Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27-1.28


וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.


וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

207 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.12, 4.15-4.20, 4.24, 4.32, 5.7-5.9, 7.9, 10.12, 15.23, 17.17, 19.15, 21.15, 24.1-24.2, 30.15, 30.19, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃ 4.15. וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 4.16. פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃ 4.17. תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.18. תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.19. וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.24. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵשׁ אֹכְלָה הוּא אֵל קַנָּא׃ 4.32. כִּי שְׁאַל־נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד־קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם הֲנִהְיָה כַּדָּבָר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה אוֹ הֲנִשְׁמַע כָּמֹהוּ׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 7.9. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 15.23. רַק אֶת־דָּמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵל עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 21.15. כִּי־תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכוֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 30.15. רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַחַיִּים וְאֶת־הַטּוֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת־הָרָע׃ 30.19. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 4.12. And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice." 4.15. Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire—" 4.16. lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female," 4.17. the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven," 4.18. the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; ." 4.19. and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven." 4.20. But you hath the LORD taken and brought forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be unto Him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day." 4.24. For the LORD thy God is a devouring fire, a jealous God." 4.32. For ask now of the days past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?" 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 7.9. Know therefore that the LORD thy God, He is God; the faithful God, who keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations;" 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;" 15.23. Only thou shalt not eat the blood thereof; thou shalt pour it out upon the ground as water." 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 21.15. If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated;" 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 30.15. See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil," 30.19. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed;" 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14-3.16, 4.22, 6.5, 6.7, 12.48-12.49, 15.17-15.18, 16.7, 16.10, 16.23-16.30, 19.5, 20.3-20.5, 20.8-20.11, 23.20, 24.10, 24.16-24.17, 25.22, 26.7, 29.45-29.46, 31.2-31.3, 31.15-31.16, 32.6, 32.11, 32.16, 32.18, 32.26-32.28, 33.17-33.23, 34.14, 35.2, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.15. וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃ 3.16. לֵךְ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם נִרְאָה אֵלַי אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב לֵאמֹר פָּקֹד פָּקַדְתִּי אֶתְכֶם וְאֶת־הֶעָשׂוּי לָכֶם בְּמִצְרָיִם׃ 4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.5. וְגַם אֲנִי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־נַאֲקַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מִצְרַיִם מַעֲבִדִים אֹתָם וָאֶזְכֹּר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 6.7. וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לִי לְעָם וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלוֹת מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 16.7. וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו [תַלִּינוּ] עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 16.24. וַיַּנִּיחוּ אֹתוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה וְלֹא הִבְאִישׁ וְרִמָּה לֹא־הָיְתָה בּוֹ׃ 16.25. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אִכְלֻהוּ הַיּוֹם כִּי־שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאֻהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 16.26. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תִּלְקְטֻהוּ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לֹא יִהְיֶה־בּוֹ׃ 16.27. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יָצְאוּ מִן־הָעָם לִלְקֹט וְלֹא מָצָאוּ׃ 16.28. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עַד־אָנָה מֵאַנְתֶּם לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי׃ 16.29. רְאוּ כִּי־יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת עַל־כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.22. וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ שָׁם וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אוֹתְךָ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 26.7. וְעָשִׂיתָ יְרִיעֹת עִזִּים לְאֹהֶל עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן עַשְׁתֵּי־עֶשְׂרֵה יְרִיעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם׃ 29.45. וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 29.46. וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְשָׁכְנִי בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 31.2. רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 31.3. וָאֲמַלֵּא אֹתוֹ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָה׃ 31.15. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 31.16. וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לְדֹרֹתָם בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 32.6. וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ מִמָּחֳרָת וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיַּגִּשׁוּ שְׁלָמִים וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְשָׁתוֹ וַיָּקֻמוּ לְצַחֵק׃ 32.11. וַיְחַל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָה יְהוָה יֶחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ בְּעַמֶּךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹחַ גָּדוֹל וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 32.18. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין קוֹל עֲנוֹת גְּבוּרָה וְאֵין קוֹל עֲנוֹת חֲלוּשָׁה קוֹל עַנּוֹת אָנֹכִי שֹׁמֵעַ׃ 32.26. וַיַּעֲמֹד מֹשֶׁה בְּשַׁעַר הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מִי לַיהוָה אֵלָי וַיֵּאָסְפוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־בְּנֵי לֵוִי׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימוּ אִישׁ־חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בַּמַּחֲנֶה וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ־אֶת־אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבוֹ׃ 32.28. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־לֵוִי כִּדְבַר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּפֹּל מִן־הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי אִישׁ׃ 33.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה גַּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶעֱשֶׂה כִּי־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינַי וָאֵדָעֲךָ בְּשֵׁם׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל־הַצּוּר׃ 33.22. וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 34.14. כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר כִּי יְהוָה קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ אֵל קַנָּא הוּא׃ 35.2. וַיֵּצְאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִלִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה׃ 35.2. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִהְיֶה לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בוֹ מְלָאכָה יוּמָת׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.15. And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations." 3.16. Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, hath appeared unto me, saying: I have surely remembered you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt." 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 6.5. And moreover I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered My covet." 6.7. and I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians." 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof." 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’" 15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established." 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 16.7. and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’" 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud." 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 16.24. And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade; and it did not rot, neither was there any worm therein." 16.25. And Moses said: ‘Eat that to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the LORD; to-day ye shall not find it in the field." 16.26. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day is the sabbath, in it there shall be none.’" 16.27. And it came to pass on the seventh day, that there went out some of the people to gather, and they found none." 16.28. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘How long refuse ye to keep My commandments and My laws?" 16.29. See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.’" 16.30. So the people rested on the seventh day." 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;" 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 25.22. And there I will meet with thee, and I will speak with thee from above the ark-cover, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel." 26.7. And thou shalt make curtains of goats’hair for a tent over the tabernacle; eleven curtains shalt thou make them." 29.45. And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God." 29.46. And they shall know that I am the LORD their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them. I am the LORD their God." 31.2. ’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;" 31.3. and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship," 31.15. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." 31.16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covet." 32.6. And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to make merry." 32.11. And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said: ‘LORD, why doth Thy wrath wax hot against Thy people, that Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?" 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables." 32.18. And he said: ‘It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome, but the noise of them that sing do I hear.’" 32.26. then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said: ‘Whoso is on the LORD’S side, let him come unto me.’ And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him." 32.27. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’" 32.28. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses; and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men." 33.17. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken, for thou hast found grace in My sight, and I know thee by name.’" 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 33.21. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock." 33.22. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by." 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’" 34.14. For thou shalt bow down to no other god; for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God;" 35.2. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a sabbath of solemn rest to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work therein shall be put to death." 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15" \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 1.1 1.1 1 1 \n3 1.1-2.4 1.1 1 1 \n4 1.10 1.10 1 10 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n220 9.5 9.5 9 5 \n221 9.6 9.6 9 6 \n222 9.7 9.7 9 7 \n223 9.8 9.8 9 8 \n224 9.9 9.9 9 9 \n\n[225 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.9. לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה חֲרוֹן אַפִּי לֹא אָשׁוּב לְשַׁחֵת אֶפְרָיִם כִּי אֵל אָנֹכִי וְלֹא־אִישׁ בְּקִרְבְּךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא אָבוֹא בְּעִיר׃ 11.9. I will not execute the fierceness of Mine anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim; For I am God, and not man, The Holy One in the midst of thee; And I will not come in fury."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12, 6.10, 12.10, 28.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 28.26. בַּעֲשֹׂתוֹ לַמָּטָר חֹק וְדֶרֶךְ לַחֲזִיז קֹלוֹת׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof." 6.10. Then should I yet have comfort; yea, I would exult in pain, though He spare not; For I have not denied the words of the Holy One." 12.10. In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, And the breath of all mankind.—" 28.26. When He made a decree for the rain, And a way for the storm of thunders;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.1, 9.6, 9.23, 10.10, 11.27, 11.45, 11.47, 12.6, 15.29, 17.3, 17.11, 18.3, 18.18, 18.20, 18.22, 19.4, 19.17, 19.19, 19.24, 20.13, 21.14-21.15, 24.22, 26.6, 26.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן־הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃ 1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 9.6. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה תַּעֲשׂוּ וְיֵרָא אֲלֵיכֶם כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 9.23. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּצְאוּ וַיְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם׃ 11.27. וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.45. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי׃ 11.47. לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃ 12.6. וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח־לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 17.3. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז בַּמַּחֲנֶה אוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 18.3. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃ 18.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ׃ 18.22. וְאֶת־זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה הִוא׃ 19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 20.13. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־זָכָר מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה עָשׂוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מוֹת יוּמָתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 21.15. וְלֹא־יְחַלֵּל זַרְעוֹ בְּעַמָּיו כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשׁוֹ׃ 24.22. מִשְׁפַּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח יִהְיֶה כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.6. וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּם וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְחֶרֶב לֹא־תַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצְכֶם׃ 26.11. וְנָתַתִּי מִשְׁכָּנִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְלֹא־תִגְעַל נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.1. And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:" 9.6. And Moses said: ‘This is the thing which the LORD commanded that ye should do; that the glory of the LORD may appear unto you.’" 9.23. And Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting, and came out, and blessed the people; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people." 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 11.27. And whatsoever goeth upon its paws, among all beasts that go on all fours, they are unclean unto you; whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even." 11.45. For I am the LORD that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. ." 11.47. to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten." 12.6. And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest." 15.29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 17.3. What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it without the camp," 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 18.3. After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes." 18.18. And thou shalt not take a woman to her sister, to be a rival to her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her lifetime." 18.20. And thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her." 18.22. Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind; it is abomination." 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 20.13. And if a man lie with mankind, as with womankind, both of them have committed abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them." 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife." 21.15. And he shall not profane his seed among his people; for I am the LORD who sanctify him." 24.22. Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for the home-born; for I am the LORD your God.’" 26.6. And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid; and I will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land, neither shall the sword go through your land." 26.11. And I will set My tabernacle among you, and My soul shall not abhor you."
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וּמִי מְכַלְכֵּל אֶת־יוֹם בּוֹאוֹ וּמִי הָעֹמֵד בְּהֵרָאוֹתוֹ כִּי־הוּא כְּאֵשׁ מְצָרֵף וּכְבֹרִית מְכַבְּסִים׃ 3.2. וְזָרְחָה לָכֶם יִרְאֵי שְׁמִי שֶׁמֶשׁ צְדָקָה וּמַרְפֵּא בִּכְנָפֶיהָ וִיצָאתֶם וּפִשְׁתֶּם כְּעֶגְלֵי מַרְבֵּק׃ 3.2. But who may abide the day of his coming? And who shall stand when he appeareth? For he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’soap;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.2, 7.1, 9.14, 11.29, 14.10, 15.35, 16.19, 20.6, 21.6-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַפְלִא לִנְדֹּר נֶדֶר נָזִיר לְהַזִּיר לַיהוָה׃ 6.2. וְהֵנִיף אוֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה קֹדֶשׁ הוּא לַכֹּהֵן עַל חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְעַל שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וְאַחַר יִשְׁתֶּה הַנָּזִיר יָיִן׃ 7.1. וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂאִים אֵת חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִם אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 7.1. וַיְהִי בְּיוֹם כַּלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לְהָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וַיִּמְשָׁחֵם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם׃ 9.14. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּכֶם גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה כְּחֻקַּת הַפֶּסַח וּכְמִשְׁפָּטוֹ כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה חֻקָּה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְלַגֵּר וּלְאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 15.35. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה מוֹת יוּמַת הָאִישׁ רָגוֹם אֹתוֹ בָאֲבָנִים כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 16.19. וַיַּקְהֵל עֲלֵיהֶם קֹרַח אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 20.6. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן מִפְּנֵי הַקָּהָל אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 6.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When either man or woman shall clearly utter a vow, the vow of a Nazirite, to consecrate himself unto the LORD," 7.1. And it came to pass on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle, and had anointed it and sanctified it, and all the furniture thereof, and the altar and all the vessels thereof, and had anointed them and sanctified them;" 9.14. And if a stranger shall sojourn among you, and will keep the passover unto the LORD: according to the statute of the passover, and according to the ordice thereof, so shall he do; ye shall have one statute, both for the stranger, and for him that is born in the land.’" 11.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’" 14.10. But all the congregation bade stone them with stones, when the glory of the LORD appeared in the tent of meeting unto all the children of Israel." 15.35. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘The man shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp.’" 16.19. And Korah assembled all the congregation against them unto the door of the tent of meeting; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the congregation." 20.6. And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tent of meeting, and fell upon their faces; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto them." 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.9, 3.19, 8.22-8.31, 11.13, 12.22, 20.6, 26.18, 27.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. כַּבֵּד אֶת־יְהוָה מֵהוֹנֶךָ וּמֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־תְּבוּאָתֶךָ׃ 3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 11.13. הוֹלֵךְ רָכִיל מְגַלֶּה־סּוֹד וְנֶאֱמַן־רוּחַ מְכַסֶּה דָבָר׃ 12.22. תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה שִׂפְתֵי־שָׁקֶר וְעֹשֵׂי אֱמוּנָה רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 20.6. רָב־אָדָם יִקְרָא אִישׁ חַסְדּוֹ וְאִישׁ אֱמוּנִים מִי יִמְצָא׃ 26.18. כְּמִתְלַהְלֵהַּ הַיֹּרֶה זִקִּים חִצִּים וָמָוֶת׃ 27.6. נֶאֱמָנִים פִּצְעֵי אוֹהֵב וְנַעְתָּרוֹת נְשִׁיקוֹת שׂוֹנֵא׃ 3.9. Honour the LORD with thy substance, And with the first-fruits of all thine increase;" 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 11.13. He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets; But he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth a matter." 12.22. Lying lips are an abomination to the LORD; But they that deal truly are His delight. ." 20.6. Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness; but a faithful man who can find?" 26.18. As a madman who casteth firebrands, Arrows, and death;" 27.6. Faithful are the wounds of a friend; But the kisses of an enemy are importunate."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1-1.2, 2.7, 8.5-8.8, 18.8, 22.3, 32.6, 36.4, 39.7, 60.14, 82.6, 89.18, 89.20-89.37, 94.9, 95.4-95.5, 95.9, 104.1-104.2, 104.4, 104.20-104.21, 104.24-104.26, 110.1, 115.11, 117.24, 139.5, 139.16, 148.2, 148.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃ 1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 18.8. וַתִּגְעַשׁ וַתִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וּמוֹסְדֵי הָרִים יִרְגָּזוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ כִּי־חָרָה לוֹ׃ 22.3. אָכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ כָּל־דִּשְׁנֵי־אֶרֶץ לְפָנָיו יִכְרְעוּ כָּל־יוֹרְדֵי עָפָר וְנַפְשׁוֹ לֹא חִיָּה׃ 22.3. אֱ‍לֹהַי אֶקְרָא יוֹמָם וְלֹא תַעֲנֶה וְלַיְלָה וְלֹא־דוּמִיָּה לִי׃ 32.6. עַל־זֹאת יִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל־חָסִיד אֵלֶיךָ לְעֵת מְצֹא רַק לְשֵׁטֶף מַיִם רַבִּים אֵלָיו לֹא יַגִּיעוּ׃ 36.4. דִּבְרֵי־פִיו אָוֶן וּמִרְמָה חָדַל לְהַשְׂכִּיל לְהֵיטִיב׃ 39.7. אַךְ־בְּצֶלֶם יִתְהַלֶּךְ־אִישׁ אַךְ־הֶבֶל יֶהֱמָיוּן יִצְבֹּר וְלֹא־יֵדַע מִי־אֹסְפָם׃ 60.14. בֵּאלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה־חָיִל וְהוּא יָבוּס צָרֵינוּ׃ 82.6. אֲ‍נִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 89.18. כִּי־תִפְאֶרֶת עֻזָּמוֹ אָתָּה וּבִרְצֹנְךָ תרים [תָּרוּם] קַרְנֵנוּ׃ 89.21. מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו׃ 89.22. אֲשֶׁר יָדִי תִּכּוֹן עִמּוֹ אַף־זְרוֹעִי תְאַמְּצֶנּוּ׃ 89.23. לֹא־יַשִּׁא אוֹיֵב בּוֹ וּבֶן־עַוְלָה לֹא יְעַנֶּנּוּ׃ 89.24. וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃ 89.25. וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃ 89.26. וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃ 89.27. הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃ 89.28. אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 89.29. לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃ 89.31. אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃ 89.32. אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 89.33. וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃ 89.34. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃ 89.35. לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃ 89.36. אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃ 89.37. זַרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה וְכִסְאוֹ כַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נֶגְדִּי׃ 94.9. הֲנֹטַע אֹזֶן הֲלֹא יִשְׁמָע אִם־יֹצֵר עַיִן הֲלֹא יַבִּיט׃ 95.4. אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ מֶחְקְרֵי־אָרֶץ וְתוֹעֲפוֹת הָרִים לוֹ׃ 95.5. אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַיָּם וְהוּא עָשָׂהוּ וְיַבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ׃ 95.9. אֲשֶׁר נִסּוּנִי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּחָנוּנִי גַּם־רָאוּ פָעֳלִי׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 104.2. תָּשֶׁת־חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ־תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־יָעַר׃ 104.2. עֹטֶה־אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 104.21. הַכְּפִירִים שֹׁאֲגִים לַטָּרֶף וּלְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֵל אָכְלָם׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 104.25. זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם־רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם־גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 104.26. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 115.11. יִרְאֵי יְהוָה בִּטְחוּ בַיהוָה עֶזְרָם וּמָגִנָּם הוּא׃ 139.5. אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה׃ 139.16. גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וְעַל־סִפְרְךָ כֻּלָּם יִכָּתֵבוּ יָמִים יֻצָּרוּ ולא [וְלוֹ] אֶחָד בָּהֶם׃ 148.2. הַלְלוּהוּ כָל־מַלְאָכָיו הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־צבאו [צְבָאָיו׃] 148.6. וַיַּעֲמִידֵם לָעַד לְעוֹלָם חָק־נָתַן וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 1.1. HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful." 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 18.8. Then the earth did shake and quake, the foundations also of the mountains did tremble; they were shaken, because He was wroth." 22.3. O my God, I call by day, but Thou answerest not; and at night, and there is no surcease for me." 32.6. For this let every one that is godly pray unto Thee in a time when Thou mayest be found; Surely, when the great waters overflow, they will not reach unto him." 36.4. The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit; He hath left off to be wise, to do good." 39.7. Surely man walketh as a mere semblance; surely for vanity they are in turmoil; He heapeth up riches, and knoweth not who shall gather them." 60.14. Through God we shall do valiantly; For He it is that will tread down our adversaries." 82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High." 89.18. For Thou art the glory of their strength; And in Thy favour our horn is exalted." 89.20. Then Thou spokest in vision to Thy godly ones, And saidst: 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people." 89.21. I have found David My servant; With My holy oil have I anointed him;" 89.22. With whom My hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him." 89.23. The enemy shall not exact from him; Nor the son of wickedness afflict him." 89.24. And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him." 89.25. But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted." 89.26. I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers." 89.27. He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. ." 89.28. I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth." 89.29. For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him." 89.30. His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven." 89.31. If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; :" 89.32. If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments;" 89.33. Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes." 89.34. But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness." 89.35. My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips." 89.36. Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David;" 89.37. His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before Me." 94.9. He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?" 95.4. In whose hand are the depths of the earth; The heights of the mountains are His also." 95.5. The sea is His, and He made it; And His hands formed the dry land." 95.9. When your fathers tried Me, Proved Me, even though they saw My work." 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty." 104.2. Who coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain;" 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers." 104.20. Thou makest darkness, and it is night, Wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth." 104.21. The young lions roar after their prey, And seek their food from God." 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures." 104.25. Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great." 104.26. There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 115.11. Ye that fear the LORD, trust in the LORD! He is their help and their shield." 139.5. Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me." 139.16. Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance, And in Thy book they were all written— Even the days that were fashioned, When as yet there was none of them." 148.2. Praise ye Him, all His angels; Praise ye Him, all His hosts." 148.6. He hath also established them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree which shall not be transgressed."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.15. וְהָיָה לָךְ לְמֵשִׁיב נֶפֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּל אֶת־שֵׂיבָתֵךְ כִּי כַלָּתֵךְ אֲ‍שֶׁר־אֲהֵבַתֶךְ יְלָדַתּוּ אֲשֶׁר־הִיא טוֹבָה לָךְ מִשִּׁבְעָה בָּנִים׃ 4.15. And he shall be unto thee a restorer of life, and a nourisher of thine old age; for thy daughter-in-law, who loveth thee, who is better to thee than seven sons, hath borne him.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.46, 8.11, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.11. וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת מִפְּנֵי הֶעָנָן כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 8.11. so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; for the glory of the LORD filled the house of the LORD." 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1, 2.6-2.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו [מְרִיבָיו] עלו [עָלָיו] בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃ 2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 2.7. יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃ 2.8. מֵקִים מֵעָפָר דָּל מֵאַשְׁפֹּת יָרִים אֶבְיוֹן לְהוֹשִׁיב עִם־נְדִיבִים וְכִסֵּא כָבוֹד יַנְחִלֵם כִּי לַיהוָה מְצֻקֵי אֶרֶץ וַיָּשֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶם תֵּבֵל׃ 2.1. And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation." 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up." 2.7. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up." 2.8. He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he has set the world upon them."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.22. אֶת־מִי חֵרַפְתָּ וְגִדַּפְתָּ וְעַל־מִי הֲרִימוֹתָ קּוֹל וַתִּשָּׂא מָרוֹם עֵינֶיךָ עַל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.22. Whom hast thou taunted and Blasphemed? And against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? Yea, thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high, Even against the Holy One of Israel!"
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 5.13, 6.23, 7.14, 11.1-12.25, 12.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13, 5.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

4.13. כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 4.13. For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name." 5.10. They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly."
17. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.12, 3.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.12. הֲלוֹא אַתָּה מִקֶּדֶם יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי קְדֹשִׁי לֹא נָמוּת יְהוָה לְמִשְׁפָּט שַׂמְתּוֹ וְצוּר לְהוֹכִיחַ יְסַדְתּוֹ׃ 3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.12. Art not Thou from everlasting, O LORD my God, my Holy One? We shall not die. O LORD, Thou hast ordained them for judgment, And Thou, O Rock, hast established them for correction. ." 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."
18. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.4, 2.4, 5.24, 10.20, 12.6, 14.29, 29.13, 29.19, 29.23, 30.6, 30.15, 31.1, 35.2, 37.23, 40.12, 40.25, 41.14, 41.20, 42.1, 43.3-43.4, 43.14-43.15, 45.11, 47.4, 49.7, 53.4, 53.11, 54.5, 55.5, 59.5, 60.9, 60.14, 64.10, 66.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. הוֹי גּוֹי חֹטֵא עַם כֶּבֶד עָוֺן זֶרַע מְרֵעִים בָּנִים מַשְׁחִיתִים עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה נִאֲצוּ אֶת־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָזֹרוּ אָחוֹר׃ 2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 5.24. לָכֵן כֶּאֱכֹל קַשׁ לְשׁוֹן אֵשׁ וַחֲשַׁשׁ לֶהָבָה יִרְפֶּה שָׁרְשָׁם כַּמָּק יִהְיֶה וּפִרְחָם כָּאָבָק יַעֲלֶה כִּי מָאֲסוּ אֵת תּוֹרַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְאֵת אִמְרַת קְדוֹשׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל נִאֵצוּ׃ 12.6. צַהֲלִי וָרֹנִּי יוֹשֶׁבֶת צִיּוֹן כִּי־גָדוֹל בְּקִרְבֵּךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 29.19. וְיָסְפוּ עֲנָוִים בַּיהוָה שִׂמְחָה וְאֶבְיוֹנֵי אָדָם בִּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל יָגִילוּ׃ 29.23. כִּי בִרְאֹתוֹ יְלָדָיו מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי בְּקִרְבּוֹ יַקְדִּישׁוּ שְׁמִי וְהִקְדִּישׁוּ אֶת־קְדוֹשׁ יַעֲקֹב וְאֶת־אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲרִיצוּ׃ 30.6. מַשָּׂא בַּהֲמוֹת נֶגֶב בְּאֶרֶץ צָרָה וְצוּקָה לָבִיא וָלַיִשׁ מֵהֶם אֶפְעֶה וְשָׂרָף מְעוֹפֵף יִשְׂאוּ עַל־כֶּתֶף עֲיָרִים חֵילֵהֶם וְעַל־דַּבֶּשֶׁת גְּמַלִּים אוֹצְרֹתָם עַל־עַם לֹא יוֹעִילוּ׃ 30.15. כִּי כֹה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשׁוּבָה וָנַחַת תִּוָּשֵׁעוּן בְּהַשְׁקֵט וּבְבִטְחָה תִּהְיֶה גְּבוּרַתְכֶם וְלֹא אֲבִיתֶם׃ 31.1. הוֹי הַיֹּרְדִים מִצְרַיִם לְעֶזְרָה עַל־סוּסִים יִשָּׁעֵנוּ וַיִּבְטְחוּ עַל־רֶכֶב כִּי רָב וְעַל פָּרָשִׁים כִּי־עָצְמוּ מְאֹד וְלֹא שָׁעוּ עַל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־יְהוָה לֹא דָרָשׁוּ׃ 35.2. פָּרֹחַ תִּפְרַח וְתָגֵל אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן נִתַּן־לָהּ הֲדַר הַכַּרְמֶל וְהַשָּׁרוֹן הֵמָּה יִרְאוּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָה הֲדַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 37.23. אֶת־מִי חֵרַפְתָּ וְגִדַּפְתָּ וְעַל־מִי הֲרִימוֹתָה קּוֹל וַתִּשָּׂא מָרוֹם עֵינֶיךָ אֶל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 40.12. מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃ 40.25. וְאֶל־מִי תְדַמְּיוּנִי וְאֶשְׁוֶה יֹאמַר קָדוֹשׁ׃ 41.14. אַל־תִּירְאִי תּוֹלַעַת יַעֲקֹב מְתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי עֲזַרְתִּיךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 43.3. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹשִׁיעֶךָ נָתַתִּי כָפְרְךָ מִצְרַיִם כּוּשׁ וּסְבָא תַּחְתֶּיךָ׃ 43.4. מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וַאֲנִי אֲהַבְתִּיךָ וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ וּלְאֻמִּים תַּחַת נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 43.14. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה גֹּאַלְכֶם קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַעַנְכֶם שִׁלַּחְתִּי בָבֶלָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי בָרִיחִים כֻּלָּם וְכַשְׂדִּים בָּאֳנִיּוֹת רִנָּתָם׃ 43.15. אֲנִי יְהוָה קְדוֹשְׁכֶם בּוֹרֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלְכְּכֶם׃ 45.11. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃ 47.4. גֹּאֲלֵנוּ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.7. כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃ 53.4. אָכֵן חֳלָיֵנוּ הוּא נָשָׂא וּמַכְאֹבֵינוּ סְבָלָם וַאֲנַחְנוּ חֲשַׁבְנֻהוּ נָגוּעַ מֻכֵּה אֱלֹהִים וּמְעֻנֶּה׃ 53.11. מֵעֲמַל נַפְשׁוֹ יִרְאֶה יִשְׂבָּע בְּדַעְתּוֹ יַצְדִּיק צַדִּיק עַבְדִּי לָרַבִּים וַעֲוֺנֹתָם הוּא יִסְבֹּל׃ 54.5. כִּי בֹעֲלַיִךְ עֹשַׂיִךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ יִקָּרֵא׃ 55.5. הֵן גּוֹי לֹא־תֵדַע תִּקְרָא וְגוֹי לֹא־יְדָעוּךָ אֵלֶיךָ יָרוּצוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְלִקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי פֵאֲרָךְ׃ 60.9. כִּי־לִי אִיִּים יְקַוּוּ וָאֳנִיּוֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ בָּרִאשֹׁנָה לְהָבִיא בָנַיִךְ מֵרָחוֹק כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם אִתָּם לְשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהַיִךְ וְלִקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי פֵאֲרָךְ׃ 60.14. וְהָלְכוּ אֵלַיִךְ שְׁחוֹחַ בְּנֵי מְעַנַּיִךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ עַל־כַּפּוֹת רַגְלַיִךְ כָּל־מְנַאֲצָיִךְ וְקָרְאוּ לָךְ עִיר יְהוָה צִיּוֹן קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 66.1. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 66.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי־זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ־לִי וְאֵי־זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי׃ 1.4. Ah sinful nation, A people laden with iniquity, A seed of evil-doers, Children that deal corruptly; They have forsaken the LORD, They have contemned the Holy One of Israel, They are turned away backward." 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 5.24. Therefore as the tongue of fire devoureth the stubble, And as the chaff is consumed in the flame, So their root shall be as rottenness, And their blossom shall go up as dust; Because they have rejected the law of the LORD of hosts, And contemned the word of the Holy One of Israel." 10.20. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the remt of Israel, And they that are escaped of the house of Jacob, Shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; But shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth." 12.6. Cry aloud and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion, For great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.’" 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;" 29.19. The humble also shall increase their joy in the LORD, and the neediest among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel." 29.23. When he seeth his children, the work of My hands, in the midst of him, That they sanctify My name; yea, they shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, And shall stand in awe of the God of Israel." 30.6. The burden of the beasts of the South. Through the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the lioness and the lion, the viper and flying serpent, they carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the humps of camels, to a people that shall not profit them." 30.15. For thus said the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel: In sitting still and rest shall ye be saved, in quietness and in confidence shall be your strength; And ye would not." 31.1. Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help, And rely on horses, And trust in chariots, because they are many, And in horsemen, because they are exceeding mighty; But they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, Neither seek the LORD!" 35.2. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice, Even with joy and singing; The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, The excellency of Carmel and Sharon; They shall see the glory of the LORD, The excellency of our God." 37.23. Whom hast thou taunted and blasphemed? And against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? Yea, thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high, Even against the Holy One of Israel!" 40.12. Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?" 40.25. To whom then will ye liken Me, that I should be equal? Saith the Holy One." 41.14. Fear not, thou worm Jacob, And ye men of Israel; I help thee, saith the LORD, And thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel." 41.20. That they may see, and know, And consider, and understand together, That the hand of the LORD hath done this, And the Holy One of Israel hath created it." 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 43.3. For I am the LORD thy God, The Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour; I have given Egypt as thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee." 43.4. Since thou art precious in My sight, and honourable, and I have loved thee; Therefore will I give men for thee, And peoples for thy life." 43.14. Thus saith the LORD, your Redeemer, The Holy One of Israel: For your sake I have sent to Babylon, And I will bring down all of them as fugitives, even the Chaldeans, in the ships of their shouting." 43.15. I am the LORD, your Holy One, The Creator of Israel, your King." 45.11. Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." 47.4. Our Redeemer, the LORD of hosts is His name, The Holy One of Israel." 49.7. Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee." 53.4. Surely our diseases he did bear, and our pains he carried; Whereas we did esteem him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted." 53.11. of the travail of his soul he shall see to the full, even My servant, Who by his knowledge did justify the Righteous One to the many, And their iniquities he did bear." 54.5. For thy Maker is thy husband, The LORD of hosts is His name; And the Holy One of Israel is thy Redeemer, The God of the whole earth shall He be called." 55.5. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, And a nation that knew not thee shall run unto thee; Because of the LORD thy God, And for the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified thee." 60.9. Surely the isles shall wait for Me, And the ships of Tarshish first, To bring thy sons from far, Their silver and their gold with them, For the name of the LORD thy God, And for the Holy One of Israel, because He hath glorified thee." 60.14. And the sons of them that afflicted thee Shall come bending unto thee, And all they that despised thee shall bow down At the soles of thy feet; And they shall call thee The city of the LORD, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel." 66.1. Thus saith the LORD: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place?"
19. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.22, 28.6, 31.35-31.36, 33.25, 35.6, 50.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.22. הַאוֹתִי לֹא־תִירָאוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם חָק־עוֹלָם וְלֹא יַעַבְרֶנְהוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ וְלֹא יוּכָלוּ וְהָמוּ גַלָּיו וְלֹא יַעַבְרֻנְהוּ׃ 28.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אָמֵן כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה יָקֵם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לְהָשִׁיב כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה וְכָל־הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 31.36. אִם־יָמֻשׁוּ הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה גַּם זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁבְּתוּ מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי לְפָנַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 33.25. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־לֹא בְרִיתִי יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה חֻקּוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ לֹא־שָׂמְתִּי׃ 50.29. הַשְׁמִיעוּ אֶל־בָּבֶל רַבִּים כָּל־דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת חֲנוּ עָלֶיהָ סָבִיב אַל־יְהִי־[לָהּ] פְּלֵטָה שַׁלְּמוּ־לָהּ כְּפָעֳלָהּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עֲשׂוּ־לָהּ כִּי אֶל־יְהוָה זָדָה אֶל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.22. Fear ye not Me? saith the LORD; Will ye not tremble at My presence? Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, An everlasting ordice, which it cannot pass; And though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; Though they roar, yet can they not pass over it." 28.6. even the prophet Jeremiah said: ‘Amen! the LORD do so! the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring back the vessels of the LORD’S house, and all them that are carried away captive, from Babylon unto this place!" 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:" 31.36. If these ordices depart from before Me, Saith the LORD, Then the seed of Israel also shall cease From being a nation before Me for ever." 33.25. Thus saith the LORD: If My covet be not with day and night, if I have not appointed the ordices of heaven and earth;" 50.29. Call together the archers against Babylon, All them that bend the bow; Encamp against her round about, Let none thereof escape; Recompense her according to her work, According to all that she hath done, do unto her: For she hath been arrogant against the LORD, Against the Holy One of Israel. ."
20. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִי שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־יָבֹא דבריך [דְבָרְךָ] וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ׃ 13.17. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour?"
21. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. כָּל־עַמָּהּ נֶאֱנָחִים מְבַקְּשִׁים לֶחֶם נָתְנוּ מחמודיהם [מַחֲמַדֵּיהֶם] בְּאֹכֶל לְהָשִׁיב נָפֶשׁ רְאֵה יְהוָה וְהַבִּיטָה כִּי הָיִיתִי זוֹלֵלָה׃ 1.11. All her people are sighing [as] they search for bread; they gave away their treasures for food to revive the soul; see, O Lord, and behold, how I have become worthless. "
22. Homer, Odyssey, 8.267-8.270 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.5-1.10, 1.26-1.28, 3.12, 10.4, 10.18, 11.19, 11.23, 16.49-16.50, 33.25, 34.23-34.30, 36.26-36.27, 37.6, 37.14, 43.4, 44.4 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.5. וּמִתּוֹכָהּ דְּמוּת אַרְבַּע חַיּוֹת וְזֶה מַרְאֵיהֶן דְּמוּת אָדָם לָהֵנָּה׃ 1.6. וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָת וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם לְאַחַת לָהֶם׃ 1.7. וְרַגְלֵיהֶם רֶגֶל יְשָׁרָה וְכַף רַגְלֵיהֶם כְּכַף רֶגֶל עֵגֶל וְנֹצְצִים כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל׃ 1.8. וידו [וִידֵי] אָדָם מִתַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם עַל אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם׃ 1.9. חֹבְרֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ כַּנְפֵיהֶם לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ בְלֶכְתָּן אִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ׃ 1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 3.12. וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַע אַחֲרַי קוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל בָּרוּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ׃ 10.4. וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 10.18. וַיֵּצֵא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 11.19. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 11.23. וַיַּעַל כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל תּוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הָהָר אֲשֶׁר מִקֶּדֶם לָעִיר׃ 16.49. הִנֵּה־זֶה הָיָה עֲוֺן סְדֹם אֲחוֹתֵךְ גָּאוֹן שִׂבְעַת־לֶחֶם וְשַׁלְוַת הַשְׁקֵט הָיָה לָהּ וְלִבְנוֹתֶיהָ וְיַד־עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לֹא הֶחֱזִיקָה׃ 33.25. לָכֵן אֱמֹר אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה עַל־הַדָּם תֹּאכֵלוּ וְעֵינֵכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְדָם תִּשְׁפֹּכוּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּירָשׁוּ׃ 34.23. וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃ 34.24. וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 34.25. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה־רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר לָבֶטַח וְיָשְׁנוּ בַּיְּעָרִים׃ 34.26. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם וּסְבִיבוֹת גִּבְעָתִי בְּרָכָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי הַגֶּשֶׁם בְּעִתּוֹ גִּשְׁמֵי בְרָכָה יִהְיוּ׃ 34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.28. וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד בַּז לַגּוֹיִם וְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלֵם וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 34.29. וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 43.4. וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה בָּא אֶל־הַבָּיִת דֶּרֶךְ שַׁעַר אֲשֶׁר פָּנָיו דֶּרֶךְ הַקָּדִים׃ 44.4. וַיְבִיאֵנִי דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר הַצָּפוֹן אֶל־פְּנֵי הַבַּיִת וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה וָאֶפֹּל אֶל־פָּנָי׃ 1.5. And out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the likeness of a man." 1.6. And every one had four faces, and every one of them had four wings." 1.7. And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot; and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass." 1.8. And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and as for the faces and wings of them four," 1.9. their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward." 1.10. As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle." 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke." 3.12. Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: ‘Blessed be the glory of the LORD from His place’;" 10.4. And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory." 10.18. And the glory of the LORD went forth from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubim." 11.19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh;" 11.23. And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city." 16.49. Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom: pride, fulness of bread, and careless ease was in her and in her daughters; neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy." 16.50. And they were haughty, and committed abomination before Me; therefore I removed them when I saw it." 33.25. Wherefore say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD. Ye eat with the blood, and lift up your eyes unto your idols, and shed blood; and shall ye possess the land?" 34.23. And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd." 34.24. And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken." 34.25. And I will make with them a covet of peace, and will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land; and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods." 34.26. And I will make them and the places round about My hill a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in its season; there shall be showers of blessing." 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them." 34.28. And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the earth devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid." 34.29. And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more." 34.30. And they shall know that I the LORD their God am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people, saith the Lord GOD." 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’" 43.4. And the glory of the LORD came into the house by the way of the gate whose prospect is toward the east." 44.4. Then he brought me the way of the north gate before the house; and I looked, and, behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house of the LORD; and I fell upon my face."
24. Anaxagoras, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25. Diogenes of Apollonia, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26. Euripides, Bacchae, 1346, 1345 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1345. ὄψʼ ἐμάθεθʼ ἡμᾶς, ὅτε δὲ χρῆν, οὐκ ᾔδετε. Κάδμος 1345. You have learned it too late; you did not know it when you should have. Kadmo
27. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 1345 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1345. For the deity, if he be really such, has no wants; these are miserable tales of the poets. But I, for all my piteous plight, reflected whether I should let myself be branded as a coward for giving up my life. For whoever does not withstand disaster
28. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 3.1-3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וּבֶן־שְׁלֹמֹה רְחַבְעָם אֲבִיָּה בְנוֹ אָסָא בְנוֹ יְהוֹשָׁפָט בְּנוֹ׃ 3.1. וְאֵלֶּה הָיוּ בְּנֵי דָויִד אֲשֶׁר נוֹלַד־לוֹ בְּחֶבְרוֹן הַבְּכוֹר אַמְנֹן לַאֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִית שֵׁנִי דָּנִיֵּאל לַאֲבִיגַיִל הַכַּרְמְלִית׃ 3.2. הַשְּׁלִשִׁי לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי מֶלֶךְ גְּשׁוּר הָרְבִיעִי אֲדֹנִיָּה בֶן־חַגִּית׃ 3.2. וַחֲשֻׁבָה וָאֹהֶל וּבֶרֶכְיָה וַחֲסַדְיָה יוּשַׁב חֶסֶד חָמֵשׁ׃ 3.1. Now these were the sons of David, that were born unto him in Hebron: the first-born, Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess;" 3.2. the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith;"
29. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.14, 6.10, 7.1-7.3, 30.24, 35.7-35.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.14. וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לַעֲמוֹד לְשָׁרֵת מִפְּנֵי הֶעָנָן כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 7.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי שִׁלַּח אֶת־הָעָם לְאָהֳלֵיהֶם שְׂמֵחִים וְטוֹבֵי לֵב עַל־הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְדָוִיד וְלִשְׁלֹמֹה וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ׃ 7.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל וְהָאֵשׁ יָרְדָה מֵהַשָּׁמַיִם וַתֹּאכַל הָעֹלָה וְהַזְּבָחִים וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 7.2. וְלֹא יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 7.2. וּנְתַשְׁתִּים מֵעַל אַדְמָתִי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָהֶם וְאֶת־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי לִשְׁמִי אַשְׁלִיךְ מֵעַל פָּנָי וְאֶתְּנֶנּוּ לְמָשָׁל וְלִשְׁנִינָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 7.3. וְכֹל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל רֹאִים בְּרֶדֶת הָאֵשׁ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עַל־הַבָּיִת וַיִּכְרְעוּ אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה עַל־הָרִצְפָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ וְהוֹדוֹת לַיהוָה כִּי טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 30.24. כִּי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה הֵרִים לַקָּהָל אֶלֶף פָּרִים וְשִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים צֹאן וְהַשָּׂרִים הֵרִימוּ לַקָּהָל פָּרִים אֶלֶף וְצֹאן עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וַיִּתְקַדְּשׁוּ כֹהֲנִים לָרֹב׃ 35.7. וַיָּרֶם יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לִבְנֵי הָעָם צֹאן כְּבָשִׂים וּבְנֵי־עִזִּים הַכֹּל לַפְּסָחִים לְכָל־הַנִּמְצָא לְמִסְפַּר שְׁלֹשִׁים אֶלֶף וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אֵלֶּה מֵרְכוּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 35.8. וְשָׂרָיו לִנְדָבָה לָעָם לַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ חִלְקִיָּה וּזְכַרְיָהוּ וִיחִיאֵל נְגִידֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים לַכֹּהֲנִים נָתְנוּ לַפְּסָחִים אַלְפַּיִם וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 35.9. וכונניהו [וְכָנַנְיָהוּ] וּשְׁמַעְיָהוּ וּנְתַנְאֵל אֶחָיו וַחֲשַׁבְיָהוּ וִיעִיאֵל וְיוֹזָבָד שָׂרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ לַלְוִיִּם לַפְּסָחִים חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּבָקָר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 5.14. so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; for the glory of the LORD filled the house of God." 7.1. Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt-offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the house." 7.2. And the priests could not enter into the house of the LORD, because the glory of the LORD filled the LORD’S house." 7.3. And all the children of Israel looked on, when the fire came down, and the glory of the LORD was upon the house; and they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and prostrated themselves, and gave thanks unto the LORD; ‘for He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever.’" 30.24. For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation for offerings a thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and ten thousand sheep; and priests sanctified themselves in great numbers." 35.7. And Josiah gave to the children of the people, of the flock, lambs and kids, all of them for the passover-offerings, unto all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bullocks; these were of the king’s substance." 35.8. And his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, and to the Levites. Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, the rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the passover-offerings two thousand and six hundred [small cattle], and three hundred oxen." 35.9. Coiah also, and Shemaiah and Nethanel, his brethren, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and Jozabad, the chiefs of the Levites, gave unto the Levites for the passover-offerings five thousand [small cattle], and five hundred oxen."
30. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.10-3.15, 3.21, 4.9 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. אֶת־הַכֹּל עָשָׂה יָפֶה בְעִתּוֹ גַּם אֶת־הָעֹלָם נָתַן בְּלִבָּם מִבְּלִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמְצָא הָאָדָם אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָאֱלֹהִים מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד־סוֹף׃ 3.12. יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אֵין טוֹב בָּם כִּי אִם־לִשְׂמוֹחַ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹב בְּחַיָּיו׃ 3.13. וְגַם כָּל־הָאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל וְשָׁתָה וְרָאָה טוֹב בְּכָל־עֲמָלוֹ מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃ 3.14. יָדַעְתִּי כִּי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה הָאֱלֹהִים הוּא יִהְיֶה לְעוֹלָם עָלָיו אֵין לְהוֹסִיף וּמִמֶּנּוּ אֵין לִגְרֹעַ וְהָאֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה שֶׁיִּרְאוּ מִלְּפָנָיו׃ 3.15. מַה־שֶּׁהָיָה כְּבָר הוּא וַאֲשֶׁר לִהְיוֹת כְּבָר הָיָה וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נִרְדָּף׃ 3.21. מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.9. טוֹבִים הַשְּׁנַיִם מִן־הָאֶחָד אֲשֶׁר יֵשׁ־לָהֶם שָׂכָר טוֹב בַּעֲמָלָם׃ 3.10. I have seen the task which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised therewith." 3.11. He hath made every thing beautiful in its time; also He hath set the world in their heart, yet so that man cannot find out the work that God hath done from the beginning even to the end." 3.12. I know that there is nothing better for them, than to rejoice, and to get pleasure so long as they live." 3.13. But also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy pleasure for all his labour, is the gift of God." 3.14. I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever; nothing can be added to it, nor any thing taken from it; and God hath so made it, that men should fear before Him." 3.15. That which is hath been long ago, and that which is to be hath already been; and God seeketh that which is pursued." 3.21. Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?" 4.9. Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour."
31. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.29 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.29. וַתָּעַד בָּהֶם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְהֵמָּה הֵזִידוּ וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לְמִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּבְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ חָטְאוּ־בָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וְחָיָה בָהֶם וַיִּתְּנוּ כָתֵף סוֹרֶרֶת וְעָרְפָּם הִקְשׁוּ וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ׃ 9.29. and didst forewarn them, that Thou mightest bring them back unto Thy law; yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto Thy commandments, but sinned against Thine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them, and presented a stubborn shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear."
32. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

508a. and gods and men are held together by communion and friendship, by orderliness, temperance, and justice; and that is the reason, my friend, why they call the whole of this world by the name of order, not of disorder or dissoluteness. Now you, as it seems to me, do not give proper attention to this, for all your cleverness, but have failed to observe the great power of geometrical equality amongst both gods and men: you hold that self-advantage is what one ought to practice, because you neglect geometry. Very well: either we must refute this statement, that it is by the possession
33. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

246c. and fully winged, it mounts upward and governs the whole world; but the soul which has lost its wings is borne along until it gets hold of something solid, when it settles down, taking upon itself an earthly body, which seems to be self-moving, because of the power of the soul within it; and the whole, compounded of soul and body, is called a living being, and is further designated as mortal. It is not immortal by any reasonable supposition, but we, though we have never seen
34. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

320d. And when to these also came their destined time to be created, the gods moulded their forms within the earth, of a mixture made of earth and fire and all substances that are compounded with fire and earth. When they were about to bring these creatures to light, they charged Prometheus and Epimetheus to deal to each the equipment of his proper faculty. Epimetheus besought Prometheus that he might do the dealing himself; And when I have dealt, he said, you shall examine.
35. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

36. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

27a. keep silence in my turn and hearken. Crit. Consider now, Socrates, the order of the feast as we have arranged it. Seeing that Timaeus is our best astronomer and has made it his special task to learn about the nature of the Universe, it seemed good to us that he should speak first, beginning with the origin of the Cosmos and ending with the generation of mankind. After him I am to follow, taking over from him mankind, already as it were created by his speech, and taking over from you
37. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 53.4 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

38. Aristotle, Generation of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

39. Anon., 1 Enoch, 5.5, 16.2, 93.6, 106.5, 106.10, 106.18 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.5. Therefore shall ye execrate your days, And the years of your life shall perish, And the years of your destruction shall be multiplied in eternal execration, And ye shall find no mercy. 16.2. consummated, over the Watchers and the godless, yea, shall be wholly consummated.' And now as to the watchers who have sent thee to intercede for them, who had been aforetime in heaven, (say 93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them. 106.5. fled, and came to his father Methuselah. And he said unto him: ' I have begotten a strange son, diverse from and unlike man, and resembling the sons of the God of heaven; and his nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are as the rays of the sun, and hi 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
40. Ezekiel The Tragedian, Exagoge, 70 (3rd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

41. Numenius Heracleensis, Fragments, 21-22, 52, 16 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42. Anon., Jubilees, 1.27-1.29, 2.1, 2.9, 2.11-2.14, 2.17-2.33, 3.8-3.14, 5.1-5.7, 6.8, 50.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 2.1. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."... 3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.13. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden. 3.14. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tables in regard to her that giveth birth: 5.1. And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them 5.2. that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 5.3. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walketh on the earth 5.4. -all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other 5.5. and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually. 5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God.
43. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 3.1-3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.1. Be ye, therefore, not eager to corrupt your doings through covetousness or with vain words to beguile your souls; because if ye keep silence in purity of heart, ye shall understand how to hold fast the will of God, and to cast away the will of Beliar. 3.2. Sun and moon and stars change not their order; so do ye also change not the law of God in the disorderliness of your doings. 3.3. The Gentiles went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and obeyed stocks and stones, spirits of deceit. 3.4. But ye shall not be so, my children, recognizing in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who made all things, that ye become not as Sodom, which changed the order of nature. 3.5. In like manner the Watchers also changed the order of their nature, whom the Lord cursed at the flood, on whose account He made the earth without inhabitants and fruitless.
44. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.6. For thus they allured the Watchers who were before the flood; for as these continually beheld them, they lusted after them, and they conceived the act in their mind; for they changed themselves into the shape of men, and appeared to them when they were with their husbands.
45. Cicero, On Divination, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum. 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices.
46. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.38. The world on the contrary, since it embraces all things and since nothing exists which is not within it, is entirely perfect; how then can it fail to possess that which is the best? but there is nothing better than intelligence and reason; the world therefore cannot fail to possess them. Chrysippus therefore also well shows by the aid of illustrations that in the perfect and mature specimen of its kind everything is better than in the imperfect, for instance in a horse than in a foal, in a dog than in a puppy, in a man than in a boy; and that similarly a perfect and complete being is bound to possess that which is the best thing in all the world;
47. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.20-5.1, 4.20-5.11, 12.14, 12.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

48. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

49. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.20, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.20-5.11, 12.14, 12.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

50. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.14-3.21, 4.22-4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.14-4.15, 4.29-4.36, 11.22-11.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

52. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.14-4.15, 4.29-4.36, 11.22-11.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

53. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.39, 4.5-4.6, 4.15, 5.11, 5.14, 7.13-7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.5. וְעַד אָחֳרֵין עַל קָדָמַי דָּנִיֵּאל דִּי־שְׁמֵהּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר כְּשֻׁם אֱלָהִי וְדִי רוּחַ־אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בֵּהּ וְחֶלְמָא קָדָמוֹהִי אַמְרֵת׃ 4.6. בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר רַב חַרְטֻמַיָּא דִּי אֲנָה יִדְעֵת דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בָּךְ וְכָל־רָז לָא־אָנֵס לָךְ חֶזְוֵי חֶלְמִי דִי־חֲזֵית וּפִשְׁרֵהּ אֱמַר׃ 4.15. דְּנָה חֶלְמָא חֲזֵית אֲנָה מַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר פִּשְׁרֵא אֱמַר כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי כָּל־חַכִּימֵי מַלְכוּתִי לָא־יָכְלִין פִּשְׁרָא לְהוֹדָעֻתַנִי ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] כָּהֵל דִּי רוּחַ־אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בָּךְ׃ 5.11. אִיתַי גְּבַר בְּמַלְכוּתָךְ דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בֵּהּ וּבְיוֹמֵי אֲבוּךְ נַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת־אֱלָהִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ וּמַלְכָּא נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּךְ רַב חַרְטֻמִּין אָשְׁפִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין גָּזְרִין הֲקִימֵהּ אֲבוּךְ מַלְכָּא׃ 5.14. וְשִׁמְעֵת עליך [עֲלָךְ] דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין בָּךְ וְנַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה יַתִּירָה הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בָּךְ׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 4.5. But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and I told the dream before him:" 4.6. O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in thee, and no secret causeth thee trouble, tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen, and the interpretation thereof." 4.15. This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen; and thou, O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation, forasmuch as all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the interpretation; but thou art able, for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee.’" 5.11. there is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; and the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, I say, thy father, made him master of the magicians, enchanters, Chaldeans, and astrologers;" 5.14. I have heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and understanding and surpassing wisdom is found in thee." 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
54. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.48-1.63, 14.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 1.49. so that they should forget the law and change all the ordices. 1.50. And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die. 1.51. In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. And he appointed inspectors over all the people and commanded the cities of Judah to offer sacrifice, city by city. 1.52. Many of the people, every one who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land; 1.53. they drove Israel into hiding in every place of refuge they had. 1.54. Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah 1.55. and burned incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets. 1.56. The books of the law which they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire. 1.57. Where the book of the covet was found in the possession of any one, or if any one adhered to the law, the decree of the king condemned him to death. 1.58. They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities. 1.59. And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 14.36. And in his days things prospered in his hands, so that the Gentiles were put out of the country, as were also the men in the city of David in Jerusalem, who had built themselves a citadel from which they used to sally forth and defile the environs of the sanctuary and do great damage to its purity.
55. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.23, 14.35 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 14.35. O Lord of all, who hast need of nothing, thou wast pleased that there be a temple for thy habitation among us;'
56. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.12, 2.1, 2.15-2.16, 4.14, 4.17, 6.6-6.7, 6.9, 6.14, 6.16, 6.29, 10.14, 14.17, 15.17, 16.26, 17.2-17.4, 17.9-17.10, 23.9, 25.23-25.25, 27.17, 36.1, 39.16, 39.33, 40.23, 43.10, 47.8, 48.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.12. To fear the Lord is the beginning of wisdom;she is created with the faithful in the womb. 2.1. My son, if you come forward to serve the Lord,prepare yourself for temptation. 2.1. Consider the ancient generations and see:who ever trusted in the Lord and was put to shame?Or who ever persevered in the fear of the Lord and was forsaken?Or who ever called upon him and was overlooked? 2.15. Those who fear the Lord will not disobey his words,and those who love him will keep his ways. 2.16. Those who fear the Lord will seek his approval,and those who love him will be filled with the law. 4.14. Those who serve her will minister to the Holy One;the Lord loves those who love her. 4.17. For at first she will walk with him on tortuous paths,she will bring fear and cowardice upon him,and will torment him by her discipline until she trusts him,and she will test him with her ordices. 10.14. The Lord has cast down the thrones of rulers,and has seated the lowly in their place. 10.14. Good things and bad, life and death,poverty and wealth, come from the Lord. 14.17. All living beings become old like a garment,for the decree from of old is, "You must surely die! 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 16.26. The works of the Lord have existed from the beginning by his creation, and when he made them, he determined their divisions. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 25.23. A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 25.25. Allow no outlet to water,and no boldness of speech in an evil wife. 27.17. Love your friend and keep faith with him;but if you betray his secrets, do not run after him. 36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 39.16. All things are the works of the Lord, for they are very good,and whatever he commands will be done in his time. 39.33. The works of the Lord are all good,and he will supply every need in its hour. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both. 47.8. In all that he did he gave thanks to the Holy One, the Most High, with ascriptions of glory;he sang praise with all his heart,and he loved his Maker.
57. Septuagint, Judith, 9.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.12. Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer!
58. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.1, 1.12, 1.16, 2.11, 2.13-2.15, 2.23-2.24, 3.1, 3.4-3.5, 3.8, 4.1, 4.14, 4.16, 5.19, 6.18, 7.1, 7.22, 7.26-7.27, 8.4-8.6, 9.9, 9.15, 10.14, 12.2, 15.8-15.11, 15.15, 16.5, 16.14, 19.13-19.15, 25.24-25.25, 36.1, 47.8, 48.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. Love righteousness, you rulers of the earth,think of the Lord with uprightness,and seek him with sincerity of heart; 1.12. Do not invite death by the error of your life,nor bring on destruction by the works of your hands; 1.16. But ungodly men by their words and deeds summoned death;considering him a friend, they pined away,and they made a covet with him,because they are fit to belong to his party. 2.11. But let our might be our law of right,for what is weak proves itself to be useless. 2.13. He professes to have knowledge of God,and calls himself a child of the Lord. 2.14. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts; 2.15. the very sight of him is a burden to us,because his manner of life is unlike that of others,and his ways are strange. 2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality. 3.5. Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good,because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; 3.8. They will govern nations and rule over peoples,and the Lord will reign over them for ever. 4.1. Better than this is childlessness with virtue,for in the memory of virtue is immortality,because it is known both by God and by men. 4.14. for his soul was pleasing to the Lord,therefore he took him quickly from the midst of wickedness. 4.16. The righteous man who had died will condemn the ungodly who are living,and youth that is quickly perfected will condemn the prolonged old age of the unrighteous man. 5.19. he will take holiness as an invincible shield 6.18. and love of her is the keeping of her laws,and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality 7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh 7.22. for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets; 8.4. For she is an initiate in the knowledge of God,and an associate in his works. 8.5. If riches are a desirable possession in life,what is richer than wisdom who effects all things? 8.6. And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists? 9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 10.14. and when he was in prison she did not leave him,until she brought him the scepter of a kingdom and authority over his masters. Those who accused him she showed to be false,and she gave him everlasting honor. 12.2. Therefore thou dost correct little by little those who trespass,and dost remind and warn them of the things wherein they sin,that they may be freed from wickedness and put their trust in thee, O Lord. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking. 16.5. For when the terrible rage of wild beasts came upon thy people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents,thy wrath did not continue to the end; 16.14. A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul. 19.13. The punishments did not come upon the sinners without prior signs in the violence of thunder,for they justly suffered because of their wicked acts;for they practiced a more bitter hatred of strangers. 19.14. Others had refused to receive strangers when they came to them,but these made slaves of guests who were their benefactors. 19.15. And not only so, but punishment of some sort will come upon the former for their hostile reception of the aliens;
59. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.25. Therefore we do not eat defiling food; for since we believe that the law was established by God, we know that in the nature of things the Creator of the world in giving us the law has shown sympathy toward us.
60. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.27 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.27. And tireless sun, and full moon and bright stars
61. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 40.3.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

62. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 2.991-2.998 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

63. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 157 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

157. Now the nature of light is twofold: for there is one light which proceeds from the fire which we use, a perishable light proceeding from a perishable material, and one which admits of being extinguished. But the other kind is inextinguishable and imperishable, descending to us from above heaven, as if every one of the stars was pouring down its beams upon us from an everlasting spring. And the sense of sight associates with each of these kinds of light, and through the medium of both of them does it approach the objects of sight so as to arrive at a most accurate comprehension of them.
64. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 51, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Therefore, the allwise Moses attributes to the just man a knowledge of the husbandry of the soul, as an act consistent with his character, and thoroughly suited to him, saying, "Noah began to be a husbandman." But to the unjust man he attributes the task of tilling the ground, which is an employment bearing the heaviest burdens without any knowledge.
65. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 127, 18, 3-4, 47, 5-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
66. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 169, 179, 33, 41, 62-63, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
67. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 101, 68, 71, 94-95, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. These, then, are the six cities which Moses calls cities of refuge, five of which have had their figures set forth in the sacred scriptures, and their images are there likewise. The images of the cities of command and prohibition are the laws in the ark; that of the merciful power of God is the covering of the ark, and he calls it the mercy-seat. The images of the creative power and of the kingly power are the winged cherubim which are placed upon it.
68. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 29, 62-64, 7, 28 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. On which account, it is possible that the spirit of God may remain in the soul, but that it should remain for ever is impossible, as we have said. And why need we wonder? since there is no other thing whatever, the possession of which, is stable and lasting; but mortal affairs are continually wavering in the scale, and inclining first to one side, and then to the other, and liable at different times to different changes.
69. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 199-207, 69, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

70. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 122, 31, 60-80, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Thus much we have thought fit to say on this subject. But, moreover, Moses also changes the name of Hosea into that of Joshua; displaying by his new name the distinctive qualities of his character;
71. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 134-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 150-159, 16, 160-169, 17-29, 3, 30-35, 46, 5-6, 65-88, 95-96, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. And he says that the world was made in six days, not because the Creator stood in need of a length of time (for it is natural that God should do everything at once, not merely by uttering a command, but by even thinking of it); but because the things created required arrangement; and number is akin to arrangement; and, of all numbers, six is, by the laws of nature, the most productive: for of all the numbers, from the unit upwards, it is the first perfect one, being made equal to its parts, and being made complete by them; the number three being half of it, and the number two a third of it, and the unit a sixth of it, and, so to say, it is formed so as to be both male and female, and is made up of the power of both natures; for in existing things the odd number is the male, and the even number is the female; accordingly, of odd numbers the first is the number three, and of even numbers the first is two, and the two numbers multiplied together make six.
72. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 19-20, 22-24, 44, 18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

73. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 28, 169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

169. for God did not grant this even to the all-wise Moses; not though he addressed innumerable requests to him, all having this object; but an oracle was delivered to him, telling him, "Thou shalt see my back parts, but my face thou shalt not See;" and the meaning of this is, that all the things which are behind God are within the comprehension of a virtuous man, but he himself alone is incomprehensible; and he is incomprehensible by any direct and immediate access (for by such means it is only explained what kind of being he is), but he may be understood in his subsequent and consistent faculties; for they, by means of the works accomplished by them, declare not his essence, but his existence. XLIX.
74. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 48, 74, 8, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. And he learnt all these things from Abraham his grandfather, who was the author of his own education, who gave to the all-wise Isaac all that he had, leaving none of his substance to bastards, or to the spurious reasonings of concubines, but he gives them small gifts, as being inconsiderable persons. For the possessions of which he is possessed, namely, the perfect virtues, belong only to the perfect and legitimate son; but those which are of an intermediate character, are suitable to and fall to the share of those who are not perfect, but who have advanced as far as the encyclical branches of elementary education, of which Agar and Cheturah partake, Agar meaning "a dwelling near," and Cheturah meaning "sacrificing.
75. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.229 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
76. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.16, 1.81, 1.149, 1.171, 3.83, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. for they who see that the different seasons of the year owe their existence to the advances and retreats of the sun, in which periods also the generation of animals, and plants, and fruits, are perfected according to well-defined times, and who see also that the moon is the servant and successor of the sun, taking that care and superintendence of the world by night which the sun takes by day; and also that the other stars, in accordance with their sympathy with things on earth, labour continually and do ten thousand things which contribute to the duration of the existing state of things, have been led into an inextricable error, imagining that these bodies are the only gods. 1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made. 1.149. And the opposite to desire is temperance, which one must endeavour, and labour, and take pains by every contrivance imaginable to acquire, as the very greatest blessing and most perfect benefit both to an individual and to the state. 1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. 3.83. The name of homicide is that affixed to him who has slain a man; but in real truth it is a sacrilege, and the very greatest of all sacrileges, because, of all the possessions and sacred treasures in the whole world, there is nothing more holy in appearance, nor more godlike than man, the all-beautiful copy of an all-beautiful model, a representation admirably made after an archetypal rational idea. 4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God.
77. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 217 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

217. For, indeed, his servants at all times steadfastly observed him, as subjects observe a ruler, looking with admiration at the universal greatness of his nature and disposition, which was more perfect than is customary to meet with in a man; for he did not use the same conversation as ordinary men, but, like one inspired, spoke in general in more dignified language. Whenever, therefore, he was possessed by the Holy Spirit he at once changed everything for the better, his eyes and his complexion, and his size and his appearance while standing, and his motions, and his voice; the Holy Spirit, which, being breathed into him from above, took up its lodging in his soul, clothing his body with extraordinary beauty, and investing his words with persuasiveness at the same time that it endowed his hearers with understanding.
78. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 87, 85 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

85. Then, when each chorus of the men and each chorus of the women has feasted separately by itself, like persons in the bacchanalian revels, drinking the pure wine of the love of God, they join together, and the two become one chorus, an imitation of that one which, in old time, was established by the Red Sea, on account of the wondrous works which were displayed there;
79. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.14, 2.48, 2.59-2.65, 2.88, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But the enactments of this lawgiver are firm, not shaken by commotions, not liable to alteration, but stamped as it were with the seal of nature herself, and they remain firm and lasting from the day on which they were first promulgated to the present one, and there may well be a hope that they will remain to all future time, as being immortal, as long as the sun and the moon, and the whole heaven and the whole world shall endure. 2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words. 2.59. But in the great deluge I may almost say that the whole of the human race was destroyed, while the history tells us that the house of Noah alone was preserved free from all evil, inasmuch as the father and governor of the house was a man who had never committed any intentional or voluntary wickedness. And it is worth while to relate the manner of his preservation as the sacred scriptures deliver it to us, both on account of the extraordinary character of it, and also that it may lead to an improvement in our own dispositions and lives. 2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; 2.61. for he knew that the nature of God was merciful, and that even if the subordinate species were destroyed, still there would be a germ in the entire genus which should be safe from destruction, for the sake of preserving a similitude to those animals which had hitherto existed, and of preventing anything that had been deliberately called into existence from being utterly destroyed. 2.62. and after they had all entered into the ark, if any one had beheld the entire collection, he would not have been wrong if he had said that it was a representation of the whole earth, containing, as it did, every kind of animal, of which the whole earth had previously produced innumerable species, and will hereafter produce such again. 2.63. And what was expected happened at no long period after; for the evil abated, and the destruction caused by the deluge was diminished every day, the rain being checked, and the water which had been spread over the whole earth, being partly dried up by the flame of the sun, and partly returning into the chasms and rivers, and other channels and receptacles in the earth; for, as if God had issued a command to that effect, every nature received back, as a necessary repayment of a loan, what it had lent, that is, every sea, and fountain, and river, received back their waters; and every stream returned into its appropriate channel. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb 2.88. Moreover, he chose the materials of this embroidery, selecting with great care what was most excellent out of an infinite quantity, choosing materials equal in number to the elements of which the world was made, and having a direct relation to them; the elements being the earth and the water, and the air and the fire. For the fine flax is produced from the earth, and the purple from the water, and the hyacinth colour is compared to the air (for, by nature, it is black 2.127. And this logeum is described as double with great correctness; for reason is double, both in the universe and also in the nature of mankind, in the universe there is that reason which is conversant about incorporeal species which are like patterns as it were, from which that world which is perceptible only by the intellect was made, and also that which is concerned with the visible objects of sight, which are copies and imitations of those species above mentioned, of which the world which is perceptible by the outward senses was made. Again, in man there is one reason which is kept back, and another which finds vent in utterance: and the one is, as it were a spring, and the other (that which is uttered
80. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 6.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. Therefore, whether he spoke, being influenced by his own reason, or because he was inspired by the Deity, they referred every word of his to God. And though many years have passed, I cannot tell the exact number, but more than two thousand, still they have never altered one word of what was written by him, but would rather endure to die ten thousand times than to do any thing in opposition to his laws and to the customs which he established.
81. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. And this nation of suppliants is in the Chaldaic language called Israel, but when the name is translated into the Greek language it is called, "the seeing nation;" which appellation appears to me to be the most honourable of all things in the world, whether private or public;
82. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19, 1.31-1.43, 1.65, 1.69-1.73, 1.106, 2.4-2.5, 2.83, 2.96, 3.42, 3.96, 3.161-3.162, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were Created." This is perfect reason, which is put in motion in accordance with the number seven, being the beginning of the creation of that mind which was arranged according to the ideas, and also of the sensation arranged according to the ideas, and perceptible only by the intellect, if one can speak in such a manner. And Moses calls the word of God a book, in which it is come to pass that the formations of other things are written down and engraved. 1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV. 1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement. 1.65. Let us examine the expressions of the writer: "A river," says he, "goes forth out of Eden, to water the Paradise." This river is generic goodness; and this issues forth out of the Eden of the wisdom of God, and that is the word of God. For it is according to the word of God, that generic virtue was created. And generic virtue waters the Paradise: that is to say, it waters the particular virtues. But it does not derive its beginnings from any principle of locality, but from a principle of preeminence. For each of the virtues is really and truly a ruler and a queen. And the expression, "is separated," is equivalent to "is marked off by fixed boundaries;" since wisdom appoints them settled limits with reference to what is to be done. Courage with respect to what is to be endured; temperance with reference to what is to be chosen; and justice in respect of what is to be distributed. XX. 1.69. And the third river is the Tigris; this is that which flows in front of Assyria." The third virtue is temperance, which resolutely opposes that kind of pleasure which appears to be the directress of human infirmity. For the translation of the name Assyrians in the Greek tongue is euthynontes, (directors). And he has likened desire to a tiger, which is the most untameable of beasts; it being desire about which temperance is conversant. XXII. 1.70. It is worth while therefore to raise the question why courage has been spoken of as the second virtue, and temperance as the third, and prudence as the first; and why Moses has not also explained the course of action of the other virtues. Now we must understand that our soul is divided into three parts, and that it has one portion which is conversant about reason; another which is subject to passion; and another which is that in which the desires are conceived. And we find that the proper place and abode of the reasoning part of the soul, is the head; of the passionate part, the chest; and of the part in which the desires are conceived, the stomach. And we find that appropriate virtues are adapted to each of these parts. To the rational part, prudence; in it is the office of reason, to have a knowledge of what one might, and of what one ought not to do. And the virtue of the passionate part of the soul is courage: and of the appetitive part, temperance. For it is through temperance that we remedy and cure the appetites. 1.71. For as the head is the principle and uppermost part of the animal, and the chest the next highest, and the liver the third, in point both of importance and of position; so in the soul again, the first is the rational part, the second the passionate part, and the third the appetitive part. In the same way again of the virtues; the first is that which is conversant about the first portion of the soul, which is the reasoning portion, and which at the same time has its abode in the head of the body; in short it is prudence. And the second of the virtues is courage, because it is conversant about the second portion of the soul, namely, about passion, and has its abode in the second portion of the body, namely, in the chest. And the third virtue is temperance, which is placed in the stomach which is the third portion of the body, and it is conversant about the appetitive part, which has been allotted the third part of the soul, as being its subject matter. XXIII. 1.72. And the fourth river," continues Moses, "is the river Euphrates." And this name Euphrates means fertility; and symbolically taken, it is the fourth virtue, namely, justice, which is most truly a productive virtue, and one which gladdens the intellect. When therefore does this happen? When the three parts of the soul are all in harmony with one another; and harmony among them is in reality the predomice of the most important; as for instance, when the two inferior parts, the passionate and the appetitive part, are disposed to yield to the superior part, then justice exists. For it is just that the better portion should rule at all times, and in all places, and that the inferior part should be ruled. Now the rational part is the better part, and the appetitive and the passionate parts are the inferior ones. 1.73. But when, on the contrary, passion and appetite get riotous and disobey the reins, and by the violence of their impetuosity throw off and disregard the charioteer, that is to say reason, and when each of these passions get hold of the reins themselves, then there is injustice. For it is inevitable, that through any ignorance or vice of the charioteer, the chariot must be borne down over precipices, and must fall into the abyss; just as it must be saved when the charioteer is endowed with skill and virtue. XXIV. 1.106. and consequently God calls that not merely "to die," but "to die the death;" showing that he is speaking not of common death, but of that peculiar and especial death which is the death of the soul, buried in its passions and in all kinds of evil. And we may almost say that one kind of death is opposed to the other kind. For the one is the separation of what was previously existing in combination, namely, of body and soul. But this other death, on the contrary, is a combination of them both, the inferior one, the body, having the predomice, and the superior one, the soul, being made subject to it.
83. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

84. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.8, 1.45, 1.51, 1.81, 2.56, 2.62, 3.47-3.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

85. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 214, 230-232, 54-57, 164 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

164. For it is equality which allotted night and day and light and darkness to existing things. It is equality also that divided the human race into man and woman, making two divisions, unequal in strength, but most perfectly equal for the purpose which nature had principally in view, the generation of a third human being like themselves. For, says Moses, "God made man; in the image of God created he him; male and female he created Them." He no longer says "him," but "them," in the plural number, adapting the species to the genus, which have, as I have already said, been divided with perfect equality. XXXIV.
86. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 139, 84, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And this will also be proved by the oracle which was given to the all-wise Moses, in which these words are contained: "Behold, is there not Aaron thy brother, the Levite? I know that he will speak for thee; and behold he will be coming forth to meet thee, and he will rejoice in himself when he seeth Thee." For here the Creator says, that he knows that uttered speech is a burden to the mind, because it speaks; for he represents it, that is to say, articulate sound, as the organ, as it were, of all this concrete being of ours.
87. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 55, 57, 46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

46. For the mind is the sight of the soul, shining transcendently with its own rays, by which the great and dense darkness which ignorance of things sheds around is dissipated. This species of soul is not composed of the same elements as those of which the other kinds were made, but it has received a purer and more excellent essence of which the divine natures were formed; on which account the intellect naturally appears to be the only thing in us which is imperishable
88. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 20, 27, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. For, says Moses, "God breathed into man's face the breath of Life," so that it follows of necessity, that he that received the breath must be fashioned after the model of him who sent it forth. On which account it is said too, that "Man was made after the image of God," and not after the image of any created being.
89. Strabo, Geography, 1.2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.2.10. Being acquainted with Colchis, and the voyage of Jason to Aea, and also with the historical and fabulous relations concerning Circe and Medea, their enchantments and their various other points of resemblance, he feigns there was a relationship between them, notwithstanding the vast distance by which they were separated, the one dwelling in an inland creek of the Euxine, and the other in Italy, and both of them beyond the ocean. It is possible that Jason himself wandered as far as Italy, for traces of the Argonautic expedition are pointed out near the Ceraunian mountains, by the Adriatic, at the Posidonian Gulf, and the isles adjacent to Tyrrhenia. The Cyaneae, called by some the Symplegades, or Jostling Rocks, which render the passage through the Strait of Constantinople so difficult, also afforded matter to our poet. The actual existence of a place named Aea, stamped credibility upon his Aeaea; so did the Symplegades upon the Planctae, (the Jostling Rocks upon the Wandering Rocks) and the passage of Jason through the midst of them; in the same way Scylla and Charybdis accredited the passage [of Ulysses] past those rocks. In his time people absolutely regarded the Euxine as a kind of second ocean, and placed those who had crossed it in the same list with navigators who had passed the Pillars. It was looked upon as the largest of our seas, and was therefore par excellence styled the Sea, in the same way as Homer [is called] the Poet. In order therefore to be well received, it is probable he transferred the scenes from the Euxine to the ocean, so as not to stagger the general belief. And in my opinion those Solymi who possess the highest ridges of Taurus, lying between Lycia and Pisidia, and those who in their southern heights stand out most conspicuously to the dwellers on this side Taurus, and the inhabitants of the Euxine by a figure of speech, he describes as being beyond the ocean. For narrating the voyage of Ulysses in his ship, he says, But Neptune, traversing in his return From Ethiopia's sons, the mountain heights of Solyme, descried him from afar. [Od. v. 282.] It is probable he took his account of the one-eyed Cyclopae from Scythian history, for the Arimaspi, whom Aristaeus of Proconnesus describes in his Tales of the Arimaspi, are said to be distinguished by this peculiarity.
90. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.236, 1.278-1.279 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.236. ecured a flashing spark, heaped on light leaves 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care
91. Anon., 2 Baruch, 17.2-17.3, 23.4, 54.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

92. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 10.1, 12.1, 19.2, 21.6, 22.4, 25.3, 28.1, 29.4, 39.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

93. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. ἐκάλεσεν γὰρ ἡμᾶς οὐκ ὄντας καὶ ἠθέλησεν ἐκ μὴ ὄντος εἶναι ἡμᾶς.
94. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 7.150-7.152 (1st cent. CE

7.150.  Yes, the seduction of women — especially, one might almost say, of the freeborn and virgins — has been found easy and no task for a man who pursues that kind of game with money; and even against the highly respected wives and daughters of men really respected, the libertine who attacks with the device of Zeus and brings gold in his hands will never fail. 7.151.  But the further developments, I presume, are perfectly evident, since we see so many illustrations. The man whose appetite is insatiate in such things, when he finds there is no scarcity, no resistance, in this field, will have contempt for the easy conquest and scorn for a woman's love, as a thing too readily given — in fact, too utterly feminine — and will turn his assault against the male quarters, eager to befoul the youth who will very soon be magistrates and judges and generals 7.152.  believing that in them he will find a kind of pleasure difficult and hard to procure. His state is like that of men who are addicted to drinking and wine-bibbing, who after long and steady drinking of unmixed wine, often lose their taste for it and create an artificial thirst by the stimulus of sweatings, salted foods, and condiments.
95. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.1.23, 1.14.6, 1.16.10, 1.16.14, 3.1.27-3.1.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

96. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. Flee evil arts, or rather hold thou discourse about these. Tell my sisters to love the Lord and to be content with their husbands in flesh and in spirit. In like manner also charge my brothers in the name of Jesus Christ to love their wives, as the Lord loved the Church. 5.1. But certain persons ignorantly deny Him, or rather have been denied by Him, being advocates of death rather than of the truth; and they have not been persuaded by the prophecies nor by the law of Moses, nay nor even to this very hour by the Gospel, nor by the sufferings of each of us severally;
97. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.2. and I entreat you, Do ye nothing in a spirit of factiousness but after the teaching of Christ. For I heard certain persons saying, If I find it not in the charters, I believe it not in the Gospel. And when I said to them, It is written, they answered me That is the question. But as for me, my charter is Jesus Christ, the inviolable charter is His cross and His death and His resurrection, and faith through Him; wherein I desire to be justified through your prayers.
98. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 1.1, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. While I welcomed in God [your] well-beloved name which ye bear by natural right, [in an upright and virtuous mind], by faith and love in Christ Jesus our Saviour -- being imitators of God, and having your hearts kindled in the blood of God, ye have perfectly fulfilled your congenial work -- 10.3. Let us show ourselves their brothers by our forbearance; but let us be zealous to be imitators of the Lord, vying with each other who shall suffer the greater wrong, who shall be defrauded, who shall be set at nought; that no herb of the devil be found in you: but in all purity and temperance abide ye in Christ Jesus, with your flesh and with your spirit.
99. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.2. and I entreat you, Do ye nothing in a spirit of factiousness but after the teaching of Christ. For I heard certain persons saying, If I find it not in the charters, I believe it not in the Gospel. And when I said to them, It is written, they answered me That is the question. But as for me, my charter is Jesus Christ, the inviolable charter is His cross and His death and His resurrection, and faith through Him; wherein I desire to be justified through your prayers.
100. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

101. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.35, 1.73-1.74, 3.179-3.180, 15.136 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; 1.73. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. 1.74. But Noah was very uneasy at what they did; and being displeased at their conduct, persuaded them to change their dispositions and their acts for the better: but seeing they did not yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was afraid they would kill him, together with his wife and children, and those they had married; so he departed out of that land. 3.179. 7. Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which men bear to us, and which they profess to bear on account of our despising that Deity which they pretend to honor; 15.136. for these Arabians have done what both the Greeks and barbarians own to be an instance of the grossest wickedness, with regard to our ambassadors, which they have beheaded, while the Greeks declare that such ambassadors are sacred and inviolable. And for ourselves, we have learned from God the most excellent of our doctrines, and the most holy part of our law, by angels or ambassadors; for this name brings God to the knowledge of mankind, and is sufficient to reconcile enemies one to another.
102. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.477, 2.120-2.121, 2.160-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.477. She also frequently reproached Herod’s sister and wives with the ignobility of their descent; and that they were every one chosen by him for their beauty, but not for their family. Now those wives of his were not a few; it being of old permitted to the Jews to marry many wives,—and this king delighting in many; all which hated Alexander, on account of Glaphyra’s boasting and reproaches. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
103. Longinus, On The Sublime, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

104. Mishnah, Avot, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.14. Rabbi Elazar said:Be diligent in the study the torah; And know how to answer an epicuros, And know before whom you toil, and that your employer is faithful, for He will pay you the reward of your labor."
105. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
106. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat."
107. New Testament, 1 John, 3.24, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.13. By this we know that we remain in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.
108. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.6, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord, whose children you now are, if you do well, and are not put in fear by any terror. 3.22. who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, angels and authorities and powers being made subject to him.
109. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 1.24, 6.11, 6.15, 7.17-7.23, 8.6, 11.3, 11.6-11.7, 11.9, 12.13, 12.17, 14.24, 15.20-15.28, 15.44-15.49, 16.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 14.24. But if all prophesy, and someoneunbelieving or unlearned comes in, he is reproved by all, and he isjudged by all. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints)
110. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews;
111. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 3.18, 4.4, 4.6, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

112. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. But we are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because God chose you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth;
113. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control.
114. New Testament, Acts, 4.19-4.20, 5.32, 7.2-7.4, 7.38, 7.53, 10.14, 10.28, 14.15, 15.8, 17.22-17.31 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.19. But Peter and John answered them, "Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, judge for yourselves 4.20. for we can't help telling the things which we saw and heard. 5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran 7.3. and said to him, 'Get out of your land, and from your relatives, and come into a land which I will show you.' 7.4. Then he came out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and lived in Haran. From there, when his father was dead, God moved him into this land, where you are now living. 7.38. This is he who was in the assembly in the wilderness with the angel that spoke to him on Mount Sinai, and with our fathers, who received living oracles to give to us 7.53. You received the law as it was ordained by angels, and didn't keep it! 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 14.15. Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 17.22. Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus, and said, "You men of Athens, I perceive that you are very religious in all things. 17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead.
115. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.6, 3.14, 4.9, 4.11, 5.12-5.13, 7.12, 11.13, 12.7, 12.9, 14.4, 14.7, 15.8, 16.9, 19.1, 19.7, 21.11, 21.23-21.24, 21.26, 22.3-22.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen. 3.14. To the angel of the assembly in Laodicea write: "The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Head of God's creation, says these things: 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing! 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen. 11.13. In that day there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified, and gave glory to the God of heaven. 12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 14.7. He said with a loud voice, "Fear the Lord, and give him glory; for the hour of his judgment has come. Worship him who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and the springs of waters! 15.8. The temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power. No one was able to enter into the temple, until the seven plagues of the seven angels would be finished. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 21.11. having the glory of God. Her light was like a most precious stone, as if it was a jasper stone, clear as crystal; 21.23. The city has no need for the sun, neither of the moon, to shine, for the very glory of God illuminated it, and its lamp is the Lamb. 21.24. The nations will walk in its light. The kings of the earth bring the glory and honor of the nations into it. 21.26. and they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it so that they may enter. 22.3. There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever.
116. New Testament, James, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures.
117. New Testament, Jude, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

118. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20, 2.6, 2.8-2.23, 3.1-3.5, 3.10-3.11, 3.18, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him 2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power; 2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses; 2.14. having wiped out the handwriting in ordices that was against us, which was contrary to us: and he has taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day 2.17. which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices 2.21. Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men? 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh. 3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 3.18. Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God.
119. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.10, 1.20-1.23, 2.6, 3.16, 3.18-3.19, 5.1, 5.23, 5.25-5.27, 5.30, 6.5, 6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 3.16. that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, that you may be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inward man; 3.18. may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth 3.19. and to know Christ's love which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 6.5. Servants, be obedient to those who according to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ; 6.10. Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the strength of his might.
120. New Testament, Galatians, 2.20, 3.15, 3.19, 3.20, 3.23-4.7, 3.27, 3.28, 4.3, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me.
121. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.2-1.3, 2.2-2.3, 2.5-2.9, 2.14-2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 2.2. For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense; 2.3. how will we escape if we neglect so great a salvation -- which at the first having been spoken through the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard; 2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.
122. New Testament, Philippians, 2.6-2.7, 2.9-2.11, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
123. New Testament, Romans, 1.3-1.4, 1.23, 3.1, 5.12-5.21, 6.4, 6.23, 8.9-8.30, 8.34, 8.38, 9.2, 11.8, 11.16, 12.2, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 8.34. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 12.2. Don't be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ.
124. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 1.32-1.33, 3.3-3.6, 3.12-3.13, 6.32, 8.23, 10.30, 10.38, 12.36, 14.8, 14.10-14.11, 17.25, 20.1-20.23, 21.1-21.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 3.3. Jesus answered him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, unless one is born anew, he can't see the Kingdom of God. 3.4. Nicodemus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? 3.5. Jesus answered, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he can't enter into the Kingdom of God! 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 6.32. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, it wasn't Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. 8.23. He said to them, "You are from beneath. I am from above. You are of this world. I am not of this world. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 12.36. While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of light." Jesus said these things, and he departed and hid himself from them. 14.8. Philip said to him, "Lord, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us. 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake. 17.25. Righteous Father, the world hasn't known you, but I knew you; and these knew that you sent me. 20.1. Now on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene went early, while it was still dark, to the tomb, and saw the stone taken away from the tomb. 20.2. Therefore she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and said to them, "They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we don't know where they have laid him! 20.3. Therefore Peter and the other disciple went out, and they went toward the tomb. 20.4. They both ran together. The other disciple outran Peter, and came to the tomb first. 20.5. Stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths lying, yet he didn't enter in. 20.6. Then Simon Peter came, following him, and entered into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying 20.7. and the cloth that had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. 20.8. So then the other disciple who came first to the tomb also entered in, and he saw and believed. 20.9. For as yet they didn't know the Scripture, that he must rise from the dead. 20.10. So the disciples went away again to their own homes. 20.11. But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb 20.12. and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 20.13. They told her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"She said to them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I don't know where they have laid him. 20.14. When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, and didn't know that it was Jesus. 20.15. Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?"She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, "Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away. 20.16. Jesus said to her, "Mary."She turned and said to him, "Rhabbouni!" which is to say, "Teacher! 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.' 20.18. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things to her. 20.19. When therefore it was evening, on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were locked where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 20.20. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad when they saw the Lord. 20.21. Jesus therefore said to them again, "Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you. 20.22. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit! 20.23. Whoever's sins you forgive, they are forgiven them. Whoever's sins you retain, they have been retained. 21.1. After these things, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself this way. 21.2. Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. 21.3. Simon Peter said to them, "I'm going fishing."They told him, "We are also coming with you." They immediately went out, and entered into the boat. That night, they caught nothing. 21.4. But when day had already come, Jesus stood on the beach, yet the disciples didn't know that it was Jesus. 21.5. Jesus therefore said to them, "Children, have you anything to eat?"They answered him, "No. 21.6. He said to them, "Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some."They cast it therefore, and now they weren't able to draw it in for the multitude of fish. 21.7. That disciple therefore whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It's the Lord!"So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he wrapped his coat around him (for he was naked), and threw himself into the sea. 21.8. But the other disciples came in the little boat (for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits away), dragging the net full of fish. 21.9. So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. 21.10. Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish which you have just caught. 21.11. Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three; and even though there were so many, the net wasn't torn. 21.12. Jesus said to them, "Come and eat breakfast."None of the disciples dared inquire of him, "Who are you?" knowing that it was the Lord. 21.13. Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead. 21.15. So when they had eaten their breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Feed my lambs. 21.16. He said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Tend my sheep. 21.17. He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?"Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time, "Do you have affection for me?" He said to him, "Lord, you know everything. You know that I have affection for you."Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep. 21.18. Most assuredly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself, and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you, and carry you where you don't want to go. 21.19. Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. When he had said this, he said to him, "Follow me. 21.20. Then Peter, turning around, saw a disciple following. This was the disciple whom Jesus sincerely loved, the one who had also leaned on Jesus' breast at the supper and asked, "Lord, who is going to betray You? 21.21. Peter seeing him, said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man? 21.22. Jesus said to him, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me. 21.23. This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple wouldn't die. Yet Jesus didn't say to him that he wouldn't die, but, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? 21.24. This is the disciple who testifies about these things, and wrote these things. We know that his witness is true. 21.25. There are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they would all be written, I suppose that even the world itself wouldn't have room for the books that would be written.
125. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.35, 3.19, 3.22-3.38, 10.21, 12.33, 16.18, 20.1-20.23, 20.35-20.36, 24.13-24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.6. They were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordices of the Lord. 1.7. But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. 1.8. Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division 1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 1.10. The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.12. Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 1.13. But the angel said to him, "Don't be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 1.14. You will have joy and gladness; and many will rejoice at his birth. 1.15. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. 1.16. He will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. 1.17. He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, 'to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,' and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. 1.18. Zacharias said to the angel, "How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years. 1.19. The angel answered him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. 1.20. Behold, you will be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things will happen, because you didn't believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time. 1.21. The people were waiting for Zacharias, and they marveled that he delayed in the temple. 1.22. When he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. 1.23. It happened, when the days of his service were fulfilled, he departed to his house. 1.24. After these days Elizabeth, his wife, conceived, and she hid herself five months, saying 1.25. Thus has the Lord done to me in the days in which he looked at me, to take away my reproach among men. 1.26. Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth 1.27. to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. 1.28. Having come in, the angel said to her, "Rejoice, you highly favored one! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women! 1.29. But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered what kind of salutation this might be. 1.30. The angel said to her, "Don't be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 1.31. Behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and will call his name 'Jesus.' 1.32. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David 1.33. and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his kingdom. 1.34. Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, seeing I am a virgin? 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. 3.23. Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli 3.24. the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph 3.25. the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai 3.26. the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah 3.27. the son of Joa, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri 3.28. the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er 3.29. the son of Josa, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi 3.30. the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jo, the son of Eliakim 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech 3.38. the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. 10.21. In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, "I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 12.33. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 20.1. It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, that the chief priests and scribes came to him with the elders. 20.2. They asked him, "Tell us: by what authority do you do these things? Or who is giving you this authority? 20.3. He answered them, "I also will ask you one question. Tell me: 20.4. the baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? 20.5. They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say, 'Why didn't you believe him?' 20.6. But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded that John was a prophet. 20.7. They answered that they didn't know where it was from. 20.8. Jesus said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 20.9. He began to tell the people this parable. "A man planted a vineyard, and rented it out to some farmers, and went into another country for a long time. 20.10. At the proper season, he sent a servant to the farmers to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard. But the farmers beat him, and sent him away empty. 20.11. He sent yet another servant, and they also beat him, and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. 20.12. He sent yet a third, and they also wounded him, and threw him out. 20.13. The lord of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son. It may be that seeing him, they will respect him.' 20.14. But when the farmers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.' 20.15. They threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them? 20.16. He will come and destroy these farmers, and will give the vineyard to others."When they heard it, they said, "May it never be! 20.17. But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the chief cornerstone?' 20.18. Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, But it will crush whomever it falls on to dust. 20.19. The chief priests and the scribes sought to lay hands on Him that very hour, but they feared the people -- for they knew He had spoken this parable against them. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.36. For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. 24.36. As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven. 24.52. They worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy 24.53. and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
126. New Testament, Mark, 1.10-1.11, 7.1-7.23, 10.1-10.12, 12.25, 16.1-16.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man. 10.1. He arose from there and came into the borders of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Multitudes came together to him again. As he usually did, he was again teaching them. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 16.1. When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. 16.2. Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen. 16.3. They were saying among themselves, "Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us? 16.4. for it was very big. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back. 16.5. Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed. 16.6. He said to them, "Don't be amazed. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him!
127. New Testament, Matthew, 3.16-3.17, 5.17-5.20, 5.31-5.32, 5.38-5.42, 5.45, 6.14, 6.19, 7.28-7.29, 11.25, 18.15, 18.22, 19.3-19.12, 19.27, 22.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.19. Don't lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal; 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 18.22. Jesus said to him, "I don't tell you until seven times, but, until seventy times seven. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.10. His disciples said to him, "If this is the case of the man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry. 19.11. But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it. 19.27. Then Peter answered, "Behold, we have left everything, and followed you. What then will we have? 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven.
128. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

129. Plutarch, Roman Questions, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

289d. has recorded? For he states that in very ancient times, in the consulship of Gaius Sulpicius and Licinius Stolo, a pestilential disease arose in Rome and destroyed to a man all persons appearing on the stage. Accordingly, at the request of the Romans, there came many excellent artists from Etruria, of whom the first in repute and the one who for the longest time enjoyed success in their theatres, was named Hister; and therefore all actors are named histriones from him. Why do they not marry women who are closely akin to them? Do they wish to enlarge their relationships by marriage and to acquire many additional kinsmen
130. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

131. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

132. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

133. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 10.3, 12.1, 28.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

134. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. And the apostle stood, and began to pray and to speak thus: My Lord and MY God, that travellest with thy servants, that guidest and correctest them that believe in thee, the refuge and rest of the oppressed, the hope of the poor and ransomer of captives, the physician of the souls that lie sick and saviour of all creation, that givest life unto the world and strengthenest souls; thou knowest things to come, and by our means accomplishest them: thou Lord art he that revealeth hidden mysteries and maketh manifest words that are secret: thou Lord art the planter of the good tree, and of thine hands are all good works engendered: thou Lord art he that art in all things and passest through all, and art set in all thy works and manifested in the working of them all. Jesus Christ, Son of compassion and perfect saviour, Christ, Son of the living God, the undaunted power that hast overthrown the enemy, and the voice that was heard of the rulers, and made all their powers to quake, the ambassador that wast sent from the height and camest down even unto hell, who didst open the doors and bring up thence them that for many ages were shut up in the treasury of darkness, and showedst them the way that leadeth up unto the height: l beseech thee, Lord Jesu, and offer unto thee supplication for these young persons, that thou wouldest do for them the things that shall help them and be expedient and profitable for them. And he laid his hands on them and said: The Lord shall be with you, and left them in that place and departed.
135. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 2.4, 8.1, 8.3, 8.8-8.9, 8.11, 14.8, 21.3, 24.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 8.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם (בראשית א, כו), בְּמִי נִמְלָךְ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ נִמְלָךְ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי סַנְקְלִיטִים, וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה דָבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתָּן. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר בְּמַעֲשֵׂה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם נִמְלַךְ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ סַנְקַתַּדְרוֹן, וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה דָבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ. רַבִּי אַמֵּי אָמַר בְּלִבּוֹ נִמְלַךְ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁבָּנָה פָּלָטִין עַל יְדֵי אַרְדְּכָל, רָאָה אוֹתָהּ וְלֹא עָרְבָה לוֹ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְרַעֵם לֹא עַל אַרְדְּכָל, אֶתְמְהָא, הֱוֵי וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. אָמַר רַב אַסֵּי מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה לוֹ סְחוֹרָה עַל יְדֵי סַרְסוּר וְהִפְסִיד, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְרָעֵם לֹא עַל הַסַּרְסוּר, אֶתְמְהָא, הֱוֵי וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. 8.8. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה משֶׁה כּוֹתֵב אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, הָיָה כּוֹתֵב מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אַתָּה נוֹתֵן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ כְּתֹב, וְהָרוֹצֶה לִטְעוֹת יִטְעֶה. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, משֶׁה, הָאָדָם הַזֶּה שֶׁבָּרָאתִי, לֹא גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאִם יָבוֹא הַגָּדוֹל לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנוּ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר מָה אֲנִי צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנִּי, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ לְמַד מִבּוֹרְאֶךָ, שֶׁהוּא בָּרָא אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְאֶת הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת הָאָדָם נִמְלַךְ בְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֵית הָכָא מַלְכוּ, אֶלָּא מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַיֵּל בְּפֶתַח פָּלָטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְרָאָה בְּלוֹרִין אַחַת מוּשְׁלֶכֶת, אָמַר מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה בָהּ, מֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים דִּימוּסִיּוֹת, וּמֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים פְּרִיבְטָאוֹת, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אִינְדַרְטִין אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ, מִי מְעַכֵּב. 8.9. שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כב, כב): אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (יהושע כב, כב): הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כד, יט): כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא. 8.11. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם (בראשית ה, ב), זֶה אֶחָד מִן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁשִּׁנּוּ לְתַלְמַי הַמֶּלֶךְ, זָכָר וּנְקוּבָיו בְּרָאָם. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמְרֵי, בָּרָא בוֹ אַרְבַּע בְּרִיּוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאַרְבַּע מִלְּמַטָּן, אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כִּבְהֵמָה, פָּרָה וְרָבָה כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמַטִּיל גְּלָלִים כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמֵת כִּבְהֵמָה. מִלְּמַעְלָה, עוֹמֵד כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, מְדַבֵּר כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, יֵשׁ בּוֹ דַּעַת כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְרוֹאֶה כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. וּבְהֵמָה אֵינָה רוֹאָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא זֶה מְצַדֵּד. רַבִּי תִּפְדָאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת וְאֵינָן פָּרִין וְרָבִין, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים פָּרִים וְרָבִים, וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲרֵינִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, פָּרָה וְרָבָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים. רַבִּי תִּפְדָאי בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אִם בּוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הוּא חַי וְאֵינוֹ מֵת, מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הוּא מֵת וְאֵינוֹ חַי, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, אִם יֶחְטָא יָמוּת, וְאִם לֹא יֶחְטָא יִחְיֶה. 14.8. מִן הָאֲדָמָה (בראשית ב, ז), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמְרוּ, מִמָּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ נִבְרָא, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כז): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִמְּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו (בראשית ב, ז), מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוֹ גֹּלֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ וְעַד הָרָקִיעַ, וְזָרַק בּוֹ אֶת הַנְּשָׁמָה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בִּנְפִיחָה, לְפִיכָךְ מֵת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד בִּנְתִינָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לז, יד): וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָּכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם. 21.3. אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ (איוב כ, ו), אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ, רוּמֵיהּ. וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ, עַד מָטֵי עֲנָנַיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר מְלוֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. (איוב כ, ז): כְּגֶלְּלוֹ לָנֶצַח יֹאבֵד, עַל שֶׁגָּלַל מִצְוָה קַלָּה נִטְרַד מִגַּן עֵדֶן, (איוב כ, ז): רֹאָיו יֹאמְרוּ אַיּוֹ, הוּא הָאָדָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁטְּרָדוֹ הִתְחִיל מְקוֹנֵן עָלָיו וְאוֹמֵר הֵן הָאָדָם וגו'. 24.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, כְּתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וְעַל סִפְרְךָ כֻּלָּם יִכָּתֵבוּ יָמִים יֻצָּרוּ וְלוֹ אֶחָד בָּהֶם, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. וּמִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן עַד שֶׁאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מֻטָּל גֹּלֶם לִפְנֵי מִי שֶׁאָמַר וְהָיָה הָעוֹלָם, הֶרְאָה לוֹ דּוֹר דּוֹר וְדוֹרְשָׁיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וַחֲכָמָיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וְסוֹפְרָיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וּמַנְהִיגָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ, גֹּלֶם שֶׁרָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ כְּבָר הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל סִפְרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֱוֵי זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדוֹת אָדָם. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)." 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..." 8.3. Let us make a human”—with whom did He rule/nimlokh? R’ Yehoshua in the name of R’ Levi said: With the work/m’la’khah of the heavens and the earth . . . R’ Shmuel bar Nachman said: With the work/ma`aseh of each and every day..." 8.8. ... “if a great person . . . says, ‘Why do I need to take permission from one lesser than me?’ . . . they say to him: Learn from your Creator, for He created upper ones and lower ones, and when He came to create the human, He ruled with the ministering angels.”" 8.9. ... [R’ Simlai] said to them: In the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah (God’s presence)." 8.11. ... R’ Yehoshua barNechemyah in the name of R’ Chanina bar Yitshak and the rabbis in the name of R’ Lazar (Elazar), say: He created in him four creations from above /mil’ma`lah and four from below /mil’matah. From above – he stands like the ministering angels / mal’akhey hashareit, and speaks like the ministering angels, and has knowledge in him like the ministering angels, and sees like the ministering angels . . . From below – he eats and drinks like an animal /kab’heimah, bears fruit and multiplies, leaves piles (excretes) and dies like an animal... Said the Holy One: If I create him from the upper ones [alone] he lives and won’t die [in this world]; from the lower ones, he dies [in this world] and won’t live [in the coming world]." 14.8. ... ‘And He blew into his nostrils’—This teaches that He stood him up as a golem stretching from earth to the firmament and then threw breath/n’shamah into him." 21.3. ...R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]." 24.2. ... R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” "
136. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 14.1, 18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.1. אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ (ויקרא יב, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם נוֹחֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, הַזֶּה וְהַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּדִכְתִיב (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּבְרָא דוּ פַּרְצוּפִין נִבְרָא וּנְסָרוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה שְׁנַיִם גַּבִּים, גַּב לְזָכָר גַּב לִנְקֵבָה. אֵיתִיבוּן לֵיהּ (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אָמַר לָהֶן מִסִּטְרוֹהִי, כְּדִכְתִיב (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ מְלוֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ. מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָחוֹר זֶה יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם זֶה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דִּכְתִיב (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה, זוֹ רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָחוֹר זֶה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם זֶה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ דִּכְתִיב (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְכָל מַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ יַתּוּשׁ קַדְמָךְ, שִׁלְשׁוּל קַדְמָךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי תַּנְחוּם, אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל הָעֳנָשִׁין, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אוֹמֵר אַף קִלּוּסוֹ לֹא בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קמח, י): הַחַיָּה וְכָל בְּהֵמָה רֶמֶשׂ וְצִפּוֹר כָּנָף, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, כָּךְ תּוֹרָתוֹ אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ויקרא יא, מו): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ. 18.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (חבקוק א, ז): אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא. אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרַח לְמַעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לְדָרוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זוֹ חַוָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה לִּי וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כז, טו): וַתִּקַּח רִבְקָה אֶת בִּגְדֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עֹבַדְיָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עֹבַדְיָה גֵּר אֲדוֹמִי הָיָה, וְהָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא עַל אֱדוֹם (עובדיה א, יח): וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂרִיד לְבֵית עֵשָׂו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה לו, כ): מִי בְּכָל אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִצִילוּ אֶת אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי. מִמֶּנוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו (מלכים ב יט, לז): וַיְהִי הוּא מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה בֵּית נִסְרֹךְ אֱלֹהָיו וְאַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ וְשַׁרְאֶצֶר בָּנָיו הִכֻּהוּ בַחֶרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה חִירָם מֶלֶךְ צוֹר, דִּכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, ב): בֶּן אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן מָסֹרֶת אַגָּדָה הִיא חִירָם בַּעַל אִמּוֹ שֶׁל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָיָה, עָמַד עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, יח): וָאוֹצִיא אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר (ישעיה יד, יג): וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה וגו'. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ, אָמְרוּ כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, נָטְלוּ אֶת אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ וְהִמְלִיכוּהוּ תַּחְתָּיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁחָזַר נְטָלוֹ וַחֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִכְנַס בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים בְּיָמָיו לֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יז): אֲסִירָיו לֹא פָתַח בָּיְתָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמֵּת חָזְרוּ עַל אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ לְהַמְלִיכוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָכֶם נְטָלַנִּי וַחֲבָשַׁנִי בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְעַכְשָׁיו הֲרֵי הוּא הוֹרְגֵנִי, וְלֹא הֶאֱמִין לָהֶם עַד שֶׁגְּרָרוּהוּ וְהִשְׁלִיכוּהוּ לְפָנָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה יד, יט): וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִינָא וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא כָּל שׂוֹנֵא וְשׂוֹנֵא שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ הָיָה בָּא וְדוֹקְרוֹ בַּחֶרֶב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יט): לְבֻשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, שֶׁלָּקוּ בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ. 14.1. \"A woman when she gives seed (conceives)\" [Leviticus 12:2]: That's what is written, \"You have created me behind and before.\" [Psalms 139:5] Said Rabbi Yocha: If man merits, he inherits two worlds, this one and the coming one, that's what is written: \"You have created me behind and before (front).\" And if not, he comes to give reckoning, as it says, \"And You laid your hand (kapcha) on me.\" [ibid], as it is written, [Job 13:21] \"Withdraw your hand (kapcha) far from me.\" Said Rav Shmuel bar Nachman: When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first man, he created him as an androgynous being. Reish Lakish: When it was created, dual faces [together] were created, and it was cut, and two were made. [One] back was male, [one] back was female. They challenged him: [Genesis 2:21] \"And He took one of his ribs (tzela)\"!? He said to them, it is of his sides, as it is written, \"and to the side (tzela) of the Tabernacle\" [Exodus 26:20]. Said Rabbi Berachiya and Rabbi Chelbo and Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman: When God created the first man, from one end of the world to the other end, He created him to fill the entire world. How do we know from east to west? As it says, \"You created me back to east (kedem).\" How do we know from north to south? As it says, [Deuteronomy 4:32] \"From the ends of the heavens to the ends of the heavens.\" How do we know that it was the expanse of the world? As it says, \"And You laid your hand on me.\" Said Rabbi Elazar: \"Behind\" - that's the first day [of creation]. \"Before\" - that's the last day. For the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, there is the verse, [Genesis 1:24]: \"Let the earth bring forth the living soul (nefesh chaya) to its kind.\" \"Living soul\" - that's the spirit of the first man. Said Reish Lakish: \"Behind\" - that's the last day. \"Before\" - that's the first day. For the opinion of Reish Lakish, there is the verse: [Genesis 1:2] \"And the spirit of God wavered upon the water\" - that is the spirit of the king messiah. If man merits, we say to him: \"You were created before all of creation.\" If not, we say to him, \"The mosquito preceded you.\" Said Rabbi Yishmale b'Rabbi Tanchum: \"Behind\" on all creation, \"before\" (first) in all punishments. Said Rabbi Yocha: Even man's praise only comes last, as it says [Psalms 148:110]: \"Beasts and all cattle creeping things and flying fowl\". And afterwards, [Psalms 148:11]: \"Kings of the earth and all peoples.\" Said Rabbi Simlai: \"Just like man's formation was after beast, cattle, and bird, so too his laws are after beast, cattle, and bird, and that's what is written, \"This is the law of cattle\" [Leviticus 11:46], and afterwards, \"A woman when she gives seed...\""
137. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 21.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

138. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.57 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

139. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.1.17, 2.22.131-2.22.136 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

140. Corpus Hermeticum, Hieros Logos, 6, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

141. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 9.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

142. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.4.5, 1.7.1, 1.7.5, 1.21.5, 1.26.2, 1.27, 1.30.1, 1.30.5-1.30.10, 1.30.12-1.30.14, 4.19.2, 4.20.1, 4.38, 9.14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.38. But the scales of fishes - for instance, the seahorse - cause the stars to appear to be; the scales being steeped in a mixture of water and gum, and fastened on the ceiling at intervals.
143. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 62.2-62.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

103. The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the devil Justin: Then what is next said in the Psalm —'For trouble is near, for there is none to help me. Many calves have compassed me; fat bulls have beset me round. They opened their mouth upon me as a ravening and roaring lion. All my bones are poured out and dispersed like water,'— was likewise a prediction of the events which happened to Him. For on that night when some of your nation, who had been sent by the Pharisees and Scribes, and teachers, came upon Him from the Mount of Olives, those whom Scripture called butting and prematurely destructive calves surrounded Him. And the expression, 'Fat bulls have beset me round,' He spoke beforehand of those who acted similarly to the calves, when He was led before your teachers. And the Scripture described them as bulls, since we know that bulls are authors of calves' existence. As therefore the bulls are the begetters of the calves, so your teachers were the cause why their children went out to the Mount of Olives to take Him and bring Him to them. And the expression, 'For there is none to help,' is also indicative of what took place. For there was not even a single man to assist Him as an innocent person. And the expression, 'They opened their mouth upon me like a roaring lion,' designates him who was then king of the Jews, and was called Herod, a successor of the Herod who, when Christ was born, slew all the infants in Bethlehem born about the same time, because he imagined that among them He would assuredly be of whom the Magi from Arabia had spoken; for he was ignorant of the will of Him that is stronger than all, how He had commanded Joseph and Mary to take the Child and depart into Egypt, and there to remain until a revelation should again be made to them to return into their own country. And there they did remain until Herod, who slew the infants in Bethlehem, was dead, and Archelaus had succeeded him. And he died before Christ came to the dispensation on the cross which was given Him by His Father. And when Herod succeeded Archelaus, having received the authority which had been allotted to him, Pilate sent to him by way of compliment Jesus bound; and God foreknowing that this would happen, had thus spoken: 'And they brought Him to the Assyrian, a present to the king.' Hosea 10:6 Or He meant the devil by the lion roaring against Him: whom Moses calls the serpent, but in Job and Zechariah he is called the devil, and by Jesus is addressed as Satan, showing that a compounded name was acquired by him from the deeds which he performed. For 'Sata' in the Jewish and Syrian tongue means apostate; and 'Nas' is the word from which he is called by interpretation the serpent, i.e., according to the interpretation of the Hebrew term, from both of which there arises the single word Satanas. For this devil, when [Jesus] went up from the river Jordan, at the time when the voice spoke to Him, 'You are my Son: this day have I begotten You,' is recorded in the memoirs of the apostles to have come to Him and tempted Him, even so far as to say to Him, 'Worship me;' and Christ answered him, 'Get behind me, Satan: you shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only shall you serve.' Matthew 4:9-10 For as he had deceived Adam, so he hoped that he might contrive some mischief against Christ also. Moreover, the statement, 'All my bones are poured out and dispersed like water; my heart has become like wax, melting in the midst of my belly,' was a prediction of that which happened to Him on that night when men came out against Him to the Mount of Olives to seize Him. For in the memoirs which I say were drawn up by His apostles and those who followed them, [it is recorded] that His sweat fell down like drops of blood while He was praying, and saying, 'If it be possible, let this cup pass:' Luke 22:44, 42 His heart and also His bones trembling; His heart being like wax melting in His belly: in order that we may perceive that the Father wished His Son really to undergo such sufferings for our sakes, and may not say that He, being the Son of God, did not feel what was happening to Him and inflicted on Him. Further, the expression, 'My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue has cleaved to my throat,' was a prediction, as I previously remarked, of that silence, when He who convicted all your teachers of being unwise returned no answer at all.
144. Nag Hammadi, The Apocryphon of John, 2.5, 5.8-5.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

145. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 21-22, 52, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

146. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 21-22, 52, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

147. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.27.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.27.3. Sappho of Lesbos wrote many poems about Love, but they are not consistent. Later on Lysippus made a bronze Love for the Thespians, and previously Praxiteles one of Pentelic marble. The story of Phryne and the trick she played on Praxiteles I have related in another place. See Paus. 1.20.1 . The first to remove the image of Love, it is said, was Gaius the Roman Emperor; Claudius, they say, sent it back to Thespiae, but Nero carried it away a second time.
148. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 5.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

149. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 2.5, 5.18.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. Now then, you dogs, whom the apostle puts outside, Revelation 22:15 and who yelp at the God of truth, let us come to your various questions. These are the bones of contention, which you are perpetually gnawing! If God is good, and prescient of the future, and able to avert evil, why did He permit man, the very image and likeness of Himself, and, by the origin of his soul, His own substance too, to be deceived by the devil, and fall from obedience of the law into death? For if He had been good, and so unwilling that such a catastrophe should happen, and prescient, so as not to be ignorant of what was to come to pass, and powerful enough to hinder its occurrence, that issue would never have come about, which should be impossible under these three conditions of the divine greatness. Since, however, it has occurred, the contrary proposition is most certainly true, that God must be deemed neither good, nor prescient, nor powerful. For as no such issue could have happened had God been such as He is reputed - good, and prescient, and mighty - so has this issue actually happened, because He is not such a God. In reply, we must first vindicate those attributes in the Creator which are called in question - namely, His goodness and foreknowledge, and power. But I shall not linger long over this point for Christ's own definition John 10:25 comes to our aid at once. From works must proofs be obtained. The Creator's works testify at once to His goodness, since they are good, as we have shown, and to His power, since they are mighty, and spring indeed out of nothing. And even if they were made out of some (previous) matter, as some will have it, they are even thus out of nothing, because they were not what they are. In short, both they are great because they are good; and God is likewise mighty, because all things are His own, whence He is almighty. But what shall I say of His prescience, which has for its witnesses as many prophets as it inspired? After all, what title to prescience do we look for in the Author of the universe, since it was by this very attribute that He foreknew all things when He appointed them their places, and appointed them their places when He foreknew them? There is sin itself. If He had not foreknown this, He would not have proclaimed a caution against it under the penalty of death. Now if there were in God such attributes as must have rendered it both impossible and improper for any evil to have happened to man, and yet evil did occur, let us consider man's condition also - whether it were not, in fact, rather the cause why that came to pass which could not have happened through God. I find, then, that man was by God constituted free, master of his own will and power; indicating the presence of God's image and likeness in him by nothing so well as by this constitution of his nature. For it was not by his face, and by the lineaments of his body, though they were so varied in his human nature, that he expressed his likeness to the form of God; but he showed his stamp in that essence which he derived from God Himself (that is, the spiritual, which answered to the form of God), and in the freedom and power of his will. This his state was confirmed even by the very law which God then imposed upon him. For a law would not be imposed upon one who had it not in his power to render that obedience which is due to law; nor again, would the penalty of death be threatened against sin, if a contempt of the law were impossible to man in the liberty of his will. So in the Creator's subsequent laws also you will find, when He sets before man good and evil, life and death, that the entire course of discipline is arranged in precepts by God's calling men from sin, and threatening and exhorting them; and this on no other ground than that man is free, with a will either for obedience or resistance.
150. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.22 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.22. You will say, then, to me: You said that God ought not to be contained in a place, and how do you now say that He walked in Paradise? Hear what I say. The God and Father, indeed, of all cannot be contained, and is not found in a place, for there is no place of His rest; but His Word, through whom He made all things, being His power and His wisdom, assuming the person of the Father and Lord of all, went to the garden in the person of God, and conversed with Adam. For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son? Not as the poets and writers of myths talk of the sons of gods begotten from intercourse [with women], but as truth expounds, the Word, that always exists, residing within the heart of God. For before anything came into being He had Him as a counsellor, being His own mind and thought. But when God wished to make all that He determined on, He begot this Word, uttered, the first-born of all creation, not Himself being emptied of the Word [Reason], but having begotten Reason, and always conversing with His Reason. And hence the holy writings teach us, and all the spirit-bearing [inspired] men, one of whom, John, says, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, John 1:1 showing that at first God was alone, and the Word in Him. Then he says, The Word was God; all things came into existence through Him; and apart from Him not one thing came into existence. The Word, then, being God, and being naturally produced from God, whenever the Father of the universe wills, He sends Him to any place; and He, coming, is both heard and seen, being sent by Him, and is found in a place.
151. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58a. למדורה וקדרות מקיפות אותה,מטה של תלמידי חכמים כיצד כל שאין תחתיה אלא סנדלין בימות החמה ומנעלין בימות הגשמים ושל עם הארץ דומה לאוצר בלוס:,ר' בנאה הוה קא מציין מערתא כי מטא למערתא דאברהם אשכחיה לאליעזר עבד אברהם דקאי קמי בבא א"ל מאי קא עביד אברהם א"ל גאני בכנפה דשרה וקא מעיינא ליה ברישיה,א"ל זיל אימא ליה בנאה קאי אבבא א"ל ליעול מידע ידיע דיצר בהאי עלמא ליכא עייל עיין ונפק,כי מטא למערתא דאדם הראשון יצתה בת קול ואמרה נסתכלת בדמות דיוקני בדיוקני עצמה אל תסתכל הא בעינא לציוני מערתא כמדת החיצונה כך מדת הפנימית ולמ"ד שני בתים זו למעלה מזו כמדת עליונה כך מדת התחתונה,א"ר בנאה נסתכלתי בשני עקיביו ודומים לשני גלגלי חמה הכל בפני שרה כקוף בפני אדם שרה בפני חוה כקוף בפני אדם חוה בפני אדם כקוף בפני אדם אדם בפני שכינה כקוף בפני אדם,שופריה דרב כהנא (מעין שופריה דרב שופריה דרב) מעין שופריה דרבי אבהו שופריה דר' אבהו מעין שופריה דיעקב אבינו שופריה דיעקב אבינו מעין שופריה דאדם הראשון,ההוא אמגושא דהוה חטיט שכבי כי מטא אמערתא דרב טובי בר מתנה תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי א"ל במטותא מינך שבקיה לשנה אחריתי הדר אתא תפשיה בדיקניה אתא אביי לא שבקיה עד דאייתי מספרא וגזיא לדיקניה,ההוא דאמר להו חביתא דעפרא לחד בראי חביתא דגרמי לחד בראי חביתא דאודרא לחד בראי לא הוו ידעי מאי קאמר להו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו אית לכו ארעא אמרו ליה אין אית לכו חיותא אין אית לכו בסתרקי אין אי הכי הכי קאמר לכו,ההוא גברא דשמעה לדביתהו דקא אמרה לברתה אמאי לא צניעת באיסורא הך איתתא עשרה בני אית לה ולית לי מאבוך אלא חד כי שכיב אמר להו כל נכסי לחד ברא,לא ידעי להי מינייהו אתו לקמיה דרבי בנאה אמר להו זילו חבוטו קברא דאבוכון עד דקאי ומגלי לכו להי מינייכו שבקא אזלו כולהו ההוא דבריה הוה לא אזל אמר להו כולהו נכסי דהאי אזלו אכלו קורצא בי מלכא אמרי איכא גברא חד ביהודאי דקא מפיק ממונא מאנשי בלא סהדי ובלא מידי אתיוהו חבשוהו,אזלא דביתהו אמרה להו עבדא חד הוה לי פסקו לרישיה ופשטו למשכיה ואכלו בישריה וקא מלו ביה מיא ומשקו ביה לחברייא ולא קא יהבי לי דמי ולא אגריה,לא ידעי מאי קא אמרה להו אמרי ניתו לחכימא דיהודאי ולימא קריוהו לר' בנאה אמר להו זרנוקא אמרה לכו אמרי הואיל וחכים כולי האי ליתיב אבבא ונידון דינא,חזא דהוה כתיב באבולא כל דיין דמתקרי לדין לא שמיה דיין אמר להו אלא מעתה אתא איניש מעלמא 58a. bto a bonfire,where the fire is in the center band pots surround it.Similarly, the table of an ignoramus is arranged with the food in the center and is surrounded by plates.,Rabbi Yoḥa asked: bHowshould bthe bed of Torah scholarsbe kept? He replied: It is acceptable bas long as thereis bnothing except sandals beneath it during the summer, and shoesbeneath it bduring the rainy season,i.e., winter. bAndthe bed bof an ignoramusis bsimilar to a cluttered [ ibalus /i] storehouse,as he keeps a wide array of items beneath it.,§ Having mentioned Rabbi Bena’a, the Gemara relates an incident in which he was involved. bRabbi Bena’a was markingburial bcavesfor the purpose of helping to prevent the contracting of ritual impurity. bWhen he arrived at the cave of Abraham,i.e., the Cave of Machpelah, bhe encountered Eliezer,the bservantof bAbraham, who was standing before the entrance.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: What is Abraham doingat this moment? Eliezer bsaid to him:He is blying in the arms of Sarah, and she is examining his head. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to him: Go tell himthat bBena’a is standing at the entrance,so that he should assume an appropriate position to receive a visitor. Eliezer bsaid to him: Lethim, i.e., Rabbi Bena’a, benter,since bit is known that there is noevil binclination in thishigher bworld,so it is not inappropriate for Rabbi Bena’a to see Abraham and Sarah in this position. He bentered, examinedthe cave in order to measure it, band exited. /b, bWhen he arrived at the cave of Adam the firstman, who is buried in the same area, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: You gazed upon the likeness of My image,i.e., Abraham, who is similar to the image of Adam the first man. bDo not gaze upon My image itself,i.e., Adam the first man, about whom the verse states that he was formed in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27). Rabbi Bena’a said: bBut I need to mark the cave.The voice said to him: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the outercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the innercave, where Adam is buried. The Gemara notes: bAnd according to the one who saysthat the Cave of Machpelah consists of btwo chambers, thisone babove thatone, not two adjacent chambers, the voice said: bAsthe measurements of the bdimensions of the uppercave where Abraham is buried, bsoare the measurements of the bdimensions of the lowercave. Therefore, there is no need to measure it., bRabbi Bena’a says: I gazed at his,Adam’s, btwo heels, andthey shone so brightly that bthey are similar to two suns.Along these lines, the Gemara states that ballpeople bcompared to Sarahare blike a monkey compared to a human,as Sarah was exceedingly beautiful; bSarah compared to Eveis blike a monkey compared to a human; Eve compared to Adamis blike a monkey compared to a human;and bAdam compared to the Divine Presenceis blike a monkey compared to a human. /b,It was also stated that bthe beauty of Rav Kahana is a semblance of the beauty of Rav. The beauty of Rav is a semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu. The beauty of Rabbi Abbahu is a semblance of the beauty of Jacob our forefather. The beauty of Jacob our forefather is a semblance of the beauty of Adam the firstman.,On the topic of burial caves, the Gemara relates that there was ba certain magus [ iamgusha /i] who was rummagingthrough the graves of the bdead. Whenhe barrived at theburial bcave of Rav Tovi bar Mattana,Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beardand would not release him. bAbaye came and said toRav Tovi: bI beg of youto brelease him.The magus bcame again in another year,and Rav Tovi bgrabbed him by his beard. Abaye cameand requested that he release him, but Rav Tovi bdid not release him, untilAbaye bbrought a scissors and cut his beard. /b,§ The Gemara relates additional incidents involving Rabbi Bena’a: There was ba certainindividual bwho said tohis family before he died: bA barrel of earth to one of my sons, a barrel of bones to one of my sons,and ba barrel of wadsof wool bto one of my sons. They did not know what he was saying to them. They came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance. Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: Do you have landthat your father left as an inheritance? bThey said to him: Yes.He asked: bDo you have livestockthat your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He asked: bDo you have quilts [ ibistarkei /i]that your father left as an inheritance? They said: bYes.He said to them: bIf so, this is what he said to you,i.e., he meant that he is bequeathing land to one son, livestock to the second, and quilts to the third.,There was ba certain man who heard his wife saying to her daughter: Why do you not act clandestinelywhen you engage bin forbiddensexual intercourse? bThat woman has,i.e., I have, bten sons, and I have only one from your father,and no one knows. So too, you must be careful so that no one will discover your illicit behavior. Having overheard that only one son was his, bwhenthat man bwas dying he said tohis family: bAll of my propertyis left bto one son. /b, bThey did not knowto bwhich of themhe intended to leave his property. bThey came before Rabbi Bena’afor guidance, and bhe said tothe sons: bGo strike your father’s grave, until he rises and reveals to you to which of you he lefthis property. bThey all went,but bthatone bwho was his son did not go.Rabbi Bena’a bsaid to them: All ofthe bproperty belongs to thisson who did not go. The other brothers were angry. bThey went and slandered [ iakhlu kuretza /i]Rabbi Bena’a in bthe king’s house. They said: There is one man among the Jews who removes money from people without witnesses and without anyevidence. The king’s guards bbroughtRabbi Bena’a band imprisoned him. /b, bThe wife ofRabbi Bena’a bwentand bsaid tothe guards: bI had one servant. They cut off his head, and skinned him and ate his flesh, and they fill him with water andgive their bfriends to drink from him, and they have not paid mehis bvalue nor have they rented him. /b, bThey did not know what she was saying to them. They said: Let us bring the wiseman bof the Jews, and let him saywhat she meant. bThey called Rabbi Bena’a,and bhe said to them: She spoke to you of a water skin [ izarnuka /i].In other words, she was referring to a goat she owned that was slaughtered, its meat eaten, and its skin made into a water skin that could be filled with drinking water. bThey said: Sincehe is bso wise, lethim bsit at the gatewhere the judges congregate band render judgment. /b,Rabbi Bena’a bsaw that it was written upon the gate [ ibe’abbula /i]: Any judge who is summoned to judgment is not considered a judge,as judges must be above reproach. bHe said to them: If that is so,then if ba person comes from elsewhere /b
152. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35a. מתני׳ big strongכיצד /strong /big מברכין על הפירות על פירות האילן הוא אומר בורא פרי העץ חוץ מן היין שעל היין הוא אומר בורא פרי הגפן ועל פירות הארץ הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה חוץ מן הפת שעל הפת הוא אומר המוציא לחם מן הארץ ועל הירקות הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה רבי יהודה אומר בורא מיני דשאים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא ה"מ דתנו רבנן (ויקרא יט, כד) קדש הלולים לה' מלמד שטעונים ברכה לפניהם ולאחריהם מכאן אמר ר"ע אסור לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיברך,והאי קדש הלולים להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה חד דאמר רחמנא אחליה והדר אכליה ואידך דבר הטעון שירה טעון חלול ושאינו טעון שירה אין טעון חלול וכדר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מנין שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין שנאמר (שופטים ט, יג) ותאמר להם הגפן החדלתי את תירושי המשמח אלהים ואנשים אם אנשים משמח אלהים במה משמח מכאן שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין,הניחא למאן דתני נטע רבעי אלא למאן דתני כרם רבעי מאי איכא למימר דאתמר ר' חייא ור' שמעון ברבי חד תני כרם רבעי וחד תני נטע רבעי,ולמאן דתני כרם רבעי הניחא אי יליף ג"ש דתניא ר' אומר נאמר כאן (ויקרא יט, כה) להוסיף לכם תבואתו ונאמר להלן (דברים כב, ט) ותבואת הכרם מה להלן כרם אף כאן כרם אייתר ליה חד הלול לברכה,ואי לא יליף גזרה שוה ברכה מנא ליה ואי נמי יליף גזרה שוה אשכחן לאחריו לפניו מנין,הא לא קשיא דאתיא בקל וחומר כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לא כל שכן,אשכחן כרם שאר מינין מנין,דיליף מכרם מה כרם דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,איכא למפרך מה לכרם שכן חייב בעוללות,קמה תוכיח מה לקמה שכן חייבת בחלה,כרם יוכיח וחזר הדין לא ראי זה כראי זה ולא ראי זה כראי זה הצד השוה שבהן דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בו צד מזבח ואתי נמי זית דאית ביה צד מזבח,וזית מצד מזבח אתי והא בהדיא כתיב ביה כרם דכתיב (שופטים טו, ה) ויבער מגדיש ועד קמה ועד כרם זית אמר רב פפא כרם זית אקרי כרם סתמא לא אקרי,מ"מ קשיא מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בהן צד מזבח אלא דיליף לה משבעת המינין מה שבעת המינין דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,מה לשבעת המינין שכן חייבין בבכורים ועוד התינח לאחריו לפניו מנין,הא לא קשיא דאתי בקל וחומר כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לכ"ש,ולמאן דתני נטע רבעי הא תינח כל דבר נטיעה דלאו בר נטיעה כגון בשר ביצים ודגים מנא ליה אלא סברא הוא אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה:,ת"ר אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה וכל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה מעל מאי תקנתיה ילך אצל חכם,ילך אצל חכם מאי עביד ליה הא עביד ליה איסורא אלא אמר רבא ילך אצל חכם מעיקרא וילמדנו ברכות כדי שלא יבא לידי מעילה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה כאילו נהנה מקדשי שמים שנא' (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה ר' לוי רמי כתיב לה' הארץ ומלואה וכתיב (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם לא קשיא כאן קודם ברכה 35a. strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna discusses the blessings recited over various foods. bHow does one recite a blessing over fruits? Overdifferent bfruitsthat grow on a btree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, with the exception of wine.Although wine is produced from fruit of the tree, due to its significance, its blessing differs from other fruits of the tree. bOver wine one recites: Who creates fruit of the vine. Over fruitsthat grow from bthe earth, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, with the exception of bread.Bread, too, is significant and its blessing differs from other fruits of the ground, bas over bread one recites: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Overherbs and leafy bvegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat there is room to distinguish between fruits that grow from the earth, herbs, and leafy vegetables. Although they are all fruit of the ground, since they have different qualities, the blessing on the latter is: bWho creates various kinds of herbs. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the fundamental basis for blessings, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the obligation to recite a blessing before eating, derived? The Gemara answers: bAs the Sages taughtin the iSifra /i: With regard to saplings, it is stated that in their fourth year their fruit will be: b“…sanctified for praises before the Lord”(Leviticus 19:24). This verse bteachesthat bthey requirepraise of God in the form of a bblessingboth bbeforehand and thereafter,as the verse says praises in the plural. bFrom here, Rabbi Akiva said: A person is forbidden to taste anything before he recites a blessing,as without reciting praise over food, it has the status of a consecrated item, from which one is forbidden to derive pleasure.,The Gemara asks: bAnddid bthisverse: b“Sanctified for praises,” come for thatpurpose? bThisverse bis necessaryto derive other matters. bOnebeing bthat the Merciful One said: Redeem it and then eat it.This midrash interprets ihillul /i, praise, as iḥillul /i, redemption. bAnd the othermatter derived from this verse is: bAn object whichis offered upon the altar and brequires a songof praise when it is offered, as is the case with the libation of wine, brequires redemption. And that which does not require a songof praise, all other fruits, bdoes not require redemption. Andthis is bin accordance withthe opinion that bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: From whereis it derived that bone only recites a songof praise in the Temple bover thelibation of bwineon the altar? bAs it is stated: “And the vine replied: Should I leave my wine, which gladdens God and man,and go and wave above the trees?” (Judges 9:13). bIfwine bgladdens people, in whatway bdoes it gladden God?Rather, derive bfrom here that one only recites a songof praise bover wine,as wine gladdens God when offered as part of the service in the Temple.In any case, other ihalakhothave been derived from this verse. From where, then, is the requirement to recite blessings derived?,Indeed, bthisworks out bwell according to the one who taught,as a rule: bA fourth-year saplingin the imishnayotdealing with the prohibition to eat fruits produced during the first three years of a tree’s existence and the sanctity of the fruit produced in its fourth year; as, in his opinion, fourth-year fruits that grow on all trees must be redeemed. bHowever, according to the one who taught,as a rule: bA fourth-year grapevine, what can be said?Indeed, he derives the ihalakhathat only wine that is accompanied by a song of praise requires redemption, from the interpretation of ihillulas iḥillul /i. bAs it was stated: Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bone taughtthese imishnayotusing the term: bA fourth-year grapevine, and one taughtusing the term: bA fourth-year sapling. /b, bAnd according to the one who taught: A fourth year grapevine, thisworks out bwell if he derivesthis matter bfrom a verbal analogy [ igezera shava /i],and therefore need not derive this ihalakhafrom the term ihillulim /i. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: It is stated herewith regard to the laws of the prohibition of fruit for the tree’s first three years: “But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit, bso that it may increase your produce [ itevuato /i];I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 19:25). bAnd it is stated below,with regard to the laws of diverse kinds: “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the growth of the seed that you have sown be forfeited bwith the produce [ iutevuat /i] of the vineyard”(Deuteronomy 22:9). Based on a verbal analogy, it can be derived: bJust as below,with regard to the laws of diverse kinds, the produce is that which grows in bvineyards; so too, here,with regard to the ihalakhotof the fruits of a sapling, the produce is that which grows in bvineyards.Consequently, according to the one who holds this verbal analogy, bone extra ihillul /iremains from which to derive bthe blessing.Since he derives that the laws of fourth-year saplings apply only to grapes from the verbal analogy, he can derive the requirement to recite blessings before partaking of food from the word ihillulim /i., bAnd if he does not derivethis ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogy,he must derive this ihalakhafrom the term ihillulim /i, in which case, bfrom where does he derivethe mitzva bto recite a blessingbefore partaking of food? bAnd even if he derivesthis ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogy, we founda source for the obligation to recite a blessing baftereating, similar to the obligation stated in the verse: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” However, bfrom whereis it derived that there is an obligation to recite a blessing bbeforehand?From one ihillul /i, the fundamental ihalakhaof redemption of fourth-year saplings is derived.,The Gemara answers this: This is bnot difficult, as itmay be bderived by means of an ia fortioriinference: If when he is satiated,after eating, bheis obligated to brecite a blessingover food, bwhen he is hungry,before eating, ball the more sothat he is obligated to recite a blessing over food.,The Gemara comments: In that way, bwe founda source for the obligation to recite a blessing over the produce of bvineyards,but bfrom whereis it derived with regard to bother types ofproduce?,The Gemara responds: bIt is derivedby means of the hermeneutic principle: What do we find, bfromthe produce of a bvineyard: Just asthe fruit of the bvineyard is an itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit and it requires a blessing, so too, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,The Gemara rejects this proof: bThisderivation bcan be refuted,as a vineyard is unique: bWhatis unique about a bvineyard, that it is obligated inthe mitzva requiring to give bsmall, incomplete clusters of grapes [ iolelot /i]to the poor? That is a stringency that does not apply to other fruits. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grapes.,The Gemara answers: In that case, bstanding grain can provethat the ihalakhaof iolelotis not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. One is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing after eating bread, even though the ihalakhaof iolelotdoes not apply to grain. The Gemara rejects this proof: bWhatis unique about bripe grain, that it is obligated inthe mitzva of separating iḥalla /ifrom the dough? That is a stringency that does not apply to other foods. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grain.,The Gemara responds: In that regard, bvineyards can provethat the ihalakhaof iḥallais not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. In summary: bAnd the derivation has revertedto its starting point. However, at this point the ihalakhais derived from a combination of the two sources: bThe aspect of this is not like the aspect of that, and the aspect of that is not like the aspect of this; the common denominator is:Both are bitemsfrom bwhich one derives benefit andeach brequires a blessing.A general principle may be derived: bSo too, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,Again, the Gemara objects: bWhatis unique about bthe common denominatorbetween grapes and grain that prevents utilizing it as a paradigm for other food items? Grapes and grain bhave an aspectof being offered upon the baltar,and perhaps that is the reason that they require blessings. Based on that reasoning, although all other food items cannot be derived from the common denominator, ban olive may also be derived as it too has an aspectof being offered upon the baltar,as olive oil is one of the components of a meal offering.,The Gemara questions this point: bIs an olive derived fromthe fact that it bhas an aspectof being offered upon the baltar? Isn’t it written explicitly with regard tothe olive blistedthat the orchard in which it grows is called ikerem /i; as it is written: “And burnt up from the shocks and the standing grain and the olive yards [ ikerem zayit /i]”(Judges 15:5)? Just as the orchard in which grapes grow is called ikerem /i, and grapes require a blessing, the olive also grows in a ikeremand should require a blessing. bRav Pappa said:Nevertheless, an analogy may not be drawn between the two; where the olive grows bis called ikerem zayit /i, it is not called ikeremunmodified,which is a term reserved for grapevines.,The Gemara returns to the issue at hand, noting that bin any case, it is difficult: Whatis unique about bthe common denominatorbetween grapes and grain? That they bpossess an aspectof being offered upon the baltar. Rather, it is derived fromthe obligation to recite a blessing bupon the seven species.After the verse speaks of the seven species, it states: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” This is a paradigm for all other foods, that they too require a blessing: bJust as the seven species are itemsfrom bwhich one derives benefit and require a blessing, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,Again, the Gemara rejects this: bWhatis unique babout the seven species? That one is obligated inthe mitzva bof first fruits.However, other produce with regard to which one is not obligated in the mitzva of first fruits, from where is it derived that they require a blessing? bFurthermore,even if the seven species can serve as a paradigm, bthisworks out bwellwith regard to the blessing bthereafter;but bfrom whereis the obligation to recite a blessing bbeforehandderived?,The Gemara responds to the question: This is bnot difficult, as itmay be bderived by means of an ia fortioriinference: If when he is satiated,after eating, bheis obligated to brecite a blessingover food, bwhen he is hungry,before eating, ball the more sohe is obligated to recite a blessing over food.,In any case, this is not an absolute proof. Furthermore, even baccording to the one who taught: A fourth-year saplingin all the relevant imishnayot /i, bitworks out bwellwith regard to beverything that can be planted,that one is obligated to recite a blessing. However, with regard to bitems that cannot be planted, such as meat, eggs, and fish, from where does hederive the ihalakhathat one is obligated to recite a blessing? bRather,all previous attempts at deriving this ihalakhaare rejected. The fundamental obligation to recite a blessing over food is founded on breason: One is forbidden to derive benefit from this world without a blessing. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bOne is forbidden to derive benefit from this world,which is the property of God, bwithoutreciting ba blessingbeforehand. bAnd anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing,it is as if he is guilty of bmisuseof a consecrated object. The Gemara adds: bWhat is his remedy? He should go to a Sage. /b,The Gemara is puzzled: bHe should go to a Sage; what will he do to him?How can the Sage help after bhe has already violated a prohibition? Rather, Rava said,this is how it should be understood: bHe should go to a Sage initially,in his youth, bandthe Sage bwill teach him blessings, so that he will not come tobe guilty of this type of bmisuseof a consecrated object in the future.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he enjoyed objects consecrated to the heavens, as it is stated: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,the world and all those who live in it” (Psalms 24:1). Rabbi Levi expressed this concept differently. bRabbi Levi raised a contradiction: It is written: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,” and it is writtenelsewhere: b“The heavens are the Lord’s and the earth He has given over to mankind”(Psalms 115:16). There is clearly a contradiction with regard to whom the earth belongs. He himself resolves the contradiction: This is bnot difficult. Here,the verse that says that the earth is the Lord’s refers to the situation bbefore a blessingis recited
153. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. להרחיק כל שהוא ובלבד שירבה בפסין ר' יהודה אומר עד בית סאתים,אמרו לו לא אמרו בית סאתים אלא לגנה ולקרפף אבל אם היה דיר או סהר או מוקצה או חצר אפילו בית חמשת כורין אפילו בית עשרה כורין מותר ומותר להרחיק כל שהוא ובלבד שירבה בפסין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big לימא מתני' דלא כחנניא דתניא עושין פסין לבור וחבלין לשיירא וחנניא אומר חבלין לבור אבל לא פסין,אפי' תימא חנניא בור לחוד באר לחוד,איכא דאמרי מדלא קתני חנניא אומר עושין חבלין לבור ופסין לבאר מכלל דלחנניא לא שנא בור ולא שנא באר חבלין אין פסין לא לימא מתני' דלא כחנניא,אפילו תימא חנניא למאי דקאמר ת"ק קא מהדר ליה,לימא מתני' דלא כר"ע דתנן אחד באר הרבים ובור הרבים ובאר היחיד עושין להן פסין אבל בור היחיד עושין לו מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר"ע,ואילו הכא קתני לביראות לביראות אין לבורות לא,אפי' תימא ר"ע באר מים חיים דפסיקא ליה לא שנא דרבים ול"ש דיחיד קתני בור מכונסין דלא פסיקא ליה לא קתני,לימא מתני' דלא כר' יהודה בן בבא דתנן רבי יהודה בן בבא אומר אין עושין פסין אלא לבאר הרבים בלבד ואילו הכא קתני לביראות ל"ש דרבים ול"ש דיחיד,אפי' תימא ר' יהודה בן בבא מאי ביראות ביראות דעלמא,מאי דיומדין א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר דיו עמודין:,ד"יו למ"נודה שב"ח זונ"ית נתק"לקל במי"דה שלש"ה סימן:,תנן התם ר' יהודה אומר כל השיתין פטורין חוץ מן הדיופרא מאי דיופרא אמר עולא אילן העושה דיו פירות בשנה,א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר דיו פרצוף פנים היה לו לאדם הראשון שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני כתיב (בראשית ב, כב) ויבן ה' אלהים את הצלע וגו' רב ושמואל חד אמר פרצוף וחד אמר זנב,בשלמא למ"ד פרצוף היינו דכתיב אחור וקדם צרתני אלא למ"ד זנב מאי אחור וקדם צרתני,כדר' אמי דא"ר אמי אחור למעשה בראשית וקדם לפורענות,בשלמא אחור למעשה בראשית דלא איברי עד מעלי שבתא אלא וקדם לפורענות מאי היא אילימא משום קללה הא בתחילה נתקלל נחש ולבסוף נתקללה חוה ולבסוף נתקלל אדם,אלא למבול דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה מאדם ועד בהמה וגו',בשלמא למ"ד פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, ז) וייצר תרין יודין אלא למ"ד זנב מאי וייצר,כדר"ש בן פזי דא"ר שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיצרי אוי לי מיוצרי,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי זכר ונקבה בראם,לכדר' אבהו דר' אבהו רמי כתיב זכר ונקבה בראם וכתיב (בראשית א, כז) (כי) בצלם אלהים ברא אותו בתחלה עלתה במחשבה לבראות שנים ולבסוף לא נברא אלא אחד,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויסגור בשר תחתנה אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי ויסגור בשר תחתנה,אמר רב זביד ואיתימא ר' ירמיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא נצרכה אלא למקום חתך,בשלמא למ"ד זנב היינו דכתיב ויבן אלא למ"ד פרצוף מאי ויבן,לכדר' שמעון בן מנסיא דדריש ר"ש בן מנסיא ויבן ה' אלהים את הצלע מלמד שקילעה הקב"ה לחוה והביאה לאדם הראשון שכן בכרכי הים קורין לקלעיתא בנייתא,דבר אחר ויבן ה' אלהים אמר רב חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מלמד שבנאה הקב"ה לחוה כבניין 18a. bto distancethe boards from the well and expand the enclosed area by bany amount,i.e., as much as one wishes, bprovided that he increases thenumber of upright bboardsbetween the double posts. bRabbi Yehuda says:The partitioned area may be expanded bup toan area of btwo ibeit se’a /i,which is an area of five thousand square cubits.,The Rabbis bsaid to him: They only spoke ofan area of btwo ibeit se’awith regard to a garden or an enclosureused for storing wood, scrap, and the like b[ ikarpef /i]. But if it was a pen [ idir /i], or a stable [ isahar /i], or a backyard, or a courtyardin front of the house, bevenif it had an area of bfive ibeit kor /ior beven ten ibeit kor /i, it is permitted. And it is permitted to distancethe boards and expand the enclosed area bby any amount, provided that one increases theupright bboardsbetween the double posts., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat bthe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may arrangeupright bboards around awater bcistern and ropes around a caravan. Ḥayadisagrees and bsays:One may set up bropes for a cistern, but notupright bboards. /b,The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bEven if you saythat the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of bḤaya, a cisternof collected rain water has a bdiscretelaw, as the water will eventually be consumed and the upright boards will become unnecessary; and ba wellof spring bwaterhas a bdiscretelaw, as the water is constantly renewed and the upright boards will remain useful., bSome saya different version of the previous passage: bFromthe fact bthatthe ibaraita bdoes not teach: Ḥaya says: One may set up ropes arounda water bcistern and boards around a well, by inference, according tothe opinion of bḤaya, there is no difference between a cistern and a well.In both cases, bropesare bindeedpermitted, whereas upright bboards are not. Let us say the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya. /b,The Gemara rejects this argument: bEven if you saythat the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of bḤaya,he was only replying bto that which the first itannahad said;since the first itannahad spoken only of a cistern, there was no need for Ḥaya to fully clarify his own position and distinguish between a cistern and a well.,The Gemara further suggests: bLet us say the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva. As we learnedin a mishna: In beach ofthe cases of ba public well, a public cistern, and a private well, one may arrangeupright bboards for them, butin the case of ba private cistern, one must establisha proper bpartition for it ten handbreadths high;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. /b, bWhereas herein the mishna bit teaches:One may arrange upright boards bfor a well,from which one may infer that bfor a well, yes,it is permitted to use posts, but bfor a cistern, no,it is not permitted. This is opposed to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion, which maintains that posts may be arranged for a public cistern.,The Gemara rejects this argument as well: bEven if you saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,the itannaof the mishna bteachesthe case of ba well of spring water, which hecan teach in ba distinctmanner because bthere is no differencewhether it belongs to bthe public and there is no differencewhether it belongs bto an individual,as it is always permitted. However, bhe did not teachthe case of ba cisterncontaining bcollectedrain water, bwhich hecould bnotteach in a bdistinctmanner because there is a difference between a public cistern and a private one. However, it cannot be proven from here that he disagrees with Rabbi Akiva.,The Gemara further suggests: bLet us say the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava, as we learnedin a mishna: bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava says: One may only arrangeupright bboards for a public well, whereas herethe mishna bstates: For wells.The plural term implies that bthere is no differenceif the well belongs to bthe public, and there is no differenceif the well belongs bto an individual. /b,The Gemara also rejects this line of reasoning: bEven if you saythat the mishna is in accordance with bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava,to bwhatis the mishna referring when it says bwells?It is referring to bwells in general,but the itannameans to include only public wells.,The mishna had mentioned double posts [ ideyomadin /i]: The Gemara asks: bWhat are ideyomadin /i? Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: Two [ ideyo /i] posts [ iamudin /i],which are put together to create a single corner piece.,Having cited Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar’s statement with reference to the prefix ideyo /i, the Gemara cites other statements of his. bTwo, toone who was bostracized, praise, nourishment, ruin, attribute, three,are bmnemonicsfor the following statements by Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar., bWe learned therein a mishna: bRabbi Yehuda says: All inferior figs are exemptfrom being tithed, even if they are of doubtfully tithed produce [ idemai /i], as even if the seller is an iam ha’aretz /i, he must certainly have already separated tithes from them, since the loss incurred by tithing is negligible, bexcept for ideyufra /i.The Gemara asks: bWhat is ideyufra /i? Ulla said: A tree that yields two [ ideyo /i]harvests bof fruit [ ipeirot /i] each year. /b, bRabbi Yirmeya ben Elazaralso bsaid: Adamwas first created with btwo [ ideyo /i] faces,one male and the other female. bAs it is stated: “You have formed me behind and before,and laid Your hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5). Similarly, bit is written: “And the itzela /i, whichthe Lord, God, had taken from the man, bHe madea woman, and brought her unto the man” (Genesis 2:22). bRav and Shmueldisagree over the meaning of the word itzela /i: bOne said:It means a female bface,from which God created Eve; band one said:Adam was created with ba tail [ izanav /i],which God removed from him and from which He created Eve.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat itzelameans bface;it is understandable bthat it is written: “You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before.” However, according to the one who saysthat itzelameans btail, what ismeant by the verse: b“You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before”? /b,The Gemara answers that this verse is to be understood as bearing a moral message, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behindmeans Adam was created at the end of bthe act of creation; and beforemeans that he was first bfor punishment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is understandable that Adam was bbehind,or last, bin the act of creation,meaning that bhe was not created untilthe sixth day, bShabbat eve. However, before,or first, bfor punishment, whatdoes bthismean? bIf you saythat he was punished first bbecause of the cursepronounced in the wake of the sin involving the Tree of Knowledge, there is a difficulty. bWasn’t the snake was cursed first, and afterward Eve was cursed, andonly bat the end was Adam cursed? /b, bRather,this refers btothe punishment of the bFlood, as it is written: “And He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle,creeping things and fowl of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23). This indicates that the punishment began with man.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was originally ba faceor side of Adam; it is understandable bthat it is written:“Then the Lord God bformed [ ivayyitzer /i]man” (Genesis 2:7). iVayyitzeris written with ba double iyod /i,one for Adam and one for Eve. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail, what isconveyed by spelling ivayyitzer /iwith a double iyod /i?,The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said:This comes to emphasize that which one says to himself in every circumstance: bWoe unto me from myevil binclination [ iyetzer /i]if I perform the will of my Maker, band woe to me from my Maker [ iYotzri /i]if I perform the will of my inclination.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was ba face,it is understandable bthat it is written: “Male and female, He created them,and blessed them, and called their name Man in the day when they were created” (Genesis 5:2), which indicates that from the very beginning of their creation, He fashioned two faces, one for the male and the other for the female. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail, what isthe meaning of the verse: b“Male and female, He created them”? /b,The Gemara answers: It can be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradictionbetween the verses: On the one hand bit is written: “Male and female, He created them,”in the plural, bandon the other hand bit is written:“So God created man in His own image, bfor in the image of God He created him”(Genesis 1:27), in the singular. bAt first, the thought enteredGod’s mind bto create two, and ultimately, only one wasactually bcreated. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was ba face,it is understandable bthat it is written:“And He took one of his sides band closed up the flesh in its place”(Genesis 2:21). bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail, what ismeant by the verse: b“And He closed up the flesh in its place”? /b, bRav Zevid said, and some sayit was bRabbi Yirmeya, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: It was necessaryto say that the fleshed closed up bonly with regard to the place of the incision. /b,The Gemara challenges the other opinion: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail;it is understandable bthat it is written: “Andthe Lord God bbuiltthe itzela /i” (Genesis 2:22), as it was a completely new building. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was a complete bfaceor side, bwhat isthe meaning of: b“And He built”?What needed to be built?,The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homileticallythe verse: b“And the Lord God built the itzela /i.”This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided for Eveher hair, bandthen bbrought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braidinghair bbuilding. /b, bAlternatively,the verse: b“And the Lord God built,”can be understood as a description of Eve’s basic shape, as bRav Ḥisda said, and some say it is taught in a ibaraita /i:This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure /b
154. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. הנה הוא זורה את גורן השעורים,רבי אבהו אמר מהכא (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש את וגו',ורבנן אמרי מהכא (בראשית לז, יד) לך נא ראה את שלום אחיך ואת שלום וגו',רב אמר מהכא (בראשית לב, לב) ויזרח לו השמש,אמר ר' עקיבא שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ואת רבי יהושע באיטליז של אימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של רבן גמליאל כתיב ויזרח לו השמש וכי שמש לו לבד זרחה והלא לכל העולם זרחה,אמר ר' יצחק שמש הבאה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו דכתיב (בראשית כח, י) ויצא יעקב מבאר שבע וילך חרנה וכתיב ויפגע במקום כי מטא לחרן אמר אפשר עברתי על מקום שהתפללו אבותי ואני לא התפללתי כד יהיב דעתיה למיהדר קפצה ליה ארעא מיד ויפגע במקום,כד צלי בעי למיהדר אמר הקב"ה צדיק זה בא לבית מלוני ויפטר בלא לינה מיד בא השמש,כתיב (בראשית כח, יא) ויקח מאבני המקום וכתיב ויקח את האבן אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שנתקבצו כל אותן אבנים למקום אחד וכל אחת ואחת אומרת עלי יניח צדיק זה ראשו תנא וכולן נבלעו באחד,(בראשית כח, יב) ויחלום והנה סולם מוצב ארצה תנא כמה רחבו של סולם שמונת אלפים פרסאות דכתיב (בראשית כח, יב) והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו עולים שנים ויורדים שנים וכי פגעו בהדי הדדי הוו להו ארבעה,וכתיב ביה במלאך (דניאל י, ו) וגויתו כתרשיש וגמירי דתרשיש תרי אלפי פרסי הוו,תנא עולין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מעלה ויורדין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מטה בעו לסכוניה מיד (בראשית כח, יג) והנה ה' נצב עליו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאמרו כאדם שמניף על בנו,(בראשית כח, יג) הארץ אשר אתה שוכב עליה וגו' מאי רבותיה אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שקפלה הקב"ה לכל ארץ ישראל והניחה תחת יעקב אבינו שתהא נוחה ליכבש לבניו,(בראשית כח, א) ויאמר שלחני כי עלה השחר אמר לו גנב אתה או קוביוסטוס אתה שמתיירא מן השחר אמר לו מלאך אני ומיום שנבראתי לא הגיע זמני לומר שירה עד עכשיו,מסייע ליה לרב חננאל אמר רב דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב שלש כתות של מלאכי השרת אומרות שירה בכל יום אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ה' צבאות,מיתיבי חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה יותר ממלאכי השרת שישראל אומרים שירה בכל שעה ומלאכי השרת אין אומרים שירה אלא פעם אחת ביום ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבת ואמרי לה פעם אחת בחודש ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשנה ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעם אחת ביובל ואמרי לה פעם אחת בעולם,וישראל מזכירין את השם אחר שתי תיבות שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' וגו' ומלאכי השרת אין מזכירין את השם אלא לאחר ג' תיבות כדכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות,ואין מה"ש אומרים שירה למעלה עד שיאמרו ישראל למטה שנאמר (איוב לח, ז) ברן יחד כוכבי בקר והדר ויריעו כל בני אלהים,אלא אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות והאיכא ברוך 91b. “And now is there not Boaz our kinsman, whose maidens you were with? bBehold, he winnows barley tonight in the threshing floor /b…and it shall be, when he lies down, that you shall mark the place where he shall lie” (Ruth 3:2–3). This teaches that the reason Boaz did not return home from the threshing floor was that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddledhis donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went to the place that God had told him” (Genesis 22:3). The fact that Abraham waited until morning and did not set off at night, even though others were traveling with him, indicates that a Torah scholar should not go out at night at all, and certainly not alone., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the source is bfrom here,the verse that describes when Jacob sent Joseph to his brothers: “And he said to him: bGo now, see whether it is well with you brothers and wellwith the flock; and bring me back word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem” (Genesis 37:14). The verse indicates that Jacob sent Joseph at a time when he could see his brothers, i.e., during the day. This shows that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRav saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And the sun rose for himas he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). This indicates that Jacob remained where he was all night and left in the morning, because a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,The Gemara cites an incident involving the final verse cited above. bRabbi Akiva says: I askedthe following question of bRabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua in the meat market [ ibe’itliz /i] ofthe town bEmmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for thewedding bfeast of Rabban Gamliel’s son: It is writtenin the verse: b“And the sun shone for himwhen he passed Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). bBut did the sun shine only for him? Didn’t it shine for the entire world? /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:The verse means that bthe sun, which setearly exclusively bfor him,also bshoneearly exclusively bfor himin order to rectify the disparity created by the premature sunset. The Gemara explains when the sun set early for him: bAs it is written: “And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran”(Genesis 28:10). bAnd it is writtenthereafter: b“And he encountered the place,and he slept there, because the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). bWhenJacob barrived at Haran, he said:Is it bpossiblethat bI passed a place where my fathers prayed and I did not praythere? bWhen he set his mind to return, the land contracted for him. Immediatelythe verse states: b“And he encountered the place,”indicating that he arrived there miraculously., bWhen hehad finished bprayingand bhe wanted to returnto Haran, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: This righteous man came to my lodging place and he will depart without remaining overnight? Immediately, the sun setbefore its proper time so that Jacob would stay overnight in that place.,The Gemara cites another exposition of Rabbi Yitzḥak to explain an apparent contradiction between two verses pertaining to this incident. bIt is written: “And he took of the stones of the place,and placed them under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep” (Genesis 28:11). bAnd it is written:“And Jacob rose up early in the morning, band he took the stonethat he had placed under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Genesis 28:18). The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said:Let bthis righteous man place his head upon me.And it was btaught: And all of them were absorbed into onelarge rock.,The Gemara expounds other verses pertaining to the same incident. The verse states: b“And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth,and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:12). It was btaught: How wide was the ladder?It was beight thousand parasangs [ iparsaot /i], as it is written: “And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.”The word b“ascending [ iolim /i],”written in plural, indicates that there were btwoangels ascending simultaneously. Likewise, the term b“and descending [ iveyordim /i],”also in the plural, indicates that btwoangels were descending simultaneously. bAnd when they met one another they werea total of bfourin one place, so the ladder must have been wide enough to accommodate four angels., bAnd it is writtenin a verse bwith regard to an angel: “His body was like Tarshish”(Daniel 10:6). bAndit bis learnedas a tradition bthatthe city of bTarshish was two thousand parasangs.Consequently, in order to accommodate four angels, the ladder must have been eight thousands parasangs wide.,It was btaughtthat the angels were bascending and gazing at the image of [ ibidyokeno /i]Jacob babove,engraved on the Throne of Glory, band descending and gazing at his image below.The angels subsequently became jealous of Jacob, and bwanted to endangerhis life. bImmediatelyJacob received divine protection, as the verse states: b“And behold, the Lord stood over him”(Genesis 28:13). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Were it not writtenin a bverse it would be impossible to utter it,in deference to God, since it describes God as standing over Jacob to protect him from the angels blike a man who wavesa fan bover his sonto cool him down.,The Gemara explains another verse from Jacob’s dream. “And behold, the Lord stood over him and said: I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. bThe land upon which you lie,to you will I give it, and to your seed” (Genesis 28:13). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the greatnessof this promise, i.e., why is it expressed in this way despite the fact that in a literal sense Jacob was lying on a very small amount of land? bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, foldedup bthe entirety of Eretz Yisrael and placed it under Jacob, our patriarch, so that it would be easy for his children to conquer. /b,The Gemara returns to the verses that describe Jacob wrestling with the angel. b“And he said: Let me go, for the dawn has risen.And he said: I will not let you go until you bless me” (Genesis 32:27). Jacob bsaid tothe angel: bAre you a thief, or are you a gambler [ ikuveyustus /i], who is afraid of dawn?The angel bsaid to him: I am an angel, and from the day I was created my time to recite a songbefore God bhas not arrived, until now.Now I must ascend so that I can sing songs of praise to God.,The Gemara comments: This bsupportsthe opinion bof Rav Ḥaelwhen he related what bRav said. As Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Three groups of ministering angels recite a song every dayfrom the verse “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord”; bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people are more dear to the Holy One, Blessed be He, than the ministering angels, as the Jewish peoplemay brecite a songof praise to God bat any time, but ministering angels recite a songof praise bonly one time per day. And some saythat the ministering angels recite a song of praise bone time per week. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per month. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per year. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inevery bseven years. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per Jubilee. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inthe entire history of bthe world. /b, bAndfurthermore, bthe Jewish people mention the nameof God bafter two words, as it is stated: “Hear, Israel: The Lordour God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bBut the ministering angels mention the nameof God bonly after three words, as it is written:“And one called unto another, and said: b“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3)., bAnd the ministering angels do not recitetheir bsong above until the Jewish people recitetheir song bbelow,on earth, bas it is stated: “When the morning stars sang together”(Job 38:7), referring to the Jewish people, who are compared to stars; bandonly bthendoes the verse state: b“And all the sons of God shouted for joy,”which is a reference to the angels. This ibaraitateaches that the angels mention the name of God only after three words, i.e., after saying the word “holy” three times, whereas according to what Rav Ḥael stated that Rav said, the third group of angels says the word “holy” once and then immediately mentions the name of God.,The Gemara emends Rav Ḥael’s statement citing Rav: bRather,Rav said that bonegroup of ministering angels bsays: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”The Gemara challenges the statement of the ibaraitathat the angels mention the name of God only after three words: bBut there isthe verse: “Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: bBlessed bethe glory of the Lord from His place” (Ezekiel 3:12). In this praise, “Blessed be the glory of the Lord,” the word “Lord” appears as the third Hebrew word, apparently uttered by the ministering angels.
155. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב' וג' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר' חייא חתניה דר' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה 62b. the itannataught us a ihalakha bwith regard to all of them,not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: bButwith regard to a sailor bit saidthat the set interval for conjugal relations is bsix months;why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that bone who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket.On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased., bRabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driverwho is already married wants to bbecome a camel driver, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? bHe answered him: A woman prefers a ikav /i,i.e., modest means, bwith conjugal relations to ten ikavwith abstinence.Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For bsailors,the set interval for conjugal relations is bonce every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona saidthat bRav said:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava saidthat bRav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leavetheir homes bto study Torahfor as long as btwo or three years without permissionfrom their wives. bRava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’sopinion band performed an actionlike this bthemselves,but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is basit is related babout Rav Reḥumi, who would commonlystudy bbefore Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to comeback bto his home everyyear on the beve of Yom Kippur. One day he wasparticularly bengrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. bHis wife was expecting himthat day and continually said to herself: bNow he is coming, now he is coming.But in the end, bhe did not come. She was distressedby this and ba tear fell from her eye.At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi bwas sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died.This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ bWhenis btheideal btime for Torah scholarsto fulfill their conjugal obligations? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The appropriate time for them is bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve,i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse b“that brings forth its fruit in its season”(Psalms 1:3): bRav Yehuda said, and some saythat it was bRav Huna, and some saythat it was bRav Naḥman: Thisis referring to one bwho engages in marital relations,bringing forth his fruit, bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b,It is related further that bYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyyaand bson-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and everyShabbat eve bat twilight he would come to his house. When he would come,Rabbi Yannai bwould see a pillar of fire preceding himdue to his sanctity. bOne day he was engrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. bWhen Rabbi Yannai did not see that signpreceding him, bhe said tothe family: bTurn his bed over,as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that bif Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set intervalfor conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said bbecame “like an error that proceeds from a ruler”(Ecclesiastes 10:5), bandYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, bdied. /b,It is related further that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barranged for his sonto marry a daughter of bthe household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualificationin these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? bThey sat and looked into the families’ancestry and found that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas descended from Shefatya ben Avital,the wife of David, whereas bRabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. /b, bHe went and arranged for his sonto marry a daughter bof the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for himthat they would support him for btwelve years to go to study in the study hall.It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. bThey passedthe girl bin front ofthe groom and when he saw her bhe said: Let it bejust bsix years. They passed her in front of himagain and bhe said to them: I will marry hernow band then goto study. bHe wasthen bashamedto see bhis father,as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and bsaid to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception,meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that binitially it is written: “You bring them and plant themin the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. bAnd ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them”(Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding bhe went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile,as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Whatshould we bdo? If he will divorce her,people bwill say: This poor woman waitedand hoped bfor naught. If he will marry another womanto beget children, people bwill say: This one,who bears him children, bis his wife and that one,who lives with him, bis his mistress.Therefore, her husband bpleadedwith God bto have mercy on her and she was cured. /b, bRabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Wait for me until Ican bcome with you,after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, bhe did not waitand bwent and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. /b, bHe wentand bsat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter,meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. bHe followed herto his house. bHis wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw himand recognized him, band her heart flutteredwith agitation and bshe passed awayfrom the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. /b, bRabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house, bhe said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai,who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, bdid. He went and sat in the study hallin his hometown, band senta message bto his housethat he had arrived. While he was sitting there bhis son Rabbi Oshaya,whom he did not recognize, bcame and sat before him.Rabbi Oshaya basked himquestions about ihalakha /i, andRabbi Ḥama bsaw that the ihalakhotofRabbi Oshaya bwere incisive,i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama bwas distressed and said: If I had been hereand had taught my son bI would have had a child like this. /b,Rabbi Ḥama bwent in to his houseand bhis son went inwith him. Rabbi Ḥama then bstood up before himto honor a Torah scholar, since bhe thoughtthat bhe wanted to ask him a matter of ihalakha /i. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son?The Gemara comments: bRami bar Ḥama readthe verse babout him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken”(Ecclesiastes 4:12). bThisis referring to bRabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa,as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua,one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The bdaughterof Ben Kalba Savua bsaw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hallto learn Torah? bHe said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent himoff to study. bHer father heardthis and became angry. bHe removed her from his houseand took a bvowprohibiting her from bbenefiting from his property.Rabbi Akiva bwentand bsat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house bhe brought twelve thousand studentswith him, and as he approached bhe heard an old man saying tohis wife: bFor how long /b
156. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. דמות דיוקני נתתי בהן ובעונותיהם הפכתיה כפו מטותיהן עליה מנודה ומצורע מה הן בכפיית המטה תיקו,אבל אסור בעשיית מלאכה דכתיב (עמוס ח, י) והפכתי חגיכם לאבל מה חג אסור במלאכה אף אבל אסור במלאכה,מנודה מהו בעשיית מלאכה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כשאמרו אסור בעשיית מלאכה לא אמרו אלא ביום אבל בלילה מותר וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא,ת"ש מנודה שונה ושונין לו נשכר ונשכרין לו שמע מינה מצורע מהו בעשיית מלאכה תיקו,אבל אסור ברחיצה דכתיב (שמואל ב יד, ב) ואל תסוכי שמן ורחיצה בכלל סיכה,מנודה מהו ברחיצה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כשאמרו אסור ברחיצה לא אמרו אלא כל גופו אבל פניו ידיו ורגליו מותר וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא מצורע מהו ברחיצה תיקו,אבל אסור בנעילת הסנדל מדקאמר ליה רחמנא ליחזקאל (יחזקאל כד, יז) ונעליך תשים ברגליך מכלל דכולי עלמא אסור,מנודה מהו בנעילת הסנדל אמר רב יוסף תא שמע כשאמרו אסור בנעילת הסנדל לא אמרו אלא בעיר אבל בדרך מותר הא כיצד יצא לדרך נועל נכנס לעיר חולץ וכן אתה מוצא במנודה ובאבל מאי לאו אכולהו לא אשארא,מצורע מהו בנעילת הסנדל תיקו,אבל אסור בתשמיש המטה דכתיב (שמואל ב יב, כד) וינחם דוד את בת שבע אשתו ויבא אליה מכלל דמעיקרא אסור,מנודה מהו בתשמיש המטה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר מנודין היו ושימשו מטותיהן א"ל אביי ודלמא מנודה לשמים שאני דקיל,קיל והא אמרת חמיר ספוקי מספקא ליה זיל הכא קמדחי ליה וזיל הכא קמדחי ליה,מצורע מהו בתשמיש המטה ת"ש דתניא (ויקרא יד, ח) וישב מחוץ לאהלו שיהא כמנודה וכאבל ואסור בתשמיש המטה ואין אהלו אלא אשתו שנא' (דברים ה, ל) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם שמע מינה,וניפשוט נמי למנודה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב פנחס משמיה דרב יוסף מי קתני שאסור שיהא כמנודה וכאבל במילי אחרנייתא ואסור נמי בתשמיש המטה,אבל אינו משלח קרבנותיו דתניא ר"ש אומר שלמים בזמן שהוא שלם ולא בזמן שהוא אונן,מנודה מהו שישלח קרבנותיו אמר רב יוסף ת"ש כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר מנודין היו ושלחו קרבנותיהן א"ל אביי ודלמא מנודה לשמים שאני דקיל,קיל והאמרת חמיר ספוקי מספקא ליה ומדחי ליה,מצורע מהו שישלח קרבנותיו ת"ש דתניא (יחזקאל מד, כו) ואחרי טהרתו אחר פרישתו מן המת שבעת ימים יספרו לו אלו ז' ימי ספירו (יחזקאל מד, כז) וביום באו אל הקודש אל החצר הפנימית לשרת בקודש יקריב חטאתו 15b. God stated: bI have placed the likeness of My image [ ideyokan /i] withinhumans, as they were created in My image, band owing to their sins I have overturned it,as when this person died the Divine image in him was removed. Therefore, you must also boverturn your beds on account of this.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the ihalakhagoverning bone who was ostracized or a leper,with regard to boverturning the bed?The Gemara has no answer, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara proceeds to the next topic: bA mourner is prohibited from performing work, as it is written: “And I will turn your Festivals into mourning”(Amos 8:10). The Gemara infers: bJust as a Festivalis a time when it is bprohibited to work, so too, a mourner is prohibited from performing work. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who was ostracizedwith regard to bthe performance of work? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhearthat which is taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaid that the performance of work is prohibitedon a communal fast due to lack of rain, bthey meant onlythat work is prohibited bduring the dayof the fast, bbut during the nightof the fast bit is permitted. And you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a personwho was bostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allof the prohibitions stated that the ibaraitasays that they apply to one who was ostracized as well, including the prohibition to engage in work? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to work.,The Gemara offers a different proof: bComeand bhear that whichwas taught in the following ibaraita /i: bOne who is ostracized may teach Torahto others, bandothers bmay teach himTorah. Similarly, bhe may be hiredfor work by others, bandothers bmay be hired by him.The Gemara concludes: bLearn from herethat it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in work. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leper,with regard to bthe performance of work?An answer is not found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara discusses a different prohibition: bA mourner is prohibited from bathing, as it is written: “And do not anoint yourself with oil,but be as a woman that had for a long time mourned for the dead” (II Samuel 14:2). bAnd bathing is included inthe category of banointing,as both activities have a similar goal, i.e., cleanliness.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bbathing? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichwas taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaid that bathing is prohibitedon a communal fast, bthey meant onlythat a person may not wash bhis entire body, butwashing bhis face, his hands, and his feet is permitted. And you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a person who was ostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allthe prohibitions stated in the ibaraita /i, including the prohibition against bathing, that they apply also to one who is ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to bathing. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bbathing?An answer is not found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara moves to the next topic: bA mourner is prohibited from wearing shoes. Since the Merciful One says toEzekiel with regard to how his mourning rites should differ from the accepted custom: b“And put your shoes upon your feet”(Ezekiel 24:17), which shows bby inference that everyoneelse, i.e., all other mourners, bis prohibitedfrom wearing shoes.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bwearing shoes? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichis taught in the following ibaraita /i: bWhenthe Sages bsaidthat bwearing shoes is prohibitedon a communal fast, bthey meant onlythat one may not wear shoes when he is walking about bin the city, butif he set out to travel bon the road,wearing shoes bis permitted. How so?When bhe sets out on the road, he may put onhis shoes. But as soon as bhe enters the cityonce again, bhe must take offhis shoes and continue barefoot. bAnd you find a similar ihalakha bwith regard to a personwho was bostracized andwith regard to ba mourner. What, is it not with regard to allof the prohibitions stated in the ibaraita /i, including the prohibition against wearing shoes, that they apply also to one who was ostracized? The Gemara rejects this argument: bNo,this bis referring to the restof the prohibitions, but not to wearing shoes.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bwearing shoes?No answer is found, and the question bshall standunresolved.,§ The Gemara considers another issue: bA mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations, as it is written: “And David comforted Bath-Sheba his wife, and went into her,and lay with her” (II Samuel 12:24), after their son had died. This proves bby inference that initially,during the period of mourning, sexual relations bwere forbidden. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bsexual relations? Rav Yosef said: Comeand bhear that whichis taught in a ibaraita /i: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, andyet bthey engaged in sexual relations,as there were children born to them during that period. It follows that it is permitted for one who is ostracized to engage in sexual relations. bAbaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different,as bthat is less seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court.,The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it bless serious? But didn’t you,Abaye, bsayelsewhere that a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is bmore seriousthan one issued by an earthly court? For this reason, Abaye rejected several proofs of Rav Yosef from the previously cited ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: Abaye bis uncertainwhether a decree of ostracism imposed by Heaven is more or less serious than one imposed by an earthly court. Therefore, when bhe goes in thisdirection bhe rejectsthe argument, bandwhen bhe goes in thatdirection bhe rejectsthe argument. Abaye asserts that since the issue is in doubt, no proof can be derived from ostracism issued by Heaven.,The Gemara continues: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning ba leperwith regard to bsexual relations? Comeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse concerning a leper states: b“But he shall remain outside his tentseven days” (Leviticus 14:8), from which it is derived bthata leper bshould be like one who is ostracized and like a mourner, and he is prohibitedfrom engaging bin sexual relations.How is this derived? The bonlymeaning of the term b“his tent”is bhis wife, as is statedafter the giving of the Torah: b“Go say to them, return again to your tents”(Deuteronomy 5:27). This statement rendered it permitted for the men to once again engage in sexual relations with their wives after they had previously been prohibited to do so in anticipation of the giving of the Torah, as expressed in the verse: “Come not near a woman” (Exodus 19:15). The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from thisthat it is prohibited for a leper to engage in sexual relations.,The Gemara asks: If this is the case, then bcan wealso bresolvethe question raised above with regard to bone who is ostracized,by saying that it is prohibited for such a person to engage in sexual relations? bRav Huna, son of Rav Pineḥas, said in the name of Rav Yosef: Is it taughtthat a leper bis prohibitedfrom engaging in sexual relations like one who is ostracized? bIt statesonly that bhe should betreated blike one who is ostracized and like a mourner,i.e., he should be like them bwith regard to other things, and in addition he is prohibitedfrom engaging in bsexual relations.Therefore, no proof can be derived from here with regard to one who is ostracized that he, too, is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations.,§ The Gemara continues: bA mourner may not send his offeringsto the Temple, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon says: A peace /b-offering b[ ishelamim /i]is given this name also to teach us that one may sacrifice it only bat a time when he is whole [ ishalem /i]and his mind is settled, bbut not at a time when he is an acute mourner,i.e., on the first day of his bereavement, when he is distressed.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhaconcerning bone who is ostracizedwith regard to bsending his offeringsto the Temple? bRav Yosef said: Comeand bheara proof from that which is taught in a ibaraita /i: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the wilderness they were ostracized, andyet bthey sent their offerings. Abaye said to him: Perhaps one who is ostracized by Heaven is different, as that is less seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court.,The Gemara asks in astonishment: Is it bless serious? But certainly you,Abaye, bsaidelsewhere that being ostracized by Heaven is bmore seriousthan being ostracized by an earthly court. The Gemara offers a resolution: Abaye bis uncertainwhether being ostracized by Heaven is more or less serious than being ostracized by an earthly court, and therefore bhe rejectsRav Yosef’s arguments in both directions.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to ba leper sending his offeringsto the Temple? The Gemara answers: bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to a priest who became ritually impure: “And after he is purified, they shall count for him seven days” (Ezekiel 44:26). The verse should be understood as follows: b“And after he is purified”; after he has separated fromhis bdeceasedrelative. b“They shall count for him seven days”; these are the seven days of his countingbefore he may purify himself. b“And on the day that he goes into the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he shall sacrifice his sin /b-offering, says the Lord God” (Ezekiel 44:27);
157. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54a. ואיש תבונה ידלנה מים עמוקים עצה בלב איש זה עולא ואיש תבונה ידלנה זה רבה בר בר חנה ואינהו כמאן סברוה כי הא דאמר ר' בנימן בר יפת אמר רבי יוחנן מברכין על האור בין במוצאי שבת בין במוצאי יום הכפורים וכן עמא דבר,מיתיבי אין מברכין על האור אלא במוצאי שבת הואיל ותחילת ברייתו הוא וכיון שרואה מברך מיד רבי יהודה אומר סודרן על הכוס ואמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה,לא קשיא כאן באור ששבת כאן באור היוצא מן העצים ומן האבנים,תני חדא אור היוצא מן העצים ומן האבנים מברכין עליו ותני חדא אין מברכין עליו לא קשיא כאן במוצאי שבת כאן במוצאי יום הכפורים,רבי מפזרן רבי חייא מכנסן אמר רבי יצחק בר אבדימי אע"פ שרבי מפזרן חוזר וסודרן על הכוס כדי להוציא בניו ובני ביתו,ואור במוצאי שבת איברי והא תניא עשרה דברים נבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות אלו הן באר והמן וקשת כתב ומכתב והלוחות וקברו של משה ומערה שעמד בו משה ואליהו פתיחת פי האתון ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעים,רבי נחמיה אומר משום אביו אף האור והפרד ר' יאשיה אומר משום אביו אף האיל והשמיר רבי יהודה אומר אף הצבת הוא היה אומר צבתא בצבתא מתעבדא וצבתא קמייתא מאן עבד הא לאי בריה בידי שמים היא אמר ליה אפשר יעשנה בדפוס ויקבענה כיון הא לאי בריה בידי אדם היא,לא קשיא הא באור דידן הא באור דגיהנם אור דידן במוצאי שבת אור דגיהנם בערב שבת ואור דגיהנם בערב שבת איברי והא תניא *שבעה דברים נבראו קודם שנברא העולם ואלו הן תורה ותשובה וגן עדן וגיהנם וכסא הכבוד ובית המקדש ושמו של משיח,תורה דכתיב (משלי ח, כב) ה' קנני ראשית דרכו תשובה דכתיב (תהלים צ, ב) בטרם הרים יולדו וכתיב (תהלים צ, ג) תשב אנוש עד דכא ותאמר שובו בני אדם,גן עדן דכתיב (בראשית ב, ח) ויטע ה' אלהים גן בעדן מקדם גיהנם דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, לג) כי ערוך מאתמול תפתה,כסא הכבוד ובית המקדש דכתיב (ירמיהו יז, יב) כסא כבוד מרום מראשון מקום מקדשנו שמו של משיח דכתיב (תהלים עב, יז) יהי שמו לעולם לפני שמש ינון שמו,אמרי חללה הוא דנברא קודם שנברא העולם ואור דידיה בערב שבת,ואור דידיה בערב שבת איברי והתניא רבי יוסי אומר אור שברא הקב"ה בשני בשבת אין לו כבייה לעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה ואמר רבי בנאה בריה דרבי עולא מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בשני בשבת מפני שנברא בו אור של גיהנם ואמר רבי אלעזר אע"פ שלא נאמר בו כי טוב חזר וכללו בששי שנאמר (בראשית א, לא) וירא אלהים את כל אשר עשה והנה טוב מאד,אלא חללה קודם שנברא העולם ואור דידיה בשני בשבת ואור דידן במחשבה עלה ליבראות בערב שבת ולא נברא עד מוצאי שבת דתניא ר' יוסי אומר שני דברים עלו במחשבה ליבראות בערב שבת ולא נבראו עד מוצאי שבת ובמוצאי שבת נתן הקב"ה דיעה באדם הראשון מעין דוגמא של מעלה והביא שני אבנים וטחנן זו בזו ויצא מהן אור והביא שתי בהמות והרכיב זו בזו ויצא מהן פרד רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר פרד בימי ענה היה שנאמר (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה אשר מצא את הימים במדבר,דורשי חמורות היו אומרים ענה פסול היה לפיכך הביא פסול לעולם שנאמר (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי וכתיב אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ממנה ענה,ודילמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבא אמינא מילתא דשבור מלכא לא אמרה ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר ר"פ אמינא מילתא דשבור מלכא לא אמרה ומנו רבא אמר קרא הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,תנו רבנן עשרה דברים נבראו בערב שבת בין השמשות ואלו הן באר ומן וקשת הכתב והמכתב והלוחות קברו של משה ומערה שעמד בה משה ואליהו פתיחת פי האתון ופתיחת פי הארץ לבלוע את הרשעים ויש אומרים אף מקלו של אהרן שקדיה ופרחיה ויש אומרים אף המזיקין ויש אומרים אף 54a. bbut a man of understanding will draw it out”(Proverbs 20:5). bCounsel in the heart of man is like deep water; that isa reference to bUlla,who had a thought but did not articulate it. bBut a man of understanding will draw it out; that isa reference to bRabba bar bar Ḥana,who understood the allusion even though it was not articulated. The Gemara asks: bAnd in accordance with whoseopinion bdoUlla and Rabba bar bar Ḥana bhold,leading them to reject Rabbi Abba’s statement of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion? The Gemara answers: They hold bin accordance with thatwhich bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One recites the blessing over fire both at the conclusion of Shabbat and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur. And that ishow bthe people act. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was previously taught: bOne recites a blessing over fire only at the conclusion of Shabbatand not at the conclusion of Festivals or Yom Kippur, bsincethe conclusion of Shabbat bisthe time of bits original creation.And once bhe sees it, he recites the blessing immediately. Rabbi Yehuda says:One does not recite the blessing immediately; rather, he waits and barrangesand recites the blessings over fire and spices bover the cupof wine that accompanies the recitation of havdala. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda.How does Rabbi Yoḥa explain the baraita?,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where Rabbi Yoḥa said that one recites the blessing at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, it is referring to bfire that restedon Yom Kippur, i.e., fire for which no prohibition was involved in its kindling, either because it was kindled before Yom Kippur or because it was kindled in a permitted manner, e.g., for a dangerously ill person. bThere,where Rabbi Yoḥa said that the blessing is recited only at the conclusion of Shabbat, it is referring to fire bgenerated from wood and from stonesafter Shabbat, similar to the primordial fire, which was created at the conclusion of Shabbat.,It was btaughtin bone ibaraita /i: With regard to bfire generated from wood and stones, one recites a blessing over it; andit was btaughtin boneother ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite a blessing over it.This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult. Here,where the ibaraitastates that one recites a blessing, it is referring bto the conclusion of Shabbat. There,where the ibaraitastates that one does not recite a blessing, it is referring bto the conclusion of Yom Kippur. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi would bdistributethe blessings over the fire and the spices, reciting each when the opportunity arose. bRabbi Ḥiyyawould bcollect them,reciting all the blessings at the same time in the framework of ihavdala /i. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: Even though RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdistributes themand recites each blessing at his first opportunity, bhe repeatsthe blessings band arrangesand recites bthem over the cupof wine bin order to discharge the obligation of his children and the members of his household. /b,The Gemara stated that fire was originally created at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: bWas fire created at the conclusion of Shabbat? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bTenmiraculous bphenomena were createdin heaven bon Shabbat eve during twilight,and were revealed in the world only later? bThey were:Miriam’s bwell, and the mannathat fell in the desert, band the rainbow, writing [ iketav/b], bandthe bwriting instrument [ imikhtav /i], and the tabletsof the Ten Commandments, band the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth ofBalaam’s bdonkey, and the opening of the earth’s mouth to swallow the wickedin the incident involving Korah., bRabbi Neḥemya said in the name of his father: Even the fire and the mule,which is a product of crossbreeding, were created at that time. bRabbi Yoshiya said in the name of his father: Even the ramslaughtered by Abraham in place of Isaac, band the ishamir /iworm used to shape the stones for the altar, were created at that time. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the tongswere created at this time. bHe would say: Tongscan be bfashionedonly bwithother btongs, but who fashioned the first tongs? Indeed,the first pair of tongs bwas fashioned at the hand of Heaven.An anonymous questioner bsaid to him: It is possible to fashiontongs bwith a mold and align itwithout the need for other tongs. bIndeed,the first tongs bwere a creation of man.In any event, fire was originally created before Shabbat, not at the conclusion of Shabbat.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraitais referring bto our fire, and that ibaraitais referring bto the fireof bGehenna.The Gemara explains: bOur firewas created bat the conclusion of Shabbat,but bthe fire of Gehenna was created on Shabbat eve.The Gemara proceeds to ask: bWas the fire of Gehenna created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bSeven phenomena were created before the world was created, and they are: Torah, and repentance, and the Garden of Eden, and Gehenna, and the Throne of Glory, and the Temple, and the name of Messiah. /b,The Gemara provides sources for the notion that each of these phenomena was created before the world was. bTorahwas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “The Lord made me as the beginning of His way,the first of His works of old” (Proverbs 8:22), which, based on the subsequent verses, is referring to the Torah. bRepentancewas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “Before the mountains were brought forth,or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God,” band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“You return man to contrition; and You say: Repent, children of man”(Psalms 90:2–3)., bThe Garden of Edenwas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “And God planted the Garden of Eden in the east [ imikedem /i]”(Genesis 2:8). The term: In the east [ imikedem /i] is interpreted in the sense of: Before [ imikodem /i], i.e., before the world was created. bGehennawas created before the world was created, bas it is written: “For its hearth is ordained of old”(Isaiah 30:33). The hearth, i.e., Gehenna, was created before the world was created., bThe Throne of Glory and the Templewere created before the world was created, bas it is written: “Your Throne of Glory on high from the beginning, in the place of our Sanctuary”(Jeremiah 17:12). bThe name of Messiahwas created before the world was created, bas it is writtenin the chapter discussing the Messiah: b“May his name endure forever; his name existed before the sun”(Psalms 72:17). The name of Messiah already existed before the creation of the sun and the rest of the world. This ibaraitastates that Gehenna was created before the world was created and not during twilight before the first Shabbat., bThey sayin answer: The bvoidof Gehenna bwas created before the world, but its fire was created on Shabbat eve. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd was its fire created on Shabbat eve? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: The fire that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the second day of the week will never be extinguished, as it is stated: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, nor will their fire be extinguished;and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh” (Isaiah 66:24)? bAnd Rabbi Bana’a, sonof bRabbi Ulla, said: Why doesn’t the verse state: That it was good,at the end of the bsecond day of the weekof Creation, as it does on the other days? It is bbecause onthat day bthe fire of Gehenna was created. And Rabbi Elazar saidthat beven though: That it was good, was not stated with regard tothe creations of the second day, bHe later included iton the bsixth day, as it is stated: “And God saw all that He had done and behold, it was very good”(Genesis 1:31)., bRather, the voidof Gehenna was created bbefore the world was created, and its firewas created only bon the second day of the week. Andthe thought barosein God’s bmind to create our fire on Shabbat eve;however, bit was notactually bcreated until the conclusion of Shabbat, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says:The thoughts of btwo phenomena arose inGod’s bmind on Shabbat eve, but were notactually bcreated until the conclusion of Shabbat. At the conclusion of Shabbat, the Holy One, Blessed be He, granted Adam, the firstman, creative bknowledge similar to divineknowledge, band he brought two rocks and rubbed them against each other, andthe first bfire emerged from them. Adamalso bbrought two animals,a female horse and a male donkey, band mated them with each other, andthe resultant offspring that bemerged from themwas ba mule. Rabban Shimon ben Gamlieldisagrees and bsaysthat the first bmule was in the days of Anah, as it is stated:“And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; bthis is Anah who found the mules in the wilderness,as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father” (Genesis 36:24)., bThe interpretersof Torah bsymbolism [ iḥamurot /i] would say: Anah wasthe product of an incestuous relationship, and as a result he was spiritually bunfitto produce offspring. bTherefore,he bbroughtan example of bunfitness,i.e., an animal physically unfit to produce offspring, binto the world, as it is stated: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite,the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Shoval, and Zibeon, and Anah” (Genesis 36:20). bAnd it isalso bstated: “And these are the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah”(Genesis 36:24). One verse describes both Anah and Zibeon as sons of Seir, meaning that they are brothers, while the other verse describes Anah as Zibeon’s son. bRather, this teaches that Zibeon cohabited with his mother,the wife of Seir, band fathered Anah from her.He is called Seir’s son although in fact he was the offspring of Seir’s son and Seir’s wife.,The Gemara asks: bAnd perhaps there were twopeople named bAnah,one the son of Zibeon and the other the son of Seir? bRava said: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who isthis King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be an epithet for someone else. He is bShmuel,whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. bSome saya different version, that it was bRav Pappawho bsaid: I will state a matterthat even bKing Shapur did not state. And who is hethat Rav Pappa is referring to by the epithet King Shapur? He is bRava. The verse said: “This is Anahwho found the mules,” indicating that bhe isthe same bAnahmentioned binitiallyin the earlier verse., bThe Sages taught: Ten phenomena were created on Shabbat eve during twilight, and they were:Miriam’s bwell, and manna, andthe brainbow, writing, and the writing instrument, and the tablets, the grave of Moses, and the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth ofBalaam’s bdonkey, and the opening of the mouth of the earth to swallow the wickedin the time of Korah. bAnd some saythat beven Aaron’s staffwas created then with bits almonds and its blossoms. Some saythat beven the demonswere created at this time. bAnd some saythat beven /b
158. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שאני התם דשירה דיומיה היא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר משום ר"ע בראשון מה היו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה על שם שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו,בשני מה היו אומרים (תהלים מח, ב) גדול ה' ומהולל מאד על שם שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהן,בשלישי היו אומרים (תהלים פב, א) אלהים נצב בעדת אל על שם שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו ברביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה' על שם שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן,בחמישי היו אומרים (תהלים פא, ב) הרנינו לאלהים עוזנו על שם שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי היו אומרים (תהלים צג, א) ה' מלך גאות לבש על שם שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהן בשביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת ליום שכולו שבת,א"ר נחמיה מה ראו חכמים לחלק בין הפרקים הללו אלא בראשון שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו בשני שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהם בשלישי שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו,ברביעי שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן בחמישי שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהם בשביעי על שם ששבת,וקמיפלגי בדרב קטינא דאמר רב קטינא שיתא אלפי שני הוה עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב יי' לבדו ביום ההוא (אמר אביי) תרי חרוב שנאמ' (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים,במוספי דשבתא מה היו אומרים אמר רב ענן בר רבא אמר רב הזי"ו ל"ך,ואמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב כדרך שחלוקים כאן כך חלוקין בבית הכנסת,במנחת' דשבתא מה היו אומרי' אמר רבי יוחנן אז ישיר ומי כמוך ואז ישיר,איבעי' להו הני כולהו בחד שבתא אמרי להו או דלמא כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד תא שמע דתניא א"ר יוסי עד שהראשונה אומרת אחת שניה חוזרת שתים שמע מינה כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד שמע מינה,אמר רב יהודה בר אידי א"ר יוחנן עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא,עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי מכפרת לכרוב ומכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן וממפתן לחצר ומחצר למזבח וממזבח לגג ומגג לחומה ומחומה לעיר ומעיר להר ומהר למדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה שנאמר (הושע ה, טו) אלך אשובה אל מקומי,מכפורת לכרוב מכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן דכתיב (שמות כה, כב) ונועדתי [לך שם ודברתי] אתך מעל הכפורת וכתיב וירכב על כרוב ויעף וכתיב (יחזקאל ט, ג) וכבוד אלהי ישראל נעלה מעל הכרוב אשר היה עליו אל מפתן הבית,וממפתן לחצר דכתיב (יחזקאל י, ד) וימלא הבית את הענן והחצר מלאה את נגה כבוד ה' מחצר למזבח דכתיב ראיתי את ה' נצב על המזבח וממזבח לגג דכתיב (משלי כא, ט) טוב לשבת על פנת גג מגג לחומה דכתיב והנה ה' נצב על חומת אנך מחומה לעיר דכתיב (מיכה ו, ט) קול ה' לעיר יקרא,ומעיר להר דכתיב ויעל כבוד ה' מעל תוך העיר ויעמד על ההר אשר מקדם לעיר ומהר למדבר דכתיב (משלי כא, יט) טוב שבת בארץ מדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה דכתיב אלך אשובה אל מקומי וגו',א"ר יוחנן ששה חדשים נתעכבה שכינה לישראל במדבר שמא יחזרו בתשובה כיון שלא חזרו אמר תיפח עצמן שנאמר (איוב יא, כ) ועיני רשעים תכלינה ומנוס אבד מנהם ותקותם מפח נפש,וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא מלשכת הגזית לחנות ומחנות לירושלים ומירושלים ליבנה 31a. The Gemara rejects this argument. bIt is different there, asin any case “Sing aloud” bis the psalm of the day,either because it was an ordinary Thursday or because it was Rosh HaShana. However, there is no proof from here that in all uncertain cases they would recite the psalm for an ordinary weekday, as it is possible that they did not recite any psalm at all.,§ The Gemara expands on the topic of the daily psalms recited by the Levites. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: On the firstday of the week, Sunday, bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm beginning with the phrase: b“The earth is the Lord’s, and its fullness”(Psalms 24:1), in commemoration of the first day of Creation, bbecauseon that day bHe acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world,as the angels were not created until the second day., bOn the secondday of the week bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm that begins: b“Great is the Lord, and highly to be praisedin the city of our God, His sacred mountain” (Psalms 48:2). This is bbecauseon the second day of Creation bHe separated His works,dividing between the upper waters and the lower waters, band ruled over themas King; and this psalm speaks of Jerusalem as “The city of a great King” (Psalms 48:3)., bOn the thirdday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“God stands in the congregation of God”(Psalms 82:1), bbecauseon the third day of Creation bHe revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assemblythat could now live on the dry land. bOn the fourthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“O Lord God, to Whom vengeance belongs”(Psalms 94:1), bbecauseon the fourth day of Creation bHe created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punishand take vengeance upon bthose who worship them. /b, bOn the fifthday of the week the Levites bwould recitethe psalm beginning: b“Sing aloud to God our strength”(Psalms 81:2), bbecauseon the fifth day of Creation bHe created birds and fish to praise His name. On the sixthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“The Lord reigns, He is clothed with majesty”(Psalms 93:1), bbecauseon that day bHe completed His labor and ruled overall of creation in full glory. bOn the seventhday of the week, Shabbat, bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat”(Psalms 92:1), basthe future world will be ba day that is all Shabbat. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said: What did the Sages seethat led them bto distinguish between these chapters,as they interpret the psalms recited on the six weekdays as referring to the past, whereas the psalm recited on Shabbat is referring to the future. bRather,all of the psalms refer to the past. The first six are as explained above: bOn the firstday, the reason is bthat He acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world; on the secondday, the reason is bthat He separated His works and ruled over themas King; bon the thirdday, the reason is bthat He revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assembly. /b, bOn the fourthday, the reason is bthat He created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punish those who worship them; on the fifthday, the reason is bthat He created birds and fish to praise His name; on the sixthday, the reason is bthat He completed His labor and ruled overall of creation. However, bon the seventhday, the reason is bthat He restedfrom His work, as the phrase “A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat” is referring to the first Shabbat of Creation.,The Gemara comments: bAndthese itanna’im bdisagree withregard to a statement bof Rav Ketina, as Rav Ketina said: The world will exist for six thousand years, andfor bonethousand years it will be bdestroyed, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day”(Isaiah 2:11), and one day for God is a thousand years, as indicated in the verse: “For a thousand years in Your sight are but as yesterday when it is past” (Psalms 90:4). Rav Ketina’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. Conversely, bAbaye said:The world will be bdestroyedfor btwothousand years, bas it is stated: “After two days He will revive us”(Hosea 6:2). According to the opinion of Abaye that the destruction will be for two days, there is no connection between the future world and the day of Shabbat, which is only one day.,§ The Gemara further asks: When it came bto the additional offerings of Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rav A bar Rava saidthat bRav said:They would recite in accordance with the mnemonic ihei /i, izayin /i, iyod /i, ivav /i, ilamed /i, ikaf /i.They would divide the song of iHa’azinuinto six sections, each of which began with a letter of the mnemonic: “Give ear [ iha’azinu /i], you heavens” (Deuteronomy 32:1); “Remember [ izekhor /i] the days of old” (Deuteronomy 32:7); “He made him ride [ iyarkivehu /i] on the high places of the earth” (Deuteronomy 32:13); “The Lord saw it [ ivayar /i] and spurned” (Deuteronomy 32:19); “Were it not [ ilulei /i] that I dread the enemy’s provocation” (Deuteronomy 32:27); “For i[ki]the Lord will judge His people” (Deuteronomy 32:36)., bAnd Rav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: In the manner thatthe verses of the song of iHa’azinu bare divided herefor the recitation of the additional offerings of Shabbat in the Temple, bso too are they dividedwhen they are read bin the synagogueon Shabbat.,The Gemara asks another question: When it came bto thedaily bafternoon offering on Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rabbi Yoḥa said: “Then sangMoses” (Exodus 15:1), band: “Who is like You”(Exodus 15:11), the two halves of the Song of the Sea, band: “Then Israel sangthis song” (Numbers 21:17), the entire Song of the Well., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Does bone recite all thesesections of the song of iHa’azinu bon each Shabbat, or perhaps on each and every Shabbatthey would brecite onesection? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: Bythe time bthatthose who recite bthe firstset, i.e., the verses for the additional offerings brought on Shabbat, breciteit bonce,those who recite bthe secondset, for the daily afternoon offering, would brepeattheir cycle btwice,as the first set was comprised of six sections, whereas the second set included only three sections. bLearn from herethat beach and every Shabbat they would reciteonly bonesection. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from herethat this is correct.,§ bRav Yehuda bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,i.e., it left the Temple and Eretz Yisrael in ten stages at the time of the destruction of the First Temple, as derived bfrom verses. And corresponding to them the Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition. /b,The Gemara elaborates. bThe Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,as derived bfrom verses.The ten journeys are: bFrom the Ark cover to the cherub; and fromone bcherub tothe other bcherub; and fromthe second bcherub to the thresholdof the Sanctuary; band from the threshold to the courtyard; and from the courtyard to the altar; and from the altar to the roof; and from the roof to the wallof the Temple Mount; band from the wall to the city; and from the city to a mountainclose to Jerusalem; band fromthat bmountain to the wilderness; and from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, isolated from humanity, bas it is stated: “I will go and return to My place”(Hosea 5:15).,The Gemara cites the sources for each of these stages: bFrom the Ark coverthe Divine Presence traveled bto the cherub,and bfromone bcherub tothe other bcherub, and from thesecond bcherub to the threshold, as it is writtenwith regard to Moses in the Tabernacle: b“And there I will meet with you, and I will speak to you from above the Ark cover,from between the two cherubs” (Exodus 25:22). bAnd it is written: “And He rode upon a cherub, and flew”(II Samuel 22:11), which indicates that the glory of the Divine Presence can rest upon one cherub. bAnd it is written: “And the glory of the God of Israel had ascended from the cherub, on which it was, to the threshold of the House”(Ezekiel 9:3), i.e., the Divine Presence moved from the cherub to the threshold., bAnd from the thresholdof the Sanctuary the Divine Presence went bto the courtyard, as it is written: “And the House was filled with the cloud and the courtyard was full of the brightness of the Lord’s glory”(Ezekiel 10:4). bFrom the courtyard to the altar, as it is written: “I saw the Lord standing on the altar”(Amos 9:1). bAnd from the altar to the roof, as it is written: “It is better to dwell in a corner of the roofthan in a house together with a contentious woman” (Proverbs 21:9). bFrom the roof to the wall, as it is written: “And behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line”(Amos 7:7). bFrom the wall to the city, as it is written: “The Lord’s voice cries to the city”(Micah 6:9)., bAnd from the citythe Divine Presence arose bto the mountainnearest the Sanctuary, i.e., the Mount of Olives, bas it is written: “And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain, which is on the east side of the city”(Ezekiel 11:23). bAnd from the mountain to the wilderness, as it is written: “It is better to live in the wildernessthan with a contentious and fretful woman” (Proverbs 21:19). bAnd from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, bas it is written: “I will go and return to My placeuntil they acknowledge their guilt” (Hosea 5:15)., bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bsix months the Divine Presence lingered in the wilderness,waiting bfor the Jewish people,hoping that bperhaps they would repentand it would be able to return to its place. bWhen they did not repent,the Divine Presence bsaid: Let themdespair and bbe lost, as it is stated: “But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall have no way to flee, and their hope shall be the drooping of the soul”(Job 11:20). This concludes the discussion of the ten stages of the exile of the Divine Presence from the Holy of Holies., bAnd corresponding tothese ten stages, bthe Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition: From the Chamber of Hewn Stone,its fixed seat in the Temple, bto iḤanut /i,literally, shop, a designated spot on the Temple Mount outside the Temple proper; band from iḤanutto Jerusalem; and from Jerusalem to Yavne; /b
159. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

160. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.51, 7.143, 8.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.51. Good men he called images of the gods, and love the business of the idle. To the question what is wretched in life he replied, An old man destitute. Being asked what creature's bite is the worst, he said, of those that are wild a sycophant's; of those that are tame a flatterer's. Upon seeing two centaurs very badly painted, he asked, Which of these is Chiron? (worse man). Ingratiating speech he compared to honey used to choke you. The stomach he called livelihood's Charybdis. Hearing a report that Didymon the flute-player had been caught in adultery, his comment was, His name alone is sufficient to hang him. To the question why gold is pale, his reply was, Because it has so many thieves plotting against it. On seeing a woman carried in a litter, he remarked that the cage was not in keeping with the quarry. 7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite. 8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together.
161. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 7.13.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

162. Iamblichus, Concerning The Mysteries, 5.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

163. Nag Hammadi, Allogenes, 49.5-49.21, 61.14-61.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

164. Nag Hammadi, Eugnostos The Blessed, 6.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

165. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 2.5, 103.2-103.13, 103.17-103.21, 103.29-103.32, 115.5, 115.12-115.15, 115.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

166. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 58.10-58.14, 61.5-61.10, 61.29-61.31, 67.9-67.27, 71.5-71.10, 74.12-74.24 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

167. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 49.9-49.10, 59.4, 59.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

168. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 22, 4, 11 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

169. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 87.11-87.33, 88.17-88.24, 90.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

170. Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoia, 40.22-40.25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

171. Origen, Commentary On The Song of Songs, 3.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

172. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.19, 5.22-5.23, 6.43, 6.52-6.54, 8.21 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.19. God, then, gives to each thing its own body as He pleases: as in the case of plants that are sown, so also in the case of those beings who are, as it were, sown in dying, and who in due time receive, out of what has been sown, the body assigned by God to each one according to his deserts. And we may hear, moreover, the Scripture teaching us at great length the difference between that which is, as it were, sown, and that which is, as it were, raised from it in these words: It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption; it is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. And let him who has the capacity understand the meaning of the words: As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy; and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly. And although the apostle wished to conceal the secret meaning of the passage, which was not adapted to the simpler class of believers, and to the understanding of the common people, who are led by their faith to enter on a better course of life, he was nevertheless obliged afterwards to say (in order that we might not misapprehend his meaning), after Let us bear the image of the heavenly, these words also: Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither does corruption inherit incorruption. Then, knowing that there was a secret and mystical meaning in the passage, as was becoming in one who was leaving, in his Epistles, to those who were to come after him words full of significance, he subjoins the following, Behold, I show you a mystery; which is his usual style in introducing matters of a profounder and more mystical nature, and such as are fittingly concealed from the multitude, as is written in the book of Tobit: It is good to keep close the secret of a king, but honourable to reveal the works of God, - in a way consistent with truth and God's glory, and so as to be to the advantage of the multitude. Our hope, then, is not the hope of worms, nor does our soul long for a body that has seen corruption; for although it may require a body, for the sake of moving from place to place, yet it understands - as having meditated on the wisdom (that is from above), agreeably to the declaration, The mouth of the righteous will speak wisdom - the difference between the earthly house, in which is the tabernacle of the building that is to be dissolved, and that in which the righteous do groan, being burdened - not wishing to put off the tabernacle, but to be clothed therewith, that by being clothed upon, mortality might be swallowed up of life. For, in virtue of the whole nature of the body being corruptible, the corruptible tabernacle must put on incorruption; and its other part, being mortal, and becoming liable to the death which follows sin, must put on immortality, in order that, when the corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and the mortal immortality, then shall come to pass what was predicted of old by the prophets - the annihilation of the victory of death (because it had conquered and subjected us to his sway), and of its sting, with which it stings the imperfectly defended soul, and inflicts upon it the wounds which result from sin. 5.22. Let no one, however, suspect that, in speaking as we do, we belong to those who are indeed called Christians, but who set aside the doctrine of the resurrection as it is taught in Scripture. For these persons cannot, so far as their principles apply, at all establish that the stalk or tree which springs up comes from the grain of wheat, or anything else (which was cast into the ground); whereas we, who believe that that which is sown is not quickened unless it die, and that there is sown not that body that shall be (for God gives it a body as it pleases Him, raising it in incorruption after it is sown in corruption; and after it is sown in dishonour, raising it in glory; and after it is sown in weakness, raising it in power; and after it is sown a natural body, raising it a spiritual) - we preserve both the doctrine of the Church of Christ and the grandeur of the divine promise, proving also the possibility of its accomplishment not by mere assertion, but by arguments; knowing that although heaven and earth, and the things that are in them, may pass away, yet His words regarding each individual thing, being, as parts of a whole, or species of a genus, the utterances of Him who was God the Word, who was in the beginning with God, shall by no means pass away. For we desire to listen to Him who said: Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away. 5.23. We, therefore, do not maintain that the body which has undergone corruption resumes its original nature, any more than the grain of wheat which has decayed returns to its former condition. But we do maintain, that as above the grain of wheat there arises a stalk, so a certain power is implanted in the body, which is not destroyed, and from which the body is raised up in incorruption. The philosophers of the Porch, however, in consequence of the opinions which they hold regarding the unchangeableness of things after a certain cycle, assert that the body, after undergoing complete corruption, will return to its original condition, and will again assume that first nature from which it passed into a state of dissolution, establishing these points, as they think, by irresistible arguments. We, however, do not betake ourselves to a most absurd refuge, saying that with God all things are possible; for we know how to understand this word all as not referring either to things that are non-existent or that are inconceivable. But we maintain, at the same time, that God cannot do what is disgraceful, since then He would be capable of ceasing to be God; for if He do anything that is disgraceful, He is not God. Since, however, he lays it down as a principle, that God does not desire what is contrary to nature, we have to make a distinction, and say that if any one asserts that wickedness is contrary to nature, while we maintain that God does not desire what is contrary to nature, - either what springs from wickedness or from an irrational principle - yet, if such things happen according to the word and will of God, we must at once necessarily hold that they are not contrary to nature. Therefore things which are done by God, although they may be, or may appear to some to be incredible, are not contrary to nature. And if we must press the force of words, we would say that, in comparison with what is generally understood as nature, there are certain things which are beyond its power, which God could at any time do; as, e.g., in raising man above the level of human nature, and causing him to pass into a better and more divine condition, and preserving him in the same, so long as he who is the object of His care shows by his actions that he desires (the continuance of His help). 6.43. Mark now, whether he who charges us with having committed errors of the most impious kind, and with having wandered away from the (true meaning) of the divine enigmas, is not himself clearly in error, from not observing that in the writings of Moses, which are much older not merely than Heraclitus and Pherecydes, but even than Homer, mention is made of this wicked one, and of his having fallen from heaven. For the serpent - from whom the Ophioneus spoken of by Pherecydes is derived - having become the cause of man's expulsion from the divine Paradise, obscurely shadows forth something similar, having deceived the woman by a promise of divinity and of greater blessings; and her example is said to have been followed also by the man. And, further, who else could the destroying angel mentioned in the Exodus of Moses be, than he who was the author of destruction to them that obeyed him, and did not withstand his wicked deeds, nor struggle against them? Moreover (the goat), which in the book of Leviticus is sent away (into the wilderness), and which in the Hebrew language is named Azazel, was none other than this; and it was necessary to send it away into the desert, and to treat it as an expiatory sacrifice, because on it the lot fell. For all who belong to the worse part, on account of their wickedness, being opposed to those who are God's heritage, are deserted by God. Nay, with respect to the sons of Belial in the book of Judges, whose sons are they said to be, save his, on account of their wickedness? And besides all these instances, in the book of Job, which is older even than Moses himself, the devil is distinctly described as presenting himself before God, and asking for power against Job, that he might involve him in trials of the most painful kind; the first of which consisted in the loss of all his goods and of his children, and the second in afflicting the whole body of Job with the so-called disease of elephantiasis. I pass by what might be quoted from the Gospels regarding the devil who tempted the Saviour, that I may not appear to quote in reply to Celsus from more recent writings on this question. In the last (chapter) also of Job, in which the Lord utters to Job amid tempest and clouds what is recorded in the book which bears his name, there are not a few things referring to the serpent. I have not yet mentioned the passages in Ezekiel, where he speaks, as it were, of Pharaoh, or Nebuchadnezzar, or the prince of Tyre; or those in Isaiah, where lament is made for the king of Babylon, from which not a little might be learned concerning evil, as to the nature of its origin and generation, and as to how it derived its existence from some who had lost their wings, and who had followed him who was the first to lose his own. 6.52. Celsus proceeds as follows: With regard to the origin of the world and its destruction, whether it is to be regarded as uncreated and indestructible, or as created indeed, but not destructible, or the reverse, I at present say nothing. For this reason we too say nothing on these points, as the work in hand does not require it. Nor do we allege that the Spirit of the universal God mingled itself in things here below as in things alien to itself, as might appear from the expression, The Spirit of God moved upon the water; nor do we assert that certain wicked devices directed against His Spirit, as if by a different creator from the great God, and which were tolerated by the Supreme Divinity, needed to be completely frustrated. And, accordingly, I have nothing further to say to those who utter such absurdities; nor to Celsus, who does not refute them with ability. For he ought either not to have mentioned such matters at all, or else, in keeping with that character for philanthropy which he assumes, have carefully set them forth, and then endeavoured to rebut these impious assertions. Nor have we ever heard that the great God, after giving his spirit to the creator, demands it back again. Proceeding next foolishly to assail these impious assertions, he asks: What god gives anything with the intention of demanding it back? For it is the mark of a needy person to demand back (what he has given), whereas God stands in need of nothing. To this he adds, as if saying something clever against certain parties: Why, when he lent (his spirit), was he ignorant that he was lending it to an evil being? He asks, further: Why does he pass without notice a wicked creator who was counter-working his purposes? 6.53. In the next place, mixing up together various heresies, and not observing that some statements are the utterances of one heretical sect, and others of a different one, he brings forward the objections which we raised against Marcion. And, probably, having heard them from some paltry and ignorant individuals, he assails the very arguments which combat them, but not in a way that shows much intelligence. Quoting then our arguments against Marcion, and not observing that it is against Marcion that he is speaking, he asks: Why does he send secretly, and destroy the works which he has created? Why does he secretly employ force, and persuasion, and deceit? Why does he allure those who, as you assert, have been condemned or accused by him, and carry them away like a slave-dealer? Why does he teach them to steal away from their Lord? Why to flee from their father? Why does he claim them for himself against the father's will? Why does he profess to be the father of strange children? To these questions he subjoins the following remark, as if by way of expressing his surprise: Venerable, indeed, is the god who desires to be the father of those sinners who are condemned by another (god), and of the needy, and, as themselves say, of the very offscourings (of men), and who is unable to capture and punish his messenger, who escaped from him! After this, as if addressing us who acknowledge that this world is not the work of a different and strange god, he continues in the following strain: If these are his works, how is it that God created evil? And how is it that he cannot persuade and admonish (men)? And how is it that he repents on account of the ingratitude and wickedness of men? He finds fault, moreover, with his own handwork, and hates, and threatens, and destroys his own offspring? Whither can he transport them out of this world, which he himself has made? Now it does not appear to me that by these remarks he makes clear what evil is; and although there have been among the Greeks many sects who differ as to the nature of good and evil, he hastily concludes, as if it were a consequence of our maintaining that this world also is a work of the universal God, that in our judgment God is the author of evil. Let it be, however, regarding evil as it may - whether created by God or not - it nevertheless follows only as a result when you compare the principal design. And I am greatly surprised if the inference regarding God's authorship of evil, which he thinks follows from our maintaining that this world also is the work of the universal God, does not follow too from his own statements. For one might say to Celsus: If these are His works, how is it that God created evil? And how is it that He cannot persuade and admonish men? It is indeed the greatest error in reasoning to accuse those who are of different opinions of holding unsound doctrines, when the accuser himself is much more liable to the same charge with regard to his own. 6.54. Let us see, then, briefly what holy Scripture has to say regarding good and evil, and what answer we are to return to the questions, How is it that God created evil? and, How is He incapable of persuading and admonishing men? Now, according to holy Scripture, properly speaking, virtues and virtuous actions are good, as, properly speaking, the reverse of these are evil. We shall be satisfied with quoting on the present occasion some verses from the thirty-fourth Psalm, to the following effect: They that seek the Lord shall not want any good thing. Come, you children, hearken unto me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord . What man is he that desires life, and loves many days, that he may see good? Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking guile. Depart from evil, and do good. Now, the injunctions to depart from evil, and to do good, do not refer either to corporeal evils or corporeal blessings, as they are termed by some, nor to external things at all, but to blessings and evils of a spiritual kind; since he who departs from such evils, and performs such virtuous actions, will, as one who desires the true life, come to the enjoyment of it; and as one loving to see good days, in which the word of righteousness will be the Sun, he will see them, God taking him away from this present evil world, and from those evil days concerning which Paul said: Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. 8.21. Let us see what Celsus further says of God, and how he urges us to the use of those things which are properly called idol offerings, or, still better, offerings to demons, although, in his ignorance of what true sanctity is, and what sacrifices are well-pleasing to God, he call them holy sacrifices. His words are, God is the God of all alike; He is good, He stands in need of nothing, and He is without jealousy. What, then, is there to hinder those who are most devoted to His service from taking part in public feasts. I cannot see the connection which he fancies between God's being good, and independent, and free from jealousy, and His devoted servants taking part in public feasts. I confess, indeed, that from the fact that God is good, and without want of anything, and free from jealousy, it would follow as a consequence that we might take part in public feasts, if it were proved that the public feasts had nothing wrong in them, and were grounded upon true views of the character of God, so that they resulted naturally from a devout service of God. If, however, the so-called public festivals can in no way be shown to accord with the service of God, but may on the contrary be proved to have been devised by men when occasion offered to commemorate some human events, or to set forth certain qualities of water or earth, or the fruits of the earth - in that case, it is clear that those who wish to offer an enlightened worship to the Divine Being will act according to sound reason, and not take part in the public feasts. For to keep a feast, as one of the wise men of Greece has well said, is nothing else than to do one's duty; and that man truly celebrates a feast who does his duty and prays always, offering up continually bloodless sacrifices in prayer to God. That therefore seems to me a most noble saying of Paul, You observe days, and months, and times, and years. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.
173. Origen, On First Principles, 1.6.4, 2.9.1, 2.11.6, 3.6.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6.4. But since Paul says that certain things are visible and temporal, and others besides these invisible and eternal, we proceed to inquire how those things which are seen are temporal — whether because there will be nothing at all after them in all those periods of the coming world, in which that dispersion and separation from the one beginning is undergoing a process of restoration to one and the same end and likeness; or because, while the form of those things which are seen passes away, their essential nature is subject to no corruption. And Paul seems to confirm the latter view, when he says, For the fashion of this world passes away. David also appears to assert the same in the words, The heavens shall perish, but You shall endure; and they all shall wax old as a garment, and You shall change them like a vesture, and like a vestment they shall be changed. For if the heavens are to be changed, assuredly that which is changed does not perish, and if the fashion of the world passes away, it is by no means an annihilation or destruction of their material substance that is shown to take place, but a kind of change of quality and transformation of appearance. Isaiah also, in declaring prophetically that there will be a new heaven and a new earth, undoubtedly suggests a similar view. For this renewal of heaven and earth, and this transmutation of the form of the present world, and this changing of the heavens will undoubtedly be prepared for those who are walking along that way which we have pointed out above, and are tending to that goal of happiness to which, it is said, even enemies themselves are to be subjected, and in which God is said to be all and in all. And if any one imagine that at the end material, i.e., bodily, nature will be entirely destroyed, he cannot in any respect meet my view, how beings so numerous and powerful are able to live and to exist without bodies, since it is an attribute of the divine nature alone — i.e., of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit— to exist without any material substance, and without partaking in any degree of a bodily adjunct. Another, perhaps, may say that in the end every bodily substance will be so pure and refined as to be like the æther, and of a celestial purity and clearness. How things will be, however, is known with certainty to God alone, and to those who are His friends through Christ and the Holy Spirit. 2.9.1. But let us now return to the order of our proposed discussion, and behold the commencement of creation, so far as the understanding can behold the beginning of the creation of God. In that commencement, then, we are to suppose that God created so great a number of rational or intellectual creatures (or by whatever name they are to be called), which we have formerly termed understandings, as He foresaw would be sufficient. It is certain that He made them according to some definite number, predetermined by Himself: for it is not to be imagined, as some would have it, that creatures have not a limit, because where there is no limit there can neither be any comprehension nor any limitation. Now if this were the case, then certainly created things could neither be restrained nor administered by God. For, naturally, whatever is infinite will also be incomprehensible. Moreover, as Scripture says, God has arranged all things in number and measure; and therefore number will be correctly applied to rational creatures or understandings, that they may be so numerous as to admit of being arranged, governed, and controlled by God. But measure will be appropriately applied to a material body; and this measure, we are to believe, was created by God such as He knew would be sufficient for the adorning of the world. These, then, are the things which we are to believe were created by God in the beginning, i.e., before all things. And this, we think, is indicated even in that beginning which Moses has introduced in terms somewhat ambiguous, when he says, In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. For it is certain that the firmament is not spoken of, nor the dry land, but that heaven and earth from which this present heaven and earth which we now see afterwards borrowed their names. 2.11.6. We are therefore to suppose that the saints will remain there until they recognise the twofold mode of government in those things which are performed in the air. And when I say twofold mode, I mean this: When we were upon earth, we saw either animals or trees, and beheld the differences among them, and also the very great diversity among men; but although we saw these things, we did not understand the reason of them; and this only was suggested to us from the visible diversity, that we should examine and inquire upon what principle these things were either created or diversely arranged. And a zeal or desire for knowledge of this kind being conceived by us on earth, the full understanding and comprehension of it will be granted after death, if indeed the result should follow according to our expectations. When, therefore, we shall have fully comprehended its nature, we shall understand in a twofold manner what we saw on earth. Some such view, then, must we hold regarding this abode in the air. I think, therefore, that all the saints who depart from this life will remain in some place situated on the earth, which holy Scripture calls paradise, as in some place of instruction, and, so to speak, class-room or school of souls, in which they are to be instructed regarding all the things which they had seen on earth, and are to receive also some information respecting things that are to follow in the future, as even when in this life they had obtained in some degree indications of future events, although through a glass darkly, all of which are revealed more clearly and distinctly to the saints in their proper time and place. If any one indeed be pure in heart, and holy in mind, and more practised in perception, he will, by making more rapid progress, quickly ascend to a place in the air, and reach the kingdom of heaven, through those mansions, so to speak, in the various places which the Greeks have termed spheres, i.e., globes, but which holy Scripture has called heavens; in each of which he will first see clearly what is done there, and in the second place, will discover the reason why things are so done: and thus he will in order pass through all gradations, following Him who has passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, who said, I will that where I am, these may be also. And of this diversity of places He speaks, when He says, In My Father's house are many mansions. He Himself is everywhere, and passes swiftly through all things; nor are we any longer to understand Him as existing in those narrow limits in which He was once confined for our sakes, i.e., not in that circumscribed body which He occupied on earth, when dwelling among men, according to which He might be considered as enclosed in some one place. 3.6.1. Now, respecting the end of the world and the consummation of all things, we have stated in the preceding pages, to the best of our ability, so far as the authority of holy Scripture enabled us, what we deem sufficient for purposes of instruction; and we shall here only add a few admonitory remarks, since the order of investigation has brought us back to the subject. The highest good, then, after the attainment of which the whole of rational nature is seeking, which is also called the end of all blessings, is defined by many philosophers as follows: The highest good, they say, is to become as like to God as possible. But this definition I regard not so much as a discovery of theirs, as a view derived from holy Scripture. For this is pointed out by Moses, before all other philosophers, when he describes the first creation of man in these words: And God said, Let Us make man in Our own image, and after Our likeness; and then he adds the words: So God created man in His own image: in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them, and He blessed them. Now the expression, In the image of God created He him, without any mention of the word likeness, conveys no other meaning than this, that man received the dignity of God's image at his first creation; but that the perfection of his likeness has been reserved for the consummation — namely, that he might acquire it for himself by the exercise of his own diligence in the imitation of God, the possibility of attaining to perfection being granted him at the beginning through the dignity of the divine image, and the perfect realization of the divine likeness being reached in the end by the fulfilment of the (necessary) works. Now, that such is the case, the Apostle John points out more clearly and unmistakeably, when he makes this declaration: Little children, we do not yet know what we shall be; but if a revelation be made to us from the Saviour, you will say, without any doubt, we shall be like Him. By which expression he points out with the utmost certainty, that not only was the end of all things to be hoped for, which he says was still unknown to him, but also the likeness to God, which will be conferred in proportion to the completeness of our deserts. The Lord Himself, in the Gospel, not only declares that these same results are future, but that they are to be brought about by His own intercession, He Himself deigning to obtain them from the Father for His disciples, saying, Father, I will that where I am, these also may be with Me; and as You and I are one, they also may be one in Us. In which the divine likeness itself already appears to advance, if we may so express ourselves, and from being merely similar, to become the same, because undoubtedly in the consummation or end God is all and in all. And with reference to this, it is made a question by some whether the nature of bodily matter, although cleansed and purified, and rendered altogether spiritual, does not seem either to offer an obstruction towards attaining the dignity of the (divine) likeness, or to the property of unity, because neither can a corporeal nature appear capable of any resemblance to a divine nature which is certainly incorporeal; nor can it be truly and deservedly designated one with it, especially since we are taught by the truths of our religion that that which alone is one, viz., the Son with the Father, must be referred to a peculiarity of the (divine) nature.
174. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 8.1-8.63 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

175. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.6.9, 1.8, 2.9, 3.8, 3.8.11, 4.8.5, 5.1.1, 5.5, 6.9.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

176. Porphyry, Letter To Marcella, 33 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Naked was he sent into the world, and naked shall he call on Him that sent him. For |51 God listens only to those who are not weighed down by alien things, and guards those who are purified from corruption. Consider it a great help towards the blessed life if the captive in the thraldom of nature takes his captor captive. For we are bound in the chains that nature has cast around us, by the belly, the throat and the other members and parts of the body, and by the use of these and the pleasant sensations that arise therefrom and the fears they occasion. But if we rise superior to their witchcraft, and avoid the snares laid by them, we lead our captor captive. Neither trouble thyself much whether thou be male or female in body, nor look on thyself as a woman, for I did not approach thee as such. Flee all that is womanish in the soul, as though thou hadst a man's body about thee. For what is born from a virgin soul and a pure mind is most blessed, since imperishable springs from imperishable. But what the body produces is held corrupt by all the gods.
177. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 18, 3, 16 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

178. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 3.19-3.22, 17.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

179. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.45-1.47, 1.70-1.71 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

180. Ambrose, On Paradise, 5.28, 7.35 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

181. Augustine, Confessions, 13.11.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

182. Augustine, Contra Adimantum Manichaei Discipulum, 7.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

183. Augustine, On The Good of Marriage, 3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

184. Augustine, Commentary On Genesis, 9.3.6, 9.4.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

185. Augustine, On Genesis Against The Manichaeans, 8.2.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

186. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, 6.5.7, 9.11.16, 14.12.15, 14.14.18 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

187. Augustine, The City of God, 14.7, 14.10-14.15, 14.21-14.24 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.10. But it is a fair question, whether our first parent or first parents (for there was a marriage of two), before they sinned, experienced in their animal body such emotions as we shall not experience in the spiritual body when sin has been purged and finally abolished. For if they did, then how were they blessed in that boasted place of bliss, Paradise? For who that is affected by fear or grief can be called absolutely blessed? And what could those persons fear or suffer in such affluence of blessings, where neither death nor ill-health was feared, and where nothing was wanting which a good will could desire, and nothing present which could interrupt man's mental or bodily enjoyment? Their love to God was unclouded, and their mutual affection was that of faithful and sincere marriage; and from this love flowed a wonderful delight, because they always enjoyed what was loved. Their avoidance of sin was tranquil; and, so long as it was maintained, no other ill at all could invade them and bring sorrow. Or did they perhaps desire to touch and eat the forbidden fruit, yet feared to die; and thus both fear and desire already, even in that blissful place, preyed upon those first of mankind? Away with the thought that such could be the case where there was no sin! And, indeed, this is already sin, to desire those things which the law of God forbids, and to abstain from them through fear of punishment, not through love of righteousness. Away, I say, with the thought, that before there was any sin, there should already have been committed regarding that fruit the very sin which our Lord warns us against regarding a woman: Whosoever looks on a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matthew 5:28 As happy, then, as were these our first parents, who were agitated by no mental perturbations, and annoyed by no bodily discomforts, so happy should the whole human race have been, had they not introduced that evil which they have transmitted to their posterity, and had none of their descendants committed iniquity worthy of damnation; but this original blessedness continuing until, in virtue of that benediction which said, Increase and multiply, Genesis 1:28 the number of the predestined saints should have been completed, there would then have been bestowed that higher felicity which is enjoyed by the most blessed angels - a blessedness in which there should have been a secure assurance that no one would sin, and no one die; and so should the saints have lived, after no taste of labor, pain, or death, as now they shall live in the resurrection, after they have endured all these things. 14.11. But because God foresaw all things, and was therefore not ignorant that man also would fall, we ought to consider this holy city in connection with what God foresaw and ordained, and not according to our own ideas, which do not embrace God's ordination. For man, by his sin, could not disturb the divine counsel, nor compel God to change what He had decreed; for God's foreknowledge had anticipated both - that is to say, both how evil the man whom He had created good should become, and what good He Himself should even thus derive from him. For though God is said to change His determinations (so that in a tropical sense the Holy Scripture says even that God repented ), this is said with reference to man's expectation, or the order of natural causes, and not with reference to that which the Almighty had foreknown that He would do. Accordingly God, as it is written, made man upright, Ecclesiastes 7:29 and consequently with a good will. For if he had not had a good will, he could not have been upright. The good will, then, is the work of God; for God created him with it. But the first evil will, which preceded all man's evil acts, was rather a kind of falling away from the work of God to its own works than any positive work. And therefore the acts resulting were evil, not having God, but the will itself for their end; so that the will or the man himself, so far as his will is bad, was as it were the evil tree bringing forth evil fruit. Moreover, the bad will, though it be not in harmony with, but opposed to nature, inasmuch as it is a vice or blemish, yet it is true of it as of all vice, that it cannot exist except in a nature, and only in a nature created out of nothing, and not in that which the Creator has begotten of Himself, as He begot the Word, by whom all things were made. For though God formed man of the dust of the earth, yet the earth itself, and every earthly material, is absolutely created out of nothing; and man's soul, too, God created out of nothing, and joined to the body, when He made man. But evils are so thoroughly overcome by good, that though they are permitted to exist, for the sake of demonstrating how the most righteous foresight of God can make a good use even of them, yet good can exist without evil, as in the true and supreme God Himself, and as in every invisible and visible celestial creature that exists above this murky atmosphere; but evil cannot exist without good, because the natures in which evil exists, in so far as they are natures, are good. And evil is removed, not by removing any nature, or part of a nature, which had been introduced by the evil, but by healing and correcting that which had been vitiated and depraved. The will, therefore, is then truly free, when it is not the slave of vices and sins. Such was it given us by God; and this being lost by its own fault, can only be restored by Him who was able at first to give it. And therefore the truth says, If the Son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed; 1 John 8:36 which is equivalent to saying, If the Son shall save you, you shall be saved indeed. For He is our Liberator, inasmuch as He is our Saviour. Man then lived with God for his rule in a paradise at once physical and spiritual. For neither was it a paradise only physical for the advantage of the body, and not also spiritual for the advantage of the mind; nor was it only spiritual to afford enjoyment to man by his internal sensations, and not also physical to afford him enjoyment through his external senses. But obviously it was both for both ends. But after that proud and therefore envious angel (of whose fall I have said as much as I was able in the eleventh and twelfth books of this work, as well as that of his fellows, who, from being God's angels, became his angels), preferring to rule with a kind of pomp of empire rather than to be another's subject, fell from the spiritual Paradise, and essaying to insinuate his persuasive guile into the mind of man, whose unfallen condition provoked him to envy now that himself was fallen, he chose the serpent as his mouthpiece in that bodily Paradise in which it and all the other earthly animals were living with those two human beings, the man and his wife, subject to them, and harmless; and he chose the serpent because, being slippery, and moving in tortuous windings, it was suitable for his purpose. And this animal being subdued to his wicked ends by the presence and superior force of his angelic nature, he abused as his instrument, and first tried his deceit upon the woman, making his assault upon the weaker part of that human alliance, that he might gradually gain the whole, and not supposing that the man would readily give ear to him, or be deceived, but that he might yield to the error of the woman. For as Aaron was not induced to agree with the people when they blindly wished him to make an idol, and yet yielded to constraint; and as it is not credible that Solomon was so blind as to suppose that idols should be worshipped, but was drawn over to such sacrilege by the blandishments of women; so we cannot believe that Adam was deceived, and supposed the devil's word to be truth, and therefore transgressed God's law, but that he by the drawings of kindred yielded to the woman, the husband to the wife, the one human being to the only other human being. For not without significance did the apostle say, And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression; 1 Timothy 2:14 but he speaks thus, because the woman accepted as true what the serpent told her, but the man could not bear to be severed from his only companion, even though this involved a partnership in sin. He was not on this account less culpable, but sinned with his eyes open. And so the apostle does not say, He did not sin, but He was not deceived. For he shows that he sinned when he says, By one man sin entered into the world, Romans 5:12 and immediately after more distinctly, In the likeness of Adam's transgression. But he meant that those are deceived who do not judge that which they do to be sin; but he knew. Otherwise how were it true Adam was not deceived? But having as yet no experience of the divine severity, he was possibly deceived in so far as he thought his sin venial. And consequently he was not deceived as the woman was deceived, but he was deceived as to the judgment which would be passed on his apology: The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me, and I did eat. Genesis 3:12 What need of saying more? Although they were not both deceived by credulity, yet both were entangled in the snares of the devil, and taken by sin. 14.13. Our first parents fell into open disobedience because already they were secretly corrupted; for the evil act had never been done had not an evil will preceded it. And what is the origin of our evil will but pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Sirach 10:13 And what is pride but the craving for undue exaltation? And this is undue exaltation, when the soul abandons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and becomes a kind of end to itself. This happens when it becomes its own satisfaction. And it does so when it falls away from that unchangeable good which ought to satisfy it more than itself. This falling away is spontaneous; for if the will had remained steadfast in the love of that higher and changeless good by which it was illumined to intelligence and kindled into love, it would not have turned away to find satisfaction in itself, and so become frigid and benighted; the woman would not have believed the serpent spoke the truth, nor would the man have preferred the request of his wife to the command of God, nor have supposed that it was a venial trangression to cleave to the partner of his life even in a partnership of sin. The wicked deed, then - that is to say, the trangression of eating the forbidden fruit - was committed by persons who were already wicked. That evil fruit Matthew 7:18 could be brought forth only by a corrupt tree. But that the tree was evil was not the result of nature; for certainly it could become so only by the vice of the will, and vice is contrary to nature. Now, nature could not have been depraved by vice had it not been made out of nothing. Consequently, that it is a nature, this is because it is made by God; but that it falls away from Him, this is because it is made out of nothing. But man did not so fall away as to become absolutely nothing; but being turned towards himself, his being became more contracted than it was when he clave to Him who supremely is. Accordingly, to exist in himself, that is, to be his own satisfaction after abandoning God, is not quite to become a nonentity, but to approximate to that. And therefore the holy Scriptures designate the proud by another name, self-pleasers. For it is good to have the heart lifted up, yet not to one's self, for this is proud, but to the Lord, for this is obedient, and can be the act only of the humble. There is, therefore, something in humility which, strangely enough, exalts the heart, and something in pride which debases it. This seems, indeed, to be contradictory, that loftiness should debase and lowliness exalt. But pious humility enables us to submit to what is above us; and nothing is more exalted above us than God; and therefore humility, by making us subject to God, exalts us. But pride, being a defect of nature, by the very act of refusing subjection and revolting from Him who is supreme, falls to a low condition; and then comes to pass what is written: You cast them down when they lifted up themselves. For he does not say, when they had been lifted up, as if first they were exalted, and then afterwards cast down; but when they lifted up themselves even then they were cast down - that is to say, the very lifting up was already a fall. And therefore it is that humility is specially recommended to the city of God as it sojourns in this world, and is specially exhibited in the city of God, and in the person of Christ its King; while the contrary vice of pride, according to the testimony of the sacred writings, specially rules his adversary the devil. And certainly this is the great difference which distinguishes the two cities of which we speak, the one being the society of the godly men, the other of the ungodly, each associated with the angels that adhere to their party, and the one guided and fashioned by love of self, the other by love of God. The devil, then, would not have ensnared man in the open and manifest sin of doing what God had forbidden, had man not already begun to live for himself. It was this that made him listen with pleasure to the words, You shall be as gods, Genesis 3:5 which they would much more readily have accomplished by obediently adhering to their supreme and true end than by proudly living to themselves. For created gods are gods not by virtue of what is in themselves, but by a participation of the true God. By craving to be more, man becomes less; and by aspiring to be self-sufficing, he fell away from Him who truly suffices him. Accordingly, this wicked desire which prompts man to please himself as if he were himself light, and which thus turns him away from that light by which, had he followed it, he would himself have become light - this wicked desire, I say, already secretly existed in him, and the open sin was but its consequence. For that is true which is written, Pride goes before destruction, and before honor is humility; Proverbs 18:12 that is to say, secret ruin precedes open ruin, while the former is not counted ruin. For who counts exaltation ruin, though no sooner is the Highest forsaken than a fall is begun? But who does not recognize it as ruin, when there occurs an evident and indubitable transgression of the commandment? And consequently, God's prohibition had reference to such an act as, when committed, could not be defended on any pretense of doing what was righteous. And I make bold to say that it is useful for the proud to fall into an open and indisputable transgression, and so displease themselves, as already, by pleasing themselves, they had fallen. For Peter was in a healthier condition when he wept and was dissatisfied with himself, than when he boldly presumed and satisfied himself. And this is averred by the sacred Psalmist when he says, Fill their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name, O Lord; that is, that they who have pleased themselves in seeking their own glory may be pleased and satisfied with You in seeking Your glory. 14.15. Therefore, because the sin was a despising of the authority of God - who had created man; who had made him in His own image; who had set him above the other animals; who had placed him in Paradise; who had enriched him with abundance of every kind and of safety; who had laid upon him neither many, nor great, nor difficult commandments, but, in order to make a wholesome obedience easy to him, had given him a single very brief and very light precept by which He reminded that creature whose service was to be free that He was Lord, - it was just that condemnation followed, and condemnation such that man, who by keeping the commandments should have been spiritual even in his flesh, became fleshly even in his spirit; and as in his pride he had sought to be his own satisfaction, God in His justice abandoned him to himself, not to live in the absolute independence he affected, but instead of the liberty he desired, to live dissatisfied with himself in a hard and miserable bondage to him to whom by sinning he had yielded himself, doomed in spite of himself to die in body as he had willingly become dead in spirit, condemned even to eternal death (had not the grace of God delivered him) because he had forsaken eternal life. Whoever thinks such punishment either excessive or unjust shows his inability to measure the great iniquity of sinning where sin might so easily have been avoided. For as Abraham's obedience is with justice pronounced to be great, because the thing commanded, to kill his son, was very difficult, so in Paradise the disobedience was the greater, because the difficulty of that which was commanded was imperceptible. And as the obedience of the second Man was the more laudable because He became obedient even unto death, Philippians 2:8 so the disobedience of the first man was the more detestable because he became disobedient even unto death. For where the penalty annexed to disobedience is great, and the thing commanded by the Creator is easy, who can sufficiently estimate how great a wickedness it is, in a matter so easy, not to obey the authority of so great a power, even when that power deters with so terrible a penalty? In short, to say all in a word, what but disobedience was the punishment of disobedience in that sin? For what else is man's misery but his own disobedience to himself, so that in consequence of his not being willing to do what he could do, he now wills to do what he cannot? For though he could not do all things in Paradise before he sinned, yet he wished to do only what he could do, and therefore he could do all things he wished. But now, as we recognize in his offspring, and as divine Scripture testifies, Man is like to vanity. For who can count how many things he wishes which he cannot do, so long as he is disobedient to himself, that is, so long as his mind and his flesh do not obey his will? For in spite of himself his mind is both frequently disturbed, and his flesh suffers, and grows old, and dies; and in spite of ourselves we suffer whatever else we suffer, and which we would not suffer if our nature absolutely and in all its parts obeyed our will. But is it not the infirmities of the flesh which hamper it in its service? Yet what does it matter how its service is hampered, so long as the fact remains, that by the just retribution of the sovereign God whom we refused to be subject to and serve, our flesh, which was subjected to us, now torments us by insubordination, although our disobedience brought trouble on ourselves, not upon God? For He is not in need of our service as we of our body's; and therefore what we did was no punishment to Him, but what we receive is so to us. And the pains which are called bodily are pains of the soul in and from the body. For what pain or desire can the flesh feel by itself and without the soul? But when the flesh is said to desire or to suffer, it is meant, as we have explained, that the man does so, or some part of the soul which is affected by the sensation of the flesh, whether a harsh sensation causing pain, or gentle, causing pleasure. But pain in the flesh is only a discomfort of the soul arising from the flesh, and a kind of shrinking from its suffering, as the pain of the soul which is called sadness is a shrinking from those things which have happened to us in spite of ourselves. But sadness is frequently preceded by fear, which is itself in the soul, not in the flesh; while bodily pain is not preceded by any kind of fear of the flesh, which can be felt in the flesh before the pain. But pleasure is preceded by a certain appetite which is felt in the flesh like a craving, as hunger and thirst and that generative appetite which is most commonly identified with the name lust, though this is the generic word for all desires. For anger itself was defined by the ancients as nothing else than the lust of revenge; although sometimes a man is angry even at iimate objects which cannot feel his vengeance, as when one breaks a pen, or crushes a quill that writes badly. Yet even this, though less reasonable, is in its way a lust of revenge, and is, so to speak, a mysterious kind of shadow of [the great law of] retribution, that they who do evil should suffer evil. There is therefore a lust for revenge, which is called anger; there is a lust of money, which goes by the name of avarice; there is a lust of conquering, no matter by what means, which is called opinionativeness; there is a lust of applause, which is named boasting. There are many and various lusts, of which some have names of their own, while others have not. For who could readily give a name to the lust of ruling, which yet has a powerful influence in the soul of tyrants, as civil wars bear witness? 14.21. Far be it, then, from us to suppose that our first parents in Paradise felt that lust which caused them afterwards to blush and hide their nakedness, or that by its means they should have fulfilled the benediction of God, Increase and multiply and replenish the earth; Genesis 1:28 for it was after sin that lust began. It was after sin that our nature, having lost the power it had over the whole body, but not having lost all shame, perceived, noticed, blushed at, and covered it. But that blessing upon marriage, which encouraged them to increase and multiply and replenish the earth, though it continued even after they had sinned, was yet given before they sinned, in order that the procreation of children might be recognized as part of the glory of marriage, and not of the punishment of sin. But now, men being ignorant of the blessedness of Paradise, suppose that children could not have been begotten there in any other way than they know them to be begotten now, i.e., by lust, at which even honorable marriage blushes; some not simply rejecting, but sceptically deriding the divine Scriptures, in which we read that our first parents, after they sinned, were ashamed of their nakedness, and covered it; while others, though they accept and honor Scripture, yet conceive that this expression, Increase and multiply, refers not to carnal fecundity, because a similar expression is used of the soul in the words, You will multiply me with strength in my soul; and so, too, in the words which follow in Genesis, And replenish the earth, and subdue it, they understand by the earth the body which the soul fills with its presence, and which it rules over when it is multiplied in strength. And they hold that children could no more then than now be begotten without lust, which, after sin, was kindled, observed, blushed for, and covered; and even that children would not have been born in Paradise, but only outside of it, as in fact it turned out. For it was after they were expelled from it that they came together to beget children, and begot them. 14.22. But we, for our part, have no manner of doubt that to increase and multiply and replenish the earth in virtue of the blessing of God, is a gift of marriage as God instituted it from the beginning before man sinned, when He created them male and female - in other words, two sexes manifestly distinct. And it was this work of God on which His blessing was pronounced. For no sooner had Scripture said, Male and female created He them, Genesis 1:27-28 than it immediately continues, And God blessed them, and God said to them, Increase, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, etc. And though all these things may not unsuitably be interpreted in a spiritual sense, yet male and female cannot be understood of two things in one man, as if there were in him one thing which rules, another which is ruled; but it is quite clear that they were created male and female, with bodies of different sexes, for the very purpose of begetting offspring, and so increasing, multiplying, and replenishing the earth; and it is great folly to oppose so plain a fact. It was not of the spirit which commands and the body which obeys, nor of the rational soul which rules and the irrational desire which is ruled, nor of the contemplative virtue which is supreme and the active which is subject, nor of the understanding of the mind and the sense of the body, but plainly of the matrimonial union by which the sexes are mutually bound together, that our Lord, when asked whether it were lawful for any cause to put away one's wife (for on account of the hardness of the hearts of the Israelites Moses permitted a bill of divorcement to be given), answered and said, Have you not read that He which made them at the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no more two, but one flesh. What, therefore, God has joined together, let not man put asunder. Matthew 19:4-5 It is certain, then, that from the first men were created, as we see and know them to be now, of two sexes, male and female, and that they are called one, either on account of the matrimonial union, or on account of the origin of the woman, who was created from the side of the man. And it is by this original example, which God Himself instituted, that the apostle admonishes all husbands to love their own wives in particular. Ephesians 5:25 14.23. But he who says that there should have been neither copulation nor generation but for sin, virtually says that man's sin was necessary to complete the number of the saints. For if these two by not sinning should have continued to live alone, because, as is supposed, they could not have begotten children had they not sinned, then certainly sin was necessary in order that there might be not only two but many righteous men. And if this cannot be maintained without absurdity, we must rather believe that the number of the saints fit to complete this most blessed city would have been as great though no one had sinned, as it is now that the grace of God gathers its citizens out of the multitude of sinners, so long as the children of this world generate and are generated. Luke 20:34 And therefore that marriage, worthy of the happiness of Paradise, should have had desirable fruit without the shame of lust, had there been no sin. But how that could be, there is now no example to teach us. Nevertheless, it ought not to seem incredible that one member might serve the will without lust then, since so many serve it now. Do we now move our feet and hands when we will to do the things we would by means of these members? Do we meet with no resistance in them, but perceive that they are ready servants of the will, both in our own case and in that of others, and especially of artisans employed in mechanical operations, by which the weakness and clumsiness of nature become, through industrious exercise, wonderfully dexterous? And shall we not believe that, like as all those members obediently serve the will, so also should the members have discharged the function of generation, though lust, the award of disobedience, had been awanting? Did not Cicero, in discussing the difference of governments in his De Republica, adopt a simile from human nature, and say that we command our bodily members as children, they are so obedient; but that the vicious parts of the soul must be treated as slaves, and be coerced with a more stringent authority? And no doubt, in the order of nature, the soul is more excellent than the body; and yet the soul commands the body more easily than itself. Nevertheless this lust, of which we at present speak, is the more shameful on this account, because the soul is therein neither master of itself, so as not to lust at all, nor of the body, so as to keep the members under the control of the will; for if they were thus ruled, there should be no shame. But now the soul is ashamed that the body, which by nature is inferior and subject to it, should resist its authority. For in the resistance experienced by the soul in the other emotions there is less shame, because the resistance is from itself, and thus, when it is conquered by itself, itself is the conqueror, although the conquest is inordinate and vicious, because accomplished by those parts of the soul which ought to be subject to reason, yet, being accomplished by its own parts and energies, the conquest is, as I say, its own. For when the soul conquers itself to a due subordination, so that its unreasonable motions are controlled by reason, while it again is subject to God, this is a conquest virtuous and praiseworthy. Yet there is less shame when the soul is resisted by its own vicious parts than when its will and order are resisted by the body, which is distinct from and inferior to it, and dependent on it for life itself. But so long as the will retains under its authority the other members, without which the members excited by lust to resist the will cannot accomplish what they seek, chastity is preserved, and the delight of sin foregone. And certainly, had not culpable disobedience been visited with penal disobedience, the marriage of Paradise should have been ignorant of this struggle and rebellion, this quarrel between will and lust, that the will may be satisfied and lust restrained, but those members, like all the rest, should have obeyed the will. The field of generation should have been sown by the organ created for this purpose, as the earth is sown by the hand. And whereas now, as we essay to investigate this subject more exactly, modesty hinders us, and compels us to ask pardon of chaste ears, there would have been no cause to do so, but we could have discoursed freely, and without fear of seeming obscene, upon all those points which occur to one who meditates on the subject. There would not have been even words which could be called obscene, but all that might be said of these members would have been as pure as what is said of the other parts of the body. Whoever, then, comes to the perusal of these pages with unchaste mind, let him blame his disposition, not his nature; let him brand the actings of his own impurity, not the words which necessity forces us to use, and for which every pure and pious reader or hearer will very readily pardon me, while I expose the folly of that scepticism which argues solely on the ground of its own experience, and has no faith in anything beyond. He who is not scandalized at the apostle's censure of the horrible wickedness of the women who changed the natural use into that which is against nature, Romans 1:26 will read all this without being shocked, especially as we are not, like Paul, citing and censuring a damnable uncleanness, but are explaining, so far as we can, human generation, while with Paul we avoid all obscenity of language. 14.24. The man, then, would have sown the seed, and the woman received it, as need required, the generative organs being moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at will not only those members which are furnished with joints of solid bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we can put them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and twist them, or contract and stiffen them, as we do with the muscles of the mouth and face. The lungs, which are the very tenderest of the viscera except the brain, and are therefore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chest, yet for all purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when we breathe, exhale, speak, shout, or sing, just as the bellows obey the smith or the organist. I will not press the fact that some animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the skin with which their whole body is covered, if they have felt on it anything they wish to drive off - a power so great, that by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake off flies that have settled on them, but even spears that have fixed in their flesh. Man, it is true, has not this power; but is this any reason for supposing that God could not give it to such creatures as He wished to possess it? And therefore man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute power over his members had he not forfeited it by his disobedience; for it was not difficult for God to form him so that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have been moved only at will. We know, too, that some men are differently constituted from others, and have some rare and remarkable faculty of doing with their body what other men can by no effort do, and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. There are persons who can move their ears, either one at a time, or both together. There are some who, without moving the head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and produce whatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and other men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be told. Some have such command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren saw quite recently. There was a presbyter called Restitutus, in the parish of the Calamensian Church, who, as often as he pleased (and he was asked to do this by those who desired to witness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating the wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in a state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except afterwards from the wound. And that his body remained motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because he was insensible, was proved by the fact that he breathed no more than a dead man; and yet he said that, when any one spoke with more than ordinary distinctness, he heard the voice, but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary course of nature, what reason is there for doubting that, before man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible condition, his members might have served his will for the propagation of offspring without lust? Man has been given over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought to be self-satisfying; and disobeying God, he could not obey even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvious misery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived as he wished, he would think himself blessed; but he could not be so if he lived wickedly.
188. Augustine, Retractiones, 1.18 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

189. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.16.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

190. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.45-1.47, 1.70-1.71 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.45. Then Peter began to instruct me in this manner: When God had made the world, as Lord of the universe, He appointed chiefs over the several creatures, over the trees even, and the mountains, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all things which He had made, as we have told you; for it were too long to mention them one by one. He set, therefore, an angel as chief over the angels, a spirit over the spirits, a star over the stars, a demon over the demons, a bird over the birds, a beast over the beasts, a serpent over the serpents, a fish over the fishes, a man over men, who is Christ Jesus. But He is called Christ by a certain excellent rite of religion; for as there are certain names common to kings, as Arsaces among the Persians, C sar among the Romans, Pharaoh among the Egyptians, so among the Jews a king is called Christ. And the reason of this appellation is this: Although indeed He was the Son of God, and the beginning of all things, He became man; Him first God anointed with oil which was taken from the wood of the tree of life: from that anointing therefore He is called Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, anoints with similar oil every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortality. But it occurs to me that I have sufficiently explained to you the whole nature of that branch from which that ointment is taken. 1.46. But now also I shall, by a very short representation, recall you to the recollection of all these things. In the present life, Aaron, the first high priest, was anointed with a composition of chrism, which was made after the pattern of that spiritual ointment of which we have spoken before. He was prince of the people, and as a king received first-fruits and tribute from the people, man by man; and having undertaken the office of judging the people, he judged of things clean and things unclean. But if any one else was anointed with the same ointment, as deriving virtue from it, he became either king, or prophet, or priest. If, then, this temporal grace, compounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now how potent was that ointment extracted by God from a branch of the tree of life, when that which was made by men could confer so excellent dignities among men. For what in the present age is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious than a priest, more exalted than a king? 1.47. To this, I replied: I remember, Peter, that you told me of the first man that he was a prophet; but you did not say that he was anointed. If then there be no prophet without anointing, how could the first man be a prophet, since he was not anointed? Then Peter, smiling, said: If the first man prophesied, it is certain that he was also anointed. For although he who has recorded the law in his pages is silent as to his anointing, yet he has evidently left us to understand these things. For as, if he had said that he was anointed, it would not be doubted that he was also a prophet, although it were not written in the law; so, since it is certain that he was a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he was also anointed, because without anointing he could not be a prophet. But you should rather have said, If the chrism was compounded by Aaron, by the perfumer's art, how could the first man be anointed before Aaron's time, the arts of composition not yet having been discovered? Then I answered, Do not misunderstand me, Peter; for I do not speak of that compounded ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple and eternal ointment, which you told me was made by God, after whose likeness you say that that other was compounded by men. 1.70. And when matters were at that point that they should come and be baptized, some one of our enemies, entering the temple with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, 'What mean ye, O men of Israel? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are you led headlong by most miserable men, who are deceived by Simon, a magician.' While he was thus speaking, and adding more to the same effect, and while James the bishop was refuting him, he began to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what had been arranged with much labour, and at the same time to reproach the priests, and to enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite every one to murder, saying, 'What are you doing? Why do you hesitate? Oh sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?' When he had said this, he first, seizing a strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side, of the beating and the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy attacked James, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him. 1.71. But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful than the others; but, from their fear of God, they rather suffered themselves to be killed by an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the priests shut up the temple, and we returned to the house of James, and spent the night there in prayer. Then before daylight we went down to Jericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamaliel, whom we mentioned before, bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Caiaphas, the chief priest, that he should arrest all who believed in Jesus, and should go to Damascus with his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Damascus chiefly on this account, because he believed that Peter had fled there. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on his way while passing through Jericho going to Damascus. At that time we were absent, having gone out to the sepulchres of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that our brethren were had in remembrance before God.
191. Jerome, Adversus Jovinianum, 1.26 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

192. Jerome, Letters, 22 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

193. Jerome, Letters, 22 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

194. Jerome, Letters, 22 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

195. Proclus, Institutio Theologica, 195, 185 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

196. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

197. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 30 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

198. Anon., 2 Enoch, 30.8, 30.11, 30.13

199. Anon., 3 Baruch, 4.8

200. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.118, 7.134, 8.13-8.14, 8.44-8.45

8.13. Thou wilt take away his life, for he is thy creation; and thou wilt make him live, for he is thy work. 8.14. If then thou wilt suddenly and quickly destroy him who with so great labor was fashioned by thy command, to what purpose was he made? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.
201. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 2.10, 5.5, 5.17, 9.2, 10.2

202. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 22, 4, 11

203. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 211

211. The king signified his agreement and said to another 'What is the essence of kingship?' And he replied, 'To rule oneself well and not to be led astray by wealth or fame to immoderate or unseemly desires, this is the true way of ruling if you reason the matter well out. For all that you really need is yours, and God is free from need and benigt withal. Let your thoughts be such as become a man, and desire not many things but only such as are necessary for ruling.'
204. Anon., Chaldean Oracles, 7, 50

205. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 243

206. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 211-212, 210

207. Zoroastrian Literature, Yasna, 30.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 58, 218
israel/israelite' ... Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 58
theology, creation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 143
urzeit-endzeit McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 75
vapor' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 143