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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.15-10.19


וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת־צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־חֵת׃And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn, and Heth;


וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite;


וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite;


וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad.


וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.1-7.4, 23.4-23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.1. וּמְשַׁלֵּם לְשֹׂנְאָיו אֶל־פָּנָיו לְהַאֲבִידוֹ לֹא יְאַחֵר לְשֹׂנְאוֹ אֶל־פָּנָיו יְשַׁלֶּם־לוֹ׃ 7.1. כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ וְנָשַׁל גּוֹיִם־רַבִּים מִפָּנֶיךָ הַחִתִּי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי שִׁבְעָה גוֹיִם רַבִּים וַעֲצוּמִים מִמֶּךָּ׃ 7.2. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהִכִּיתָם הַחֲרֵם תַּחֲרִים אֹתָם לֹא־תִכְרֹת לָהֶם בְּרִית וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם׃ 7.2. וְגַם אֶת־הַצִּרְעָה יְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּם עַד־אֲבֹד הַנִּשְׁאָרִים וְהַנִּסְתָּרִים מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 7.4. כִּי־יָסִיר אֶת־בִּנְךָ מֵאַחֲרַי וְעָבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מַהֵר׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.6. וְלֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵבְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 7.1. When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and shall cast out many nations before thee, the Hittite, and the Girgashite, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, seven nations greater and mightier than thou;" 7.2. and when the LORD thy God shall deliver them up before thee, and thou shalt smite them; then thou shalt utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covet with them, nor show mercy unto them;" 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 7.4. For he will turn away thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods; so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He will destroy thee quickly." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.6. Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.22, 3.12, 8.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְאֶל־עַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ לִהְיוֹת כָּל־אִישׁ שֹׂרֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ וּמְדַבֵּר כִּלְשׁוֹן עַמּוֹ׃ 3.12. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הָמָן אֶל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶל־הַפַּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי עַם וָעָם מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ נִכְתָּב וְנֶחְתָּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 1.22. for he sent letters into all the king’s provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and speak according to the language of his people." 3.12. Then were the king’s scribes called in the first month, on the thirteenth day thereof, and there was written, according to all that Haman commanded, unto the king’s satraps, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the princes of every people; to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and it was sealed with the king’s ring." 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34.14-34.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.14. כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר כִּי יְהוָה קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ אֵל קַנָּא הוּא׃ 34.15. פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וְזָנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְזָבְחוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְקָרָא לְךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחוֹ׃ 34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.14. For thou shalt bow down to no other god; for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God;" 34.15. lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land, and they go astray after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and they call thee, and thou eat of their sacrifice;" 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1, 9.19-9.21, 9.25-9.27, 10.1-10.14, 10.16-10.32, 11.1-11.32, 12.10-12.20, 13.9, 13.17, 14.4, 15.13-15.16, 19.36-19.38, 21.18, 25.23, 26.26-26.31, 26.34-26.35, 28.8-28.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 9.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.27. יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 10.1. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר׃ 10.1. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 10.2. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־חָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.2. בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס׃ 10.3. וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם׃ 10.3. וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכֲּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה׃ 10.4. וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים׃ 10.5. מֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן׃ 10.7. וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן׃ 10.8. וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת־נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 10.9. הוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.11. מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת־נִינְוֵה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת־כָּלַח׃ 10.12. וְאֶת־רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה׃ 10.13. וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לוּדִים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃ 10.14. וְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִים׃ 10.16. וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃ 10.17. וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃ 10.18. וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 10.19. וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃ 10.21. וּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם־הוּא אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל׃ 10.22. בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם׃ 10.23. וּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ׃ 10.24. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת־שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 10.25. וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן׃ 10.26. וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת־שָׁלֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת־יָרַח׃ 10.27. וְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת־אוּזָל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָה׃ 10.28. וְאֶת־עוֹבָל וְאֶת־אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת־שְׁבָא׃ 10.29. וְאֶת־אוֹפִר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָה וְאֶת־יוֹבָב כָּל־אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן׃ 10.31. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.32. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָאָרֶץ שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים׃ 11.1. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.2. וַיְחִי רְעוּ שְׁתַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שְׂרוּג׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי בְּנָסְעָם מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּמְצְאוּ בִקְעָה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ הָבָה נִלְבְּנָה לְבֵנִים וְנִשְׂרְפָה לִשְׂרֵפָה וַתְּהִי לָהֶם הַלְּבֵנָה לְאָבֶן וְהַחֵמָר הָיָה לָהֶם לַחֹמֶר׃ 11.3. וַתְּהִי שָׂרַי עֲקָרָה אֵין לָהּ וָלָד׃ 11.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָבָה נִבְנֶה־לָּנוּ עִיר וּמִגְדָּל וְרֹאשׁוֹ בַשָּׁמַיִם וְנַעֲשֶׂה־לָּנוּ שֵׁם פֶּן־נָפוּץ עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הֵן עַם אֶחָד וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם וְזֶה הַחִלָּם לַעֲשׂוֹת וְעַתָּה לֹא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יָזְמוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.11. וַיְחִי־שֵׁם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.12. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד חַי חָמֵשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שָׁלַח׃ 11.13. וַיְחִי אַרְפַּכְשַׁד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֶׁלַח שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.14. וְשֶׁלַח חַי שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 11.15. וַיְחִי־שֶׁלַח אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־עֵבֶר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.16. וַיְחִי־עֵבֶר אַרְבַּע וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־פָּלֶג׃ 11.17. וַיְחִי־עֵבֶר אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־פֶּלֶג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.18. וַיְחִי־פֶלֶג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־רְעוּ׃ 11.19. וַיְחִי־פֶלֶג אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־רְעוּ תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.21. וַיְחִי רְעוּ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שְׂרוּג שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.22. וַיְחִי שְׂרוּג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־נָחוֹר׃ 11.23. וַיְחִי שְׂרוּג אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נָחוֹר מָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.24. וַיְחִי נָחוֹר תֵּשַׁע וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־תָּרַח׃ 11.25. וַיְחִי נָחוֹר אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־תֶּרַח תְּשַׁע־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.26. וַיְחִי־תֶרַח שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן׃ 11.27. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת תֶּרַח תֶּרַח הוֹלִיד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן וְהָרָן הוֹלִיד אֶת־לוֹט׃ 11.28. וַיָּמָת הָרָן עַל־פְּנֵי תֶּרַח אָבִיו בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתּוֹ בְּאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 11.29. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם וְנָחוֹר לָהֶם נָשִׁים שֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם שָׂרָי וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־נָחוֹר מִלְכָּה בַּת־הָרָן אֲבִי־מִלְכָּה וַאֲבִי יִסְכָּה׃ 11.31. וַיִּקַּח תֶּרַח אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־הָרָן בֶּן־בְּנוֹ וְאֵת שָׂרַי כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וַיֵּצְאוּ אִתָּם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־חָרָן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.32. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־תֶרַח חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיָּמָת תֶּרַח בְּחָרָן׃ 12.11. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃ 12.12. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃ 12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃ 12.14. וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃ 12.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃ 12.16. וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃ 12.17. וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃ 12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃ 13.9. הֲלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ לְפָנֶיךָ הִפָּרֶד נָא מֵעָלָי אִם־הַשְּׂמֹאל וְאֵימִנָה וְאִם־הַיָּמִין וְאַשְׂמְאִילָה׃ 13.17. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ כִּי לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה׃ 14.4. שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה עָבְדוּ אֶת־כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר וּשְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מָרָדוּ׃ 15.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לְאַבְרָם יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי־גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 15.14. וְגַם אֶת־הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹדוּ דָּן אָנֹכִי וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יֵצְאוּ בִּרְכֻשׁ גָּדוֹל׃ 15.15. וְאַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶיךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם תִּקָּבֵר בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה׃ 15.16. וְדוֹר רְבִיעִי יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה כִּי לֹא־שָׁלֵם עֲוֺן הָאֱמֹרִי עַד־הֵנָּה׃ 19.36. וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת־לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן׃ 19.37. וַתֵּלֶד הַבְּכִירָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מוֹאָב הוּא אֲבִי־מוֹאָב עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 19.38. וְהַצְּעִירָה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־עַמִּי הוּא אֲבִי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 21.18. קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת־הַנַּעַר וְהַחֲזִיקִי אֶת־יָדֵךְ בּוֹ כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 26.26. וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ הָלַךְ אֵלָיו מִגְּרָר וַאֲחֻזַּת מֵרֵעֵהוּ וּפִיכֹל שַׂר־צְבָאוֹ׃ 26.27. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יִצְחָק מַדּוּעַ בָּאתֶם אֵלָי וְאַתֶּם שְׂנֵאתֶם אֹתִי וַתְּשַׁלְּחוּנִי מֵאִתְּכֶם׃ 26.28. וַיֹּאמְרוּ רָאוֹ רָאִינוּ כִּי־הָיָה יְהוָה עִמָּךְ וַנֹּאמֶר תְּהִי נָא אָלָה בֵּינוֹתֵינוּ בֵּינֵינוּ וּבֵינֶךָ וְנִכְרְתָה בְרִית עִמָּךְ׃ 26.29. אִם־תַּעֲשֵׂה עִמָּנוּ רָעָה כַּאֲשֶׁר לֹא נְגַעֲנוּךָ וְכַאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂינוּ עִמְּךָ רַק־טוֹב וַנְּשַׁלֵּחֲךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם אַתָּה עַתָּה בְּרוּךְ יְהוָה׃ 26.31. וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּשָּׁבְעוּ אִישׁ לְאָחִיו וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם יִצְחָק וַיֵּלְכוּ מֵאִתּוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם׃ 26.34. וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־יְהוּדִית בַּת־בְּאֵרִי הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־אֵילֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 26.35. וַתִּהְיֶיןָ מֹרַת רוּחַ לְיִצְחָק וּלְרִבְקָה׃ 28.8. וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן בְּעֵינֵי יִצְחָק אָבִיו׃ 28.9. וַיֵּלֶךְ עֵשָׂו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵאל וַיִּקַּח אֶת־מָחֲלַת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָם אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת עַל־נָשָׁיו לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 9.19. These three were the sons of Noah, and of these was the whole earth overspread." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.27. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 10.1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and unto them were sons born after the flood." 10.2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras." 10.3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah." 10.4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim." 10.5. of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." 10.6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." 10.7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan." 10.8. And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth." 10.9. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: ‘Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.’" 10.10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." 10.11. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah," 10.12. and Resen between Nineveh and Calah—the same is the great city." 10.13. And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim," 10.14. and Pathrusim, and Casluhim—whence went forth the Philistines—and Caphtorim." 10.16. and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite;" 10.17. and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite;" 10.18. and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad." 10.19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha." 10.20. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations." 10.21. And unto Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, to him also were children born." 10.22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram." 10.23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash." 10.24. And Arpachshad begot Shelah; and Shelah begot Eber." 10.25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan." 10.26. And Joktan begot Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah;" 10.27. and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah;" 10.28. and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba;" 10.29. and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan." 10.30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, unto the mountain of the east." 10.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 10.32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood." 11.1. And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." 11.2. And it came to pass, as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there." 11.3. And they said one to another: ‘Come, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly.’ And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar." 11.4. And they said: ‘Come, let us build us a city, and a tower, with its top in heaven, and let us make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.’" 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 11.6. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." 11.10. These are the generations of Shem. Shem was a hundred years old, and begot Arpachshad two years after the flood." 11.11. And Shem lived after he begot Arpachshad five hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.12. And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begot Shelah." 11.13. And Arpachshad lived after he begot Shelah four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.14. And Shelah lived thirty years, and begot Eber." 11.15. And Shelah lived after he begot Eber four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.16. And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begot Peleg." 11.17. And Eber lived after he begot Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.18. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begot Reu." 11.19. And Peleg lived after he begot Reu two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.20. And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begot Serug." 11.21. And Reu lived after he begot Serug two hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.22. And Serug lived thirty years, and begot Nahor." 11.23. And Serug lived after he begot Nahor two hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.24. And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begot Terah." 11.25. And Nahor lived after he begot Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran." 11.27. Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begot Lot." 11.28. And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." 11.29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah." 11.30. And Sarai was barren; she had no child." 11.31. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there." 11.32. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran." 12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land." 12.11. And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon." 12.12. And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive." 12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’" 12.14. And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair." 12.15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house." 12.16. And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels." 12.17. And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife." 12.18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?" 12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’" 12.20. And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had." 13.9. Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me; if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou take the right hand, then I will go to the left.’" 13.17. Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it.’" 14.4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled." 15.13. And He said unto Abram: ‘Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;" 15.14. and also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge; and afterward shall they come out with great substance." 15.15. But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age." 15.16. And in the fourth generation they shall come back hither; for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full.’" 19.36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father." 19.37. And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day." 19.38. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day." 21.18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast by thy hand; for I will make him a great nation.’" 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 26.26. Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath his friend, and Phicol the captain of his host." 26.27. And Isaac said unto them: ‘Wherefore are ye come unto me, seeing ye hate me, and have sent me away from you?’" 26.28. And they said: ‘We saw plainly that the LORD was with thee; and we said: Let there now be an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covet with thee;" 26.29. that thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace; thou art now the blessed of the LORD.’ 26.30. And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink." 26.31. And they rose up betimes in the morning, and swore one to another; and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace." 26.34. And when Esau was forty years old, he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite." 26.35. And they were a bitterness of spirit unto Isaac and to Rebekah." 28.8. and Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; ." 28.9. so Esau went unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives that he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 11.1-11.2, 11.5, 11.7-11.8, 16.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃ 11.1. וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃ 11.2. מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃ 11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 11.7. אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 11.8. וְכֵן עָשָׂה לְכָל־נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 16.31. וַיְהִי הֲנָקֵל לֶכְתּוֹ בְּחַטֹּאות יָרָבְעָם בֶּן־נְבָט וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־אִיזֶבֶל בַּת־אֶתְבַּעַל מֶלֶךְ צִידֹנִים וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֶת־הַבַּעַל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לוֹ׃ 11.1. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;" 11.2. of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel: ‘Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods’; Solomon did cleave unto these in love." 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites." 11.7. Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh the detestation of Moab, in the mount that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech the detestation of the children of Ammon." 11.8. And so did he for all his foreign wives, who offered and sacrificed unto their gods." 16.31. And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took to wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshipped him."
6. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.5-3.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.5. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יָשְׁבוּ בְּקֶרֶב הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 3.6. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם נָתְנוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 3.5. And the children of Yisra᾽el dwelt among the Kena῾ani, the Ĥitti, and the Emori, and the Perizzi, and the Ĥivvi, and the Yevusi:" 3.6. and they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת אֵלֶּה נִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי הַשָּׂרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־נִבְדְּלוּ הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הַפְּרִזִּי הַיְבוּסִי הָעַמֹּנִי הַמֹּאָבִי הַמִּצְרִי וְהָאֱמֹרִי׃ 9.1. וְעַתָּה מַה־נֹּאמַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת כִּי עָזַבְנוּ מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃ 9.1. Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites."
8. Anon., Jubilees, 8.8, 9.4, 10.19-10.26, 10.28-10.34, 24.28-24.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.8. and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: "Truly I have been sent. 9.4. And for Asshur came forth the second portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascendeth and skirteth the river. 10.19. Thus the evil. spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of Noah. 10.20. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, his eldest son; for he loved him exceedingly above all his sons. 10.21. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lûbâr in the land of Ararat. 10.22. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two weeks and five years. 10.23. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. 10.24. For Enoch's office was ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so that he should recount all the deeds of generation unto generation, till the day of judgment. 10.25. And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first year in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife, whose name was Lômnâ the daughter of Sînâ’ar 10.26. and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this week, and he called his name Reu; 10.28. For they departed from the land of Ararat eastward to Shinar; for in his days they built the city and the tower, saying, "Go to, let us ascend thereby into heaven. 10.29. And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which cometh out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar. 10.30. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.31. And the Lord our God said unto us: "Behold, they are one people, and (this) they begin to do, and now nothing will be withholden from them. 10.32. Go to, let us go down and confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech 10.33. and they may be dispersed into cities and nations, and one purpose will no longer abide with them till the day of judgment. 10.34. And the Lord descended, and we descended with Him to see the city and the tower which the children of men had built. 24.28. And they dug a second well, and they strove for that also, and he called its name "Enmity. 24.29. And he arose from thence and they digged another well, and for that they strove not, and he called the name of it "Room," and Isaac said: "Now the Lord hath made room for us, and we have increased in the land. 24.30. And he went up from thence to the Well of the Oath in the first year of the first week in the forty-fourth jubilee. 24.31. And the Lord appeared to him that night, on the new moon of the first month, and said unto him: "I am the God of Abraham thy father; fear not, for I am with thee, and shall bless thee and shall surely multiply thy seed as the sand of the earth, for the sake of Abraham my servant. 24.32. And he built an altar there, which Abraham his father had first built, and he called upon the name of the Lord, and he offered sacrifice to the God of Abraham his father. 24.33. And they digged a well and they found living water.
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 9, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. For if a man has learnt many dialects, he immediately is looked upon with consideration and respect by those who are also acquainted with them, as being already a friendly person, and contributing no small introduction and means of friendship by reason of his familiarity with words which they too understand; which familiarity very commonly imparts a feeling of security, that one is not likely to suffer any great evil at the hands of such a man. Why, then, did God remove sameness of language from among men as a cause of evils, when it seems it should rather have been established as a most useful thing? V.
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.109 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.109. 1. Now the sons of Noah were three,—Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples.
13. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. There is no difference between scrolls [of the Tanakh] and tefillin and mezuzahs except that scrolls may be written in any language whereas tefillin and mezuzahs may be written only in Assyrian. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says that scrolls [of the Tanakh] were permitted [by the sages] to be written only in Greek."
14. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. (הושע ג, ה) אחר ישובו בני ישראל ובקשו את ה' אלהיהם ואת דוד מלכם וכיון שבא דוד באתה תפלה שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי,וכיון שבאת תפלה באת עבודה שנאמר עולותיהם וזבחיהם לרצון על מזבחי וכיון שבאת עבודה באתה תודה שנאמר (תהלים נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני,ומה ראו לומר ברכת כהנים אחר הודאה דכתיב (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם וירד מעשות החטאת והעולה והשלמים,אימא קודם עבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב וירד מעשות החטאת וגו' מי כתיב לעשות מעשות כתיב,ולימרה אחר העבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב זובח תודה,מאי חזית דסמכת אהאי סמוך אהאי מסתברא עבודה והודאה חדא מילתא היא,ומה ראו לומר שים שלום אחר ברכת כהנים דכתיב (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי על בני ישראל ואני אברכם ברכה דהקב"ה שלום שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' יברך את עמו בשלום,וכי מאחר דמאה ועשרים זקנים ומהם כמה נביאים תקנו תפלה על הסדר שמעון הפקולי מאי הסדיר שכחום וחזר וסדרום,מכאן ואילך אסור לספר בשבחו של הקב"ה דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה למלל גבורות ה' למי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן המספר בשבחו של הקב"ה יותר מדאי נעקר מן העולם שנאמר (איוב לז, כ) היסופר לו כי אדבר אם אמר איש כי יבלע,דרש ר' יהודה איש כפר גבוריא ואמרי לה איש כפר גבור חיל מאי דכתיב (תהלים סה, ב) לך דומיה תהלה סמא דכולה משתוקא כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא מלה בסלע משתוקא בתרין:,קראה על פה לא יצא וכו': מנלן אמר רבא אתיא זכירה זכירה כתיב הכא והימים האלה נזכרים וכתיב התם (שמות יז, יד) כתב זאת זכרון בספר מה להלן בספר אף כאן בספר,וממאי דהאי זכירה קריאה היא דלמא עיון בעלמא לא סלקא דעתך (דכתיב) (דברים כה, יז) זכור יכול בלב כשהוא אומר לא תשכח הרי שכחת הלב אמור הא מה אני מקיים זכור בפה:,קראה תרגום לא יצא וכו': היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה מקרא וקרי לה תרגום היינו על פה לא צריכא דכתיבה תרגום וקרי לה תרגום:,אבל קורין אותה ללועזות בלעז וכו': והא אמרת קראה בכל לשון לא יצא רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו בלעז יווני,היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה אשורית וקרי לה יוונית היינו על פה א"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר שכתובה בלעז יוונית,וא"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר מנין שקראו הקב"ה ליעקב אל שנאמר (בראשית לג, כ) ויקרא לו אל אלהי ישראל דאי סלקא דעתך למזבח קרא ליה יעקב אל ויקרא לו יעקב מיבעי ליה אלא ויקרא לו ליעקב אל ומי קראו אל אלהי ישראל,מיתיבי קראה גיפטית עברית עילמית מדית יוונית לא יצא,הא לא דמיא אלא להא גיפטית לגיפטים עברית לעברים עילמית לעילמים יוונית ליוונים יצא,אי הכי רב ושמואל אמאי מוקמי לה למתני' בלעז יוונית לוקמה בכל לעז [אלא מתניתין כברייתא] וכי איתמר דרב ושמואל בעלמא איתמר רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו לעז יווני לכל כשר,והא קתני יוונית ליוונים אין לכולי עלמא לא אינהו דאמור כרשב"ג דתנן רשב"ג אומר אף ספרים לא התירו שיכתבו אלא יוונית,ולימרו הלכה כרשב"ג אי אמרי הלכה כרשב"ג הוה אמינא הני מילי שאר ספרים אבל מגילה דכתיב בה ככתבם אימא לא קמ"ל:,והלועז ששמע אשורית יצא וכו': והא לא ידע מאי קאמרי מידי דהוה אנשים ועמי הארץ,מתקיף לה רבינא אטו אנן האחשתרנים בני הרמכים מי ידעינן אלא מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא הכא נמי מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא:,קראה סירוגין יצא וכו': לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי סירוגין שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דקאמרה להו לרבנן דהוי עיילי פסקי פסקי לבי רבי עד מתי אתם נכנסין סירוגין סירוגין,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי חלוגלוגות שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דאמרה ליה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מבדר פרפחיני עד מתי אתה מפזר חלוגלוגך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (משלי ד, ח) סלסלה ותרוממך שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לההוא גברא דהוה מהפך במזייה אמרה ליה עד מתי אתה מסלסל בשערך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (תהלים נה, כג) השלך על ה' יהבך אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה אזילנא בהדי ההוא טייעא וקא דרינא טונא ואמר לי שקול יהביך ושדי אגמלאי,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לחברתה שקולי טאטיתא וטאטי ביתא,ת"ר קראה סירוגין יצא 18a. b“Afterward the children of Israel shall return, and seek the Lord their God and David their king”(Hosea 3:5), and consequently, the blessing of the kingdom of David follows the blessing of the building of Jerusalem. bAnd oncethe scion of bDavid comes,the time for bprayer will come, as it is stated: “I will bring them to My sacred mountain and make them joyful in My house of prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). Therefore, the blessing of hearing prayer is recited after the blessing of the kingdom of David., bAnd after prayer comes, theTemple bservice will arrive, as it is statedin the continuation of that verse: b“Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted on My altar”(Isaiah 56:7). The blessing of restoration of the Temple service follows the blessing of hearing prayer. bAnd when theTemple bservice comes,with it will also bcome thanksgiving, as it is stated: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offering honors Me”(Psalms 50:23), which teaches that thanksgiving follows sacrifice. Therefore, the blessing of thanksgiving follows the blessing of restoration of the Temple service., bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsays the Priestly Benediction afterthe blessing of bthanksgiving? As it is written: “And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people and blessed them, and he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings”(Leviticus 9:22), teaching that the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, which includes the thanks-offering.,The Gemara asks: But the cited verse indicates that Aaron blessed the people and then sacrificed the offerings. Should we not then bsaythe Priestly Benediction bbefore theblessing of the Temple bservice?The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “And he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering.” Is it writtenthat he came down bto sacrificethe offerings, implying that after blessing the people Aaron came down and sacrificed the offerings? No, bit is written, “from sacrificing,”indicating that the offerings had already been sacrificed.,The Gemara asks: If, as derived from this verse, the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, the Priestly Benediction should be bsaidimmediately bafterthe blessing of restoration of btheTemple bservice,without the interruption of the blessing of thanksgiving. The Gemara rejects this argument: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offeringhonors Me,” from which we learn that thanksgiving follows sacrifice, as already explained.,The Gemara asks: bWhat did you see to rely on thisverse and juxtapose thanksgiving with sacrifice? bRelyrather bon the otherverse, which indicates that it is the Priestly Benediction that should be juxtaposed with the sacrificial service. The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonto have the blessing of thanksgiving immediately following the blessing of the sacrificial service, since the sacrificial bservice and thanksgiving,which are closely related conceptually, bare one matter. /b, bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing beginning with the words: bGrant peace, after the Priestly Benediction? As it is writtenimmediately following the Priestly Benediction: b“And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them”(Numbers 6:27). The Priestly Benediction is followed by God’s blessing, and bthe blessing of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is peace, as it is stated: “The Lord blesses His people with peace”(Psalms 29:11).,The Gemara returns to the ibaraitacited at the beginning of the discussion: bNow, sincethe ibaraitateaches that ba hundred and twenty Elders, including many prophets, established the iAmida bprayer in itsfixed border, whatis it that bShimon HaPakuli arrangedin a much later period of time, as related by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: Indeed, the blessings of the iAmidaprayer were originally arranged by the hundred and twenty members of the Great Assembly, but over the course of time the people bforgot them, andShimon HaPakuli then barranged them again. /b,The Gemara comments: These nineteen blessings are a fixed number, and bbeyond this it is prohibitedfor one bto declare the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,by adding additional blessings to the iAmida /i. As bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who can utter the mighty acts of the Lord? Who can declare all His praise?”(Psalms 106:2)? It means: bFor whom is it fitting to utter the mighty acts of the Lord?Only bfor one who can declare all His praise.And since no one is capable of declaring all of God’s praises, we must suffice with the set formula established by the Sages., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bone who excessively declares the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,his fate bisto be buprooted from the world,as it appears as if he had exhausted all of God’s praises. bAs it is stated: “Shall it be told to Him when I speak? If a man saysit, bhe would be swallowed up”(Job 37:20). The Gemara interprets the verse as saying: Can all of God’s praises be expressed when I speak? If a man would say such a thing, he would be “swallowed up” as punishment.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehuda, a man of Kefar Gibboraya, and some sayhe was ba man of Kefar Gibbor Ĥayil, taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For You silence is praise”(Psalms 65:2)? bThebest bremedy of all is silence,i.e., the optimum form of praising God is silence. The Gemara relates: bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey sayan adage: If ba word isworth one isela /i, silence isworth btwo. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla bby heart he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRava said:This is bderivedby means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the term bremembranceand another instance of the term bremembrance. It is written here,with regard to the Megilla: b“That these days should be remembered”(Esther 9:28), band it is written elsewhere: “And the Lord said to Moses: Write this for a memorial in the book,and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: That I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heavens” (Exodus 17:14). bJust as there,with regard to Amalek, remembrance is referring specifically to something written bin a book,as it is stated, “in the book,” bso too here,the Megilla remembrance is through being written bin a book. /b,The Gemara raises a question: bBut from wheredo we know bthat this remembrancethat is stated with regard to Amalek and to the Megilla involves breadingit out loud from a book? bPerhapsit requires bmerely looking intothe book, reading it silently. The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did to you” (Deuteronomy 25:17). One bmighthave thought that it suffices for one to remember this silently, bin his heart.But this cannot be, since bwhen it sayssubsequently: b“You shall not forget”(Deuteronomy 25:19), bit isalready breferring to forgetting from the heart. How,then, bdo I upholdthe meaning of b“remember”?What does this command to remember add to the command to not forget? Therefore, it means that the remembrance must be expressed out loud, bwith the mouth. /b,§ It was taught further in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla binAramaic btranslation he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written inthe original bbiblical text,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it inAramaic btranslation,then bthis isthe same as reading it bby heart,as he is not reading the words written in the text, and the mishna has already stated that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla by heart. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this case as well, as it is referring to a case in which the Megilla bwas writtennot in the original Hebrew but binAramaic btranslation, and he read itas written, binAramaic btranslation. /b,§ The mishna continues: bHowever, for those who speak a foreign language, one may readthe Megilla binthat bforeign language.The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut didn’t you sayin the mishna: bIf he read it in anyother blanguage he has not fulfilledhis obligation? The Gemara cites the answer of bRav and Shmuel, who both say:When the mishna says: A foreign language, it is referring specifically to bthe Greek foreign language,which has a unique status with regard to biblical translation.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof the case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written in iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it in Greek, this isthe same as reading it bby heart,and the mishna teaches that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading by heart. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:The mishna is dealing with a case in which the Megilla bwas written in the Greek foreign languageand was also read in that language.,Apropos statements in this line of tradition, the Gemara adds: bAnd Rabbi Aḥafurther bsaidthat bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, called Jacob El,meaning God? bAs it is stated:“And he erected there an altar, band he called it El, God of Israel”(Genesis 33:20). It is also possible to translate this as: And He, i.e., the God of Israel, called him, Jacob, El. Indeed, it must be understood this way, bas if it enters your mindto say that the verse should be understood as saying that bJacob called the altar El, it should havespecified the subject of the verb and written: bAnd Jacob called itEl. bButsince the verse is not written this way, the verse must be understood as follows: bHe called Jacob El; and who called him El? The God of Israel. /b,The Gemara returns to discussing languages for reading the Megilla and braises an objectionagainst Rav and Shmuel, who said that one may read the Megilla in Greek but not in other foreign languages. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bIf one readthe Megilla bin Coptic [ iGiptit /i], iIvrit /i, Elamite, Median, or Greek, he has not fulfilledhis obligation, indicating that one cannot fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla in Greek.,The Gemara answers: The clause in the mishna that teaches that the Megilla may be read in a foreign language to one who speaks that foreign language bis comparable only to thatwhich was taught in a different ibaraita /i: If one reads the Megilla bin Coptic to Copts,in iIvritto iIvrim /i, in Elamite to Elamites, or in Greek to Greeks, he has fulfilledhis obligation. The Megilla may be read in any language, provided the listener understands that language.,The Gemara asks: But bif so,that one who reads the Megilla in a foreign language that he speaks fulfills his obligation, bwhy did Rav and Shmuel establish theruling of the bmishna asreferring specifically bto Greek? Let them interpret itas referring bto any foreign languagethat one speaks. The Gemara explains: bRather, the mishnais to be understood blike the ibaraita /i,that one who reads the Megilla in a language that he speaks fulfills his obligation; band that which was statedin the name of bRav and Shmuel was saidas a bgeneralstatement, not relating to the mishna but as an independent ruling, as follows: bRav and Shmuel both say: The Greek language is acceptable for everyone,i.e., anyone who reads the Megilla in Greek has fulfilled his obligation, even if he does not understand Greek.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut doesn’tthe ibaraitacited above bteachthat if one reads the Megilla in bGreek to Greekshe has fulfilled his obligation? This implies that reading in Greek, byes,this is acceptable for Greeks, but bfor everyoneelse, bno,it is not. The Gemara answers: Rav and Shmuel disagree with this statement of the ibaraita /i, because they bagree withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As we learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla8b): bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Evenfor bbooksof the Bible, the Sages bdid not permit them to be writtenin any foreign language bother than Greek,indicating that Greek has a special status, and is treated like the original Hebrew.,The Gemara asks: But if this was the intention of Rav and Shmuel, blet them stateexplicitly: bThe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.Why did Rav and Shmuel formulate their statement as if they were issuing a new ruling? The Gemara answers: bHad they saidsimply bthat the ihalakhais in accordance with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, I would have saidthat bthis appliesonly bto the other booksof the Bible, bbutwith regard to bthe Megilla, of which it is written: “According to their writing,” I would saythat one does bnotfulfill his obligation if he reads it in Greek. Therefore they stated their own opinion to bteach usthat even in the case of the Megilla one fulfills his obligation if he reads it in Greek.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one who speaks a foreign language who heardthe Megilla being read bin iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, bhas fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tit so that bhe does not understand what they are saying?Since he does not understand Hebrew, how does he fulfill his obligation? The Gemara answers: bIt is just as it iswith bwomen and uneducated people;they too understand little Hebrew, but nevertheless they fulfill their obligation when they hear the Megilla read in that language., bRavina strongly objects tothe premise of the question raised above, i.e., that someone who does not understand the original, untranslated language of the Megilla cannot fulfill his obligation. bIs that to saythat even bwe,the Sages, who are very well acquainted with Hebrew, bknowfor certain the meaning of the obscure words iha’aḥashteranim benei haramakhim /i(Esther 8:10), often translated as: “Used in the royal service, bred from the stud”? bButnevertheless, we fulfill the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing the miracleof Purim by reading these words as they appear in the original text. bHere too,one who speaks a foreign language who hears the Megilla being read in Hebrew fulfills the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing thePurim bmiracle,even if he does not understand the words themselves.,§ The mishna continues: bIf one readsthe Megilla bat intervals[iseirugin/b] bhe has fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara relates that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iseirugin /i.One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to the Sages who were entering the house intermittentlyrather than in a single group: bHow long are you going to enter iseirugin seirugin /i?As she lived in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s house and certainly heard the most proper Hebrew being spoken, they understood from this that the word iseiruginmeans at intervals.,It is similarly related that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iḥalogelogot /i,which appears in various imishnayotand ibaraitot /i. One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to a certain man who was scattering purslane: How long will you go on scattering your iḥalogelogot /i?And from this they understood that iḥalogelogotis purslane.,Likewise, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by isalselehain the verse: “Get iwisdom…salselehaand it will exalt you”(Proverbs 4:7–8). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse talking to a certain man who was twirling his hair, saying to him: How long will you go on twirling[imesalsel/b] byour hair?And from this they understood that the verse is saying: Turn wisdom around and around, and it will exalt you.,The Gemara relates additional examples: bThe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iyehavin the verse: b“Cast upon the Lord your iyehav /i”(Psalms 55:23). bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was traveling with a certain Arab[iTayya’a/b] band I was carrying a load, and he said to me: Take your iyehavand throw it on my camel,and I understood that iyehavmeans a load or burden.,And similarly, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word imatateiin the verse: b“And I will itateiit with the imatateiof destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to her friend: Take a itateitaand itatithe house,from which they understood that a imatateiis a broom, and the verb itatimeans to sweep.,On the matter of reading the Megilla with interruptions, bthe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bIf one reads the Megilla at intervals,pausing and resuming at intervals, bhe has fulfilledhis obligation.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, discovers astrology and chaldean science Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
abraham (the hebrew) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
accad Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
aram Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
asshur Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
babel Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
beer-sheba Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
bilingual(ism) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
canaan, land of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
cartography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
chronology, patriarchal Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 107
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 367, 368
confusion of tongues/languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
covenant of the pieces Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
cultural benefactor topos, abraham Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
cultural benefactor topos, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
dead sea scrolls Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
demetrius, chronology of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 107
dispersed persons\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
elam Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
erech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
esau Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
eupolemus, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
genealogies, selective Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 107
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
geography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
ham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
hebron Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
holy tongue/language Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
intermarriage, evolution of tradition about foreign wives, a) marriage to pharaohs daughter as glorious achievement Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 375
intermarriage, evolution of tradition about foreign wives Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 375
intermarriage, the deuteronomist on Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 375
intermarriage, to egyptian, moabite, ammonite, or edomite women Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 375
isaac Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
japheth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
land, promise to abraham Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
land, relinquishment Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
language, secret' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
latin Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
lot Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
lud Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
multilingualism Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
nimrod Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
noah Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
philistines Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
phoenicians, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, giants as flood survivors Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, greek bible as source Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, nimrod traditions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, sterling, g.e. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, tower of babel Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham as cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham as sophos and moral paradigm Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham in phoenicia Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham in three stages babylon, phoenicia, egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
samaritan pentateuch Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 107
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
seventy nations Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
shem Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
shinar Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
solomon, evolution of condemnation about marriage to daughter of pharaoh Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 375
talmud Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
territory Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 49
tower of babel Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
traditions\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20