Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.22


בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם׃The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.1, 1.22, 3.12-3.13, 8.9, 8.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּטוֹב לֵב־הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּיִן אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה׃ 1.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְאֶל־עַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ לִהְיוֹת כָּל־אִישׁ שֹׂרֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ וּמְדַבֵּר כִּלְשׁוֹן עַמּוֹ׃ 3.12. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הָמָן אֶל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶל־הַפַּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי עַם וָעָם מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ נִכְתָּב וְנֶחְתָּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.13. וְנִשְׁלוֹחַ סְפָרִים בְּיַד הָרָצִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים מִנַּעַר וְעַד־זָקֵן טַף וְנָשִׁים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 8.11. אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־עִיר־וָעִיר לְהִקָּהֵל וְלַעֲמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם לְהַשְׁמִיד וְלַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־חֵיל עַם וּמְדִינָה הַצָּרִים אֹתָם טַף וְנָשִׁים וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 1.1. NOW IT came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus—this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces—" 1.22. for he sent letters into all the king’s provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and speak according to the language of his people." 3.12. Then were the king’s scribes called in the first month, on the thirteenth day thereof, and there was written, according to all that Haman commanded, unto the king’s satraps, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the princes of every people; to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and it was sealed with the king’s ring." 3.13. And letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey." 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language." 8.11. that the king had granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, and to slay, and to cause to perish, all the forces of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1, 10.1-10.21, 10.23-10.32, 11.1, 11.7-11.9, 14.1, 14.9, 14.17, 19.36-19.38, 21.18, 22.21, 25.23, 26.34-26.35, 28.8-28.9, 38.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 10.1. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר׃ 10.1. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 10.2. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־חָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.2. בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס׃ 10.3. וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם׃ 10.3. וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכֲּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה׃ 10.4. וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים׃ 10.5. מֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן׃ 10.7. וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן׃ 10.8. וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת־נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 10.9. הוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.11. מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת־נִינְוֵה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת־כָּלַח׃ 10.12. וְאֶת־רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה׃ 10.13. וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לוּדִים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃ 10.14. וְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִים׃ 10.15. וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת־צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־חֵת׃ 10.16. וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃ 10.17. וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃ 10.18. וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 10.19. וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃ 10.21. וּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם־הוּא אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל׃ 10.23. וּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ׃ 10.24. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת־שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 10.25. וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן׃ 10.26. וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת־שָׁלֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת־יָרַח׃ 10.27. וְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת־אוּזָל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָה׃ 10.28. וְאֶת־עוֹבָל וְאֶת־אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת־שְׁבָא׃ 10.29. וְאֶת־אוֹפִר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָה וְאֶת־יוֹבָב כָּל־אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן׃ 10.31. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.32. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָאָרֶץ שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים׃ 11.1. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ־שִׁנְעָר אַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם וְתִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם׃ 14.1. וְעֵמֶק הַשִׂדִּים בֶּאֱרֹת בֶּאֱרֹת חֵמָר וַיָּנֻסוּ מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה וַיִּפְּלוּ־שָׁמָּה וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים הֶרָה נָּסוּ׃ 14.9. אֵת כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם וְתִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם וְאַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ שִׁנְעָר וְאַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר אַרְבָּעָה מְלָכִים אֶת־הַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 14.17. וַיֵּצֵא מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ אַחֲרֵי שׁוּבוֹ מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת־כְּדָרלָעֹמֶר וְאֶת־הַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ אֶל־עֵמֶק שָׁוֵה הוּא עֵמֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 19.36. וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת־לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן׃ 19.37. וַתֵּלֶד הַבְּכִירָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מוֹאָב הוּא אֲבִי־מוֹאָב עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 19.38. וְהַצְּעִירָה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־עַמִּי הוּא אֲבִי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 21.18. קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת־הַנַּעַר וְהַחֲזִיקִי אֶת־יָדֵךְ בּוֹ כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ׃ 22.21. אֶת־עוּץ בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־בּוּז אָחִיו וְאֶת־קְמוּאֵל אֲבִי אֲרָם׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 26.34. וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־יְהוּדִית בַּת־בְּאֵרִי הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־אֵילֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 26.35. וַתִּהְיֶיןָ מֹרַת רוּחַ לְיִצְחָק וּלְרִבְקָה׃ 28.8. וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן בְּעֵינֵי יִצְחָק אָבִיו׃ 28.9. וַיֵּלֶךְ עֵשָׂו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵאל וַיִּקַּח אֶת־מָחֲלַת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָם אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת עַל־נָשָׁיו לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 38.24. וַיְהִי כְּמִשְׁלֹשׁ חֳדָשִׁים וַיֻּגַּד לִיהוּדָה לֵאמֹר זָנְתָה תָּמָר כַּלָּתֶךָ וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָּׂרֵף׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 10.1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and unto them were sons born after the flood." 10.2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras." 10.3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah." 10.4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim." 10.5. of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." 10.6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." 10.7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan." 10.8. And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth." 10.9. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: ‘Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.’" 10.10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." 10.11. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah," 10.12. and Resen between Nineveh and Calah—the same is the great city." 10.13. And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim," 10.14. and Pathrusim, and Casluhim—whence went forth the Philistines—and Caphtorim." 10.15. And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn, and Heth;" 10.16. and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite;" 10.17. and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite;" 10.18. and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad." 10.19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha." 10.20. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations." 10.21. And unto Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, to him also were children born." 10.23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash." 10.24. And Arpachshad begot Shelah; and Shelah begot Eber." 10.25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan." 10.26. And Joktan begot Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah;" 10.27. and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah;" 10.28. and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba;" 10.29. and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan." 10.30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, unto the mountain of the east." 10.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 10.32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood." 11.1. And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." 14.1. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim," 14.9. against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings against the five." 14.17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the vale of Shaveh—the same is the King’s Vale." 19.36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father." 19.37. And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day." 19.38. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day." 21.18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast by thy hand; for I will make him a great nation.’" 22.21. Uz his first-born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram;" 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 26.34. And when Esau was forty years old, he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite." 26.35. And they were a bitterness of spirit unto Isaac and to Rebekah." 28.8. and Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; ." 28.9. so Esau went unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives that he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife." 38.24. And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying: ‘Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by harlotry.’ And Judah said: ‘Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 51.11, 51.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

51.11. הָבֵרוּ הַחִצִּים מִלְאוּ הַשְּׁלָטִים הֵעִיר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ מַלְכֵי מָדַי כִּי־עַל־בָּבֶל מְזִמָּתוֹ לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ כִּי־נִקְמַת יְהוָה הִיא נִקְמַת הֵיכָלוֹ׃ 51.28. קַדְּשׁוּ עָלֶיהָ גוֹיִם אֶת־מַלְכֵי מָדַי אֶת־פַּחוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת־כָּל־סְגָנֶיהָ וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ מֶמְשַׁלְתּוֹ׃ 51.11. Make bright the arrows, Fill the quivers, The LORD hath roused the spirit of the kings of the Medes; Because His device is against Babylon, to destroy it; For it is the vengeance of the LORD, The vengeance of His temple." 51.28. Prepare against her the nations, the kings of the Medes, The governors thereof, and all the deputies thereof, And all the land of his dominion."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 38.5 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

38.5. פָּרַס כּוּשׁ וּפוּט אִתָּם כֻּלָּם מָגֵן וְכוֹבָע׃ 38.5. Persia, Cush, and Put with them, all of them with shield and helmet;"
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וּבְנֵי חֶצְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר נוֹלַד־לוֹ אֶת־יְרַחְמְאֵל וְאֶת־רָם וְאֶת־כְּלוּבָי׃ 2.9. The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him: Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 6.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.2. וְהִשְׁתְּכַח בְּאַחְמְתָא בְּבִירְתָא דִּי בְּמָדַי מְדִינְתָּה מְגִלָּה חֲדָה וְכֵן־כְּתִיב בְּגַוַּהּ דִּכְרוֹנָה׃ 6.2. כִּי הִטַּהֲרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם כְּאֶחָד כֻּלָּם טְהוֹרִים וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ הַפֶּסַח לְכָל־בְּנֵי הַגּוֹלָה וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְלָהֶם׃ 6.2. And there was found at Ahmetha, in the palace that is in the province of Media, a roll, and therein was thus written: ‘A record."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.8-14.20, 25.3-25.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright 14.11. of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were 14.12. fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and it 14.13. portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there 14.14. were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked 14.15. and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater 14.16. than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to 14.17. you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path 14.18. of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 14.19. cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look 25.3. know about everything, but especially about this tree.' And he answered saying: 'This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit 25.4. the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring (everything) to its consummation 25.5. for ever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King. 25.6. Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.'
9. Anon., Jubilees, 3.8-3.14, 8.8, 9.4, 34.20, 41.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.13. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden. 3.14. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tables in regard to her that giveth birth: 8.8. and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: "Truly I have been sent. 9.4. And for Asshur came forth the second portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascendeth and skirteth the river. 34.20. and Dinah also, his daughter, died after Joseph had perished. And there came these three mournings upon Israel in one month. 41.1. And in the forty-fifth jubilee, in the second week, (and) in the second year, Judah took for his first-born Er, a wife from the daughters of Aram, named Tamar.
10. Anon., Testament of Judah, 10.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.1, 7.14, 8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא שָׂמְתָּ טְּעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִשְׁמַע קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְסַנְתֵּרִין וסיפניה [וְסוּפֹּנְיָה] וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא׃ 3.1. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא עֲבַד צְלֵם דִּי־דְהַב רוּמֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין פְּתָיֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁת אֲקִימֵהּ בְּבִקְעַת דּוּרָא בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 8.2. הָאַיִל אֲשֶׁר־רָאִיתָ בַּעַל הַקְּרָנָיִם מַלְכֵי מָדַי וּפָרָס׃ 8.2. וָאֶרְאֶה בֶּחָזוֹן וַיְהִי בִּרְאֹתִי וַאֲנִי בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵילָם הַמְּדִינָה וָאֶרְאֶה בֶּחָזוֹן וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי עַל־אוּבַל אוּלָי׃ 3.1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits; he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 8.2. And I saw in the vision; now it was so, that when I saw, I was in Shushan the castle, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in the vision, and I was by the stream Ulai."
13. Septuagint, Judith, 1.1, 1.6, 4.7, 5.3, 5.5, 5.15, 5.19, 6.11, 7.1, 7.18, 10.13, 15.2-15.3, 15.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.1. In the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the Assyrians in the great city of Nineveh, in the days of Arphaxad, who ruled over the Medes in Ecbatana -- 1.6. He was joined by all the people of the hill country and all those who lived along the Euphrates and the Tigris and the Hydaspes and in the plain where Arioch ruled the Elymaeans. Many nations joined the forces of the Chaldeans. 4.7. ordering them to seize the passes up into the hills, since by them Judea could be invaded, and it was easy to stop any who tried to enter, for the approach was narrow, only wide enough for two men at the most. 5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 5.5. Then Achior, the leader of all the Ammonites, said to him, "Let my lord now hear a word from the mouth of your servant, and I will tell you the truth about this people that dwells in the nearby mountain district. No falsehood shall come from your servant's mouth. 5.15. So they lived in the land of the Amorites, and by their might destroyed all the inhabitants of Heshbon; and crossing over the Jordan they took possession of all the hill country. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 6.11. So the slaves took him and led him out of the camp into the plain, and from the plain they went up into the hill country and came to the springs below Bethulia. 7.1. The next day Holofernes ordered his whole army, and all the allies who had joined him, to break camp and move against Bethulia, and to seize the passes up into the hill country and make war on the Israelites. 7.18. And the sons of Esau and the sons of Ammon went up and encamped in the hill country opposite Dothan; and they sent some of their men toward the south and the east, toward Acraba, which is near Chusi beside the brook Mochmur. The rest of the Assyrian army encamped in the plain, and covered the whole face of the land, and their tents and supply trains spread out in great number, and they formed a vast multitude. 10.13. I am on my way to the presence of Holofernes the commander of your army, to give him a true report; and I will show him a way by which he can go and capture all the hill country without losing one of his men, captured or slain. 15.2. Fear and trembling came over them, so that they did not wait for one another, but with one impulse all rushed out and fled by every path across the plain and through the hill country. 15.3. Those who had camped in the hills around Bethulia also took to flight. Then the men of Israel, every one that was a soldier, rushed out upon them. 15.7. And the Israelites, when they returned from the slaughter, took possession of what remained, and the villages and towns in the hill country and in the plain got a great amount of booty, for there was a vast quantity of it.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 9, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. For if a man has learnt many dialects, he immediately is looked upon with consideration and respect by those who are also acquainted with them, as being already a friendly person, and contributing no small introduction and means of friendship by reason of his familiarity with words which they too understand; which familiarity very commonly imparts a feeling of security, that one is not likely to suffer any great evil at the hands of such a man. Why, then, did God remove sameness of language from among men as a cause of evils, when it seems it should rather have been established as a most useful thing? V.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 221 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

221. for Tamar was a woman from Syria Palestina, who had been bred up in her own native city, which was devoted to the worship of many gods, being full of statues, and images, and, in short, of idols of every kind and description. But when she, emerging, as it were, out of profound darkness, was able to see a slight beam of truth, she then, at the risk of her life, exerted all her energies to arrive at piety, caring little for life if she could not live virtuously; and living virtuously was exactly identical with living for the service of and in constant supplication to the one true God.
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.144. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians.
17. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. There is no difference between scrolls [of the Tanakh] and tefillin and mezuzahs except that scrolls may be written in any language whereas tefillin and mezuzahs may be written only in Assyrian. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says that scrolls [of the Tanakh] were permitted [by the sages] to be written only in Greek."
18. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. Slaying by the sword was performed thus: they would cut off his head by the sword, as is done by the civil authorities. R. Judah says: “This is a disgrace! Rather his head was laid on a block and severed with an axe. They said to him: “No death is more disgraceful than this.” Strangulation was performed thus: the condemned man was lowered into dung up to his armpits, then a hard cloth was placed within a soft one, wound round his neck, and the two ends pulled in opposite directions until he was dead."
19. New Testament, Matthew, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron. Hezron became the father of Ram.
20. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. (הושע ג, ה) אחר ישובו בני ישראל ובקשו את ה' אלהיהם ואת דוד מלכם וכיון שבא דוד באתה תפלה שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי,וכיון שבאת תפלה באת עבודה שנאמר עולותיהם וזבחיהם לרצון על מזבחי וכיון שבאת עבודה באתה תודה שנאמר (תהלים נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני,ומה ראו לומר ברכת כהנים אחר הודאה דכתיב (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם וירד מעשות החטאת והעולה והשלמים,אימא קודם עבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב וירד מעשות החטאת וגו' מי כתיב לעשות מעשות כתיב,ולימרה אחר העבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב זובח תודה,מאי חזית דסמכת אהאי סמוך אהאי מסתברא עבודה והודאה חדא מילתא היא,ומה ראו לומר שים שלום אחר ברכת כהנים דכתיב (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי על בני ישראל ואני אברכם ברכה דהקב"ה שלום שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' יברך את עמו בשלום,וכי מאחר דמאה ועשרים זקנים ומהם כמה נביאים תקנו תפלה על הסדר שמעון הפקולי מאי הסדיר שכחום וחזר וסדרום,מכאן ואילך אסור לספר בשבחו של הקב"ה דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה למלל גבורות ה' למי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן המספר בשבחו של הקב"ה יותר מדאי נעקר מן העולם שנאמר (איוב לז, כ) היסופר לו כי אדבר אם אמר איש כי יבלע,דרש ר' יהודה איש כפר גבוריא ואמרי לה איש כפר גבור חיל מאי דכתיב (תהלים סה, ב) לך דומיה תהלה סמא דכולה משתוקא כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא מלה בסלע משתוקא בתרין:,קראה על פה לא יצא וכו': מנלן אמר רבא אתיא זכירה זכירה כתיב הכא והימים האלה נזכרים וכתיב התם (שמות יז, יד) כתב זאת זכרון בספר מה להלן בספר אף כאן בספר,וממאי דהאי זכירה קריאה היא דלמא עיון בעלמא לא סלקא דעתך (דכתיב) (דברים כה, יז) זכור יכול בלב כשהוא אומר לא תשכח הרי שכחת הלב אמור הא מה אני מקיים זכור בפה:,קראה תרגום לא יצא וכו': היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה מקרא וקרי לה תרגום היינו על פה לא צריכא דכתיבה תרגום וקרי לה תרגום:,אבל קורין אותה ללועזות בלעז וכו': והא אמרת קראה בכל לשון לא יצא רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו בלעז יווני,היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה אשורית וקרי לה יוונית היינו על פה א"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר שכתובה בלעז יוונית,וא"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר מנין שקראו הקב"ה ליעקב אל שנאמר (בראשית לג, כ) ויקרא לו אל אלהי ישראל דאי סלקא דעתך למזבח קרא ליה יעקב אל ויקרא לו יעקב מיבעי ליה אלא ויקרא לו ליעקב אל ומי קראו אל אלהי ישראל,מיתיבי קראה גיפטית עברית עילמית מדית יוונית לא יצא,הא לא דמיא אלא להא גיפטית לגיפטים עברית לעברים עילמית לעילמים יוונית ליוונים יצא,אי הכי רב ושמואל אמאי מוקמי לה למתני' בלעז יוונית לוקמה בכל לעז [אלא מתניתין כברייתא] וכי איתמר דרב ושמואל בעלמא איתמר רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו לעז יווני לכל כשר,והא קתני יוונית ליוונים אין לכולי עלמא לא אינהו דאמור כרשב"ג דתנן רשב"ג אומר אף ספרים לא התירו שיכתבו אלא יוונית,ולימרו הלכה כרשב"ג אי אמרי הלכה כרשב"ג הוה אמינא הני מילי שאר ספרים אבל מגילה דכתיב בה ככתבם אימא לא קמ"ל:,והלועז ששמע אשורית יצא וכו': והא לא ידע מאי קאמרי מידי דהוה אנשים ועמי הארץ,מתקיף לה רבינא אטו אנן האחשתרנים בני הרמכים מי ידעינן אלא מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא הכא נמי מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא:,קראה סירוגין יצא וכו': לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי סירוגין שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דקאמרה להו לרבנן דהוי עיילי פסקי פסקי לבי רבי עד מתי אתם נכנסין סירוגין סירוגין,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי חלוגלוגות שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דאמרה ליה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מבדר פרפחיני עד מתי אתה מפזר חלוגלוגך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (משלי ד, ח) סלסלה ותרוממך שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לההוא גברא דהוה מהפך במזייה אמרה ליה עד מתי אתה מסלסל בשערך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (תהלים נה, כג) השלך על ה' יהבך אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה אזילנא בהדי ההוא טייעא וקא דרינא טונא ואמר לי שקול יהביך ושדי אגמלאי,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לחברתה שקולי טאטיתא וטאטי ביתא,ת"ר קראה סירוגין יצא 18a. b“Afterward the children of Israel shall return, and seek the Lord their God and David their king”(Hosea 3:5), and consequently, the blessing of the kingdom of David follows the blessing of the building of Jerusalem. bAnd oncethe scion of bDavid comes,the time for bprayer will come, as it is stated: “I will bring them to My sacred mountain and make them joyful in My house of prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). Therefore, the blessing of hearing prayer is recited after the blessing of the kingdom of David., bAnd after prayer comes, theTemple bservice will arrive, as it is statedin the continuation of that verse: b“Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted on My altar”(Isaiah 56:7). The blessing of restoration of the Temple service follows the blessing of hearing prayer. bAnd when theTemple bservice comes,with it will also bcome thanksgiving, as it is stated: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offering honors Me”(Psalms 50:23), which teaches that thanksgiving follows sacrifice. Therefore, the blessing of thanksgiving follows the blessing of restoration of the Temple service., bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsays the Priestly Benediction afterthe blessing of bthanksgiving? As it is written: “And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people and blessed them, and he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings”(Leviticus 9:22), teaching that the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, which includes the thanks-offering.,The Gemara asks: But the cited verse indicates that Aaron blessed the people and then sacrificed the offerings. Should we not then bsaythe Priestly Benediction bbefore theblessing of the Temple bservice?The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “And he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering.” Is it writtenthat he came down bto sacrificethe offerings, implying that after blessing the people Aaron came down and sacrificed the offerings? No, bit is written, “from sacrificing,”indicating that the offerings had already been sacrificed.,The Gemara asks: If, as derived from this verse, the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, the Priestly Benediction should be bsaidimmediately bafterthe blessing of restoration of btheTemple bservice,without the interruption of the blessing of thanksgiving. The Gemara rejects this argument: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offeringhonors Me,” from which we learn that thanksgiving follows sacrifice, as already explained.,The Gemara asks: bWhat did you see to rely on thisverse and juxtapose thanksgiving with sacrifice? bRelyrather bon the otherverse, which indicates that it is the Priestly Benediction that should be juxtaposed with the sacrificial service. The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonto have the blessing of thanksgiving immediately following the blessing of the sacrificial service, since the sacrificial bservice and thanksgiving,which are closely related conceptually, bare one matter. /b, bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing beginning with the words: bGrant peace, after the Priestly Benediction? As it is writtenimmediately following the Priestly Benediction: b“And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them”(Numbers 6:27). The Priestly Benediction is followed by God’s blessing, and bthe blessing of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is peace, as it is stated: “The Lord blesses His people with peace”(Psalms 29:11).,The Gemara returns to the ibaraitacited at the beginning of the discussion: bNow, sincethe ibaraitateaches that ba hundred and twenty Elders, including many prophets, established the iAmida bprayer in itsfixed border, whatis it that bShimon HaPakuli arrangedin a much later period of time, as related by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: Indeed, the blessings of the iAmidaprayer were originally arranged by the hundred and twenty members of the Great Assembly, but over the course of time the people bforgot them, andShimon HaPakuli then barranged them again. /b,The Gemara comments: These nineteen blessings are a fixed number, and bbeyond this it is prohibitedfor one bto declare the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,by adding additional blessings to the iAmida /i. As bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who can utter the mighty acts of the Lord? Who can declare all His praise?”(Psalms 106:2)? It means: bFor whom is it fitting to utter the mighty acts of the Lord?Only bfor one who can declare all His praise.And since no one is capable of declaring all of God’s praises, we must suffice with the set formula established by the Sages., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bone who excessively declares the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,his fate bisto be buprooted from the world,as it appears as if he had exhausted all of God’s praises. bAs it is stated: “Shall it be told to Him when I speak? If a man saysit, bhe would be swallowed up”(Job 37:20). The Gemara interprets the verse as saying: Can all of God’s praises be expressed when I speak? If a man would say such a thing, he would be “swallowed up” as punishment.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehuda, a man of Kefar Gibboraya, and some sayhe was ba man of Kefar Gibbor Ĥayil, taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For You silence is praise”(Psalms 65:2)? bThebest bremedy of all is silence,i.e., the optimum form of praising God is silence. The Gemara relates: bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey sayan adage: If ba word isworth one isela /i, silence isworth btwo. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla bby heart he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRava said:This is bderivedby means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the term bremembranceand another instance of the term bremembrance. It is written here,with regard to the Megilla: b“That these days should be remembered”(Esther 9:28), band it is written elsewhere: “And the Lord said to Moses: Write this for a memorial in the book,and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: That I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heavens” (Exodus 17:14). bJust as there,with regard to Amalek, remembrance is referring specifically to something written bin a book,as it is stated, “in the book,” bso too here,the Megilla remembrance is through being written bin a book. /b,The Gemara raises a question: bBut from wheredo we know bthat this remembrancethat is stated with regard to Amalek and to the Megilla involves breadingit out loud from a book? bPerhapsit requires bmerely looking intothe book, reading it silently. The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did to you” (Deuteronomy 25:17). One bmighthave thought that it suffices for one to remember this silently, bin his heart.But this cannot be, since bwhen it sayssubsequently: b“You shall not forget”(Deuteronomy 25:19), bit isalready breferring to forgetting from the heart. How,then, bdo I upholdthe meaning of b“remember”?What does this command to remember add to the command to not forget? Therefore, it means that the remembrance must be expressed out loud, bwith the mouth. /b,§ It was taught further in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla binAramaic btranslation he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written inthe original bbiblical text,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it inAramaic btranslation,then bthis isthe same as reading it bby heart,as he is not reading the words written in the text, and the mishna has already stated that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla by heart. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this case as well, as it is referring to a case in which the Megilla bwas writtennot in the original Hebrew but binAramaic btranslation, and he read itas written, binAramaic btranslation. /b,§ The mishna continues: bHowever, for those who speak a foreign language, one may readthe Megilla binthat bforeign language.The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut didn’t you sayin the mishna: bIf he read it in anyother blanguage he has not fulfilledhis obligation? The Gemara cites the answer of bRav and Shmuel, who both say:When the mishna says: A foreign language, it is referring specifically to bthe Greek foreign language,which has a unique status with regard to biblical translation.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof the case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written in iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it in Greek, this isthe same as reading it bby heart,and the mishna teaches that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading by heart. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:The mishna is dealing with a case in which the Megilla bwas written in the Greek foreign languageand was also read in that language.,Apropos statements in this line of tradition, the Gemara adds: bAnd Rabbi Aḥafurther bsaidthat bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, called Jacob El,meaning God? bAs it is stated:“And he erected there an altar, band he called it El, God of Israel”(Genesis 33:20). It is also possible to translate this as: And He, i.e., the God of Israel, called him, Jacob, El. Indeed, it must be understood this way, bas if it enters your mindto say that the verse should be understood as saying that bJacob called the altar El, it should havespecified the subject of the verb and written: bAnd Jacob called itEl. bButsince the verse is not written this way, the verse must be understood as follows: bHe called Jacob El; and who called him El? The God of Israel. /b,The Gemara returns to discussing languages for reading the Megilla and braises an objectionagainst Rav and Shmuel, who said that one may read the Megilla in Greek but not in other foreign languages. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bIf one readthe Megilla bin Coptic [ iGiptit /i], iIvrit /i, Elamite, Median, or Greek, he has not fulfilledhis obligation, indicating that one cannot fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla in Greek.,The Gemara answers: The clause in the mishna that teaches that the Megilla may be read in a foreign language to one who speaks that foreign language bis comparable only to thatwhich was taught in a different ibaraita /i: If one reads the Megilla bin Coptic to Copts,in iIvritto iIvrim /i, in Elamite to Elamites, or in Greek to Greeks, he has fulfilledhis obligation. The Megilla may be read in any language, provided the listener understands that language.,The Gemara asks: But bif so,that one who reads the Megilla in a foreign language that he speaks fulfills his obligation, bwhy did Rav and Shmuel establish theruling of the bmishna asreferring specifically bto Greek? Let them interpret itas referring bto any foreign languagethat one speaks. The Gemara explains: bRather, the mishnais to be understood blike the ibaraita /i,that one who reads the Megilla in a language that he speaks fulfills his obligation; band that which was statedin the name of bRav and Shmuel was saidas a bgeneralstatement, not relating to the mishna but as an independent ruling, as follows: bRav and Shmuel both say: The Greek language is acceptable for everyone,i.e., anyone who reads the Megilla in Greek has fulfilled his obligation, even if he does not understand Greek.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut doesn’tthe ibaraitacited above bteachthat if one reads the Megilla in bGreek to Greekshe has fulfilled his obligation? This implies that reading in Greek, byes,this is acceptable for Greeks, but bfor everyoneelse, bno,it is not. The Gemara answers: Rav and Shmuel disagree with this statement of the ibaraita /i, because they bagree withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As we learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla8b): bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Evenfor bbooksof the Bible, the Sages bdid not permit them to be writtenin any foreign language bother than Greek,indicating that Greek has a special status, and is treated like the original Hebrew.,The Gemara asks: But if this was the intention of Rav and Shmuel, blet them stateexplicitly: bThe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.Why did Rav and Shmuel formulate their statement as if they were issuing a new ruling? The Gemara answers: bHad they saidsimply bthat the ihalakhais in accordance with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, I would have saidthat bthis appliesonly bto the other booksof the Bible, bbutwith regard to bthe Megilla, of which it is written: “According to their writing,” I would saythat one does bnotfulfill his obligation if he reads it in Greek. Therefore they stated their own opinion to bteach usthat even in the case of the Megilla one fulfills his obligation if he reads it in Greek.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one who speaks a foreign language who heardthe Megilla being read bin iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, bhas fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tit so that bhe does not understand what they are saying?Since he does not understand Hebrew, how does he fulfill his obligation? The Gemara answers: bIt is just as it iswith bwomen and uneducated people;they too understand little Hebrew, but nevertheless they fulfill their obligation when they hear the Megilla read in that language., bRavina strongly objects tothe premise of the question raised above, i.e., that someone who does not understand the original, untranslated language of the Megilla cannot fulfill his obligation. bIs that to saythat even bwe,the Sages, who are very well acquainted with Hebrew, bknowfor certain the meaning of the obscure words iha’aḥashteranim benei haramakhim /i(Esther 8:10), often translated as: “Used in the royal service, bred from the stud”? bButnevertheless, we fulfill the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing the miracleof Purim by reading these words as they appear in the original text. bHere too,one who speaks a foreign language who hears the Megilla being read in Hebrew fulfills the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing thePurim bmiracle,even if he does not understand the words themselves.,§ The mishna continues: bIf one readsthe Megilla bat intervals[iseirugin/b] bhe has fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara relates that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iseirugin /i.One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to the Sages who were entering the house intermittentlyrather than in a single group: bHow long are you going to enter iseirugin seirugin /i?As she lived in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s house and certainly heard the most proper Hebrew being spoken, they understood from this that the word iseiruginmeans at intervals.,It is similarly related that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iḥalogelogot /i,which appears in various imishnayotand ibaraitot /i. One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to a certain man who was scattering purslane: How long will you go on scattering your iḥalogelogot /i?And from this they understood that iḥalogelogotis purslane.,Likewise, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by isalselehain the verse: “Get iwisdom…salselehaand it will exalt you”(Proverbs 4:7–8). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse talking to a certain man who was twirling his hair, saying to him: How long will you go on twirling[imesalsel/b] byour hair?And from this they understood that the verse is saying: Turn wisdom around and around, and it will exalt you.,The Gemara relates additional examples: bThe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iyehavin the verse: b“Cast upon the Lord your iyehav /i”(Psalms 55:23). bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was traveling with a certain Arab[iTayya’a/b] band I was carrying a load, and he said to me: Take your iyehavand throw it on my camel,and I understood that iyehavmeans a load or burden.,And similarly, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word imatateiin the verse: b“And I will itateiit with the imatateiof destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to her friend: Take a itateitaand itatithe house,from which they understood that a imatateiis a broom, and the verb itatimeans to sweep.,On the matter of reading the Megilla with interruptions, bthe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bIf one reads the Megilla at intervals,pausing and resuming at intervals, bhe has fulfilledhis obligation.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
abraham (the hebrew) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
aeschylus Gera, Judith (2014) 118
ahasuerus Gera, Judith (2014) 123
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
amytis Gera, Judith (2014) 118
animals, fish, and birds Gera, Judith (2014) 153
anti-lebanon Gera, Judith (2014) 153
aram Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
arioch Gera, Judith (2014) 123
arphaxad, king of medes Gera, Judith (2014) 118
arphaxad of lxx genesis Gera, Judith (2014) 118, 123
ashurbanipal Gera, Judith (2014) 123
asshur Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
assur Gera, Judith (2014) 118
assyrian royal inscriptions Gera, Judith (2014) 153
astibaras Gera, Judith (2014) 118
astyages Gera, Judith (2014) 118
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Gera, Judith (2014) 118
bectileth Gera, Judith (2014) 153
bilingual(ism) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
book of judith, chronology Gera, Judith (2014) 153
book of judith, exaggerated numbers Gera, Judith (2014) 153
book of judith, fictionality Gera, Judith (2014) 153
book of judith, geography and movement Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
book of judith, translations and versions Gera, Judith (2014) 123
booty and plundering Gera, Judith (2014) 153
cartography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
chaldeans Gera, Judith (2014) 118
cherubim Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
choaspes Gera, Judith (2014) 123
cilicia Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 367, 368, 369
confusion of tongues/languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
crush/ shatter enemy Gera, Judith (2014) 153
cyrus the great Gera, Judith (2014) 118
dead sea scrolls Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
dispersed persons\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
ecbatana Gera, Judith (2014) 118
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 123
elam Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
elam and elamites Gera, Judith (2014) 118, 123
enoch Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
ethiopia and ethiopians Gera, Judith (2014) 123
euphrates Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
eupolemus Gera, Judith (2014) 118
exile\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
floods Gera, Judith (2014) 153
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
geography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
ham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
hamadan Gera, Judith (2014) 118
hebrew, h-r-g Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 179
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 118
highlands, mountains, and hills Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
holophernes, conquers and destroys Gera, Judith (2014) 153
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 153
holy tongue/language Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
hydaspes Gera, Judith (2014) 123
india Gera, Judith (2014) 123
israel, cultic activity Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
israel, sacred spaces (see also tabernacle, temple) Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
japheth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
judea/judah Gera, Judith (2014) 118
kings, angry and cruel Gera, Judith (2014) 153
language, secret' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
latin Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
lebanon Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
life Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
lud Gera, Judith (2014) 153; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
medes and media Gera, Judith (2014) 118
mesopotamia Gera, Judith (2014) 123
mt. sinai Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
mt. zion Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
multilingualism Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
nabopolassar Gera, Judith (2014) 118
nature\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 11
nebuchadnezzar, historical Gera, Judith (2014) 118, 123
nebuchadnezzar of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 118, 123
nineveh Gera, Judith (2014) 153
noah Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
palestine Gera, Judith (2014) 123
paradise, delights of Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
paradise, divine presence in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
paradise, fruit in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
paradise, heaven and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
paradise, holiness of Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
paradise, shems inheritance Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
paradise, trees in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
persia Gera, Judith (2014) 123
plains Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
put Gera, Judith (2014) 153
rivers and streams Gera, Judith (2014) 123
sennacherib Gera, Judith (2014) 153
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
seventy nations Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
shem Gera, Judith (2014) 118, 123; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
sieges Gera, Judith (2014) 153
syria Gera, Judith (2014) 123, 153
syriac Gera, Judith (2014) 123
talmud Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
tamar (daughter-in-law of judah), daughter of aram Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 179
tamar (daughter-in-law of judah), daughter of mardi Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 179
tamar (daughter-in-law of judah), daughter of shem Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 179
temple, paradise and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
throne Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 38
tigris Gera, Judith (2014) 123
tower of babel Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
werman, cana Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 179
yotzer shir ha-shirim yotzer or blessing Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 366