commanders, army Gera, Judith (2014) 345
commentary on the diatessaron (ephrem) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 704
councils and conferences Gera, Judith (2014) 208
covenant, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72, 250
covenant, recasting of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
criticism of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
crush/ shatter enemy Gera, Judith (2014) 320
cultural benefactor topos, abraham Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 128
cultural benefactor topos, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 128
cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 128
cyrus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283
david, and abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 351
de abrahamo, interconnections within Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
de abrahamo, nachleben of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 78
de abrahamo, philonic parallels in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72
de abrahamo, prologue of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
de abrahamo, rhetoric in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
de abrahamo, structure of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 32
de abrahamo, unique features of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
deborah, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 320
delilah Gera, Judith (2014) 406
descent from abraham Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 120
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 406
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288
dispute between abraham and lot, literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 333
dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 32, 333
earth, face of Gera, Judith (2014) 208
economy\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
eglon Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 351
egypt, abrahams marriage preserved in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237
egypt, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238, 248, 250
egypt, as land of the body Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238
egypt, literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238
egypt, negative depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 238, 250
egypt, positive depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234, 235
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 32, 38, 74, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 248, 250
egypt Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 120; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
egypt\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 208, 344
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151, 162, 201
ehud Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 351
elect/election Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
elephantine (yeb) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
encomia, on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72
enoch Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
ephrem the syrian, commentary on the diatessaron Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 704
ephrem the syrian, syriac exegesis of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 704
erech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 344, 406
ethical interpretation, as part of a literal interpretation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
etymologies, of abraham and abram Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238, 248
etymologies, of israel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
etymologies, of noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
etymologies, of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238, 248
euphrates Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
eupolemus, concerning the jews of assyria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
eupolemus, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125, 128
eupolemus, temple idealization Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
exegesis, originality of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
exegesis, traditional vs. original Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
exegesis Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
exile, captivity, and return, exodus, story of Gera, Judith (2014) 208
exiles Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
exodus, exodus, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
exodus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151, 162
exposition of the law, audience of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72
ezekiel, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
famine, biblical egypt as refuge from Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 162, 201, 598, 616, 617, 621, 623
famine Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147, 234, 238
flood Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
furnishings, dishes and equipmentnan Gera, Judith (2014) 345
gaon, geonim (head of yeshivah, saadya gaon) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 623
gaza, genesis, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
gender roles Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 345
genealogy of virtues, genesis, title of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
genre Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 344, 406
god, celebrated Gera, Judith (2014) 406
god, foreknowledge of Gera, Judith (2014) 351
god, imitation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231
god, responds to prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 344
god, shatters/crushes foes Gera, Judith (2014) 320
god Gera, Judith (2014) 320; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
gold, and silver Gera, Judith (2014) 345
gomorrah, rewards of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 233, 237
gospels Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83
greek, language Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 621
hadad Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
hadasi, judah Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
hagar Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
halakhah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 623
hand, of a woman Gera, Judith (2014) 320
hebrew, transliteration of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 83
helen Gera, Judith (2014) 345
heliopolis/heliopolitan Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 128
hermeneutic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83
herod the great Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
historical surveys, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 208
history, biblical Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
history of scholarship Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 72
holophernes, feminized Gera, Judith (2014) 345
holophernes, praised by judith Gera, Judith (2014) 351
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 344, 345, 351
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 333, 381
humbling oneself Gera, Judith (2014) 351
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
imitation, of the divine Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231
isaac, parallels to sacrifice of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 78
isaac Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 288; Gera, Judith (2014) 344; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 120; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
ishmael Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
israel, biblical, and egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
israel, biblical, in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
israel, biblical, kingdom of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
israel, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83
israelites Gera, Judith (2014) 344, 345
itinerary\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 208; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 120; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
jacob son of abraham, patriarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 406
japheth b. eli (yefet b. eli) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598, 616, 617, 621, 623
jeremiah, prophet, jeremiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
jeremiah, prophet, lxx Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 162
jeroboam Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
jerusalem, in ezekiel Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 406; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
jews, alexandrian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
jews and jewish tradition, and priestly role Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 237
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 208, 406
joseph (father of jesus) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
joseph (son of jacob the patriarch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151, 201, 598
josiah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
judah, and egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
judah, kingdom/province of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
judah, territory Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 162
judah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
judas maccabaeus, judith, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
judean, judeans Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151, 162
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 344, 345
judith, cool and courageous Gera, Judith (2014) 344
judith, deceives and lies Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 351
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 351
judith, humble Gera, Judith (2014) 351
judith, moral stature Gera, Judith (2014) 351
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 320
judith, retires upon return Gera, Judith (2014) 351
judith, symbolic figure Gera, Judith (2014) 406
karaites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598, 616, 617, 621, 623
kingly power, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
kingly power, the kings, victory over Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
language and style, book of judith, awkward and difficult Gera, Judith (2014) 208
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 320, 351
language and style, book of judith, septuagint influence Gera, Judith (2014) 208, 345
language and style, book of judith, syntax Gera, Judith (2014) 351
liability, rape of married woman Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 126
life of abraham Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
literal interpretation, ethical interpretation as part of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
literal interpretation, living laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 147
literal interpretation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
liturgy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
locusts Gera, Judith (2014) 208
lot, servants of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 74
lot Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
love, wifely Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 381
luke-acts Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 344
maids and female servants, post biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 344
mardonius Gera, Judith (2014) 345
marriage, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238, 248
marriage, preservation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237
marriage, roman ideals of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 381
marriage, types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238
mary (mother of jesus) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
mattan son of jashobiah (at yeb), matthew, gospel of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
medieval hebrew tales of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 406
methodology Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 83
midrash Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 7, 8
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231
migrations of abraham, literal and ethical interpretations of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 231
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50, 231, 381
military campaigns, wives joining Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 381
military discourse Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283
mosaic law Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 147
moses Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 406
mourners of zion Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 623
muʿtazilite theology Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 617
myth, names, philos omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 234
names of god, masculine participle Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
nations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
nature Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
nebuchadnezzar Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
nile, river, annual rise Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 621
nile, river, delta Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
nile, river Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
nimrod Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
noah, name of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 32, 37; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98
nomad\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
nomadic life\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
novels and novellas, jewish Gera, Judith (2014) 344
omissions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 232
palestine (eretz israel, holy land) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201, 621, 623
pardo, david (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 338
pardon Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169
passivity, of abraham in egypt Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 236
patriarch\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 24
penitence and sins Gera, Judith (2014) 406
pentateuch Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 83
persian traces in judith Gera, Judith (2014) 345
pharaoh, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 232
pharaoh, as body-loving Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 238
pharaoh, as inhospitable Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 232, 235, 238
pharaoh, neco Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151
pharaoh, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 236, 237, 250
pharaoh, time of abraham Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 151, 617
pharaoh, time of joseph Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
pharaoh, time of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 201
pharaoh Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 232, 233, 235, 236, 238; Gera, Judith (2014) 208, 344, 345, 351; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 169; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 120; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
philistines Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 283; Gera, Judith (2014) 406
philo, influences on, greek and roman Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 381
philo, influences on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 50
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 98