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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10.10-10.12


nanAnd the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.


מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת־נִינְוֵה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת־כָּלַח׃Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah


וְאֶת־רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה׃and Resen between Nineveh and Calah—the same is the great city.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.10-2.11, 3.11, 32.8-32.9, 32.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.11. רְפָאִים יֵחָשְׁבוּ אַף־הֵם כָּעֲנָקִים וְהַמֹּאָבִים יִקְרְאוּ לָהֶם אֵמִים׃ 3.11. כִּי רַק־עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן נִשְׁאַר מִיֶּתֶר הָרְפָאִים הִנֵּה עַרְשׂוֹ עֶרֶשׂ בַּרְזֶל הֲלֹה הִוא בְּרַבַּת בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן תֵּשַׁע אַמּוֹת אָרְכָּהּ וְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת רָחְבָּהּ בְּאַמַּת־אִישׁ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 2.10. The Emim dwelt therein aforetime, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim;" 2.11. these also are accounted Rephaim, as the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim." 3.11. For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remt of the Rephaim; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbah of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.—" 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.22, 2.5, 3.12, 8.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְאֶל־עַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ לִהְיוֹת כָּל־אִישׁ שֹׂרֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ וּמְדַבֵּר כִּלְשׁוֹן עַמּוֹ׃ 2.5. אִישׁ יְהוּדִי הָיָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי בֶּן יָאִיר בֶּן־שִׁמְעִי בֶּן־קִישׁ אִישׁ יְמִינִי׃ 3.12. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הָמָן אֶל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶל־הַפַּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי עַם וָעָם מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ נִכְתָּב וְנֶחְתָּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 1.22. for he sent letters into all the king’s provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and speak according to the language of his people." 2.5. There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle, whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a Benjamite," 3.12. Then were the king’s scribes called in the first month, on the thirteenth day thereof, and there was written, according to all that Haman commanded, unto the king’s satraps, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the princes of every people; to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and it was sealed with the king’s ring." 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.5, 2.8, 4.1-4.16, 4.19, 6.1, 7.22, 8.8-8.12, 9.18-9.27, 10.1-10.9, 10.11-10.32, 11.1-11.32, 12.10-12.20, 14.1, 14.4, 19.36-19.38, 21.18, 25.23, 26.34-26.35, 28.8-28.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.2. וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃ 4.2. וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃ 4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 4.5. וְאֶל־קַיִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָּנָיו׃ 4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 4.7. הֲלוֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל־בּוֹ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוֺנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃ 4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 4.19. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ לֶמֶךְ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם הָאַחַת עָדָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית צִלָּה׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 7.22. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁמַת־רוּחַ חַיִּים בְּאַפָּיו מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בֶּחָרָבָה מֵתוּ׃ 8.8. וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מֵאִתּוֹ לִרְאוֹת הֲקַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 8.9. וְלֹא־מָצְאָה הַיּוֹנָה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלָהּ וַתָּשָׁב אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה כִּי־מַיִם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֵא אֹתָהּ אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.11. וַתָּבֹא אֵלָיו הַיּוֹנָה לְעֵת עֶרֶב וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵה־זַיִת טָרָף בְּפִיהָ וַיֵּדַע נֹחַ כִּי־קַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.12. וַיִּיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה וְלֹא־יָסְפָה שׁוּב־אֵלָיו עוֹד׃ 9.18. וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַתֵּבָה שֵׁם וְחָם וָיָפֶת וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן׃ 9.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 9.23. וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃ 9.24. וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה־לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.27. יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 10.1. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר׃ 10.1. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 10.2. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־חָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.2. בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס׃ 10.3. וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם׃ 10.3. וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכֲּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה׃ 10.4. וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים׃ 10.5. מֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן׃ 10.7. וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן׃ 10.8. וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת־נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 10.9. הוּא־הָיָה גִבֹּר־צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.11. מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת־נִינְוֵה וְאֶת־רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת־כָּלַח׃ 10.12. וְאֶת־רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה׃ 10.13. וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לוּדִים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃ 10.14. וְאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִים׃ 10.15. וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת־צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־חֵת׃ 10.16. וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃ 10.17. וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃ 10.18. וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 10.19. וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃ 10.21. וּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם־הוּא אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל׃ 10.22. בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם׃ 10.23. וּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ׃ 10.24. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת־שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 10.25. וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן׃ 10.26. וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת־שָׁלֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת־יָרַח׃ 10.27. וְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת־אוּזָל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָה׃ 10.28. וְאֶת־עוֹבָל וְאֶת־אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת־שְׁבָא׃ 10.29. וְאֶת־אוֹפִר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָה וְאֶת־יוֹבָב כָּל־אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן׃ 10.31. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם׃ 10.32. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָאָרֶץ שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים׃ 11.1. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.2. וַיְחִי רְעוּ שְׁתַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שְׂרוּג׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי בְּנָסְעָם מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּמְצְאוּ בִקְעָה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ הָבָה נִלְבְּנָה לְבֵנִים וְנִשְׂרְפָה לִשְׂרֵפָה וַתְּהִי לָהֶם הַלְּבֵנָה לְאָבֶן וְהַחֵמָר הָיָה לָהֶם לַחֹמֶר׃ 11.3. וַתְּהִי שָׂרַי עֲקָרָה אֵין לָהּ וָלָד׃ 11.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָבָה נִבְנֶה־לָּנוּ עִיר וּמִגְדָּל וְרֹאשׁוֹ בַשָּׁמַיִם וְנַעֲשֶׂה־לָּנוּ שֵׁם פֶּן־נָפוּץ עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הֵן עַם אֶחָד וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם וְזֶה הַחִלָּם לַעֲשׂוֹת וְעַתָּה לֹא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יָזְמוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.11. וַיְחִי־שֵׁם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.12. וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד חַי חָמֵשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שָׁלַח׃ 11.13. וַיְחִי אַרְפַּכְשַׁד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֶׁלַח שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.14. וְשֶׁלַח חַי שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־עֵבֶר׃ 11.15. וַיְחִי־שֶׁלַח אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־עֵבֶר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.16. וַיְחִי־עֵבֶר אַרְבַּע וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־פָּלֶג׃ 11.17. וַיְחִי־עֵבֶר אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־פֶּלֶג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.18. וַיְחִי־פֶלֶג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־רְעוּ׃ 11.19. וַיְחִי־פֶלֶג אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־רְעוּ תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.21. וַיְחִי רְעוּ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שְׂרוּג שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.22. וַיְחִי שְׂרוּג שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־נָחוֹר׃ 11.23. וַיְחִי שְׂרוּג אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נָחוֹר מָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.24. וַיְחִי נָחוֹר תֵּשַׁע וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־תָּרַח׃ 11.25. וַיְחִי נָחוֹר אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־תֶּרַח תְּשַׁע־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 11.26. וַיְחִי־תֶרַח שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן׃ 11.27. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת תֶּרַח תֶּרַח הוֹלִיד אֶת־אַבְרָם אֶת־נָחוֹר וְאֶת־הָרָן וְהָרָן הוֹלִיד אֶת־לוֹט׃ 11.28. וַיָּמָת הָרָן עַל־פְּנֵי תֶּרַח אָבִיו בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתּוֹ בְּאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 11.29. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם וְנָחוֹר לָהֶם נָשִׁים שֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם שָׂרָי וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־נָחוֹר מִלְכָּה בַּת־הָרָן אֲבִי־מִלְכָּה וַאֲבִי יִסְכָּה׃ 11.31. וַיִּקַּח תֶּרַח אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־הָרָן בֶּן־בְּנוֹ וְאֵת שָׂרַי כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וַיֵּצְאוּ אִתָּם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־חָרָן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.32. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־תֶרַח חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה וַיָּמָת תֶּרַח בְּחָרָן׃ 12.11. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃ 12.12. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃ 12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃ 12.14. וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃ 12.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃ 12.16. וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃ 12.17. וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃ 12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃ 14.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ־שִׁנְעָר אַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם וְתִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם׃ 14.1. וְעֵמֶק הַשִׂדִּים בֶּאֱרֹת בֶּאֱרֹת חֵמָר וַיָּנֻסוּ מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה וַיִּפְּלוּ־שָׁמָּה וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים הֶרָה נָּסוּ׃ 14.4. שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה עָבְדוּ אֶת־כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר וּשְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מָרָדוּ׃ 19.36. וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת־לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן׃ 19.37. וַתֵּלֶד הַבְּכִירָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מוֹאָב הוּא אֲבִי־מוֹאָב עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 19.38. וְהַצְּעִירָה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־עַמִּי הוּא אֲבִי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 21.18. קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת־הַנַּעַר וְהַחֲזִיקִי אֶת־יָדֵךְ בּוֹ כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 26.34. וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־יְהוּדִית בַּת־בְּאֵרִי הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־אֵילֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 26.35. וַתִּהְיֶיןָ מֹרַת רוּחַ לְיִצְחָק וּלְרִבְקָה׃ 28.8. וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי רָעוֹת בְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן בְּעֵינֵי יִצְחָק אָבִיו׃ 28.9. וַיֵּלֶךְ עֵשָׂו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵאל וַיִּקַּח אֶת־מָחֲלַת בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָם אֲחוֹת נְבָיוֹת עַל־נָשָׁיו לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’" 4.2. And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground." 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 4.5. but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell." 4.6. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countece fallen?" 4.7. If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’" 4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 4.13. And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear." 4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden." 4.19. And Lamech took unto him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 7.22. all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, whatsoever was in the dry land, died." 8.8. And he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground." 8.9. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him to the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth; and he put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her in unto him into the ark." 8.10. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark." 8.11. And the dove came in to him at eventide; and lo in her mouth an olive-leaf freshly plucked; so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth." 8.12. And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; and she returned not again unto him any more." 9.18. And the sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan." 9.19. These three were the sons of Noah, and of these was the whole earth overspread." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without." 9.23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness." 9.24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him." 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.27. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 10.1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and unto them were sons born after the flood." 10.2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras." 10.3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah." 10.4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim." 10.5. of these were the isles of the nations divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations." 10.6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan." 10.7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan." 10.8. And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth." 10.9. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; wherefore it is said: ‘Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD.’" 10.11. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Calah," 10.12. and Resen between Nineveh and Calah—the same is the great city." 10.13. And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim," 10.14. and Pathrusim, and Casluhim—whence went forth the Philistines—and Caphtorim." 10.15. And Canaan begot Zidon his firstborn, and Heth;" 10.16. and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite;" 10.17. and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite;" 10.18. and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad." 10.19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha." 10.20. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations." 10.21. And unto Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, to him also were children born." 10.22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram." 10.23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash." 10.24. And Arpachshad begot Shelah; and Shelah begot Eber." 10.25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan." 10.26. And Joktan begot Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah;" 10.27. and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah;" 10.28. and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba;" 10.29. and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan." 10.30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, unto the mountain of the east." 10.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 10.32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood." 11.1. And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." 11.2. And it came to pass, as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there." 11.3. And they said one to another: ‘Come, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly.’ And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar." 11.4. And they said: ‘Come, let us build us a city, and a tower, with its top in heaven, and let us make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.’" 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 11.6. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." 11.10. These are the generations of Shem. Shem was a hundred years old, and begot Arpachshad two years after the flood." 11.11. And Shem lived after he begot Arpachshad five hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.12. And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begot Shelah." 11.13. And Arpachshad lived after he begot Shelah four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.14. And Shelah lived thirty years, and begot Eber." 11.15. And Shelah lived after he begot Eber four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.16. And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begot Peleg." 11.17. And Eber lived after he begot Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.18. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begot Reu." 11.19. And Peleg lived after he begot Reu two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.20. And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begot Serug." 11.21. And Reu lived after he begot Serug two hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.22. And Serug lived thirty years, and begot Nahor." 11.23. And Serug lived after he begot Nahor two hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.24. And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begot Terah." 11.25. And Nahor lived after he begot Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and begot sons and daughters." 11.26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran." 11.27. Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begot Lot." 11.28. And Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees." 11.29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah." 11.30. And Sarai was barren; she had no child." 11.31. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there." 11.32. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran." 12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land." 12.11. And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon." 12.12. And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive." 12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’" 12.14. And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair." 12.15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house." 12.16. And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels." 12.17. And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife." 12.18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?" 12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’" 12.20. And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had." 14.1. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim," 14.4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled." 19.36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father." 19.37. And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day." 19.38. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day." 21.18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast by thy hand; for I will make him a great nation.’" 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 26.34. And when Esau was forty years old, he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite." 26.35. And they were a bitterness of spirit unto Isaac and to Rebekah." 28.8. and Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; ." 28.9. so Esau went unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives that he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 13.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.33. וְשָׁם רָאִינוּ אֶת־הַנְּפִילִים בְּנֵי עֲנָק מִן־הַנְּפִלִים וַנְּהִי בְעֵינֵינוּ כַּחֲגָבִים וְכֵן הָיִינוּ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 13.33. And there we saw the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, who come of the Nephilim; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 95.5, 96.4-96.5, 106.34-106.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

95.5. אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַיָּם וְהוּא עָשָׂהוּ וְיַבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ׃ 96.4. כִּי גָדוֹל יְהוָה וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד נוֹרָא הוּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִים׃ 96.5. כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃ 106.34. לֹא־הִשְׁמִידוּ אֶת־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם׃ 106.35. וַיִּתְעָרְבוּ בַגּוֹיִם וַיִּלְמְדוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם׃ 106.36. וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וַיִּהְיוּ לָהֶם לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃ 106.38. וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ דָם נָקִי דַּם־בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר זִבְּחוּ לַעֲצַבֵּי כְנָעַן וַתֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ בַּדָּמִים׃ 106.39. וַיִּטְמְאוּ בְמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וַיִּזְנוּ בְּמַעַלְלֵיהֶם׃ 95.5. The sea is His, and He made it; And His hands formed the dry land." 96.4. For great is the LORD, and highly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods. ." 96.5. For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens." 106.34. They did not destroy the peoples, As the LORD commanded them;" 106.35. But mingled themselves with the nations, And learned their works;" 106.36. And they served their idols, Which became a snare unto them;" 106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons," 106.38. And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, Whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; And the land was polluted with blood." 106.39. Thus were they defiled with their works, And went astray in their doings."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.13, 12.16-12.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־הָעֵצִים מִן־הָאֶרֶז אֲשֶׁר בַּלְּבָנוֹן וְעַד הָאֵזוֹב אֲשֶׁר יֹצֵא בַּקִּיר וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־הַבְּהֵמָה וְעַל־הָעוֹף וְעַל־הָרֶמֶשׂ וְעַל־הַדָּגִים׃ 12.16. וַיַּרְא כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי לֹא־שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשִׁבוּ הָעָם אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּבָר לֵאמֹר מַה־לָּנוּ חֵלֶק בְּדָוִד וְלֹא־נַחֲלָה בְּבֶן־יִשַׁי לְאֹהָלֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַתָּה רְאֵה בֵיתְךָ דָּוִד וַיֵּלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאֹהָלָיו׃ 12.17. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּמְלֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְחַבְעָם׃ 5.13. And he spoke of trees, from the cedar that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall; he spoke also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes." 12.16. And when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying: ‘What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse; to your tents, O Israel; now see to thine own house, David.’ So Israel departed unto their tents." 12.17. But as for the children of Israel that dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 8.5-8.7, 8.10-8.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה זָקַנְתָּ וּבָנֶיךָ לֹא הָלְכוּ בִּדְרָכֶיךָ עַתָּה שִׂימָה־לָּנוּ מֶלֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵנוּ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 8.6. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי שְׁמוּאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמְרוּ תְּנָה־לָּנוּ מֶלֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵנוּ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 8.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁמַע בְּקוֹל הָעָם לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ כִּי לֹא אֹתְךָ מָאָסוּ כִּי־אֹתִי מָאֲסוּ מִמְּלֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 8.11. וַיֹּאמֶר זֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִמְלֹךְ עֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם יִקָּח וְשָׂם לוֹ בְּמֶרְכַּבְתּוֹ וּבְפָרָשָׁיו וְרָצוּ לִפְנֵי מֶרְכַּבְתּוֹ׃ 8.12. וְלָשׂוּם לוֹ שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְלַחֲרֹשׁ חֲרִישׁוֹ וְלִקְצֹר קְצִירוֹ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּלֵי־מִלְחַמְתּוֹ וּכְלֵי רִכְבּוֹ׃ 8.13. וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם יִקָּח לְרַקָּחוֹת וּלְטַבָּחוֹת וּלְאֹפוֹת׃ 8.14. וְאֶת־שְׂדוֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶת־כַּרְמֵיכֶם וְזֵיתֵיכֶם הַטּוֹבִים יִקָּח וְנָתַן לַעֲבָדָיו׃ 8.15. וְזַרְעֵיכֶם וְכַרְמֵיכֶם יַעְשֹׂר וְנָתַן לְסָרִיסָיו וְלַעֲבָדָיו׃ 8.16. וְאֶת־עַבְדֵיכֶם וְאֶת־שִׁפְחוֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶת־בַּחוּרֵיכֶם הַטּוֹבִים וְאֶת־חֲמוֹרֵיכֶם יִקָּח וְעָשָׂה לִמְלַאכְתּוֹ׃ 8.17. צֹאנְכֶם יַעְשֹׂר וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים׃ 8.18. וּזְעַקְתֶּם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא מִלִּפְנֵי מַלְכְּכֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתֶּם לָכֶם וְלֹא־יַעֲנֶה יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 8.5. and said to him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations." 8.6. But the thing displeased Shemu᾽el when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Shemu᾽el prayed to the Lord." 8.7. And the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, Hearken to the voice of the people in all that they say to thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them." 8.10. And Shemu᾽el told all the words of the Lord to the people that asked of him a king." 8.11. And he said, This will be the custom of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself on his chariot, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariot." 8.12. And he will appoint for himself captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to plough his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and the instruments of his chariots." 8.13. And he will take your daughters for perfumers, and cooks, and bakers." 8.14. And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your best oliveyards, and give them to his servants." 8.15. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants." 8.16. And he will take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work." 8.17. He will take the tenth of your sheep: and you shall be his servants." 8.18. And you shall cry out on that day because of your king which you shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not hear you on that day."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 16.5, 16.7, 16.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.5. וּבָא הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד עַד־בַּחוּרִים וְהִנֵּה מִשָּׁם אִישׁ יוֹצֵא מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת בֵּית־שָׁאוּל וּשְׁמוֹ שִׁמְעִי בֶן־גֵּרָא יֹצֵא יָצוֹא וּמְקַלֵּל׃ 16.7. וְכֹה־אָמַר שִׁמְעִי בְּקַלְלוֹ צֵא צֵא אִישׁ הַדָּמִים וְאִישׁ הַבְּלִיָּעַל׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲבִישַׁי בֶּן־צְרוּיָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לָמָּה יְקַלֵּל הַכֶּלֶב הַמֵּת הַזֶּה אֶת־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּא וְאָסִירָה אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 16.5. And when king David came to Baĥurim, behold, thence came out a man of the family of the house of Sha᾽ul, whose name was Shim῾i, the son of Gera: he came out, cursing as he came." 16.7. And thus said Shim῾i when he cursed, Come out, come out, thou bloody man, and thou base man:" 16.9. Then said Avishay the son of Żeruya to the king, Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? let me go over, I pray thee, and take off his head."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

37.22. וְעָשִׂיתִי אֹתָם לְגוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ בְּהָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶךְ אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם לְמֶלֶךְ וְלֹא יהיה־[יִהְיוּ־] עוֹד לִשְׁנֵי גוֹיִם וְלֹא יֵחָצוּ עוֹד לִשְׁתֵּי מַמְלָכוֹת עוֹד׃ 37.22. and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be king to them all; and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all;"
10. Anon., Jubilees, 8.8, 9.4, 10.19-10.26, 15.30-15.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.8. and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for he said: "Truly I have been sent. 9.4. And for Asshur came forth the second portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascendeth and skirteth the river. 10.19. Thus the evil. spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of Noah. 10.20. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, his eldest son; for he loved him exceedingly above all his sons. 10.21. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lûbâr in the land of Ararat. 10.22. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two weeks and five years. 10.23. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. 10.24. For Enoch's office was ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so that he should recount all the deeds of generation unto generation, till the day of judgment. 10.25. And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first year in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife, whose name was Lômnâ the daughter of Sînâ’ar 10.26. and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this week, and he called his name Reu; 15.30. For all the angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification have been so created from the day of their creation, and before the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification He hath sanctified Israel, that they should be with Him and with His holy angels. 15.31. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covet for their generations as an eternal ordice, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel.
11. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 9, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. For if a man has learnt many dialects, he immediately is looked upon with consideration and respect by those who are also acquainted with them, as being already a friendly person, and contributing no small introduction and means of friendship by reason of his familiarity with words which they too understand; which familiarity very commonly imparts a feeling of security, that one is not likely to suffer any great evil at the hands of such a man. Why, then, did God remove sameness of language from among men as a cause of evils, when it seems it should rather have been established as a most useful thing? V.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. And when the angels of God saw the daughters of men that they were beautiful, they took unto themselves wives of all of them whom they Chose." Those beings, whom other philosophers call demons, Moses usually calls angels; and they are souls hovering in the air.
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.73, 1.75, 1.77, 1.82, 1.87-1.88, 1.109, 1.113-1.118, 1.120-1.122, 1.129, 1.142-1.147 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. 1.75. 2. Now God loved this man for his righteousness: yet he not only condemned those other men for their wickedness, but determined to destroy the whole race of mankind, and to make another race that should be pure from wickedness; and cutting short their lives, and making their years not so many as they formerly lived, but one hundred and twenty only, he turned the dry land into sea; 1.77. That he should make an ark of four stories high, three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits broad, and thirty cubits high. Accordingly he entered into that ark, and his wife, and sons, and their wives, and put into it not only other provisions, to support their wants there, but also sent in with the rest all sorts of living creatures, the male and his female, for the preservation of their kinds; and others of them by sevens. 1.82. and this was two thousand six hundred and fifty-six [one thousand six hundred and fifty-six] years from Adam, the first man; and the time is written down in our sacred books, those who then lived having noted down, with great accuracy, both the births and deaths of illustrious men. 1.87. Now Lamech, when he had governed seven hundred and seventy-seven years, appointed Noah, his son, to be ruler of the people, who was born to Lamech when he was one hundred and eighty-two years old, and retained the government nine hundred and fifty years. 1.88. These years collected together make up the sum before set down. But let no one inquire into the deaths of these men; for they extended their lives along together with their children and grandchildren; but let him have regard to their births only. 1.109. 1. Now the sons of Noah were three,—Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. 1.113. 2. Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. 1.114. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers! 1.115. 3. Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; 1.116. but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; 1.117. but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them divers languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion. 1.118. The Sibyl also makes mention of this tower, and of the confusion of the language, when she says thus: “When all men were of one language, some of them built a high tower, as if they would thereby ascend up to heaven, but the gods sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower, and gave every one his peculiar language; and for this reason it was that the city was called Babylon.” 1.121. and some of those nations do still retain the denominations which were given them by their first founders; but some have lost them also, and some have only admitted certain changes in them, that they might be the more intelligible to the inhabitants. And they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations. For when in after-ages they grew potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity; giving names to the nations that sounded well [in Greek] that they might be better understood among themselves; and setting agreeable forms of government over them, as if they were a people derived from themselves. 1.122. 1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. 1.129. Now when I have premised somewhat, which perhaps the Greeks do not know, I will return and explain what I have omitted; for such names are pronounced here after the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers; for our own country language does not so pronounce them: but the names in all cases are of one and the same ending; for the name we here pronounce Noeas, is there Noah, and in every case retains the same termination. 1.142. And when Noah was made sensible of what had been done, he prayed for prosperity to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not curse him, by reason of his nearness in blood, but cursed his prosperity: and when the rest of them escaped that curse, God inflicted it on the children of Canaan. But as to these matters, we shall speak more hereafter. 1.143. 4. Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, who inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and reached to the Indian Ocean. For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the city Nineve; and named his subjects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate nation, beyond others. 1.144. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians. 1.145. of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini. 1.146. Sala was the son of Arphaxad; and his son was Heber, from whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews. Heber begat Joetan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries; for Phaleg among the Hebrews signifies division. 1.147. Now Joctan, one of the sons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad, Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, Ebal, Abimael, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilat, and Jobab. These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it. And this shall suffice concerning the sons of Shem.
16. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.8. There is no difference between scrolls [of the Tanakh] and tefillin and mezuzahs except that scrolls may be written in any language whereas tefillin and mezuzahs may be written only in Assyrian. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says that scrolls [of the Tanakh] were permitted [by the sages] to be written only in Greek."
17. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 47.1, 52.5-52.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. (הושע ג, ה) אחר ישובו בני ישראל ובקשו את ה' אלהיהם ואת דוד מלכם וכיון שבא דוד באתה תפלה שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי,וכיון שבאת תפלה באת עבודה שנאמר עולותיהם וזבחיהם לרצון על מזבחי וכיון שבאת עבודה באתה תודה שנאמר (תהלים נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני,ומה ראו לומר ברכת כהנים אחר הודאה דכתיב (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם וירד מעשות החטאת והעולה והשלמים,אימא קודם עבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב וירד מעשות החטאת וגו' מי כתיב לעשות מעשות כתיב,ולימרה אחר העבודה לא ס"ד דכתיב זובח תודה,מאי חזית דסמכת אהאי סמוך אהאי מסתברא עבודה והודאה חדא מילתא היא,ומה ראו לומר שים שלום אחר ברכת כהנים דכתיב (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי על בני ישראל ואני אברכם ברכה דהקב"ה שלום שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' יברך את עמו בשלום,וכי מאחר דמאה ועשרים זקנים ומהם כמה נביאים תקנו תפלה על הסדר שמעון הפקולי מאי הסדיר שכחום וחזר וסדרום,מכאן ואילך אסור לספר בשבחו של הקב"ה דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה למלל גבורות ה' למי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן המספר בשבחו של הקב"ה יותר מדאי נעקר מן העולם שנאמר (איוב לז, כ) היסופר לו כי אדבר אם אמר איש כי יבלע,דרש ר' יהודה איש כפר גבוריא ואמרי לה איש כפר גבור חיל מאי דכתיב (תהלים סה, ב) לך דומיה תהלה סמא דכולה משתוקא כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא מלה בסלע משתוקא בתרין:,קראה על פה לא יצא וכו': מנלן אמר רבא אתיא זכירה זכירה כתיב הכא והימים האלה נזכרים וכתיב התם (שמות יז, יד) כתב זאת זכרון בספר מה להלן בספר אף כאן בספר,וממאי דהאי זכירה קריאה היא דלמא עיון בעלמא לא סלקא דעתך (דכתיב) (דברים כה, יז) זכור יכול בלב כשהוא אומר לא תשכח הרי שכחת הלב אמור הא מה אני מקיים זכור בפה:,קראה תרגום לא יצא וכו': היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה מקרא וקרי לה תרגום היינו על פה לא צריכא דכתיבה תרגום וקרי לה תרגום:,אבל קורין אותה ללועזות בלעז וכו': והא אמרת קראה בכל לשון לא יצא רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו בלעז יווני,היכי דמי אילימא דכתיבה אשורית וקרי לה יוונית היינו על פה א"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר שכתובה בלעז יוונית,וא"ר אחא א"ר אלעזר מנין שקראו הקב"ה ליעקב אל שנאמר (בראשית לג, כ) ויקרא לו אל אלהי ישראל דאי סלקא דעתך למזבח קרא ליה יעקב אל ויקרא לו יעקב מיבעי ליה אלא ויקרא לו ליעקב אל ומי קראו אל אלהי ישראל,מיתיבי קראה גיפטית עברית עילמית מדית יוונית לא יצא,הא לא דמיא אלא להא גיפטית לגיפטים עברית לעברים עילמית לעילמים יוונית ליוונים יצא,אי הכי רב ושמואל אמאי מוקמי לה למתני' בלעז יוונית לוקמה בכל לעז [אלא מתניתין כברייתא] וכי איתמר דרב ושמואל בעלמא איתמר רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו לעז יווני לכל כשר,והא קתני יוונית ליוונים אין לכולי עלמא לא אינהו דאמור כרשב"ג דתנן רשב"ג אומר אף ספרים לא התירו שיכתבו אלא יוונית,ולימרו הלכה כרשב"ג אי אמרי הלכה כרשב"ג הוה אמינא הני מילי שאר ספרים אבל מגילה דכתיב בה ככתבם אימא לא קמ"ל:,והלועז ששמע אשורית יצא וכו': והא לא ידע מאי קאמרי מידי דהוה אנשים ועמי הארץ,מתקיף לה רבינא אטו אנן האחשתרנים בני הרמכים מי ידעינן אלא מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא הכא נמי מצות קריאה ופרסומי ניסא:,קראה סירוגין יצא וכו': לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי סירוגין שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דקאמרה להו לרבנן דהוי עיילי פסקי פסקי לבי רבי עד מתי אתם נכנסין סירוגין סירוגין,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי חלוגלוגות שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דאמרה ליה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מבדר פרפחיני עד מתי אתה מפזר חלוגלוגך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (משלי ד, ח) סלסלה ותרוממך שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לההוא גברא דהוה מהפך במזייה אמרה ליה עד מתי אתה מסלסל בשערך,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (תהלים נה, כג) השלך על ה' יהבך אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה אזילנא בהדי ההוא טייעא וקא דרינא טונא ואמר לי שקול יהביך ושדי אגמלאי,לא הוו ידעי רבנן מאי (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד שמעוה לאמתא דבי רבי דהוות אמרה לחברתה שקולי טאטיתא וטאטי ביתא,ת"ר קראה סירוגין יצא 18a. b“Afterward the children of Israel shall return, and seek the Lord their God and David their king”(Hosea 3:5), and consequently, the blessing of the kingdom of David follows the blessing of the building of Jerusalem. bAnd oncethe scion of bDavid comes,the time for bprayer will come, as it is stated: “I will bring them to My sacred mountain and make them joyful in My house of prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). Therefore, the blessing of hearing prayer is recited after the blessing of the kingdom of David., bAnd after prayer comes, theTemple bservice will arrive, as it is statedin the continuation of that verse: b“Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted on My altar”(Isaiah 56:7). The blessing of restoration of the Temple service follows the blessing of hearing prayer. bAnd when theTemple bservice comes,with it will also bcome thanksgiving, as it is stated: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offering honors Me”(Psalms 50:23), which teaches that thanksgiving follows sacrifice. Therefore, the blessing of thanksgiving follows the blessing of restoration of the Temple service., bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsays the Priestly Benediction afterthe blessing of bthanksgiving? As it is written: “And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people and blessed them, and he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings”(Leviticus 9:22), teaching that the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, which includes the thanks-offering.,The Gemara asks: But the cited verse indicates that Aaron blessed the people and then sacrificed the offerings. Should we not then bsaythe Priestly Benediction bbefore theblessing of the Temple bservice?The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “And he came down from sacrificing the sin-offering.” Is it writtenthat he came down bto sacrificethe offerings, implying that after blessing the people Aaron came down and sacrificed the offerings? No, bit is written, “from sacrificing,”indicating that the offerings had already been sacrificed.,The Gemara asks: If, as derived from this verse, the Priestly Benediction follows the sacrificial service, the Priestly Benediction should be bsaidimmediately bafterthe blessing of restoration of btheTemple bservice,without the interruption of the blessing of thanksgiving. The Gemara rejects this argument: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is written: “Whoever sacrifices a thanks-offeringhonors Me,” from which we learn that thanksgiving follows sacrifice, as already explained.,The Gemara asks: bWhat did you see to rely on thisverse and juxtapose thanksgiving with sacrifice? bRelyrather bon the otherverse, which indicates that it is the Priestly Benediction that should be juxtaposed with the sacrificial service. The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonto have the blessing of thanksgiving immediately following the blessing of the sacrificial service, since the sacrificial bservice and thanksgiving,which are closely related conceptually, bare one matter. /b, bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing beginning with the words: bGrant peace, after the Priestly Benediction? As it is writtenimmediately following the Priestly Benediction: b“And they shall put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them”(Numbers 6:27). The Priestly Benediction is followed by God’s blessing, and bthe blessing of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is peace, as it is stated: “The Lord blesses His people with peace”(Psalms 29:11).,The Gemara returns to the ibaraitacited at the beginning of the discussion: bNow, sincethe ibaraitateaches that ba hundred and twenty Elders, including many prophets, established the iAmida bprayer in itsfixed border, whatis it that bShimon HaPakuli arrangedin a much later period of time, as related by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: Indeed, the blessings of the iAmidaprayer were originally arranged by the hundred and twenty members of the Great Assembly, but over the course of time the people bforgot them, andShimon HaPakuli then barranged them again. /b,The Gemara comments: These nineteen blessings are a fixed number, and bbeyond this it is prohibitedfor one bto declare the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,by adding additional blessings to the iAmida /i. As bRabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who can utter the mighty acts of the Lord? Who can declare all His praise?”(Psalms 106:2)? It means: bFor whom is it fitting to utter the mighty acts of the Lord?Only bfor one who can declare all His praise.And since no one is capable of declaring all of God’s praises, we must suffice with the set formula established by the Sages., bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bone who excessively declares the praises of the Holy One, Blessed be He,his fate bisto be buprooted from the world,as it appears as if he had exhausted all of God’s praises. bAs it is stated: “Shall it be told to Him when I speak? If a man saysit, bhe would be swallowed up”(Job 37:20). The Gemara interprets the verse as saying: Can all of God’s praises be expressed when I speak? If a man would say such a thing, he would be “swallowed up” as punishment.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehuda, a man of Kefar Gibboraya, and some sayhe was ba man of Kefar Gibbor Ĥayil, taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For You silence is praise”(Psalms 65:2)? bThebest bremedy of all is silence,i.e., the optimum form of praising God is silence. The Gemara relates: bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Israel to Babylonia, bhe said: In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey sayan adage: If ba word isworth one isela /i, silence isworth btwo. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla bby heart he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRava said:This is bderivedby means of a verbal analogy between one instance of the term bremembranceand another instance of the term bremembrance. It is written here,with regard to the Megilla: b“That these days should be remembered”(Esther 9:28), band it is written elsewhere: “And the Lord said to Moses: Write this for a memorial in the book,and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: That I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under the heavens” (Exodus 17:14). bJust as there,with regard to Amalek, remembrance is referring specifically to something written bin a book,as it is stated, “in the book,” bso too here,the Megilla remembrance is through being written bin a book. /b,The Gemara raises a question: bBut from wheredo we know bthat this remembrancethat is stated with regard to Amalek and to the Megilla involves breadingit out loud from a book? bPerhapsit requires bmerely looking intothe book, reading it silently. The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did to you” (Deuteronomy 25:17). One bmighthave thought that it suffices for one to remember this silently, bin his heart.But this cannot be, since bwhen it sayssubsequently: b“You shall not forget”(Deuteronomy 25:19), bit isalready breferring to forgetting from the heart. How,then, bdo I upholdthe meaning of b“remember”?What does this command to remember add to the command to not forget? Therefore, it means that the remembrance must be expressed out loud, bwith the mouth. /b,§ It was taught further in the mishna: bIf one readthe Megilla binAramaic btranslation he has not fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written inthe original bbiblical text,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it inAramaic btranslation,then bthis isthe same as reading it bby heart,as he is not reading the words written in the text, and the mishna has already stated that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla by heart. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto teach this case as well, as it is referring to a case in which the Megilla bwas writtennot in the original Hebrew but binAramaic btranslation, and he read itas written, binAramaic btranslation. /b,§ The mishna continues: bHowever, for those who speak a foreign language, one may readthe Megilla binthat bforeign language.The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut didn’t you sayin the mishna: bIf he read it in anyother blanguage he has not fulfilledhis obligation? The Gemara cites the answer of bRav and Shmuel, who both say:When the mishna says: A foreign language, it is referring specifically to bthe Greek foreign language,which has a unique status with regard to biblical translation.,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof the case? bIf we say thatthe Megilla bwas written in iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, band he read it in Greek, this isthe same as reading it bby heart,and the mishna teaches that one does not fulfill his obligation by reading by heart. The Gemara answers: bRabbi Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:The mishna is dealing with a case in which the Megilla bwas written in the Greek foreign languageand was also read in that language.,Apropos statements in this line of tradition, the Gemara adds: bAnd Rabbi Aḥafurther bsaidthat bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, called Jacob El,meaning God? bAs it is stated:“And he erected there an altar, band he called it El, God of Israel”(Genesis 33:20). It is also possible to translate this as: And He, i.e., the God of Israel, called him, Jacob, El. Indeed, it must be understood this way, bas if it enters your mindto say that the verse should be understood as saying that bJacob called the altar El, it should havespecified the subject of the verb and written: bAnd Jacob called itEl. bButsince the verse is not written this way, the verse must be understood as follows: bHe called Jacob El; and who called him El? The God of Israel. /b,The Gemara returns to discussing languages for reading the Megilla and braises an objectionagainst Rav and Shmuel, who said that one may read the Megilla in Greek but not in other foreign languages. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bIf one readthe Megilla bin Coptic [ iGiptit /i], iIvrit /i, Elamite, Median, or Greek, he has not fulfilledhis obligation, indicating that one cannot fulfill his obligation by reading the Megilla in Greek.,The Gemara answers: The clause in the mishna that teaches that the Megilla may be read in a foreign language to one who speaks that foreign language bis comparable only to thatwhich was taught in a different ibaraita /i: If one reads the Megilla bin Coptic to Copts,in iIvritto iIvrim /i, in Elamite to Elamites, or in Greek to Greeks, he has fulfilledhis obligation. The Megilla may be read in any language, provided the listener understands that language.,The Gemara asks: But bif so,that one who reads the Megilla in a foreign language that he speaks fulfills his obligation, bwhy did Rav and Shmuel establish theruling of the bmishna asreferring specifically bto Greek? Let them interpret itas referring bto any foreign languagethat one speaks. The Gemara explains: bRather, the mishnais to be understood blike the ibaraita /i,that one who reads the Megilla in a language that he speaks fulfills his obligation; band that which was statedin the name of bRav and Shmuel was saidas a bgeneralstatement, not relating to the mishna but as an independent ruling, as follows: bRav and Shmuel both say: The Greek language is acceptable for everyone,i.e., anyone who reads the Megilla in Greek has fulfilled his obligation, even if he does not understand Greek.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut doesn’tthe ibaraitacited above bteachthat if one reads the Megilla in bGreek to Greekshe has fulfilled his obligation? This implies that reading in Greek, byes,this is acceptable for Greeks, but bfor everyoneelse, bno,it is not. The Gemara answers: Rav and Shmuel disagree with this statement of the ibaraita /i, because they bagree withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As we learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla8b): bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Evenfor bbooksof the Bible, the Sages bdid not permit them to be writtenin any foreign language bother than Greek,indicating that Greek has a special status, and is treated like the original Hebrew.,The Gemara asks: But if this was the intention of Rav and Shmuel, blet them stateexplicitly: bThe ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel.Why did Rav and Shmuel formulate their statement as if they were issuing a new ruling? The Gemara answers: bHad they saidsimply bthat the ihalakhais in accordance with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, I would have saidthat bthis appliesonly bto the other booksof the Bible, bbutwith regard to bthe Megilla, of which it is written: “According to their writing,” I would saythat one does bnotfulfill his obligation if he reads it in Greek. Therefore they stated their own opinion to bteach usthat even in the case of the Megilla one fulfills his obligation if he reads it in Greek.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one who speaks a foreign language who heardthe Megilla being read bin iAshurit /i,i.e., in Hebrew, bhas fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tit so that bhe does not understand what they are saying?Since he does not understand Hebrew, how does he fulfill his obligation? The Gemara answers: bIt is just as it iswith bwomen and uneducated people;they too understand little Hebrew, but nevertheless they fulfill their obligation when they hear the Megilla read in that language., bRavina strongly objects tothe premise of the question raised above, i.e., that someone who does not understand the original, untranslated language of the Megilla cannot fulfill his obligation. bIs that to saythat even bwe,the Sages, who are very well acquainted with Hebrew, bknowfor certain the meaning of the obscure words iha’aḥashteranim benei haramakhim /i(Esther 8:10), often translated as: “Used in the royal service, bred from the stud”? bButnevertheless, we fulfill the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing the miracleof Purim by reading these words as they appear in the original text. bHere too,one who speaks a foreign language who hears the Megilla being read in Hebrew fulfills the bmitzva of readingthe Megilla band publicizing thePurim bmiracle,even if he does not understand the words themselves.,§ The mishna continues: bIf one readsthe Megilla bat intervals[iseirugin/b] bhe has fulfilledhis obligation. The Gemara relates that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iseirugin /i.One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to the Sages who were entering the house intermittentlyrather than in a single group: bHow long are you going to enter iseirugin seirugin /i?As she lived in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s house and certainly heard the most proper Hebrew being spoken, they understood from this that the word iseiruginmeans at intervals.,It is similarly related that bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iḥalogelogot /i,which appears in various imishnayotand ibaraitot /i. One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to a certain man who was scattering purslane: How long will you go on scattering your iḥalogelogot /i?And from this they understood that iḥalogelogotis purslane.,Likewise, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by isalselehain the verse: “Get iwisdom…salselehaand it will exalt you”(Proverbs 4:7–8). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse talking to a certain man who was twirling his hair, saying to him: How long will you go on twirling[imesalsel/b] byour hair?And from this they understood that the verse is saying: Turn wisdom around and around, and it will exalt you.,The Gemara relates additional examples: bThe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word iyehavin the verse: b“Cast upon the Lord your iyehav /i”(Psalms 55:23). bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was traveling with a certain Arab[iTayya’a/b] band I was carrying a load, and he said to me: Take your iyehavand throw it on my camel,and I understood that iyehavmeans a load or burden.,And similarly, bthe Sages did not know what ismeant by the word imatateiin the verse: b“And I will itateiit with the imatateiof destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). One day bthey heard the maidservant in RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhouse saying to her friend: Take a itateitaand itatithe house,from which they understood that a imatateiis a broom, and the verb itatimeans to sweep.,On the matter of reading the Megilla with interruptions, bthe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bIf one reads the Megilla at intervals,pausing and resuming at intervals, bhe has fulfilledhis obligation.
19. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.17.1-9.17.9, 9.18.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
abraham, as a warrior Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
abraham, call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, discovers astrology and chaldean science Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
abraham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 20, 25
abraham (the hebrew) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
accad Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
adam Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
aeacidae Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
alexander polyhistor Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
amarphal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
ammonites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
angel/s, of presence Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
angels Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 102
aram Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
arioch Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
ashur Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
asshur Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
assyria Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
athens Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
babel, tower of Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 23, 25
babel Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
babylonia Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
belos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
bilingual(ism) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 102
build/building activity, tower in babylonia Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
calneh Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
cartography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
children of noah Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
chodollogomor Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 367, 368
confusion of tongues/languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
cosmology, of the gnostic world, revelation to judas of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
creation Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 102
cultural benefactor topos, abraham Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
cultural benefactor topos, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
david, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
dead sea scrolls Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
democracy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
diaspora\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
dispersed persons\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
dispersion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23, 25
divided kingdom Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
dominus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
edomites Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 221
elam Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
enoch Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
erech Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
etiology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
eupolemus, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
eusebius of caesarea Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
exile\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23, 25
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
flood/deluge, great/noahs, escape from, survival of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 20, 23, 25
geography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
giants, nephilim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
giants, og Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
giants, sihon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
ham Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
hellenism Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
hereditas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 25
historiography Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
holy tongue/language Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 23
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23, 25
isaac Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
itinerary\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23
japheth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
jerusalem temple, mystical traditions of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23, 25
jubilees Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
judas, mysteries of the kingdom revealed to Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
kingly power, chronology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
kingly power, literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
kingly power, names omitted in retelling Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
kingly power, the kings, victory over Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
knowledge\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
land, of babylonia Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
language, secret Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125, 147
latin Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
literature' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
lud Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
mesopotamia\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 25
military discourse Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
monarchy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
moses Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
motyer j.a. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 163
multilingualism Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 33
mystical traditions of judaism, role in gnosticism of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
nimrod Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
nineveh Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
ninus Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
noah, contrasted with the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
noah, escape from/survival of the flood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
noah Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
nomad\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23, 25
nomadic life\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
oligarchy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
patriarch\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
phoenicians, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, giants as flood survivors Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, greek bible as source Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, nimrod traditions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, sterling, g.e. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
phoenicians, tower of babel Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
priest Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 73
ps.-eupolemus, abraham as cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham as sophos and moral paradigm Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham in phoenicia Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus, abraham in three stages babylon, phoenicia, egypt Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
psalms, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 163
psalms, the psalm titles Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 163
pseudo-eupolemos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 634
rehoboth Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
republic, roman Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
sanctification Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 102
saul, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
sennaar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
seruitus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
seventy nations Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
shem Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 125
shinar Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125
shivar Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 147
solomon, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280
son, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 102
special knowledge/instruction motif Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
spirits Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 102
syntax, in the gospel of judas, that generation, Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 49
talmud Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30
thargal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 351
tower of babel Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 30, 33
traditions\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20
transience\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
traveler, group Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 23
tyranny Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 280