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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.8-10.9


וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת־נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ׃And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth.


הוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: ‘Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.10-2.11, 3.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.11. רְפָאִים יֵחָשְׁבוּ אַף־הֵם כָּעֲנָקִים וְהַמֹּאָבִים יִקְרְאוּ לָהֶם אֵמִים׃ 3.11. כִּי רַק־עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן נִשְׁאַר מִיֶּתֶר הָרְפָאִים הִנֵּה עַרְשׂוֹ עֶרֶשׂ בַּרְזֶל הֲלֹה הִוא בְּרַבַּת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן תֵּשַׁע אַמּוֹת אָרְכָּהּ וְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת רָחְבָּהּ בְּאַמַּת־אִישׁ׃ 2.10. The Emim dwelt therein aforetime, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim;" 2.11. these also are accounted Rephaim, as the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim." 3.11. For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remt of the Rephaim; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbah of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.—"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.22, 3.12, 8.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְאֶל־עַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ לִהְיוֹת כָּל־אִישׁ שֹׂרֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ וּמְדַבֵּר כִּלְשׁוֹן עַמּוֹ׃ 3.12. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הָמָן אֶל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶל־הַפַּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי עַם וָעָם מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ נִכְתָּב וְנֶחְתָּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 1.22. for he sent letters into all the king’s provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and speak according to the language of his people." 3.12. Then were the king’s scribes called in the first month, on the thirteenth day thereof, and there was written, according to all that Haman commanded, unto the king’s satraps, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the princes of every people; to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and it was sealed with the king’s ring." 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.8, 3.1-3.8, 4.1-4.16, 4.19, 6.1, 6.4, 7.22, 8.8-8.12, 9.18-9.27, 10.1-10.7, 10.9-10.32, 11.1-11.32, 12.10-12.20, 14.4, 19.36-19.38, 21.18, 25.23, 26.34-26.35, 28.8-28.9, 36.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.2. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ 3.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָי׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.2. וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃ 4.2. וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃ 4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 4.5. וְאֶל־קַיִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָּנָיו׃ 4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 4.7. הֲלוֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל־בּוֹ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוֺנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃ 4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 4.19. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ לֶמֶךְ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם הָאַחַת עָדָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית צִלָּה׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 7.22. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁמַת־רוּחַ חַיִּים בְּאַפָּיו מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בֶּחָרָבָה מֵתוּ׃ 8.8. וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מֵאִתּוֹ לִרְאוֹת הֲקַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 8.9. וְלֹא־מָצְאָה הַיּוֹנָה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלָהּ וַתָּשָׁב אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה כִּי־מַיִם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֵא אֹתָהּ אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.11. וַתָּבֹא אֵלָיו הַיּוֹנָה לְעֵת עֶרֶב וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵה־זַיִת טָרָף בְּפִיהָ וַיֵּדַע נֹחַ כִּי־קַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.12. וַיִּיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה וְלֹא־יָסְפָה שׁוּב־אֵלָיו עוֹד׃ 9.18. וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַתֵּבָה שֵׁם וְחָם וָיָפֶת וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן׃ 9.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 9.23. וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃ 9.24. וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה־לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.27. יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 10.1. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר׃ 10.1. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 10.2. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־חָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.2. בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס׃ 10.3. וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם׃ 10.3. וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכֲּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה׃ 10.4. וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים׃ 10.5. מֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן׃ 10.7. וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן׃ 10.9. הוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.11. מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת־נִינְוֵה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת־כָּלַח׃ 10.12. וְאֶת־רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה׃ 10.13. וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לוּדִים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃ 10.14. וְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִים׃ 10.15. וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת־צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־חֵת׃ 10.16. וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃ 10.17. וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃ 10.18. וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 10.19. וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃ 10.21. וּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם־הוּא אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל׃ 10.22. בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם׃ 10.23. וּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ׃ 10.24. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת־שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 10.25. וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן׃ 10.26. וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת־שָׁלֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת־יָרַח׃ 10.27. וְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת־אוּזָל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָה׃ 10.28. וְאֶת־עוֹבָל וְאֶת־אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת־שְׁבָא׃ 10.29. וְאֶת־אוֹפִר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָה וְאֶת־יוֹבָב כָּל־אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן׃ 10.31. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.32. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָאָרֶץ שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים׃ 11.1. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.2. וַיְחִי רְעוּ שְׁתַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שְׂרוּג׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי בְּנָסְעָם מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּמְצְאוּ בִקְעָה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ הָבָה נִלְבְּנָה לְבֵנִים וְנִשְׂרְפָה לִשְׂרֵפָה וַתְּהִי לָהֶם הַלְּבֵנָה לְאָבֶן וְהַחֵמָר הָיָה לָהֶם לַחֹמֶר׃ 11.3. וַתְּהִי שָׂרַי עֲקָרָה אֵין לָהּ וָלָד׃ 11.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָבָה נִבְנֶה־לָּנוּ עִיר וּמִגְדָּל וְרֹאשׁוֹ בַשָּׁמַיִם וְנַעֲשֶׂה־לָּנוּ שֵׁם פֶּן־נָפוּץ עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הֵן עַם אֶחָד וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם וְזֶה הַחִלָּם לַעֲשׂוֹת וְעַתָּה לֹא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יָזְמוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.11. וַיְחִי־שֵׁם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.12. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד חַי חָמֵשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שָׁלַח׃ 11.13. וַיְחִי אַרְפַּכְשַׁד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֶׁלַח שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.14. וְשֶׁלַח חַי שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 11.15. וַיְחִי־שֶׁלַח אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־עֵבֶר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.16. וַיְחִי־עֵבֶר אַרְבַּע וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־פָּלֶג׃ 11.17. וַיְחִי־עֵבֶר אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־פֶּלֶג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.18. וַיְחִי־פֶלֶג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־רְעוּ׃ 11.19. וַיְחִי־פֶלֶג אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־רְעוּ תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.21. וַיְחִי רְעוּ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שְׂרוּג שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.22. וַיְחִי שְׂרוּג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־נָחוֹר׃ 11.23. וַיְחִי שְׂרוּג אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נָחוֹר מָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.24. וַיְחִי נָחוֹר תֵּשַׁע וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־תָּרַח׃ 11.25. וַיְחִי נָחוֹר אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־תֶּרַח תְּשַׁע־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.26. וַיְחִי־תֶרַח שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן׃ 11.27. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת תֶּרַח תֶּרַח הוֹלִיד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן וְהָרָן הוֹלִיד אֶת־לוֹט׃ 11.28. וַיָּמָת הָרָן עַל־פְּנֵי תֶּרַח אָבִיו בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתּוֹ בְּאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 11.29. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם וְנָחוֹר לָהֶם נָשִׁים שֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם שָׂרָי וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־נָחוֹר מִלְכָּה בַּת־הָרָן אֲבִי־מִלְכָּה וַאֲבִי יִסְכָּה׃ 11.31. וַיִּקַּח תֶּרַח אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־הָרָן בֶּן־בְּנוֹ וְאֵת שָׂרַי כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וַיֵּצְאוּ אִתָּם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־חָרָן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.32. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־תֶרַח חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיָּמָת תֶּרַח בְּחָרָן׃ 12.11. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃ 12.12. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃ 12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃ 12.14. וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃ 12.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃ 12.16. וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃ 12.17. וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃ 12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃ 14.4. שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה עָבְדוּ אֶת־כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר וּשְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מָרָדוּ׃ 19.36. וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת־לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן׃ 19.37. וַתֵּלֶד הַבְּכִירָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מוֹאָב הוּא אֲבִי־מוֹאָב עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 19.38. וְהַצְּעִירָה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־עַמִּי הוּא אֲבִי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 21.18. קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת־הַנַּעַר וְהַחֲזִיקִי אֶת־יָדֵךְ בּוֹ כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 26.34. וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־יְהוּדִית בַּת־בְּאֵרִי הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־אֵילֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 26.35. וַתִּהְיֶיןָ מֹרַת רוּחַ לְיִצְחָק וּלְרִבְקָה׃ 28.8. וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן בְּעֵינֵי יִצְחָק אָבִיו׃ 28.9. וַיֵּלֶךְ עֵשָׂו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵאל וַיִּקַּח אֶת־מָחֲלַת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָם אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת עַל־נָשָׁיו לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 36.12. וְתִמְנַע הָיְתָה פִילֶגֶשׁ לֶאֱלִיפַז בֶּן־עֵשָׂו וַתֵּלֶד לֶאֱלִיפַז אֶת־עֲמָלֵק אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי עָדָה אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו׃ 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.2. And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.4. And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;" 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden." 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’" 4.2. And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground." 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 4.5. but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell." 4.6. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countece fallen?" 4.7. If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’" 4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 4.13. And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear." 4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden." 4.19. And Lamech took unto him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 7.22. all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, whatsoever was in the dry land, died." 8.8. And he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground." 8.9. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him to the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth; and he put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her in unto him into the ark." 8.10. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark." 8.11. And the dove came in to him at eventide; and lo in her mouth an olive-leaf freshly plucked; so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth." 8.12. And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; and she returned not again unto him any more." 9.18. And the sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan." 9.19. These three were the sons of Noah, and of these was the whole earth overspread." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without." 9.23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness." 9.24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him." 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.27. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 10.1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and unto them were sons born after the flood." 10.2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras." 10.3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah." 10.4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim." 10.5. of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." 10.6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." 10.7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan." 10.9. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: ‘Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.’" 10.10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." 10.11. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah," 10.12. and Resen between Nineveh and Calah—the same is the great city." 10.13. And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim," 10.14. and Pathrusim, and Casluhim—whence went forth the Philistines—and Caphtorim." 10.15. And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn, and Heth;" 10.16. and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite;" 10.17. and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite;" 10.18. and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad." 10.19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha." 10.20. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations." 10.21. And unto Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, to him also were children born." 10.22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram." 10.23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash." 10.24. And Arpachshad begot Shelah; and Shelah begot Eber." 10.25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan." 10.26. And Joktan begot Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah;" 10.27. and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah;" 10.28. and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba;" 10.29. and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan." 10.30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, unto the mountain of the east." 10.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 10.32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood." 11.1. And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." 11.2. And it came to pass, as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there." 11.3. And they said one to another: ‘Come, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly.’ And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar." 11.4. And they said: ‘Come, let us build us a city, and a tower, with its top in heaven, and let us make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.’" 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 11.6. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." 11.10. These are the generations of Shem. Shem was a hundred years old, and begot Arpachshad two years after the flood." 11.11. And Shem lived after he begot Arpachshad five hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.12. And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begot Shelah." 11.13. And Arpachshad lived after he begot Shelah four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.14. And Shelah lived thirty years, and begot Eber." 11.15. And Shelah lived after he begot Eber four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.16. And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begot Peleg." 11.17. And Eber lived after he begot Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.18. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begot Reu." 11.19. And Peleg lived after he begot Reu two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.20. And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begot Serug." 11.21. And Reu lived after he begot Serug two hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.22. And Serug lived thirty years, and begot Nahor." 11.23. And Serug lived after he begot Nahor two hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.24. And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begot Terah." 11.25. And Nahor lived after he begot Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran." 11.27. Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begot Lot." 11.28. And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." 11.29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah." 11.30. And Sarai was barren; she had no child." 11.31. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there." 11.32. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran." 12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land." 12.11. And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon." 12.12. And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive." 12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’" 12.14. And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair." 12.15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house." 12.16. And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels." 12.17. And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife." 12.18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?" 12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’" 12.20. And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had." 14.4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled." 19.36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father." 19.37. And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day." 19.38. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day." 21.18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast by thy hand; for I will make him a great nation.’" 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 26.34. And when Esau was forty years old, he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite." 26.35. And they were a bitterness of spirit unto Isaac and to Rebekah." 28.8. and Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; ." 28.9. so Esau went unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives that he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife." 36.12. And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau’s son; and she bore to Eliphaz Amalek. These are the sons of Adah Esau’s wife."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 13.28, 13.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.28. אֶפֶס כִּי־עַז הָעָם הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּאָרֶץ וְהֶעָרִים בְּצֻרוֹת גְּדֹלֹת מְאֹד וְגַם־יְלִדֵי הָעֲנָק רָאִינוּ שָׁם׃ 13.33. וְשָׁם רָאִינוּ אֶת־הַנְּפִילִים בְּנֵי עֲנָק מִן־הַנְּפִלִים וַנְּהִי בְעֵינֵינוּ כַּחֲגָבִים וְכֵן הָיִינוּ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 13.28. Howbeit the people that dwell in the land are fierce, and the cities are fortified, and very great; and moreover we saw the children of Anak there." 13.33. And there we saw the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, who come of the Nephilim; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.16. אֵין־הַמֶּלֶךְ נוֹשָׁע בְּרָב־חָיִל גִּבּוֹר לֹא־יִנָּצֵל בְּרָב־כֹּחַ׃ 33.16. A king is not saved by the multitude of a host; A mighty man is not delivered by great strength."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.13, 12.16-12.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־הָעֵצִים מִן־הָאֶרֶז אֲשֶׁר בַּלְּבָנוֹן וְעַד הָאֵזוֹב אֲשֶׁר יֹצֵא בַּקִּיר וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־הַבְּהֵמָה וְעַל־הָעוֹף וְעַל־הָרֶמֶשׂ וְעַל־הַדָּגִים׃ 12.16. וַיַּרְא כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי לֹא־שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשִׁבוּ הָעָם אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּבָר לֵאמֹר מַה־לָּנוּ חֵלֶק בְּדָוִד וְלֹא־נַחֲלָה בְּבֶן־יִשַׁי לְאֹהָלֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַתָּה רְאֵה בֵיתְךָ דָּוִד וַיֵּלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאֹהָלָיו׃ 12.17. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּמְלֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְחַבְעָם׃ 5.13. And he spoke of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall; he spoke also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes." 12.16. And when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying: ‘What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse; to your tents, O Israel; now see to thine own house, David.’ So Israel departed unto their tents." 12.17. But as for the children of Israel that dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 8.5-8.7, 8.10-8.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה זָקַנְתָּ וּבָנֶיךָ לֹא הָלְכוּ בִּדְרָכֶיךָ עַתָּה שִׂימָה־לָּנוּ מֶלֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵנוּ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 8.6. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי שְׁמוּאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמְרוּ תְּנָה־לָּנוּ מֶלֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵנוּ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 8.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁמַע בְּקוֹל הָעָם לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ כִּי לֹא אֹתְךָ מָאָסוּ כִּי־אֹתִי מָאֲסוּ מִמְּלֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 8.11. וַיֹּאמֶר זֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִמְלֹךְ עֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם יִקָּח וְשָׂם לוֹ בְּמֶרְכַּבְתּוֹ וּבְפָרָשָׁיו וְרָצוּ לִפְנֵי מֶרְכַּבְתּוֹ׃ 8.12. וְלָשׂוּם לוֹ שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְלַחֲרֹשׁ חֲרִישׁוֹ וְלִקְצֹר קְצִירוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּלֵי־מִלְחַמְתּוֹ וּכְלֵי רִכְבּוֹ׃ 8.13. וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם יִקָּח לְרַקָּחוֹת וּלְטַבָּחוֹת וּלְאֹפוֹת׃ 8.14. וְאֶת־שְׂדוֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶת־כַּרְמֵיכֶם וְזֵיתֵיכֶם הַטּוֹבִים יִקָּח וְנָתַן לַעֲבָדָיו׃ 8.15. וְזַרְעֵיכֶם וְכַרְמֵיכֶם יַעְשֹׂר וְנָתַן לְסָרִיסָיו וְלַעֲבָדָיו׃ 8.16. וְאֶת־עַבְדֵיכֶם וְאֶת־שִׁפְחוֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶת־בַּחוּרֵיכֶם הַטּוֹבִים וְאֶת־חֲמוֹרֵיכֶם יִקָּח וְעָשָׂה לִמְלַאכְתּוֹ׃ 8.17. צֹאנְכֶם יַעְשֹׂר וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים׃ 8.18. וּזְעַקְתֶּם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא מִלִּפְנֵי מַלְכְּכֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתֶּם לָכֶם וְלֹא־יַעֲנֶה יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 8.5. and said to him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations." 8.6. But the thing displeased Shemu᾽el when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Shemu᾽el prayed to the Lord." 8.7. And the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, Hearken to the voice of the people in all that they say to thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them." 8.10. And Shemu᾽el told all the words of the Lord to the people that asked of him a king." 8.11. And he said, This will be the custom of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself on his chariot, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariot." 8.12. And he will appoint for himself captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to plough his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and the instruments of his chariots." 8.13. And he will take your daughters for perfumers, and cooks, and bakers." 8.14. And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your best oliveyards, and give them to his servants." 8.15. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants." 8.16. And he will take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work." 8.17. He will take the tenth of your sheep: and you shall be his servants." 8.18. And you shall cry out on that day because of your king which you shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not hear you on that day."
8. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.1, 5.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וַתָּשַׁר דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר׃ 5.1. רֹכְבֵי אֲתֹנוֹת צְחֹרוֹת יֹשְׁבֵי עַל־מִדִּין וְהֹלְכֵי עַל־דֶּרֶךְ שִׂיחוּ׃ 5.24. תְּבֹרַךְ מִנָּשִׁים יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי מִנָּשִׁים בָּאֹהֶל תְּבֹרָךְ׃ 5.1. Then sang Devora and Baraq the son of Avino῾am on that day, saying," 5.24. Blessed above women is Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite, blessed is she more than women in the tent."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

37.22. וְעָשִׂיתִי אֹתָם לְגוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ בְּהָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶךְ אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם לְמֶלֶךְ וְלֹא יהיה־[יִהְיוּ־] עוֹד לִשְׁנֵי גוֹיִם וְלֹא יֵחָצוּ עוֹד לִשְׁתֵּי מַמְלָכוֹת עוֹד׃ 37.22. and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be king to them all; and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all;"
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 15.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11. Anon., Jubilees, 8.8, 9.4, 10.19-10.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.8. and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: "Truly I have been sent. 9.4. And for Asshur came forth the second portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascendeth and skirteth the river. 10.19. Thus the evil. spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of Noah. 10.20. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, his eldest son; for he loved him exceedingly above all his sons. 10.21. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lûbâr in the land of Ararat. 10.22. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two weeks and five years. 10.23. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. 10.24. For Enoch's office was ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so that he should recount all the deeds of generation unto generation, till the day of judgment. 10.25. And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first year in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife, whose name was Lômnâ the daughter of Sînâ’ar 10.26. and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this week, and he called his name Reu;
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.3. He extended the glory of his people. Like a giant he put on his breastplate;he girded on his armor of war and waged battles,protecting the host by his sword.
15. Septuagint, Judith, 5.12, 9.3, 10.3-10.4, 13.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body.
16. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

96. And these things thus expressed resemble visions and prodigies; I mean the account of one dragon uttering the voice of a man and pouring his sophistries into most innocent dispositions, and deceiving the woman with plausible arguments of persuasion; and of another becoming a cause of complete safety to those who looked upon it.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. But he who brings his account nearer the truth, has distinguished between the rational and irrational animals, so that he testifies that identity of language belong to men alone: and this also, as they say, is a fabulous story. And indeed they affirm, that the separation of language into an infinite variety of dialects, which Moses calls the confusion of tongues, was effected as a remedy for sins, in order that men might not be able to cooperate in common for deeds of wickedness through understanding one another; and that they might not, when they were in a manner deprived of all means of communication with one another, be able with united energies to apply themselves to the same actions.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 6, 60, 65, 67, 7, 17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. And the expression used by the writer of the psalm, in the following verse, testifies to the truth of my assertion, for he says, "He sent upon them the fury of His wrath, anger, and rage, and affliction, and he sent evil angels among Them." These are the wicked who, assuming the name of angels, not being acquainted with the daughters of right reason, that is with the sciences and the virtues, but which pursue the mortal descendants of mortal men, that is the pleasures, which can confer no genuine beauty, which is perceived by the intellect alone, but only a bastard sort of elegance of form, by means of which the outward sense is beguiled;
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 156-157, 2, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 2, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And Cain went out from before the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, opposite to Eden." Now we may raise the question whether we are to take the expressions which occur in the books that have been handed down to us by Moses and to interpret them in a somewhat metaphorical sense, while the ideas which readily present themselves as derived from the names are very deficient in truth.
22. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.73, 1.75, 1.77, 1.82, 1.87-1.88, 1.109, 1.113-1.118, 1.120-1.122, 1.129, 1.142-1.147 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. 1.75. 2. Now God loved this man for his righteousness: yet he not only condemned those other men for their wickedness, but determined to destroy the whole race of mankind, and to make another race that should be pure from wickedness; and cutting short their lives, and making their years not so many as they formerly lived, but one hundred and twenty only, he turned the dry land into sea; 1.77. That he should make an ark of four stories high, three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits broad, and thirty cubits high. Accordingly he entered into that ark, and his wife, and sons, and their wives, and put into it not only other provisions, to support their wants there, but also sent in with the rest all sorts of living creatures, the male and his female, for the preservation of their kinds; and others of them by sevens. 1.82. and this was two thousand six hundred and fifty-six [one thousand six hundred and fifty-six] years from Adam, the first man; and the time is written down in our sacred books, those who then lived having noted down, with great accuracy, both the births and deaths of illustrious men. 1.87. Now Lamech, when he had governed seven hundred and seventy-seven years, appointed Noah, his son, to be ruler of the people, who was born to Lamech when he was one hundred and eighty-two years old, and retained the government nine hundred and fifty years. 1.88. These years collected together make up the sum before set down. But let no one inquire into the deaths of these men; for they extended their lives along together with their children and grandchildren; but let him have regard to their births only. 1.109. 1. Now the sons of Noah were three,—Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. 1.113. 2. Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. 1.114. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers! 1.115. 3. Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; 1.116. but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; 1.117. but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them divers languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion. 1.118. The Sibyl also makes mention of this tower, and of the confusion of the language, when she says thus: “When all men were of one language, some of them built a high tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language; and for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon.” 1.121. and some of those nations do still retain the denominations which were given them by their first founders; but some have lost them also, and some have only admitted certain changes in them, that they might be the more intelligible to the inhabitants. And they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations. For when in after-ages they grew potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity; giving names to the nations that sounded well [in Greek] that they might be better understood among themselves; and setting agreeable forms of government over them, as if they were a people derived from themselves. 1.122. 1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. 1.129. Now when I have premised somewhat, which perhaps the Greeks do not know, I will return and explain what I have omitted; for such names are pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers; for our own country language does not so pronounce them: but the names in all cases are of one and the same ending; for the name we here pronounce Noeas, is there Noah, and in every case retains the same termination. 1.142. And when Noah was made sensible of what had been done, he prayed for prosperity to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not curse him, by reason of his nearness in blood, but cursed his prosperity: and when the rest of them escaped that curse, God inflicted it on the children of Canaan. But as to these matters, we shall speak more hereafter. 1.143. 4. Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others. 1.144. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians. 1.145. of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. 1.146. Sala was the son of Arphaxad; and his son was Heber, from whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews. Heber begat Joetan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries; for Phaleg among the Hebrews signifies division. 1.147. Now Joctan, one of the sons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad, Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, Ebal, Abimael, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilat, and Jobab. These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it. And this shall suffice concerning the sons of Shem.
24. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 51.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4, 21.4, 22.9, 37.3, 41.3, 53.14-53.15 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 21.4. תִּתְקְפֵהוּ לָנֶצַח וַיַּהֲלֹךְ מְשַׁנֶּה פָנָיו וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵהוּ (איוב יד, כ), תֹּקֶף שֶׁנָּתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לָנֶצַח, לְעוֹלָם הָיָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִנִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְהָלַךְ אַחַר דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל נָחָשׁ, מְשַׁנֶּה פָנָיו וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵהוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁלָחוֹ הִתְחִיל מְקוֹנֵן עָלָיו וְאוֹמֵר: הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ. 22.9. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, כְּתִיב (תהלים לז, יד): חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וגו', חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וְדָרְכוּ קַשְׁתָּם, זֶה קַיִן. (תהלים לז, יד): לְהַפִּיל עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לִטְבוֹחַ יִשְׁרֵי דָרֶךְ זֶה הֶבֶל. (תהלים לז, טו): חַרְבָּם תָּבוֹא בְלִבָּם וגו', (בראשית ד, יב): נָע וְנָד תִּהְיֶה בָּאָרֶץ. (בראשית ד, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וגו', מָשָׁל לְאִיפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֶמְצַע פְּלַטְיָא, מָצָא הָרוּג וְאֶחָד עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו, אָמַר לוֹ מִי הֲרָגוֹ, וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא בָּעֵי לֵיהּ גַּבָּךְ, וְאַתְּ בָּעֵי לֵיהּ גַּבִּי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֹא אָמַרְתָּ כְּלוּם, מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְגִנָּה וְלִקֵּט תּוּתִין וְאָכַל, וְהָיָה בַּעַל הַגִּנָּה רָץ אַחֲרָיו אָמַר לוֹ מַה בְּיָדְךָ, אָמַר לוֹ אֵין בְּיָדִי כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲרֵי יָדֶיךָ מְלֻכְלָכוֹת. כָּךְ אָמַר לוֹ קַיִן לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית ד, ט): הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָא רָשָׁע (בראשית ד, י): קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים וגו', מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁנִכְנַס לְמִרְעֶה וְחָטַף גְּדִי אֶחָד וְהִפְשִׁילוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו, וְהָיָה בַּעַל הַמִּרְעֶה רָץ אַחֲרָיו אָמַר לוֹ מַה בְּיָדְךָ, אָמַר לוֹ אֵין בְּיָדִי כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא מַפְעֶה אַחֲרֶיךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְקַיִן: קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבָּנָן. רַבִּי יוּדָן אוֹמֵר דַּם אָחִיךָ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר (מלכים ב ט, כו): אֶת דְּמֵי נָבוֹת, דַּם נָבוֹת וְדַם בָּנָיו אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֶת דְּמֵי נָבוֹת וְאֶת דְּמֵי בָנָיו, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין (דברי הימים ב כד, כה): וַיָּמָת בְּדַם יְהוֹיָדָע, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בִּדְמֵי יְהוֹיָדָע, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי קָשֶׁה הַדָּבָר לְאָמְרוֹ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַפֶּה לְפָרְשׁוֹ, לִשְׁנֵי אַתְּלִיטִין שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִין וּמִתְגּוֹשְׁשִׁים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, אִלּוּ רָצָה הַמֶּלֶךְ פֵּרְשָׁן, וְלֹא רָצָה הַמֶּלֶךְ לְפָרְשָׁן, נִתְחַזֵּק אֶחָד עַל חֲבֵרוֹ וַהֲרָגוֹ, וְהָיָה מְצַוֵּחַ וְאָמַר מַאן יִבְעֵי דִּינִי קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, כָּךְ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צוֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן הָאֲדָמָה, לַעֲלוֹת לְמַעְלָה לֹא הָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא עָלְתָה לְשָׁם נְשָׁמָה, וּלְמַטָּה לֹא הָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִקְבַּר שָׁם אָדָם, וְהָיָה דָּמוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ עַל הָעֵצִים וְעַל הָאֲבָנִים. 37.3. הוּא הָיָה גִּבֹּר צַיִּד לִפְנֵי ה' (בראשית י, ט), חֲמִשָּׁה הוּא לְטוֹבָה, וַחֲמִשָּׁה הוּא לְרָעָה. הוּא הָיָה גִּבֹּר צַיּד לִפְנֵי ה', (בראשית לו, מג): הוּא עֵשָׂו אֲבִי אֱדוֹם, (במדבר כו, ט): הוּא דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם, (דברי הימים ב כח, כב): הוּא הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז, (אסתר א, א): הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. וַחֲמִשָּׁה הוּא לְטוֹבָה, (דברי הימים א כז): אַבְרָם הוּא אַבְרָהָם: (שמות ו, כז): הוּא משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן: (שמות ו, כו): הוּא אַהֲרֹן וּמשֶׁה: (דברי הימים ב לב, ל): הוּא חִזְקִיָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ: (עזרא ז, ו): הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָנִין אַף אִית לָן חַד הוּא טָבָא מִן כֻּלְּהוֹן, (תהלים קה, ז): הוּא ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ, שֶׁמִּדַּת רַחֲמָיו לְעוֹלָם. 41.3. וְאַבְרָם כָּבֵד מְאֹד בַמִּקְנֶה בַּכֶּסֶף וּבַזָּהָב (בראשית יג, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קה, לז): וַיּוֹצִיאֵם בְּכֶסֶף וְזָהָב וגו'. (בראשית יג, ג): וַיֵּלֶךְ לְמַסָּעָיו, בַּמַּסָּעוֹת שֶׁהָלַךְ, בָּהֶן חָזַר. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי מְנַחֵם הָלַךְ לִפְרֹעַ הַקָּפוֹתָיו. (בראשית יג, ה): וְגַם לְלוֹט הַהֹלֵךְ אֶת אַבְרָם וגו', אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים טוֹבִים הָיוּ לְלוֹט בַּעֲבוּר אַבְרָם, (בראשית יב, ד): וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָם וגו' וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ לוֹט. וְגַם לְלוֹט הַהֹלֵךְ אֶת אַבְרָם. (בראשית יד, טז): וַיָּשֶׁב אֶת כָּל הָרְכֻשׁ וְגַם אֶת לוֹט. (בראשית יט, כט): וַיְהִי בְּשַׁחֵת אֱלֹהִים וגו' וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת אַבְרָהָם וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת לוֹט מִתּוֹךְ וגו'. וּכְנֶגְדָּן הָיוּ בָנָיו צְרִיכִים לִפְרֹעַ לָנוּ טוֹבוֹת, לֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁלֹא פָּרְעוּ לָנוּ טוֹבוֹת אֶלָּא רָעוֹת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (במדבר כב, ה ו): וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים אֶל בִּלְעָם בֶּן בְּעוֹר וגו' וְעַתָּה לְכָה נָא אָרָה לִי אֶת הָעָם. (שופטים ג, יג): וַיֶּאֱסֹף אֵלָיו אֶת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַעֲמָלֵק וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת עִיר הַתְּמָרִים. (דברי הימים ב כ, א): וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי כֵן בָּאוּ בְנֵי מוֹאָב וּבְנֵי מִדְיָן [ועמון] וְעִמָּהֶם מִן הָעַמּוֹנִים עַל יְהוֹשָׁפָט. וְעוֹד כְּתִיב (איכה א, י): יָדוֹ פָּרַשׂ צָר עַל כָּל מַחֲמַדֶּיהָ. וְנִכְתַּב חֵטְא שֶׁלָּהֶם בְּאַרְבָּעָה מְקוֹמוֹת, (דברים כג, ד ה): לֹא יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי, עַל דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם, וּכְתִיב (מיכה ו, ה): עַמִּי זְכָר נָא מַה יָּעַץ בָּלָק מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וּמֶה עָנָה וגו'. (נחמיה יג, ב): כִּי לֹא קִדְּמוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמָּיִם וַיִּשְׂכֹּר עָלָיו אֶת בִּלְעָם לְקַלְלוֹ (יהושע כד, ט): וַיִּקְרָא לְבִלְעָם בֶּן בְּעוֹר לְקַלֵּל אֶתְכֶם. עָמְדוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְבִיאִים וְחָתְמוּ גְּזַר דִּינָם, אֵלּוּ הֵם: יְשַׁעְיָה וְיִרְמְיָה צְפַנְיָה וִיחֶזְקֵאל. יְשַׁעְיָה אָמַר (ישעיה טו, א): מַשָֹּׂא מוֹאָב כִּי בְּלֵיל שֻׁדַּד עָר מוֹאָב נִדְמָה כִּי בְּלֵיל שֻׁדַּד קִיר מוֹאָב נִדְמָה. יִרְמְיָה אָמַר (ירמיה מט, ב): לָכֵן הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם ה' וְהִשְׁמַעְתִּי אֶל רַבַּת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן תְּרוּעַת מִלְחָמָה וְהָיְתָה לְתֵל שְׁמָמָה וּבְנֹתֶיהָ בָּאֵשׁ תִּצַּתְנָה וְיָרַשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת יֹרְשָׁיו אָמַר ה'. יְחֶזְקֵאל אָמַר (יחזקאל כה, י יא): לִבְנֵי קֶדֶם עַל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְמוֹרָשָׁה לְמַעַן לֹא תִזָּכֵר בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן בַּגּוֹיִם, וּבְמוֹאָב אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי ה': צְפַנְיָה אָמַר (צפניה ב, ט): לָכֵן חַי אָנִי נְאֻם ה' צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מוֹאָב כִּסְדֹם תִּהְיֶה וּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן כַּעֲמֹרָה וגו'. 53.14. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים נו, ט): נֹדִי סָפַרְתָּה אָתָּה שִׂימָה דִמְעָתִי בְנֹאדֶךָ, כְּאוֹתָהּ בַּעֲלַת נֹאד, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תְּהִלִּים (תהלים לט, יג): שִׁמְעָה תְפִלָּתִי ה' וְשַׁוְעָתִי הַאֲזִינָה וגו', אֶל דִּמְעָתָהּ שֶׁל הָגָר לֹא הֶחֱרַשְׁתָּ אֶל דִּמְעָתִי אַתָּה מַחֲרִישׁ. וְאִם תֹּאמַר עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיְתָה גִּיּוֹרֶת הָיְתָה חֲבִיבָה, אַף אָנֹכִי (תהלים לט, יג): כִּי גֵּר אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ תּוֹשָׁב כְּכָל אֲבוֹתָי. (בראשית כא, יז): וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶל הָגָר מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, בִּזְכוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם. (בראשית כא, יז): בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא שָׁם, בִּזְכוּת עַצְמוֹ, יָפָה תְּפִלַּת הַחוֹלֶה לְעַצְמוֹ יוֹתֵר מִכֹּל. בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא שָׁם, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן קָפְצוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת לְקַטְרְגוֹ, אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים, אָדָם שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהָמִית אֶת בָּנֶיךָ בַּצָּמָא אַתָּה מַעֲלֶה לוֹ בְּאֵר, אָמַר לָהֶם עַכְשָׁו מַה הוּא, צַדִּיק אוֹ רָשָׁע, אָמְרוּ לוֹ צַדִּיק, אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינִי דָן אֶת הָאָדָם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעָתוֹ. (בראשית כא, יח): קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת הַנַּעַר. (בראשית כא, יט): וַיִּפְקַח אֶת עֵינֶיהָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין הַכֹּל בְּחֶזְקַת סוּמִין עַד שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵאִיר אֶת עֵינֵיהֶם, מִן הָכָא וַיִּפְקַח אֱלֹהִים אֶת עֵינֶיהָ. (בראשית כא, יט): וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתְּמַלֵּא אֶת הַחֵמֶת, הֲדָא אָמְרָת מְחֻסֶּרֶת אֲמָנָה הָיְתָה. 53.15. וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַנַּעַר וַיִּגְדָּל (בראשית כא, כ), רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִים וְרַקִּים מִעוּטִים, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִם, הָדֵין אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא מַהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים הַנַּעַר, הָיָה הַדָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אֶלָּא אֶת הַנַּעַר. אָמַר לוֹ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָּבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק מִכֶּם, שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִדְרשׁ, אֶלָא אֶת הַנַּעַר, הוּא וְחַמָּרָיו וְגַמָּלָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ. (בראשית כא, כ): וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת, רָבֶה וְקַשְׁיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ [נסח אחר: וקשיותו אמו], רָבֶה, מִתְלַמֵּד בְּקֶּשֶׁת, רָבֶה עַל כָּל הַמּוֹרִים בַּקֶּשֶׁת. (בראשית כא, כא): וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק זְרוֹק חוּטְרָא לַאֲוִירָא וְעַל עִקְרֵיהּ הוּא קָאֵים, כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁכָּתוּב (בראשית טז, א): וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, לְפִיכָךְ (בראשית כא, כא): וַתִּקַּח לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 22.9. ... The voice of your brother’s bloods [are] screaming to me from [the surface of] the ground” [Gn 4:10]—[this means that] she (the voice of Hevel’s blood) could not go up above/l’ma`lah, for as yet no soul/n’shamah had gone up to there; and below/l’matah she could not stand (i.e., stay or sink into the ground), for as yet no adam had been buried there, and [so] “his blood was cast upon the trees and the stones." 41.3. ... R’ Shimon bar Aba said in the name of R’ Yocha: any where that it says ‘and it was’ (vayehi) it indicates distress and joy. If it is distress there is no distress like it and if it is joy there is no joy like it. R’ Shmuel ben Nachmani came and split the teaching in half. Anywhere that it says ‘and it was’ (vayehi) indicates distress, ‘and it will be’ (v’haya) indicates joy…The brought a challenge from this verse “…and he was [there] (v’haya) when Jerusalem was taken.” (Jeremiah 38:28) He said to them: this is still a cause of joy because on that very day Israel received full payment for their sins. As R’ Shmuel ben Nachmani said: Israel received full payment for their sins on the day the Holy Temple was destroyed, as it says “Your iniquity is finished, O daughter of Zion…” (Lamentations 4:22)"
26. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 2.2, 19.2, 27.5, 32.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

2.2. הֲבֵן יַקִּיר לִי, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לִי, אֵינוֹ זָז לְעוֹלָם לֹא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְלֹא לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בַּכֹּהֲנִים כְּתִיב (שמות מ, טו): וְכִהֲנוּ לִי, בַּלְוִיִם כְּתִיב (במדבר ח, יד): וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִים, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּתִיב (ויקרא כה, נה): כִּי לִי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, בַּתְּרוּמָה כְּתִיב (שמות כה, ב): וְיִקְחוּ לִי, בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת כְּתִיב (במדבר ג, יג): כִּי לִי כָּל בְּכוֹר, בַּסַּנְהֶדְרִין כְּתִיב (במדבר יא, טז): אֶסְפָה לִי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל (שמות יט, ה): כִּי לִי כָל הָאָרֶץ, בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם (מלכים א יא, לו): הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי לִי, בְּמַלְכוּת בֵּית דָּוִד (שמואל א טז, א): כִּי רָאִיתִי בְּבָנָיו לִי מֶלֶךְ, בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ (שמות כה, ח): וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ, בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ (שמות כ, כא): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי, בַּקַּרְבָּנוֹת (במדבר כח, ב): תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי, בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה (שמות ל, לא): שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה לִי. הָא בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לִי, אֵינוֹ זָז לֹא לָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְלֹא לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. 19.2. רַבִּי חָנִין דְּצִפּוֹרִין פָּתַר קְרָא בִּתְלוּלִית זוֹ שֶׁל עָפָר, מִי שֶׁטִּפֵּשׁ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר מִי יָכוֹל לְקַצּוֹת אֶת זוֹ, מִי שֶׁפִּקֵּחַ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר הֲרֵינִי קוֹצֵץ שְׁתֵּי מַשְׁפָּלוֹת הַיּוֹם, שְׁתֵּי מַשְׁפָּלוֹת לְמָחָר, עַד שֶׁאֲנִי קוֹצֵץ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ. כָּךְ מִי שֶׁטִּפֵּשׁ אוֹמֵר מִי יָכוֹל לִלְמֹד אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, נְזִיקִין שְׁלשִׁים פְּרָקִים, כֵּלִים שְׁלשִׁים פְּרָקִים. מִי שֶׁפִּקֵּחַ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵינִי שׁוֹנֶה שְׁתֵּי הֲלָכוֹת הַיּוֹם שְׁתֵּי הֲלָכוֹת לְמָחָר עַד שֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹנֶה אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי (משלי כד, ז): רָאמוֹת לֶאֱוִיל חָכְמוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְכִכָּר תָּלוּי בַּאֲוִירוֹ שֶׁל בַּיִת, מִי שֶׁטִּפֵּשׁ אוֹמֵר מִי יָכוֹל לְהוֹרִיד אֶת זֶה, מִי שֶׁפִּקֵּחַ אוֹמֵר וְלֹא אַחֵר תְּלָאוֹ, אֶלָּא מֵבִיא שְׁנֵי קָנִים וּמְסַפְּקָן זֶה לָזֶה וּמוֹרִידוֹ. כָּךְ מִי שֶׁטִּפֵּשׁ אוֹמֵר מִי יָכוֹל לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁל חָכָם, מִי שֶׁפִּקֵּחַ אוֹמֵר וְהוּא לֹא מֵאַחֵר לְמָדָהּ, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי לוֹמֵד שְׁתֵּי הֲלָכוֹת הַיּוֹם וּשְׁתַּיִם לְמָחָר עַד שֶׁאֲנִי לוֹמֵד אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מָשָׁל לִטְרַסְקָל נָקוּב שֶׁשָּׂכַר בְּעָלָיו פּוֹעֲלִים לְמַלֹאתוֹ, מִי שֶׁטִּפֵּשׁ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, מָה אֲנִי מוֹעִיל, מַכְנִיס בָּזוֹ וּמוֹצִיא בָּזוֹ, מִי שֶׁפִּקֵּחַ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, וְלֹא שְׂכַר כָּל חָבִית וְחָבִית אֲנִי נוֹטֵל. כָּךְ מִי שֶׁהוּא טִפֵּשׁ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר מָה אֲנִי מוֹעִיל לִלְמֹד תּוֹרָה וּמְשַׁכְּחָהּ, מִי שֶׁהוּא פִּקֵּחַ מַהוּ אוֹמֵר וְלֹא שְׂכַר יְגִיעָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נוֹתֵן. אָמַר רַבִּי זְעִירָא אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן קוֹצִין בַּתּוֹרָה, תַּלְתַּלֵּי תַּלְתַּלִּים, הֵן יְכוֹלִין לְהַחְרִיב אֶת הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתוֹ תֵּל, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יג, יז): וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי בַּר חֲגַאי [בשם] רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי, קְרוֹבָה [קרובץ] אִם מִתְכַּנְסִים כָּל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהַלְבִּין כָּנָף אֶחָד שֶׁל עוֹרֵב אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין, כָּךְ אִם מִתְכַּנְסִים כָּל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לַעֲקֹר דָּבָר אֶחָד מֵהַתּוֹרָה אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין, מִמִּי אַתְּ לָמֵד מִשְׁלֹמֹה, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לַעֲקֹר אוֹת אַחַת מִן הַתּוֹרָה עָלָה קַטֵיגוֹרוֹ, וּמִי קִטְרְגוֹ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר יוּ"ד שֶׁל יַרְבֶּה קִטְרְגוֹ. תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן סֵפֶר מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה עָלָה וְנִשְׁתַּטַּח לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם עֲקָרַנִי שְׁלֹמֹה וַעֲשָׂאַנִי פְּלַסְתֵּר, שֶׁכָּל דְּיָתֵיקֵי שֶׁשְּׁנַיִם וּשְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים בְּטֵלִין הֵימֶנָּה כֻּלָּהּ בְּטֵלָה, וַהֲרֵי שְׁלֹמֹה הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּקֵּשׁ לַעֲקֹר יו"ד מִמֶּנִּי, כְּתִיב (דברים יז, יז): וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה לּוֹ נָשִׁים, וְהִרְבָּה לוֹ. (דברים יז, טז): לֹא יַרְבֶּה לּוֹ סוּסִים, וְהִרְבָּה לוֹ סוּסִים. לֹא יַרְבֶּה לוֹ כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב, וְהִרְבָּה לוֹ כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צֵא לְךָ, הֲרֵי שְׁלֹמֹה בָּטֵל וּמֵאָה כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, וְיו"ד מִמְךָ אֵינָהּ בְּטֵלָה לְעוֹלָם. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אָמַר יו"ד שֶׁנָּטַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִשְׁמָהּ שֶׁל שָׂרָה, חֲלָקוֹ לִשְׁנַיִם חֶצְיוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם וְחֶצְיוֹ לְשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה יו"ד שֶׁל שָׂרָה עָלְתָה וְנִשְׁתַּטְחָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם עֲקַרְתַּנִי מִשְּׁמָהּ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ צַדֶּקֶת. אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צֵא, לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיִית בִּשְׁמָהּ שֶׁל נְקֵבָה בְּסוֹפָהּ שֶׁל תֵּבָה, אֲבָל עַכְשָׁיו הֲרֵינִי נוֹתְנֵךְ בִּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל זָכָר בְּרֹאשָׁהּ שֶׁל תֵּבָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (במדבר יג, טז): וַיִּקְרָא משֶׁה לְהוֹשֵׁעַ בִּן נוּן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. (דברים ו, ד): שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד, אִם אַתְּ עוֹשֶׂה דָּלֶ"ת רֵי"שׁ, אַתָּה מַחְרִיב אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ. (שמות לד, יד): כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר, אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה רֵי"שׁ דָּלֶ"ת, נִמְצָא אַתְּ מַחְרִיב אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ. (ויקרא כב, לב): וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי, אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה חֵי"ת ה"א נִמְצָא מַחֲרִיב אֶת הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ. (תהלים קנ, ו): כֹּל הַנְּשָׁמָה תְּהַלֵּל יָהּ הַלְלוּיָהּ, אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה הֵ"א חֵי"ת אַתָּה מַחֲרִיב אֶת הָעוֹלָם. (ירמיה ה, יב): כִּחֲשׁוּ בַּה', אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בֵּי"ת כָּ"ף מַחֲרִיב אֶת הָעוֹלָם. (הושע ה, ז): בַּה' בָּגָדוּ, אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בֵּי"ת כָּ"ף, אַתָּה מַחֲרִיב אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם. (שמואל א ב, ב): אֵין קָדוֹשׁ כַּה', אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה כָּ"ף בֵּי"ת אַתָּה מַחֲרִיב אֶת הָעוֹלָם. (שמואל א ב, ב): כִּי אֵין בִּלְתֶּךָ, אָמַר רַב אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא כֹּלָּה בָּלֶה וְאַתְּ לֵית בָּלֶה, כִּי אֵין בִּלְתֶּךָ, אֵין לְבַלּוֹתֶךָ. 27.5. וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף (קהלת ג, טו), רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר, לְעוֹלָם וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא צַדִּיק רוֹדֵף צַדִּיק וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף, רָשָׁע רוֹדֵף צַדִּיק וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף, רָשָׁע רוֹדֵף רָשָׁע וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף, אֲפִלּוּ צַדִּיק רוֹדֵף רָשָׁע וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף, מִכָּל מָקוֹם וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת נִרְדָּף, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן רַבִּי נְהוֹרָאי, לְעוֹלָם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא תּוֹבֵעַ דָּמָן שֶׁל נִרְדָּפִין מִן הָרוֹדְפִין, תֵּדַע לָךְ שֶׁכֵּן הוּא שֶׁכֵּן הֶבֶל נִרְדָּף מִפְּנֵי קַיִן וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהֶבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד, ד): וַיִּשַּׁע ה' אֶל הֶבֶל וְאֶל מִנְחָתוֹ. נֹחַ נִרְדָּף מִפְּנֵי דוֹרוֹ וְלֹא בָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶלָּא בְּנֹחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ז, א): כִּי אֹתְךָ רָאִיתִי צַדִּיק לְפָנַי בַּדּוֹר הַזֶּה. אַבְרָהָם נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי נִמְרוֹד וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (נחמיה ט, ז): אַתָּה הוּא ה' הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בְּאַבְרָם. יִצְחָק נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּיִצְחָק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כו, כח): רָאוֹ רָאִינוּ כִּי הָיָה ה' עִמָּךְ, יַעֲקֹב נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי עֵשָׂו וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּיַעֲקֹב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלה, ד): כִּי יַעֲקֹב בָּחַר לוֹ יָהּ. יוֹסֵף נִרְדַּף מִפְנֵי אֶחָיו וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּיוֹסֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פא, ו): עֵדוּת בִּיהוֹסֵף שָׂמוֹ. משֶׁה נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי פַּרְעֹה וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּמשֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קו, כג): לוּלֵי משֶׁה בְחִירוֹ. דָּוִד נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי שָׁאוּל וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּדָוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עח, ע): וַיִּבְחַר בְּדָוִד עַבְדּוֹ. שָׁאוּל נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשָׁאוּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א י, כד): הַרְאִיתֶם אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בּוֹ ה'. יִשְׂרָאֵל נִרְדָּפִין מִפְּנֵי הָאֻמּוֹת וּבָחַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד, ב): וּבְךָ בָּחַר ה' לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן זִמְרָא אָמַר אַף בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת כָּךְ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׁוֹר נִרְדַּף מִפְּנֵי אֲרִי, עֵז מִפְּנֵי נָמֵר, כֶּבֶשׂ מִפְּנֵי זְאֵב, לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ לְפָנַי מִן הָרוֹדְפִים, אֶלָּא מִן הַנִּרְדָּפִין, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ויקרא כב, כז): שׁוֹר אוֹ כֶשֶׂב אוֹ עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד. 32.7. רַבִּי זֵירָא כָּד סָלַק לְהָכָא שָׁמַע קָלְהוֹן קָרְיָן מַמְזֵרָא וּמַמְזֵרְתָּא, אֲמַר הָא אָזֵיל הוּא, דְאָמַר רַב הוּנָא אֵין הַמַּמְזֵר חַי יוֹתֵר עַל שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם. אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר רַב אַחָא כְּהַהִיא דְאָמַר רָבָא וְרַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אֵין הַמַּמְזֵר חַי יוֹתֵר מִשְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפֻרְסָם אֲבָל אִם נִתְפַּרְסֵם חַי הוּא. בְּיוֹמוֹי דְּרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה סְלֵיק לְהָכָא חַד בַּבְלָאי וַהֲוָה רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה יָדַע בֵּיהּ דְּהוּא מַמְזֵר, אָזַל גַּבֵּיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ זַכֵּי עִמִּי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה זִיל לָךְ וּלְמָחָר אַתְּ אָתֵי וַאֲנַן עָבְדִין לָךְ פְּסִיקָא בְּצִבּוּרָא, לְמָחָר אָזַל גַּבֵּיהּ, אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ בְּבֵי כְּנִישְׁתָּא יָתֵיב דָּרֵישׁ, אַמְתֵּן לֵיהּ עַד דַּחֲסַל, כֵּיוָן דַּחֲסַל מִן דְּרַשׁ אָזַל לְגַבֵּיהּ אֲמַר לוֹן רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָחֵינַן זַכְוָון בַּהֲדֵין גַּבְרָא וְהוּא מַמְזֵר, עֲבַדּוּן לֵיהּ פְּסִיקָא, כֵּיוָן דְּנָפְקוּ לְהוֹן מִן תַּמָּן, אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי חַיֵּי שָׁעָה אָתֵית בָּעֵי גַבָּךְ וּפְסַקְתְּ חַיּוֹי דְּהַהוּא גַבְרָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ חַיִּין יַהֲבֵית לָךְ, דְּאָמַר רָבָא וְרַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אֵין הַמַּמְזֵר חַי יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפֻרְסָם, אֲבָל אִם נִתְפַּרְסֵם חַי הוּא. 27.5. Moses was pursued by Pharoah, and the Holy One chose Moses. David was pursued by Saul, and the Holy One chose David. Saul was pursued by the Philistines, and the Holy One chose Saul. Israel are pursued by the nations, and the Holy One chose Israel. "
27. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 47.1, 52.5-52.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

99b. זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) [סביסקי]:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) [רבי יוחנן אמר] אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם 99b. bSing every day, sing every day,i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. bRav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says:From bwhat verseis this derived? It is bas it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. bHe laborsin Torah bin this place,this world, band his Torah labors for him in another place,the World-to-Come., bRabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil”(Job 5:7). Based on this verse, bI do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth,speech, or bwhether he was created for the toil of labor. Whenthe verse bstates: “For his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), byou must saythat bhe was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not knowwith regard to the toil of the mouth bwhether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. Whenthe verse bstates: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth”(Joshua 1:8), byou must saythat bhe was created for the toil of Torah. And that isthe meaning of bwhat Rava said: All bodies are like receptaclesto store items until use. bHappy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah. /b,The verse states: b“He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding”(Proverbs 6:32). bReish Lakish says: This isa reference to bone who studies Torah intermittently,who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, bas it is statedabout words of Torah: b“For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips”(Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat with regard to the verse: b“But the person who acts high-handedly,whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), bthisis a reference to bManasseh ben Hezekiah,king of Israel, bwho would sit and teach flawedinterpretations of Torah bnarratives. /b,Manasseh bsaid: But did Moses need to write onlyinsignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”(Genesis 36:22), or: b“And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz,son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found iduda’imin the field”(Genesis 30:14)? bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes”(Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import., bAnd aboutManasseh ben Hezekiah bit is stated explicitly in thetexts of btradition,the Prophets: b“Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope”(Isaiah 5:18). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says:This is a reference to bthe evil inclination. Initially, it seems likea flimsy bspinning [ ikuveya /i] thread and ultimately it seems likea sturdy bcart rope. /b,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse bthat we came todiscuss, bin any event, what isthe significance of the phrase in the verse b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”?The Gemara explains: bTimna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan”(Genesis 36:29), and: b“The chief of Timna”(Genesis 36:40), band each chief isa member of ba monarchy,albeit bwithout a crown.That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna bsought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said,referring to herself: bIt is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation.Ultimately, bAmalek,son of Eliphaz, bemerged from her,and that tribe bafflicted the Jewish people. What is the reasonthat the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact bthat they should not have rejected herwhen she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant., b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest”(Genesis 30:14). bRava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, saysthat bRav says: From hereit can be seen bthat the righteous do not extend their handsto engage bin robberyeven of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless iduda’im /i. The verse continues: b“And he found iduda’imin the field.”The Gemara asks: bWhat are iduda’im /i? Rav says:They are a plant called iyavruḥei /i. Levi says:They are bviolets. Rabbi Yonatan says:They are iseviskei /i. /b,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, bRabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages inthe study of bTorah for its own sake introduces peace into theheavenly bentourage above and into theearthly bentourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ ima’uzi /i], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me”(Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called ioz /i, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were., bRav says:It is bas though he built a palace ofheaven babove and ofearth bbelow, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth,and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who engages in Torah study balso protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advancesthe coming of bthe redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.” /b, bReish Lakish said:With regard to banyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he formedthat student, bas it is stated:“And Abram took Sarai his wife… band the souls that they formed in Haran”(Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. bRabbi Elazar says:It is bas though he fashioned [ iasa’an /i] the words of Torahthemselves, bas it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, iva’asitem otam /i”(Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. bRava says:It is bas though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “ iVa’asitem otam /i.” Do not read“ iva’asitem botam/i b”as: And you shall fashion them; brather,read it as iva’asitem batem/i b,meaning: You shall fashion yourself., bRabbi Abbahu says:With regard to banyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself, bas it is stated:“And the Lord said to Moses… band your rod, with which you struck the river,take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). bAndwas it bMoseswho bstruckthe river? bBut isn’tit written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that bAaron struckthe river? bRather,that verse serves bto say to you: Anyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include ban iepikoros /i. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt ischaracterized as one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately,due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like whatindividual does such a person conduct himself? He is blike Manasseh, son of Hezekiah,who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives., bAnd there are those who teachthis dispute bwith regard to the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: bOne who interprets the Torahinappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. bRav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar ischaracterized as the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, how would he characterize the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna? bLike whomdoes he conduct himself? bRav Yosef says:It is referring to one who conducts himself blike those who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bThey readthe Bible bfor theirown benefit and bthey studythe Mishna bfor theirown benefit., bAbaye said to him: Thatperson who questions the benefit provided by Sages is balsoin the category of one bwho interprets the Torahinappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, bas it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too concludethe same concept bfrom it, as it is stated:“If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, bthen I will spare the entire place for their sakes”(Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside., bRather,the iepikorosmentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself blike one who sits before his teacher and a ihalakha /ithat he learned bfrom another place happens to fallinto his consciousness bandthe student bsays: This is what we say there, and he does not saydeferentially: bThis is what the Master said,even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. bRava said:The term iepikorosis referring to one who conducts himself blike those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bNever /b
29. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.17.1-9.17.9, 9.18.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, discovers astrology and chaldean science Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 20, 25
accad Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
acceptance of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
adam Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
aeacidae Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
aggadah, anthropomorphism and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
akiba, r./aqiba, r., on gen. r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
alexander polyhistor Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
allegory Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
angels Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
anthropomorphism Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
aram Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
asshur Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
athens Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 23, 25
babel Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
babylon (babel) Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
babylonia Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
barak Gera, Judith (2014) 460
belos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
bochart, samuel Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 202
build/building activity, tower in babylonia Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
canaan Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113
cartography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
children, children/sons of Gera, Judith (2014) 460
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 367, 368
confusion of tongues/languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
cosmology, of the gnostic world, revelation to judas of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
cultural benefactor topos, abraham Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
cultural benefactor topos, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
david, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
dead sea scrolls Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
democracy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
demons, demonic Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
diaspora\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
dispersed persons\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
dispersion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23, 25
divided kingdom Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
dominus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
elam Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
enoch Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
erech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ethiopian Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
ethiopic, literature Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
ethiopic Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
etiology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
eupolemus, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
eusebius of caesarea Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
exile\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23, 25
faces Gera, Judith (2014) 460
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
flood/deluge, great/noahs, escape from, survival of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 20, 23, 25
geographica sacra Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 202
geography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
giant xi Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
giants, nephilim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
giants, og Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
giants, sihon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
giants Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113; Gera, Judith (2014) 460; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
god, anthropomorphisms Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
god, celebrated Gera, Judith (2014) 460
gods, foreign Gera, Judith (2014) 460
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
hahyah Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
halbertal, moshe Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
ham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
hannah Gera, Judith (2014) 460
hebron Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113
heinemann, yitshak Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
hereditas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 25
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 460
holy tongue/language Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 23
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23, 25
israel, people of, gods relationship with Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
israel, people of, torah accepted by Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
israelites Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113
itinerary\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 460
japheth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
jerusalem temple, mystical traditions of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23, 25
judas, mysteries of the kingdom revealed to Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
judas maccabeus Gera, Judith (2014) 460
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 460
knowledge\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
land, of babylonia Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
language, secret' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
latin Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
lud Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
manuscript/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
merari Gera, Judith (2014) 460
mesopotamia\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 25
military discourse Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
monarchy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
motyer j.a. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 163
mystical traditions of judaism, role in gnosticism of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
myth, greek (pagan) Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113
nimrod Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280; Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
noah, contrasted with the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
noah, escape from/survival of the flood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
noah Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
nomad\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23, 25
nomadic life\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
ohyah Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
oligarchy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
patriarch\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
phoenicians, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, giants as flood survivors Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, greek bible as source Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, nimrod traditions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, sterling, g.e. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, tower of babel Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
pleasure Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
ps.-eupolemus, abraham as cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham as sophos and moral paradigm Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham in phoenicia Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham in three stages babylon, phoenicia, egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
psalms, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 163
psalms, the psalm titles Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 163
pseudo-eupolemos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
republic, roman Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
rhetorical strategies, anthropomorphism Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
saul, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
seruitus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
seventy nations Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
shalev, zur Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 202
shem Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
shinar Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
simeon b. yohai, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 241
solomon, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
song of deborah Gera, Judith (2014) 460
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
special knowledge/instruction motif Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
syntax, in the gospel of judas, that generation, Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
talmud Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
testing passim, roles in Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
titans Gera, Judith (2014) 460
tourism Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 113
tower of babel Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
tradition, textual Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
tradition Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 217
traditions\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
transience\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
traveler, group Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23
tyranny Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
victory celebrations Gera, Judith (2014) 460
victory song, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 460
virtue Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 12
weapons, metaphorical Gera, Judith (2014) 460