Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.14


וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

74 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. עַמּוּדָיו עָשָׂה כֶסֶף רְפִידָתוֹ זָהָב מֶרְכָּבוֹ אַרְגָּמָן תּוֹכוֹ רָצוּף אַהֲבָה מִבְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 3.1. עַל־מִשְׁכָּבִי בַּלֵּילוֹת בִּקַּשְׁתִּי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי בִּקַּשְׁתִּיו וְלֹא מְצָאתִיו׃ 3.1. By night on my bed I sought him whom my soul loveth; I sought him, but I found him not.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.29, 5.8, 32.8, 33.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.29. וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם מִשָּׁם אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּמָצָאתָ כִּי תִדְרְשֶׁנּוּ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.14. וּמִמֶּגֶד תְּבוּאֹת שָׁמֶשׁ וּמִמֶּגֶד גֶּרֶשׁ יְרָחִים׃ 4.29. But from thence ye will seek the LORD thy God; and thou shalt find Him, if thou search after Him with all thy heart and with all thy soul." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 33.14. And for the precious things of the fruits of the sun, And for the precious things of the yield of the moons,"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.2, 3.6, 12.2-12.3, 12.40, 20.4, 21.26, 22.8, 24.10, 25.20, 26.7, 26.33, 30.18, 33.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 21.26. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עֵין עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ־אֶת־עֵין אֲמָתוֹ וְשִׁחֲתָהּ לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ תַּחַת עֵינוֹ׃ 22.8. עַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּשַׁע עַל־שׁוֹר עַל־חֲמוֹר עַל־שֶׂה עַל־שַׂלְמָה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר כִּי־הוּא זֶה עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר יַרְשִׁיעֻן אֱלֹהִים יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ׃ 26.7. וְעָשִׂיתָ יְרִיעֹת עִזִּים לְאֹהֶל עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן עַשְׁתֵּי־עֶשְׂרֵה יְרִיעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם׃ 26.33. וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־הַפָּרֹכֶת תַּחַת הַקְּרָסִים וְהֵבֵאתָ שָׁמָּה מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת וְהִבְדִּילָה הַפָּרֹכֶת לָכֶם בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 30.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ כִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת לְרָחְצָה וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ בֵּין־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנָתַתָּ שָׁמָּה מָיִם׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 12.40. Now the time that the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 21.26. And if a man smite the eye of his bondman, or the eye of his bondwoman, and destroy it, he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake." 22.8. For every matter of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, whereof one saith: 'This is it,' the cause of both parties shall come before God; he whom God shall condemn shall pay double unto his neighbour." 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 25.20. And the cherubim shall spread out their wings on high, screening the ark-cover with their wings, with their faces one to another; toward the ark-cover shall the faces of the cherubim be." 26.7. And thou shalt make curtains of goats’hair for a tent over the tabernacle; eleven curtains shalt thou make them." 26.33. And thou shalt hang up the veil under the clasps, and shalt bring in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony; and the veil shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy." 30.18. ’Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, whereat to wash; and thou shalt put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein." 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 2, 2.2, 2.7, 3.14, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 7.6-8.14, 7.11, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6, 8.14, 8.21, 8.22, 9.1, 9.9, 9.11, 37.9, 38.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 9.8, 14.5, 25.5, 31.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.8. נֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם לְבַדּוֹ וְדוֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי יָם׃ 14.5. אִם חֲרוּצִים יָמָיו מִסְפַּר־חֳדָשָׁיו אִתָּךְ חקו [חֻקָּיו] עָשִׂיתָ וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 25.5. הֵן עַד־יָרֵחַ וְלֹא יַאֲהִיל וְכוֹכָבִים לֹא־זַכּוּ בְעֵינָיו׃ 9.8. Who alone stretcheth out the heavens, And treadeth upon the waves of the sea." 14.5. Seeing his days are determined, The number of his months is with Thee, And Thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass;" 25.5. Behold, even the moon hath no brightness, And the stars are not pure in His sight;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.10, 2.31, 3.4, 4.14-4.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵהָפֵךְ לְחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵחַ לְדָם לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 4.14. הֲמוֹנִים הֲמוֹנִים בְּעֵמֶק הֶחָרוּץ כִּי קָרוֹב יוֹם יְהוָה בְּעֵמֶק הֶחָרוּץ׃ 4.15. שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ קָדָרוּ וְכוֹכָבִים אָסְפוּ נָגְהָם׃ 2.10. Before them the earth quaketh, The heavens tremble; The sun and the moon are become black, And the stars withdraw their shining." 3.4. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and terrible day of the LORD come. 4.14. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision." 4.15. The sun and the moon are become black, And the stars withdraw their shining."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.10, 11.43-11.47, 16.29, 19.24, 26.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.43. אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם וְנִטְמֵתֶם בָּם׃ 11.44. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.45. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי׃ 11.46. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.47. לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃ 16.29. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 26.3. אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם׃ 26.3. וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת־בָּמֹתֵיכֶם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת־חַמָּנֵיכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶם עַל־פִּגְרֵי גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְגָעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם׃ 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 11.43. Ye shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarmeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby." 11.44. For I am the LORD your God; sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy; neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth." 11.45. For I am the LORD that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. ." 11.46. This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;" 11.47. to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten." 16.29. And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 26.3. If ye walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments, and do them;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.3-8.4, 11.4, 18.2, 18.13, 26.8, 29.5, 32.6, 47.7, 50.1, 67.4, 74.12, 74.16-74.17, 95.4-95.5, 104.2, 104.20-104.21, 104.24-104.26, 106.1, 113.1, 118.4, 135.1, 136.7, 141.2, 147.19, 148.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.3. מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃ 8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 11.4. יְהוָה בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשׁוֹ יְהוָה בַּשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאוֹ עֵינָיו יֶחֱזוּ עַפְעַפָּיו יִבְחֲנוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 18.2. וַיּוֹצִיאֵנִי לַמֶּרְחָב יְחַלְּצֵנִי כִּי חָפֵץ בִּי׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמַר אֶרְחָמְךָ יְהוָה חִזְקִי׃ 18.13. מִנֹּגַהּ נֶגְדּוֹ עָבָיו עָבְרוּ בָּרָד וְגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 26.8. יְהוָה אָהַבְתִּי מְעוֹן בֵּיתֶךָ וּמְקוֹם מִשְׁכַּן כְּבוֹדֶךָ׃ 29.5. קוֹל יְהוָה שֹׁבֵר אֲרָזִים וַיְשַׁבֵּר יְהוָה אֶת־אַרְזֵי הַלְּבָנוֹן׃ 32.6. עַל־זֹאת יִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל־חָסִיד אֵלֶיךָ לְעֵת מְצֹא רַק לְשֵׁטֶף מַיִם רַבִּים אֵלָיו לֹא יַגִּיעוּ׃ 47.7. זַמְּרוּ אֱלֹהִים זַמֵּרוּ זַמְּרוּ לְמַלְכֵּנוּ זַמֵּרוּ׃ 50.1. כִּי־לִי כָל־חַיְתוֹ־יָעַר בְּהֵמוֹת בְּהַרְרֵי־אָלֶף׃ 50.1. מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֵל אֱ‍לֹהִים יְהוָה דִּבֶּר וַיִּקְרָא־אָרֶץ מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ עַד־מְבֹאוֹ׃ 67.4. יוֹדוּךָ עַמִּים אֱלֹהִים יוֹדוּךָ עַמִּים כֻּלָּם׃ 74.12. וֵאלֹהִים מַלְכִּי מִקֶּדֶם פֹּעֵל יְשׁוּעוֹת בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 74.16. לְךָ יוֹם אַף־לְךָ לָיְלָה אַתָּה הֲכִינוֹתָ מָאוֹר וָשָׁמֶשׁ׃ 74.17. אַתָּה הִצַּבְתָּ כָּל־גְּבוּלוֹת אָרֶץ קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּם׃ 95.4. אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ מֶחְקְרֵי־אָרֶץ וְתוֹעֲפוֹת הָרִים לוֹ׃ 95.5. אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַיָּם וְהוּא עָשָׂהוּ וְיַבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ׃ 104.2. תָּשֶׁת־חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ־תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־יָעַר׃ 104.2. עֹטֶה־אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה׃ 104.21. הַכְּפִירִים שֹׁאֲגִים לַטָּרֶף וּלְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֵל אָכְלָם׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 104.25. זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם־רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם־גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 104.26. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃ 106.1. וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם מִיַּד שׂוֹנֵא וַיִּגְאָלֵם מִיַּד אוֹיֵב׃ 106.1. הַלְלוּיָהּ הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 113.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ הַלְלוּ עַבְדֵי יְהוָה הַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 118.4. יֹאמְרוּ־נָא יִרְאֵי יְהוָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 135.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ הַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה הַלְלוּ עַבְדֵי יְהוָה׃ 135.1. שֶׁהִכָּה גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְהָרַג מְלָכִים עֲצוּמִים׃ 136.7. לְעֹשֵׂה אוֹרִים גְּדֹלִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 141.2. תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 147.19. מַגִּיד דברו [דְּבָרָיו] לְיַעֲקֹב חֻקָּיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 8.3. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger." 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 11.4. The LORD is in His holy temple, the LORD, His throne is in heaven; His eyes behold, His eyelids try, the children of men." 18.2. And he said: I love thee, O LORD, my strength." 18.13. At the brightness before Him, there passed through His thick clouds Hailstones and coals of fire." 26.8. LORD, I love the habitation of Thy house, and the place where Thy glory dwelleth." 29.5. The voice of the LORD breaketh the cedars; yea, the LORD breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon." 32.6. For this let every one that is godly pray unto Thee in a time when Thou mayest be found; Surely, when the great waters overflow, they will not reach unto him." 47.7. Sing praises to God, sing praises; sing praises unto our King, sing praises." 50.1. A Psalm of Asaph. God, God, the LORD, hath spoken, and called the earth From the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof." 67.4. Let the peoples give thanks unto Thee, O God; Let the peoples give thanks unto Thee, all of them. ." 74.12. Yet God is my King of old, Working salvation in the midst of the earth." 74.16. Thine is the day, Thine also the night; Thou hast established luminary and sun." 74.17. Thou hast set all the borders of the earth; Thou hast made summer and winter." 95.4. In whose hand are the depths of the earth; The heights of the mountains are His also." 95.5. The sea is His, and He made it; And His hands formed the dry land." 104.2. Who coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain;" 104.20. Thou makest darkness, and it is night, Wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth." 104.21. The young lions roar after their prey, And seek their food from God." 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures." 104.25. Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great." 104.26. There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein." 106.1. Hallelujah. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; for His mercy endureth for ever." 113.1. Hallelujah. Praise, O ye servants of the LORD, Praise the name of the LORD." 118.4. So let them now that fear the LORD say, For His mercy endureth for ever." 135.1. Hallelujah. Praise ye the name of the LORD; Give praise, O ye servants of the LORD," 136.7. To Him that made great lights, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 141.2. Let my prayer be set forth as incense before Thee, The lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice." 147.19. He declareth His word unto Jacob, His statutes and His ordices unto Israel." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.23, 8.25, 8.27-8.53, 12.32, 13.1-13.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.23. וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין־כָּמוֹךָ אֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לַעֲבָדֶיךָ הַהֹלְכִים לְפָנֶיךָ בְּכָל־לִבָּם׃ 8.25. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמֹר לְעַבְדְּךָ דָוִד אָבִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ לּוֹ לֵאמֹר לֹא־יִכָּרֵת לְךָ אִישׁ מִלְּפָנַי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל רַק אִם־יִשְׁמְרוּ בָנֶיךָ אֶת־דַּרְכָּם לָלֶכֶת לְפָנַי כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ לְפָנָי׃ 8.27. כִּי הַאֻמְנָם יֵשֵׁב אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יְכַלְכְּלוּךָ אַף כִּי־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.28. וּפָנִיתָ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תְּחִנָּתוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הָרִנָּה וְאֶל־הַתְּפִלָּה אֲשֶׁר עַבְדְּךָ מִתְפַּלֵּל לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 8.29. לִהְיוֹת עֵינֶךָ פְתֻחוֹת אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה לַיְלָה וָיוֹם אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ יִהְיֶה שְׁמִי שָׁם לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַתְּפִלָּה אֲשֶׁר יִתְפַּלֵּל עַבְדְּךָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.31. אֵת אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וְנָשָׁא־בוֹ אָלָה לְהַאֲלֹתוֹ וּבָא אָלָה לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּחֲךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.32. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעָשִׂיתָ וְשָׁפַטְתָּ אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ לְהַרְשִׁיעַ רָשָׁע לָתֵת דַּרְכּוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וּלְהַצְדִּיק צַדִּיק לָתֶת לוֹ כְּצִדְקָתוֹ׃ 8.33. בְּהִנָּגֵף עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב אֲשֶׁר יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ וְהִתְחַנְּנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.34. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָם אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ לַאֲבוֹתָם׃ 8.35. בְּהֵעָצֵר שָׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וּמֵחַטָּאתָם יְשׁוּבוּן כִּי תַעֲנֵם׃ 8.36. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עֲבָדֶיךָ וְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי תוֹרֵם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ וְנָתַתָּה מָטָר עַל־אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לְעַמְּךָ לְנַחֲלָה׃ 8.37. רָעָב כִּי־יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ דֶּבֶר כִּי־יִהְיֶה שִׁדָּפוֹן יֵרָקוֹן אַרְבֶּה חָסִיל כִּי יִהְיֶה כִּי יָצַר־לוֹ אֹיְבוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ שְׁעָרָיו כָּל־נֶגַע כָּל־מַחֲלָה׃ 8.38. כָּל־תְּפִלָּה כָל־תְּחִנָּה אֲשֶׁר תִהְיֶה לְכָל־הָאָדָם לְכֹל עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יֵדְעוּן אִישׁ נֶגַע לְבָבוֹ וּפָרַשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.39. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְסָלַחְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ וְנָתַתָּ לָאִישׁ כְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲשֶׁר תֵּדַע אֶת־לְבָבוֹ כִּי־אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ לְבַדְּךָ אֶת־לְבַב כָּל־בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 8.41. וְגַם אֶל־הַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מֵעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא וּבָא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.42. כִּי יִשְׁמְעוּן אֶת־שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־יָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָא וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.43. אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּן כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ לְיִרְאָה אֹתְךָ כְּעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלָדַעַת כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.44. כִּי־יֵצֵא עַמְּךָ לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹיְבוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁלָחֵם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־יְהוָה דֶּרֶךְ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בָּהּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּנִתִי לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.45. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתָם וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 8.46. כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ כִּי אֵין אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֶחֱטָא וְאָנַפְתָּ בָם וּנְתַתָּם לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב וְשָׁבוּם שֹׁבֵיהֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הָאוֹיֵב רְחוֹקָה אוֹ קְרוֹבָה׃ 8.47. וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֶל־לִבָּם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבּוּ־שָׁם וְשָׁבוּ וְהִתְחַנְּנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּאֶרֶץ שֹׁבֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר חָטָאנוּ וְהֶעֱוִינוּ רָשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.48. וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁבוּ אֹתָם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֵלֶיךָ דֶּרֶךְ אַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לַאֲבוֹתָם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בנית [בָּנִיתִי] לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.49. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתְּךָ אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתָם וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 8.51. כִּי־עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם מִתּוֹךְ כּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל׃ 8.52. לִהְיוֹת עֵינֶיךָ פְתֻחוֹת אֶל־תְּחִנַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תְּחִנַּת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁמֹעַ אֲלֵיהֶם בְּכֹל קָרְאָם אֵלֶיךָ׃ 8.53. כִּי־אַתָּה הִבְדַּלְתָּם לְךָ לְנַחֲלָה מִכֹּל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 12.32. וַיַּעַשׂ יָרָבְעָם חָג בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ כֶּחָג אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן עָשָׂה בְּבֵית־אֵל לְזַבֵּחַ לָעֲגָלִים אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה וְהֶעֱמִיד בְּבֵית אֵל אֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 13.1. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ אֱלֹהִים בָּא מִיהוּדָה בִּדְבַר יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית־אֵל וְיָרָבְעָם עֹמֵד עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְהַקְטִיר׃ 13.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּדֶרֶךְ אַחֵר וְלֹא־שָׁב בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בָּא בָהּ אֶל־בֵּית־אֵל׃ 13.2. וַיְהִי הֵם יֹשְׁבִים אֶל־הַשֻּׁלְחָן וַיְהִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר הֱשִׁיבוֹ׃ 13.2. וַיִּקְרָא עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בִּדְבַר יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר מִזְבֵּחַ מִזְבֵּחַ כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנֵּה־בֵן נוֹלָד לְבֵית־דָּוִד יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ שְׁמוֹ וְזָבַח עָלֶיךָ אֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת הַמַּקְטִרִים עָלֶיךָ וְעַצְמוֹת אָדָם יִשְׂרְפוּ עָלֶיךָ׃ 13.3. וַיַּנַּח אֶת־נִבְלָתוֹ בְּקִבְרוֹ וַיִּסְפְּדוּ עָלָיו הוֹי אָחִי׃ 13.3. וְנָתַן בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא מוֹפֵת לֵאמֹר זֶה הַמּוֹפֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה הִנֵּה הַמִּזְבֵּחַ נִקְרָע וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר־עָלָיו׃ 13.4. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־דְּבַר אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר קָרָא עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּבֵית־אֵל וַיִּשְׁלַח יָרָבְעָם אֶת־יָדוֹ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֵאמֹר תִּפְשֻׂהוּ וַתִּיבַשׁ יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח עָלָיו וְלֹא יָכֹל לַהֲשִׁיבָהּ אֵלָיו׃ 13.5. וְהַמִּזְבֵּחַ נִקְרָע וַיִּשָּׁפֵךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן מִן־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כַּמּוֹפֵת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בִּדְבַר יְהוָה׃ 8.23. and he said: ‘O LORD, the God of Israel, there is no God like Thee, in heaven above, or on earth beneath; who keepest covet and mercy with Thy servants, that walk before Thee with all their heart;" 8.25. Now therefore, O LORD, the God of Israel, keep with Thy servant David my father that which Thou hast promised him saying: There shall not fail thee a man in My sight to sit on the throne of Israel, if only thy children take heed to their way, to walk before Me as thou hast walked before Me." 8.27. But will God in very truth dwell on the earth? behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this house that I have builded!" 8.28. Yet have Thou respect unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplication, O LORD my God, to hearken unto the cry and to the prayer which Thy servant prayeth before Thee this day;" 8.29. that Thine eyes may be open toward this house night and day, even toward the place whereof Thou hast said: My name shall be there; to hearken unto the prayer which Thy servant shall pray toward this place." 8.30. And hearken Thou to the supplication of Thy servant, and of Thy people Israel, when they shall pray toward this place; yea, hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place; and when Thou hearest, forgive." 8.31. If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be exacted of him to cause him to swear, and he come and swear before Thine altar in this house;" 8.32. then hear Thou in heaven, and do, and judge Thy servants, condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his own head; and justifying the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness." 8.33. When Thy people Israel are smitten down before the enemy, when they do sin against Thee, if they turn again to Thee, and confess Thy name, and pray and make supplication unto Thee in this house;" 8.34. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy people Israel, and bring them back unto the land which Thou gavest unto their fathers." 8.35. When heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, when they do sin against Thee; if they pray toward this place, and confess Thy name, and turn from their sin, when Thou dost afflict them;" 8.36. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy servants, and of Thy people Israel, when Thou teachest them the good way wherein they should walk; and send rain upon Thy land, which Thou hast given to Thy people for an inheritance." 8.37. If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting or mildew, locust or caterpillar; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness there be;" 8.38. what prayer and supplication soever be made by any man of all Thy people Israel, who shall know every man the plague of his own heart, and spread forth his hands toward this house;" 8.39. then hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and forgive, and do, and render unto every man according to all his ways, whose heart Thou knowest—for Thou, even Thou only, knowest the hearts of all the children of men—" 8.40. that they may fear Thee all the days that they live in the land which Thou gavest unto our fathers." 8.41. Moreover concerning the stranger that is not of Thy people Israel, when he shall come out of a far country for Thy name’s sake—" 8.42. for they shall hear of Thy great name, and of Thy mighty hand, and of Thine outstretched arm—when he shall come and pray toward this house;" 8.43. hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to Thee for; that all the peoples of the earth may know Thy name, to fear Thee, as doth Thy people Israel, and that they may know that Thy name is called upon this house which I have built." 8.44. If Thy people go out to battle against their enemy, by whatsoever way Thou shalt send them, and they pray unto the LORD toward the city which Thou hast chosen, and toward the house which I have built for Thy name;" 8.45. then hear Thou in heaven their prayer and their supplication, and maintain their cause." 8.46. If they sin against Thee—for there is no man that sinneth not—and Thou be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captive unto the land of the enemy, far off or near;" 8.47. yet if they shall bethink themselves in the land whither they are carried captive, and turn back, and make supplication unto Thee in the land of them that carried them captive, saying: We have sinned, and have done iniquitously, we have dealt wickedly;" 8.48. if they return unto Thee with all their heart and with all their soul in the land of their enemies, who carried them captive, and pray unto Thee toward their land, which Thou gavest unto their fathers, the city which Thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for Thy name;" 8.49. then hear Thou their prayer and their supplication in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and maintain their cause;" 8.50. and forgive Thy people who have sinned against Thee, and all their transgressions wherein they have transgressed against Thee; and give them compassion before those who carried them captive, that they may have compassion on them;" 8.51. for they are Thy people, and Thine inheritance, which Thou broughtest forth out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron;" 8.52. that Thine eyes may be open unto the supplication of Thy servant, and unto the supplication of Thy people Israel, to hearken unto them whensoever they cry unto Thee." 8.53. For Thou didst set them apart from among all the peoples of the earth, to be Thine inheritance, as Thou didst speak by the hand of Moses Thy servant, when Thou broughtest our fathers out of Egypt, O Lord GOD.’" 12.32. And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he went up unto the altar; so did he in Beth-el, to sacrifice unto the calves that he had made; and he placed in Beth-el the priests of the high places that he had made." 13.1. And, behold, there came a man of God out of Judah by the word of the LORD unto Beth-el; and Jeroboam was standing by the altar to offer." 13.2. And he cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said: ‘O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD: Behold, a son shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name; and upon thee shall he sacrifice the priests of the high places that offer upon thee, and men’s bones shall they burn upon thee.’" 13.3. And he gave a sign the same day saying: ‘This is the sign which the LORD hath spoken: Behold, the altar shall be rent, and the ashes that are upon it shall be poured out.’" 13.4. And it came to pass, when the king heard the saying of the man of God, which he cried against the altar in Beth-el, that Jeroboam put forth his hand from the altar, saying: ‘Lay hold on him.’ And his hand, which he put forth against him, dried up, so that he could not draw it back to him." 13.5. The altar also was rent, and the ashes poured out from the altar, according to the sign which the man of God had given by the word of the LORD."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.7. וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּעֻזָּה וַיַּכֵּהוּ שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים עַל־הַשַּׁל וַיָּמָת שָׁם עִם אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 6.7. And the anger of the Lord burned against ῾Uzza; and God smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of God."
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.9 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.9. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהֵבֵאתִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּצָּהֳרָיִם וְהַחֲשַׁכְתִּי לָאָרֶץ בְּיוֹם אוֹר׃ 8.9. And it shall come to pass in that day, Saith the Lord GOD, That I will cause the sun to go down at noon, And I will darken the earth in the clear day."
13. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.11. שֶׁמֶשׁ יָרֵחַ עָמַד זְבֻלָה לְאוֹר חִצֶּיךָ יְהַלֵּכוּ לְנֹגַהּ בְּרַק חֲנִיתֶךָ׃ 3.11. The sun and moon stand still in their habitation; at the light of Thine arrows as they go, At the shining of Thy glittering spear."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 13.9-13.11, 27.1, 45.1-45.4, 55.6, 60.19-60.20, 63.19, 64.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.11. וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־תֵּבֵל רָעָה וְעַל־רְשָׁעִים עֲוֺנָם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי גְּאוֹן זֵדִים וְגַאֲוַת עָרִיצִים אַשְׁפִּיל׃ 27.1. כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃ 27.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃ 45.1. הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה־תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה־תְּחִילִין׃ 45.1. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ׃ 45.2. אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ אֵלֵךְ וַהֲדוּרִים אושר [אֲיַשֵּׁר] דַּלְתוֹת נְחוּשָׁה אֲשַׁבֵּר וּבְרִיחֵי בַרְזֶל אֲגַדֵּעַ׃ 45.2. הִקָּבְצוּ וָבֹאוּ הִתְנַגְּשׁוּ יַחְדָּו פְּלִיטֵי הַגּוֹיִם לֹא יָדְעוּ הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־עֵץ פִּסְלָם וּמִתְפַּלְלִים אֶל־אֵל לֹא יוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 45.3. וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אוֹצְרוֹת חֹשֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵי מִסְתָּרִים לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה הַקּוֹרֵא בְשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 45.4. לְמַעַן עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב וְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחִירִי וָאֶקְרָא לְךָ בִּשְׁמֶךָ אֲכַנְּךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתָּנִי׃ 55.6. דִּרְשׁוּ יְהוָה בְּהִמָּצְאוֹ קְרָאֻהוּ בִּהְיוֹתוֹ קָרוֹב׃ 60.19. לֹא־יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ עוֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם וּלְנֹגַהּ הַיָּרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר לָךְ וְהָיָה־לָךְ יְהוָה לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וֵאלֹהַיִךְ לְתִפְאַרְתֵּךְ׃ 63.19. הָיִינוּ מֵעוֹלָם לֹא־מָשַׁלְתָּ בָּם לֹא־נִקְרָא שִׁמְךָ עֲלֵיהֶם לוּא־קָרַעְתָּ שָׁמַיִם יָרַדְתָּ מִפָּנֶיךָ הָרִים נָזֹלּוּ׃ 64.3. וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ עַיִן לֹא־רָאָתָה אֱלֹהִים זוּלָתְךָ יַעֲשֶׂה לִמְחַכֵּה־לוֹ׃ 13.10. For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof Shall not give their light; The sun shall be darkened in his going forth, And the moon shall not cause her light to shine." 13.11. And I will visit upon the world their evil, And upon the wicked their iniquity; And I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, And will lay low the haughtiness of the tyrants." 27.1. In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea." 45.1. Thus saith the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and that the gates may not be shut:" 45.2. I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight; I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron;" 45.3. And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am the LORD, who call thee by thy name, even the God of Israel." 45.4. For the sake of Jacob My servant, and Israel Mine elect, I have called thee by thy name, I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known Me." 55.6. Seek ye the LORD while He may be found, Call ye upon Him while He is near;" 60.19. The sun shall be no more thy light by day, Neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee; But the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, And thy God thy glory." 60.20. Thy sun shall no more go down, Neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; For the LORD shall be thine everlasting light, And the days of thy mourning shall be ended." 63.19. We are become as they over whom Thou never borest rule, As they that were not called by Thy name. Oh, that Thou wouldest rend the heavens, that Thou wouldest come down, That the mountains might quake at Thy presence," 64.3. And whereof from of old men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen a God beside Thee, who worketh for him that waiteth for Him."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.23-23.24, 25.30, 29.13, 31.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.23. הַאֱלֹהֵי מִקָּרֹב אָנִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְלֹא אֱלֹהֵי מֵרָחֹק׃ 23.24. אִם־יִסָּתֵר אִישׁ בַּמִּסְתָּרִים וַאֲנִי לֹא־אֶרְאֶנּוּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה הֲלוֹא אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲנִי מָלֵא נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 29.13. וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם אֹתִי וּמְצָאתֶם כִּי תִדְרְשֻׁנִי בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 23.23. Am I a God near at hand, saith the LORD, And not a God afar off?" 23.24. Can any hide himself in secret places That I shall not see him? saith the LORD. Do not I fill heaven and earth? Saith the LORD." 25.30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them: The LORD doth roar from on high, And utter His voice from His holy habitation; He doth mightily roar because of His fold; He giveth a shout, as they that tread the grapes, Against all the inhabitants of the earth." 29.13. And ye shall seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall search for Me with all your heart." 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:"
16. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 10.12-10.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.12. אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם תֵּת יְהוָה אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמֶשׁ בְּגִבְעוֹן דּוֹם וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן׃ 10.13. וַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃ 10.12. Then spoke Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel: ‘Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.’" 10.13. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 29.3, 32.7-32.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.3. דַּבֵּר וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי עָלֶיךָ פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם הַתַּנִּים הַגָּדוֹל הָרֹבֵץ בְּתוֹךְ יְאֹרָיו אֲשֶׁר אָמַר לִי יְאֹרִי וַאֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִנִי׃ 32.7. וְכִסֵּיתִי בְכַבּוֹתְךָ שָׁמַיִם וְהִקְדַּרְתִּי אֶת־כֹּכְבֵיהֶם שֶׁמֶשׁ בֶּעָנָן אֲכַסֶּנּוּ וְיָרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר אוֹרוֹ׃ 32.8. כָּל־מְאוֹרֵי אוֹר בַּשָּׁמַיִם אַקְדִּירֵם עָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי חֹשֶׁךְ עַל־אַרְצְךָ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 29.3. speak, and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh King of Egypt, The great dragon that lieth In the midst of his rivers, That hath said: My river is mine own, And I have made it for myself." 32.7. And when I shall extinguish thee, I will cover the heaven, And make the stars thereof black; I will cover the sun with a cloud, And the moon shall not give her light." 32.8. All the bright lights of heaven Will I make black over thee, And set darkness upon thy land, Saith the Lord GOD."
18. Anaxagoras, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.21 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.21. וַיִּוָּעַץ אֶל־הָעָם וַיַּעֲמֵד מְשֹׁרֲרִים לַיהוָה וּמְהַלְלִים לְהַדְרַת־קֹדֶשׁ בְּצֵאת לִפְנֵי הֶחָלוּץ וְאֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 20.21. And when he had taken counsel with the people, he appointed them that should sing unto the LORD, and praise in the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army, and say: ‘Give thanks unto the LORD, for His mercy endureth for ever.’"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.19, 8.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.19. וּמָאנַיָּא דִּי־מִתְיַהֲבִין לָךְ לְפָלְחָן בֵּית אֱלָהָךְ הַשְׁלֵם קֳדָם אֱלָהּ יְרוּשְׁלֶם׃ 8.21. וָאֶקְרָא שָׁם צוֹם עַל־הַנָּהָר אַהֲוָא לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְשָׁרָה לָנוּ וּלְטַפֵּנוּ וּלְכָל־רְכוּשֵׁנוּ׃ 7.19. And the vessels that are given thee for the service of the house of thy God, deliver thou before the God of Jerusalem." 8.21. Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river Ahava, that we might humble ourselves before our God, to seek of Him a straight way, for us, and for our little ones, and for all our substance."
21. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

32c. the sweet and cheering hope of pleasant things to come, the fearful and woful expectation of painful things to come. Pro. Yes, indeed, this is another kind of pleasure and pain, which belongs to the soul itself, apart from the body, and arises through expectation. Soc. You are right. I think that in these two kinds, both of which are, in my opinion, pure, and not formed by mixture of pain and pleasure, the truth about pleasure will be made manifest
22. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

23. Xenophon, Memoirs, 4.4.19 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.4.19. Do you know what is meant by unwritten laws, Hippias? Yes, those that are uniformly observed in every country. Could you say that men made them? Nay, how could that be, seeing that they cannot all meet together and do not speak the same language? Then by whom have these laws been made, do you suppose? I think that the gods made these laws for men. For among all men the first law is to fear the gods.
24. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 7-9, 4 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. καὶ λιμένες· πάντη δὲ Διὸς κεχρήμεθα πάντες.
25. Anon., 1 Enoch, 72.13, 72.19, 72.25, 72.31, 93.2, 98.7-98.8, 99.3, 100.10-100.11, 104.1, 104.7-104.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

72.13. becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth 72.25. parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty 72.31. and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven. 98.7. And do not think in your spirit nor say in your heart that ye do not know and that ye do not see 98.8. that every sin is every day recorded in heaven in the presence of the Most High. From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith ye oppress is written down every day till the day of your judgement. 99.3. In those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as a memorial, And place them as a testimony before the angels, That they may place the sin of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High. 100.11. judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they 104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning 104.7. but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: ' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless 104.8. they shall write down all your sins every day. And now I show unto you that light and darkness
26. Anon., Jubilees, 2.9, 2.11-2.13, 2.21, 4.18, 4.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.21. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom
27. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 9.12-9.15, 20.7-20.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q286, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q427, 8.2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q503, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Biblical Paraphrase 4Q364, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 11.22-11.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 11.22-11.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.37-2.40, 8.7-8.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.37. אַנְתְּה מַלְכָּא מֶלֶךְ מַלְכַיָּא דִּי אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא מַלְכוּתָא חִסְנָא וְתָקְפָּא וִיקָרָא יְהַב־לָךְ׃ 2.38. וּבְכָל־דִּי דארין [דָיְרִין] בְּנֵי־אֲנָשָׁא חֵיוַת בָּרָא וְעוֹף־שְׁמַיָּא יְהַב בִּידָךְ וְהַשְׁלְטָךְ בְּכָלְּהוֹן אַנְתְּה־הוּא רֵאשָׁה דִּי דַהֲבָא׃ 2.39. וּבָתְרָךְ תְּקוּם מַלְכוּ אָחֳרִי אֲרַעא מִנָּךְ וּמַלְכוּ תליתיא [תְלִיתָאָה] אָחֳרִי דִּי נְחָשָׁא דִּי תִשְׁלַט בְּכָל־אַרְעָא׃ 8.7. וּרְאִיתִיו מַגִּיעַ אֵצֶל הָאַיִל וַיִּתְמַרְמַר אֵלָיו וַיַּךְ אֶת־הָאַיִל וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֶת־שְׁתֵּי קְרָנָיו וְלֹא־הָיָה כֹחַ בָּאַיִל לַעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיַּשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אַרְצָה וַיִּרְמְסֵהוּ וְלֹא־הָיָה מַצִּיל לָאַיִל מִיָּדוֹ׃ 8.8. וּצְפִיר הָעִזִּים הִגְדִּיל עַד־מְאֹד וּכְעָצְמוֹ נִשְׁבְּרָה הַקֶּרֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה וַתַּעֲלֶנָה חָזוּת אַרְבַּע תַּחְתֶּיהָ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.9. וּמִן־הָאַחַת מֵהֶם יָצָא קֶרֶן־אַחַת מִצְּעִירָה וַתִּגְדַּל־יֶתֶר אֶל־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶל־הַמִּזְרָח וְאֶל־הַצֶּבִי׃ 2.37. Thou, O king, king of kings, unto whom the God of heaven hath given the kingdom, the power, and the strength, and the glory;" 2.38. and wheresoever the children of men, the beasts of the field, and the fowls of the heaven dwell, hath He given them into thy hand, and hath made thee to rule over them all; thou art the head of gold." 2.39. And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee; and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth." 2.40. And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron; forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and beateth down all things; and as iron that crusheth all these, shall it break in pieces and crush." 8.7. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and broke his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him; but he cast him down to the ground, and trampled upon him; and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand." 8.8. And the he-goat magnified himself exceedingly; and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and instead of it there came up the appearance of four horns toward the four winds of heaven." 8.9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the beauteous land."
35. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 7.42-7.43 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.42. So also crush this army before us today; let the rest learn that Nicanor has spoken wickedly against the sanctuary, and judge him according to this wickedness. 7.43. So the armies met in battle on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar. The army of Nicanor was crushed, and he himself was the first to fall in the battle.
36. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1, 17.9-17.12, 33.7, 33.10-33.11, 43.6-43.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.11. He bestowed knowledge upon them,and allotted to them the law of life. 17.12. He established with them an eternal covet,and showed them his judgments. 33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways;
37. Septuagint, Judith, 5.17, 7.30, 9.1, 9.9-9.10, 10.22, 13.11, 13.15, 13.20, 14.9, 14.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 10.22. When they told him of her he came forward to the front of the tent, with silver lamps carried before him. 13.11. Judith called out from afar to the watchmen at the gates, "Open, open the gate! God, our God, is still with us, to show his power in Israel, and his strength against our enemies, even as he has done this day! 13.15. Then she took the head out of the bag and showed it to them, and said, "See, here is the head of Holofernes, the commander of the Assyrian army, and here is the canopy beneath which he lay in his drunken stupor. The Lord has struck him down by the hand of a woman. 13.20. May God grant this to be a perpetual honor to you, and may he visit you with blessings, because you did not spare your own life when our nation was brought low, but have avenged our ruin, walking in the straight path before our God." And all the people said, "So be it, so be it! 14.9. And when she had finished, the people raised a great shout and made a joyful noise in their city. 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments.
38. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.18, 9.1, 9.9, 13.2, 13.6-13.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.18. the beginning and end and middle of times,the alternations of the solstices and the changes of the seasons 9.1. O God of my fathers and Lord of mercy,who hast made all things by thy word 9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments. 13.2. but they supposed that either fire or wind or swift air,or the circle of the stars, or turbulent water,or the luminaries of heaven were the gods that rule the world. 13.6. Yet these men are little to be blamed,for perhaps they go astray while seeking God and desiring to find him. 13.7. For as they live among his works they keep searching,and they trust in what they see, because the things that are seen are beautiful.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 87 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

87. But this man alone appears to have behaved in the contrary manner, thinking that life which was remote from the fellowship of many companions the most pleasant of all. And this is naturally the case; for those who seek and desire to find God, love that solitude which is dear to him, labouring for this as their dearest and primary object, to become like his blessed and happy nature.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 31, 45-61, 3 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

3. And his exordium, as I have already said, is most admirable; embracing the creation of the world, under the idea that the law corresponds to the world and the world to the law, and that a man who is obedient to the law, being, by so doing, a citizen of the world, arranges his actions with reference to the intention of nature, in harmony with which the whole universal world is regulated.
41. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 124-125, 117 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

42. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 11-14, 10 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

10. Accordingly God banished Adam; but Cain went forth from his presence of his own accord; Moses here showing to us the manner of each sort of absence from God, both the voluntary and the involuntary sort; but the involuntary sort as not existing in consequence of any intention on our part, will subsequently have such a remedy applied to it as the case admits of; for God will raise up another offspring in the place of Abel, whom Cain slew, a male offspring for the soul which has not turned by its own intention, by name Seth, which name being interpreted means irrigation;
43. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.33-1.34 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 1.34. For among created things, the heaven is holy in the world, in accordance with which body, the imperishable and indestructible natures revolve; and in man the mind is holy, being a sort of fragment of the Deity, and especially according to the statement of Moses, who says, "God breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul.
44. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.31 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.31. And it is said in the scriptures that, "Those that are attached to the living God do all Live."{6}{#de 4:4.} Is not this, then, a thrice happy life, a thrice blessed existence, to be contented with performing due service to the most venerable Cause of all things, and not to think fit to serve his subordinate ministers and door-keepers in preference to the King himself? And this life is an immortal one, and is recorded as one of great duration in the pillars of nature. And it is inevitably necessary that these writings should last to all eternity with the world itself.VI.
45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.48, 2.64-2.65 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 205 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

205. Therefore Helicon, this scorpion-like slave, discharged all his Egyptian venom against the Jews; and Apelles his Ascalonite poison, for he was a native of Ascalon; and between the people of Ascalon and the inhabitants of the holy land, the Jews, there is an irreconcileable and neverending hostility although they are bordering nations.
47. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.65 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.65. Let us examine the expressions of the writer: "A river," says he, "goes forth out of Eden, to water the Paradise." This river is generic goodness; and this issues forth out of the Eden of the wisdom of God, and that is the word of God. For it is according to the word of God, that generic virtue was created. And generic virtue waters the Paradise: that is to say, it waters the particular virtues. But it does not derive its beginnings from any principle of locality, but from a principle of preeminence. For each of the virtues is really and truly a ruler and a queen. And the expression, "is separated," is equivalent to "is marked off by fixed boundaries;" since wisdom appoints them settled limits with reference to what is to be done. Courage with respect to what is to be endured; temperance with reference to what is to be chosen; and justice in respect of what is to be distributed. XX.
48. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.34, 2.56 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

49. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 58 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

58. Once more, he had no need of eyes, the organs without which there can be no comprehension of the light perceptible by the outward senses; but the light perceptible by the outward senses is a created light; and even before the creation God saw, using himself as light.
50. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 124-125, 117 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

117. But in the fourth year," says the scripture, "all the fruit of the tree shall be sacred, being praised by the Lord." The prophetic books appear often to dignify the number four in many places of the exposition of the law, and most especially in the account of the creation of the universe;
51. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Let us consider that wonderful sign [of the resurrection] which takes place in eastern lands, that is, in Arabia and the countries round about. There is a certain bird which is called a phœnix. This is the only one of its kind, and lives five hundred years. And when the time of its dissolution draws near that it must die, it builds itself a nest of frankincense, and myrrh, and other spices, into which, when the time is fulfilled, it enters and dies. But as the flesh decays a certain kind of worm is produced, which, being nourished by the juices of the dead bird, brings forth feathers. Then, when it has acquired strength, it takes up that nest in which are the bones of its parent, and bearing these it passes from the land of Arabia into Egypt, to the city called Heliopolis. And, in open day, flying in the sight of all men, it places them on the altar of the sun, and having done this, hastens back to its former abode. The priests then inspect the registers of the dates, and find that it has returned exactly as the five hundredth year was completed.
52. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.108 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.108. I have indeed built this temple to thee, and thy name, that from thence, when we sacrifice, and perform sacred operations, we may send our prayers up into the air, and may constantly believe that thou art present, and art not remote from what is thine own; for neither when thou seest all things, and hearest all things, nor now, when it pleases thee to dwell here, dost thou leave the care of all men, but rather thou art very near to them all, but especially thou art present to those that address themselves to thee, whether by night or by day.”
53. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.5, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. They never have less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple, and never more than forty-eight. Every day there were twenty-one blasts in the Temple, three at the opening of the gates, nine at the morning tamid sacrifice, and nine at the evening tamid sacrifice. At the musafim (additional sacrifices) they would add another nine. And on the eve of Shabbat they would add another six, three as a sign to the people to stop working and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane. On the eve of Shabbat in the intermediate days of the [Sukkoth] festival, there were [therefore] forty-eight blasts: three at the opening of the gates, three at the upper gate, three at the lower gate, three at the water-drawing, three at the altar, nine at the daily morning sacrifice, nine at the daily evening sacrifice, nine at the additional sacrifices, three as a sign to the people to cease from work, and three to mark a distinction between the holy and the profane." 5.7. At three periods in the year all the priestly watches shared equally in the festival sacrifices and in the division of the showbread. On Shavuot they used to say to the priest, “Here is matzah for you, here is chametz for you.” A watch whose period of service was fixed [for that festival week] offered the tamid, vow-offerings and freewill-offerings and all other public offerings; and it offered them all. A festival which fell next to Shabbat, either before or after it, all the watches shared equally in the distribution of the showbread."
54. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.1-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah." 4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat." 4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai." 4.5. The times of the wood of the priests and the people was nine:On the first of Nisan the family Arah of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Tammuz the family of David of Yehudah. On the fifth of Av the family of Parosh of Yehudah. On the seventh of the same month, the family of Yonadav of Rechav. On the tenth of the same month, the family of Snaah of Benjamin. On the fifteenth of the same month, the family of Zattu of Yehudah, and with them were the priests and Levites and all those who were not certain of their tribe and the family of Gonve Eli and the family of Kotze Ketizot. On the twentieth of the same month the family of Pahat Moav of Yehudah. On the twentieth of Elul the family of Adin of Yehudah. On the first of Tevet the family of Parosh of Yehudah [offered] a second time. On the first of Tevet there was no maamad for there was Hallel, Musaf and the wood-festival."
55. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful." 3.4. They went into the chamber of the vessels and they took out ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold. Although it had been examined on the previous evening it was now examined again by torchlight."
56. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life
57. New Testament, Acts, 4.19-4.20, 7.2-7.4, 14.17, 17.25-17.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.19. But Peter and John answered them, "Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, judge for yourselves 4.20. for we can't help telling the things which we saw and heard. 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran 7.3. and said to him, 'Get out of your land, and from your relatives, and come into a land which I will show you.' 7.4. Then he came out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and lived in Haran. From there, when his father was dead, God moved him into this land, where you are now living. 14.17. Yet he didn't leave himself without witness, in that he did good and gave you rains from the sky and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness. 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us.
58. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5.8, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.8. Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 8.4. The smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, went up before God out of the angel's hand.
59. New Testament, Galatians, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world.
60. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.18. For you have not come to a mountain that might be touched, and that burned with fire, and to blackness, darkness, tempest
61. New Testament, Philippians, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men.
62. New Testament, Romans, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life.
63. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.3, 8.23, 14.2-14.4, 14.8, 20.1-20.23, 21.1-21.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 8.23. He said to them, "You are from beneath. I am from above. You are of this world. I am not of this world. 14.2. In my Father's house are many mansions. If it weren't so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 14.4. Where I go, you know, and you know the way. 14.8. Philip said to him, "Lord, show us the Father, and that will be enough for us. 20.1. Now on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene went early, while it was still dark, to the tomb, and saw the stone taken away from the tomb. 20.2. Therefore she ran and came to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and said to them, "They have taken away the Lord out of the tomb, and we don't know where they have laid him! 20.3. Therefore Peter and the other disciple went out, and they went toward the tomb. 20.4. They both ran together. The other disciple outran Peter, and came to the tomb first. 20.5. Stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths lying, yet he didn't enter in. 20.6. Then Simon Peter came, following him, and entered into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying 20.7. and the cloth that had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths, but rolled up in a place by itself. 20.8. So then the other disciple who came first to the tomb also entered in, and he saw and believed. 20.9. For as yet they didn't know the Scripture, that he must rise from the dead. 20.10. So the disciples went away again to their own homes. 20.11. But Mary was standing outside at the tomb weeping. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb 20.12. and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 20.13. They told her, "Woman, why are you weeping?"She said to them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I don't know where they have laid him. 20.14. When she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, and didn't know that it was Jesus. 20.15. Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Who are you looking for?"She, supposing him to be the gardener, said to him, "Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away. 20.16. Jesus said to her, "Mary."She turned and said to him, "Rhabbouni!" which is to say, "Teacher! 20.17. Jesus said to her, "Don't touch me, for I haven't yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brothers, and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.' 20.18. Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things to her. 20.19. When therefore it was evening, on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were locked where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 20.20. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad when they saw the Lord. 20.21. Jesus therefore said to them again, "Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you. 20.22. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit! 20.23. Whoever's sins you forgive, they are forgiven them. Whoever's sins you retain, they have been retained. 21.1. After these things, Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias. He revealed himself this way. 21.2. Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. 21.3. Simon Peter said to them, "I'm going fishing."They told him, "We are also coming with you." They immediately went out, and entered into the boat. That night, they caught nothing. 21.4. But when day had already come, Jesus stood on the beach, yet the disciples didn't know that it was Jesus. 21.5. Jesus therefore said to them, "Children, have you anything to eat?"They answered him, "No. 21.6. He said to them, "Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some."They cast it therefore, and now they weren't able to draw it in for the multitude of fish. 21.7. That disciple therefore whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It's the Lord!"So when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he wrapped his coat around him (for he was naked), and threw himself into the sea. 21.8. But the other disciples came in the little boat (for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits away), dragging the net full of fish. 21.9. So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. 21.10. Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish which you have just caught. 21.11. Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land, full of great fish, one hundred fifty-three; and even though there were so many, the net wasn't torn. 21.12. Jesus said to them, "Come and eat breakfast."None of the disciples dared inquire of him, "Who are you?" knowing that it was the Lord. 21.13. Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. 21.14. This is now the third time that Jesus was revealed to his disciples, after he had risen from the dead. 21.15. So when they had eaten their breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me more than these?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Feed my lambs. 21.16. He said to him again a second time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love me?"He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I have affection for you."He said to him, "Tend my sheep. 21.17. He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you have affection for me?"Peter was grieved because he asked him the third time, "Do you have affection for me?" He said to him, "Lord, you know everything. You know that I have affection for you."Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep. 21.18. Most assuredly I tell you, when you were young, you dressed yourself, and walked where you wanted to. But when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will dress you, and carry you where you don't want to go. 21.19. Now he said this, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. When he had said this, he said to him, "Follow me. 21.20. Then Peter, turning around, saw a disciple following. This was the disciple whom Jesus sincerely loved, the one who had also leaned on Jesus' breast at the supper and asked, "Lord, who is going to betray You? 21.21. Peter seeing him, said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man? 21.22. Jesus said to him, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me. 21.23. This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple wouldn't die. Yet Jesus didn't say to him that he wouldn't die, but, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? 21.24. This is the disciple who testifies about these things, and wrote these things. We know that his witness is true. 21.25. There are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they would all be written, I suppose that even the world itself wouldn't have room for the books that would be written.
64. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.35, 11.34-11.36, 12.22-12.34, 20.1-20.23, 21.24, 24.13-24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 1.5. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 1.6. They were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordices of the Lord. 1.7. But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. 1.8. Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division 1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 1.10. The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.12. Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 1.13. But the angel said to him, "Don't be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 1.14. You will have joy and gladness; and many will rejoice at his birth. 1.15. For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. 1.16. He will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. 1.17. He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, 'to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,' and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. 1.18. Zacharias said to the angel, "How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years. 1.19. The angel answered him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. 1.20. Behold, you will be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things will happen, because you didn't believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time. 1.21. The people were waiting for Zacharias, and they marveled that he delayed in the temple. 1.22. When he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. 1.23. It happened, when the days of his service were fulfilled, he departed to his house. 1.24. After these days Elizabeth, his wife, conceived, and she hid herself five months, saying 1.25. Thus has the Lord done to me in the days in which he looked at me, to take away my reproach among men. 1.26. Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth 1.27. to a virgin pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. 1.28. Having come in, the angel said to her, "Rejoice, you highly favored one! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women! 1.29. But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered what kind of salutation this might be. 1.30. The angel said to her, "Don't be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 1.31. Behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and will call his name 'Jesus.' 1.32. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David 1.33. and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his kingdom. 1.34. Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, seeing I am a virgin? 1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 11.34. The lamp of the body is the eye. Therefore when your eye is good, your whole body is also full of light; but when it is evil, your body also is full of darkness. 11.35. Therefore see whether the light that is in you isn't darkness. 11.36. If therefore your whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly full of light, as when the lamp with its bright shining gives you light. 12.22. He said to his disciples, "Therefore I tell you, don't be anxious for your life, what you will eat, nor yet for your body, what you will wear. 12.23. Life is more than food, and the body is more than clothing. 12.24. Consider the ravens: they don't sow, they don't reap, they have no warehouse or barn, and God feeds them. How much more valuable are you than birds! 12.25. Which of you by being anxious can add a cubit to his height? 12.26. If then you aren't able to do even the least things, why are you anxious about the rest? 12.27. Consider the lilies, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin; yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 12.28. But if this is how God clothes the grass in the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is cast into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith? 12.29. Don't seek what you will eat or what you will drink; neither be anxious. 12.30. For the nations of the world seek after all of these things, but your Father knows that you need these things. 12.31. But seek God's Kingdom, and all these things will be added to you. 12.32. Don't be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the Kingdom. 12.33. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys. 12.34. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. 20.1. It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the gospel, that the chief priests and scribes came to him with the elders. 20.2. They asked him, "Tell us: by what authority do you do these things? Or who is giving you this authority? 20.3. He answered them, "I also will ask you one question. Tell me: 20.4. the baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? 20.5. They reasoned with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say, 'Why didn't you believe him?' 20.6. But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded that John was a prophet. 20.7. They answered that they didn't know where it was from. 20.8. Jesus said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things. 20.9. He began to tell the people this parable. "A man planted a vineyard, and rented it out to some farmers, and went into another country for a long time. 20.10. At the proper season, he sent a servant to the farmers to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard. But the farmers beat him, and sent him away empty. 20.11. He sent yet another servant, and they also beat him, and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. 20.12. He sent yet a third, and they also wounded him, and threw him out. 20.13. The lord of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved son. It may be that seeing him, they will respect him.' 20.14. But when the farmers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.' 20.15. They threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them? 20.16. He will come and destroy these farmers, and will give the vineyard to others."When they heard it, they said, "May it never be! 20.17. But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the chief cornerstone?' 20.18. Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, But it will crush whomever it falls on to dust. 20.19. The chief priests and the scribes sought to lay hands on Him that very hour, but they feared the people -- for they knew He had spoken this parable against them. 20.20. They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up to the power and authority of the governor. 20.21. They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 20.22. Is it lawful for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 20.23. But he perceived their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 21.24. They will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. 24.36. As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high. 24.50. He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 24.51. It happened, while he blessed them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up into heaven. 24.52. They worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy 24.53. and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
65. New Testament, Mark, 1.10-1.11, 15.37-15.38, 16.1-16.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 15.37. Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit. 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. 16.1. When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. 16.2. Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen. 16.3. They were saying among themselves, "Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us? 16.4. for it was very big. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back. 16.5. Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed. 16.6. He said to them, "Don't be amazed. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him!
66. New Testament, Matthew, 6.22-6.23, 6.25-6.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.22. The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore your eye is sound, your whole body will be full of light. 6.23. But if your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness! 6.25. Therefore, I tell you, don't be anxious for your life: what you will eat, or what you will drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Isn't life more than food, and the body more than clothing? 6.26. See the birds of the sky, that they don't sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren't you of much more value than they? 6.27. Which of you, by being anxious, can add one cubit to the measure of his life? 6.28. Why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin 6.29. yet I tell you that even Solomon in all his glory was not dressed like one of these. 6.30. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won't he much more clothe you, you of little faith? 6.31. Therefore don't be anxious, saying, 'What will we eat?', 'What will we drink?' or, 'With what will we be clothed?' 6.32. For the Gentiles seek after all these things, for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 6.33. But seek first God's Kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things will be given to you as well. 6.34. Therefore don't be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each day's own evil is sufficient.
67. Nag Hammadi, The Apocryphon of John, 9.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

68. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. קשיא דרבי מאיר אדרבי מאיר תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי מאיר,קשיא דרבי אליעזר אדרבי אליעזר,תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי אליעזר ואיבעית אימא רישא לאו רבי אליעזר היא:,עד סוף האשמורה:,מאי קסבר רבי אליעזר אי קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד ארבע שעות ואי קסבר ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד שלש שעות,לעולם קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה והא קא משמע לן דאיכא משמרות ברקיע ואיכא משמרות בארעא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי שנאמר ה' ממרום ישאג וממעון קדשו יתן קולו שאוג ישאג על נוהו,וסימן לדבר משמרה ראשונה חמור נוער שניה כלבים צועקים שלישית תינוק יונק משדי אמו ואשה מספרת עם בעלה.,מאי קא חשיב רבי אליעזר אי תחלת משמרות קא חשיב תחלת משמרה ראשונה סימנא למה לי אורתא הוא אי סוף משמרות קא חשיב סוף משמרה אחרונה למה לי סימנא יממא הוא,אלא חשיב סוף משמרה ראשונה ותחלת משמרה אחרונה ואמצעית דאמצעיתא ואיבעית אימא כולהו סוף משמרות קא חשיב וכי תימא אחרונה לא צריך,למאי נפקא מינה למיקרי קריאת שמע למאן דגני בבית אפל ולא ידע זמן קריאת שמע אימת כיון דאשה מספרת עם בעלה ותינוק יונק משדי אמו ליקום וליקרי.,אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל משמיה דרב ג' משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי ואומר אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין אומות העולם:,תניא אמר רבי יוסי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך ונכנסתי לחורבה אחת מחורבות ירושלים להתפלל בא אליהו זכור לטוב ושמר לי על הפתח (והמתין לי) עד שסיימתי תפלתי לאחר שסיימתי תפלתי אמר לי שלום עליך רבי ואמרתי לו שלום עליך רבי ומורי ואמר לי בני מפני מה נכנסת לחורבה זו אמרתי לו להתפלל ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל בדרך ואמרתי לו מתיירא הייתי שמא יפסיקו בי עוברי דרכים ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל תפלה קצרה,באותה שעה למדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נכנסין לחורבה ולמדתי שמתפללין בדרך ולמדתי שהמתפלל בדרך מתפלל תפלה קצרה,ואמר לי בני מה קול שמעת בחורבה זו ואמרתי לו שמעתי בת קול שמנהמת כיונה ואומרת אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין האומות ואמר לי חייך וחיי ראשך לא שעה זו בלבד אומרת כך אלא בכל יום ויום שלש פעמים אומרת כך ולא זו בלבד אלא בשעה שישראל נכנסין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות ועונין יהא שמיה הגדול מבורך הקדוש ברוך הוא מנענע ראשו ואומר אשרי המלך שמקלסין אותו בביתו כך מה לו לאב שהגלה את בניו ואוי להם לבנים שגלו מעל שולחן אביהם:,תנו רבנן מפני שלשה דברים אין נכנסין לחורבה מפני חשד מפני המפולת ומפני המזיקין. מפני חשד ותיפוק ליה משום מפולת 3a. The previous baraita cited Rabbi Meir’s opinion that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the priests immerse before partaking of their iteruma /i. In the iTosefta /i, it was taught that Rabbi Meir holds that one begins to recite iShemafrom when people enter to eat their meal on Shabbat eve. One opinion of bRabbi Meirseems to bcontradictanother opinion of bRabbi Meir /b. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Meir’sopinion.,So too, the opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the mishna bcontradictsthe opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the ibaraita /i. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, while in the ibaraita /i, he states that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.,The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion. Either btwo itanna’imexpressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion, bor if you wish, sayinstead that bthe first clauseof the mishna, according to which we begin to recite iShemawhen the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, bis notactually bRabbi Eliezer’sopinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.,In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening iShema buntil the end of the first watch.These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time ( iTosefot HaRosh /i)?, bWhat does Rabbi Eliezeractually bhold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him sayexplicitly that one recites the evening iShema buntil the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him sayexplicitly buntil the third hour. /b,The Gemara responds: bActually,Rabbi Eliezer bholds that the night consists of three watches,and he employs this particular language of watches bin order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth;just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lionin pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, bas it is stated: “The Lord roars [ iyishag /i] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily[ishaog yishag/b] bover His dwelling place,He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth” (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root ishin-alef-gimmelin this verse correspond to the three watches of the night., bAnd signs ofthe transition between each of bthesewatches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In bthe first watch, the donkey brays;in bthe second, dogs bark;and in bthe thirdpeople begin to rise, ba baby nurses from its mother’s breast and a wife converses with her husband. /b,With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara asks: bWhat did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? Ifhe benumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It iswhen beveningbegins; an additional sign is superfluous. bIf he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It iswhen bdaybegins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.,The Gemara answers: bRather, he enumeratedthe signs for bthe end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch,both of which require a sign, as well as bthe middle of the middlewatch. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bHe enumerated the ends of allof the watches. bAnd if you saythat a sign indicating the end of the bfinalwatch bis unnecessarybecause it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful., bWhat is the practical ramificationof this sign? It is relevant bto one who recites iShema bwhile lying in a dark house,who cannot see the dawn and bwho does not know when the time for reciting iShema /iarrives. That person is provided with a sign that bwhen a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother’s breast,the final watch of the night has ended and bhe must rise and recite iShema /i., bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion,because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches ( iTosefot HaRosh /i), band says: “Woe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.” /b,Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I enteredthe bruinsof an old, abandoned building bamong the ruins of Jerusalemin order bto pray.I noticed that bElijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished prayingand exited the ruin, Elijah bsaid to me,deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: bGreetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. AndElijah bsaid to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him:In order bto pray. AndElijah bsaid to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him:I was unable to pray along the road, because bI was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelersand would be unable to focus. Elijah bsaid to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayerinstituted for just such circumstances.,Rabbi Yosei concluded: bAt that time,from that brief exchange, bI learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learnedthat one need not enter a building to pray, but bhe may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayerso that he may maintain his focus., bAndafter this introduction, Elijah bsaid to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin? br bI responded: I heard a Heavenly voice,like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), bcooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.br bAndElijah bsaid to me:By byour life and by your head, not onlydid that voice bcry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover,any time that God’s greatness is evoked, such as bwhen Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answersin the ikaddishprayer, bMay His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house.When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: bHowgreat is the pain of bthe father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father’s table,as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut)., bThe Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicionof prostitution, bbecausethe ruin is liable to bcollapse,and bbecause of demons.Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason bbecause of suspicionnecessary? bLet this ihalakha bbe derived because of collapse. /b
69. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. had the bleg ofthe letter ihehinthe term: b“The nation [ iha’am /i]”(Exodus 13:3), written in his phylacteries, bsevered by a perforation. He came beforehis son-in-law bRabbi Abbato clarify the ihalakha /i. Rabbi Abba bsaid to him: If there remains inthe leg that is attached to the roof of the letter bthe equivalent of the measure of a small letter,i.e., the letter iyod /i, it is bfit. But if not,it is bunfit. /b,The Gemara relates: bRami bar Tamrei, whowas bthe father-in-law of Rami bar Dikkulei,had the bleg ofthe letter ivavinthe term: b“Andthe Lord bslew [ ivayaharog /i]all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:15), written in his phylacteries, bsevered by a perforation. He came before Rabbi Zeirato clarify the ihalakha /i. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: Go bring a child who is neither wise nor stupid,but of average intelligence; bif he readsthe term as b“Andthe Lord bslew [ ivayaharog /i]”then it is bfit,as despite the perforation the letter is still seen as a ivav /i. But bif not,then it is as though the term bwere: Will be slain [ iyehareg /i],written without the letter ivav /i, bandit is bunfit. /b,§ bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: When Moses ascended on High, he found the Holy One, Blessed be He, sitting and tying crowns on the lettersof the Torah. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who is preventing Youfrom giving the Torah without these additions? God bsaid to him: There is a man who is destined to beborn bafter several generations, and Akiva ben Yosefis bhis name; he is destined to derive from each and every thornof these crowns bmoundsupon bmounds of ihalakhot /i.It is for his sake that the crowns must be added to the letters of the Torah.,Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, show him to me.God bsaid to him: Return behind you.Moses bwent and sat at the end of the eighth rowin Rabbi Akiva’s study hall band did not understand what they were saying.Moses’ bstrength waned,as he thought his Torah knowledge was deficient. bWhenRabbi Akiva barrived atthe discussion of bone matter, his students said to him: My teacher, from where do youderive this? Rabbi Akiva bsaid to them:It is ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai.When Moses heard this, bhis mind was put at ease,as this too was part of the Torah that he was to receive.,Moses breturned and came before the Holy One, Blessed be He,and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, You have a manas great bas this andyet bYoustill choose to bgive the Torah through me.Why? God bsaid to him: Be silent; this intention arose before Me.Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, You have shown meRabbi Akiva’s bTorah,now bshow me his reward.God bsaid to him: Returnto where you were. Moses bwent backand bsaw that they were weighingRabbi Akiva’s bflesh in a butcher shop [ ibemakkulin /i],as Rabbi Akiva was tortured to death by the Romans. Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, this is Torah and this is its reward?God bsaid to him: Be silent; this intention arose before Me. /b,§ The Gemara continues its discussion of the crowns on letters of the Torah: bRava says: Seven letters require three crowns [ iziyyunin /i], and they arethe letters ishin /i, iayin /i, itet /i, inun /i, izayin /i; igimmel /iand itzadi /i. Rav Ashi says: I have seen that the exacting scribes of the study hall of Rav would put a hump-like stroke on the roof ofthe letter iḥetand they would suspend theleft bleg ofthe letter iheh /i,i.e., they would ensure that it is not joined to the roof of the letter.,Rava explains: bThey would put a hump-like stroke on the roof ofthe letter iḥetas if tothereby bsay:The Holy One, Blessed be bHe, lives [ iḥai /i] in the heights of the universe. And they would suspend theleft bleg ofthe letter iheh /i, as Rabbi Yehuda Nesia asked Rabbi Ami: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Trust in the Lord forever, for in the Lord [ ibeYah /i] is God, an everlasting [ iolamim /i] Rock”(Isaiah 26:4)? Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: Anyone who puts their trust in the Holy One, Blessed be He,will have Him as bhis refuge in this world and in the World-to-Come.This is alluded to in the word “ iolamim /i,” which can also mean: Worlds.,Rabbi Yehuda Nesia bsaid toRabbi Ami: I was not asking about the literal meaning of the verse; bthis iswhat poses ba difficulty for me: What is differentabout that bwhich is written:“For bin the Lord [ ibeYah /i],” and it is not written:For bthe Lord [ iYah /i]? /b,Rav Ashi responded: It is bas Rabbi Yehuda bar Rabbi Elai taught:The verse “For in the Lord [ ibeYah /i] is God, an everlasting Rock [ iTzur olamim /i]” is understood as follows: The term “ iTzur olamim /i” can also mean Creator of worlds. bTheseletters iyodand ihehthat constitute the word iyahare referring to the btwo worlds that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created; one with [ ibe /i]the letter ihehand one with [ ibe /i]the letter iyod /i. And I do not know whether the World-to-Comewas created bwiththe letter iyodand this worldwas created bwiththe letter iheh /i,or bwhether this worldwas created bwiththe letter iyodand the World-to-Comewas created bwiththe letter iheh /i. /b, bWhenthe verse bstates: “These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created [ ibehibare’am /i]”(Genesis 2:4), bdo not readit as ibehibare’am /i,meaning: When they were created; brather,read it as ibeheh bera’am /i,meaning: He created them with the letter iheh /i. This verse demonstrates that the heaven and the earth, i.e., this world, were created with the letter iheh /i, and therefore the World-to-Come must have been created with the letter iyod /i., bAnd for whatreason bwas this world createdspecifically bwiththe letter iheh /i?It is bbecausethe letter iheh /i, bwhichis open on its bottom, has ba similarappearance bto a portico,which is open on one side. And it alludes to this world, bwhere anyone who wishes to leave may leave,i.e., every person has the ability to choose to do evil. bAnd what is the reasonthat the left bleg ofthe letter iheh bis suspended,i.e., is not joined to the roof of the letter? It is bbecause if one repents, he is broughtback binthrough the opening at the top.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not blet him enter through thatsame way that he left? The Gemara answers: That would bnot be effective,since one requires assistance from Heaven in order to repent, bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish. As Reish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? Concerning one who bcomesin order bto become pure, he is assistedfrom Heaven, as it is written: “But to the humble He gives grace.” Concerning one who bcomes to become impure, he is provided with an openingto do so. The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat the letter iheh bhas a crownon its roof? The Gemara answers: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Ifa sinner breturns,repenting for his sin, bI tiea crown bfor himfrom above.,The Gemara asks: bFor whatreason bwas the World-to-Come createdspecifically bwiththe letter iyod /i,the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet? The Gemara answers: It is bbecause the righteous ofthe world bareso bfew. And for whatreason is the left side of bthe top ofthe letter iyod bbentdownward? It is bbecause the righteous who are inthe World-to-Come bhang their headsin shame, bsince the actions of one are not similar to those of another.In the World-to-Come some of the righteous will be shown to be of greater stature than others.,§ bRav Yosef says: Rav states these two matters with regard to scrolls, andin each case a statement bis taughtin a ibaraitathat constitutes ba refutation of hisruling. bOneis bthat which Rav says: A Torah scroll that contains two errors on each and every column may be corrected,but if there are bthreeerrors on each and every column then it bshall be interred. /b, bAnda statement bis taughtin a ibaraitathat constitutes ba refutation of hisruling: A Torah scroll that contains bthreeerrors on every column bmay be corrected,but if there are bfourerrors on every column then it bshall be interred.A itanna btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIfthe Torah scroll bcontains one complete columnwith no errors, bit saves the entireTorah scroll, and it is permitted to correct the scroll rather than interring it. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta says in the name of Rav: And thisis the ihalakhaonly bwhen the majority of the scroll is written properlyand is not full of errors., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: If that column contained three errors, whatis the ihalakha /i? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: Sincethe column itself bmay be corrected,it benables the correctionof the entire scroll. The Gemara adds: bAndwith regard to the ihalakhathat a Torah scroll may not be fixed if it is full of errors, bthis statementapplies when letters bare missingand must be added in the space between the lines. bButif there were bextraneousletters, bwe have noproblem bwith it,since they can easily be erased. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat a scroll with letters bmissingmay bnotbe corrected? bRav Kahana said: Because it would look speckledif one adds all of the missing letters in the spaces between the lines.,The Gemara relates: bAgra, the father-in-law of Rabbi Abba, hadmany bextraneousletters bin his scroll. He came before Rabbi Abbato clarify the ihalakha /i. Rabbi Abba bsaid to him: We saidthat one may not correct the scroll bonly ina case where the letters are bmissing. /b
70. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שאני התם דשירה דיומיה היא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר משום ר"ע בראשון מה היו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה על שם שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו,בשני מה היו אומרים (תהלים מח, ב) גדול ה' ומהולל מאד על שם שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהן,בשלישי היו אומרים (תהלים פב, א) אלהים נצב בעדת אל על שם שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו ברביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה' על שם שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן,בחמישי היו אומרים (תהלים פא, ב) הרנינו לאלהים עוזנו על שם שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי היו אומרים (תהלים צג, א) ה' מלך גאות לבש על שם שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהן בשביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת ליום שכולו שבת,א"ר נחמיה מה ראו חכמים לחלק בין הפרקים הללו אלא בראשון שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו בשני שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהם בשלישי שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו,ברביעי שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן בחמישי שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהם בשביעי על שם ששבת,וקמיפלגי בדרב קטינא דאמר רב קטינא שיתא אלפי שני הוה עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב יי' לבדו ביום ההוא (אמר אביי) תרי חרוב שנאמ' (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים,במוספי דשבתא מה היו אומרים אמר רב ענן בר רבא אמר רב הזי"ו ל"ך,ואמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב כדרך שחלוקים כאן כך חלוקין בבית הכנסת,במנחת' דשבתא מה היו אומרי' אמר רבי יוחנן אז ישיר ומי כמוך ואז ישיר,איבעי' להו הני כולהו בחד שבתא אמרי להו או דלמא כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד תא שמע דתניא א"ר יוסי עד שהראשונה אומרת אחת שניה חוזרת שתים שמע מינה כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד שמע מינה,אמר רב יהודה בר אידי א"ר יוחנן עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא,עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי מכפרת לכרוב ומכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן וממפתן לחצר ומחצר למזבח וממזבח לגג ומגג לחומה ומחומה לעיר ומעיר להר ומהר למדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה שנאמר (הושע ה, טו) אלך אשובה אל מקומי,מכפורת לכרוב מכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן דכתיב (שמות כה, כב) ונועדתי [לך שם ודברתי] אתך מעל הכפורת וכתיב וירכב על כרוב ויעף וכתיב (יחזקאל ט, ג) וכבוד אלהי ישראל נעלה מעל הכרוב אשר היה עליו אל מפתן הבית,וממפתן לחצר דכתיב (יחזקאל י, ד) וימלא הבית את הענן והחצר מלאה את נגה כבוד ה' מחצר למזבח דכתיב ראיתי את ה' נצב על המזבח וממזבח לגג דכתיב (משלי כא, ט) טוב לשבת על פנת גג מגג לחומה דכתיב והנה ה' נצב על חומת אנך מחומה לעיר דכתיב (מיכה ו, ט) קול ה' לעיר יקרא,ומעיר להר דכתיב ויעל כבוד ה' מעל תוך העיר ויעמד על ההר אשר מקדם לעיר ומהר למדבר דכתיב (משלי כא, יט) טוב שבת בארץ מדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה דכתיב אלך אשובה אל מקומי וגו',א"ר יוחנן ששה חדשים נתעכבה שכינה לישראל במדבר שמא יחזרו בתשובה כיון שלא חזרו אמר תיפח עצמן שנאמר (איוב יא, כ) ועיני רשעים תכלינה ומנוס אבד מנהם ותקותם מפח נפש,וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא מלשכת הגזית לחנות ומחנות לירושלים ומירושלים ליבנה 31a. The Gemara rejects this argument. bIt is different there, asin any case “Sing aloud” bis the psalm of the day,either because it was an ordinary Thursday or because it was Rosh HaShana. However, there is no proof from here that in all uncertain cases they would recite the psalm for an ordinary weekday, as it is possible that they did not recite any psalm at all.,§ The Gemara expands on the topic of the daily psalms recited by the Levites. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: On the firstday of the week, Sunday, bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm beginning with the phrase: b“The earth is the Lord’s, and its fullness”(Psalms 24:1), in commemoration of the first day of Creation, bbecauseon that day bHe acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world,as the angels were not created until the second day., bOn the secondday of the week bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm that begins: b“Great is the Lord, and highly to be praisedin the city of our God, His sacred mountain” (Psalms 48:2). This is bbecauseon the second day of Creation bHe separated His works,dividing between the upper waters and the lower waters, band ruled over themas King; and this psalm speaks of Jerusalem as “The city of a great King” (Psalms 48:3)., bOn the thirdday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“God stands in the congregation of God”(Psalms 82:1), bbecauseon the third day of Creation bHe revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assemblythat could now live on the dry land. bOn the fourthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“O Lord God, to Whom vengeance belongs”(Psalms 94:1), bbecauseon the fourth day of Creation bHe created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punishand take vengeance upon bthose who worship them. /b, bOn the fifthday of the week the Levites bwould recitethe psalm beginning: b“Sing aloud to God our strength”(Psalms 81:2), bbecauseon the fifth day of Creation bHe created birds and fish to praise His name. On the sixthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“The Lord reigns, He is clothed with majesty”(Psalms 93:1), bbecauseon that day bHe completed His labor and ruled overall of creation in full glory. bOn the seventhday of the week, Shabbat, bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat”(Psalms 92:1), basthe future world will be ba day that is all Shabbat. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said: What did the Sages seethat led them bto distinguish between these chapters,as they interpret the psalms recited on the six weekdays as referring to the past, whereas the psalm recited on Shabbat is referring to the future. bRather,all of the psalms refer to the past. The first six are as explained above: bOn the firstday, the reason is bthat He acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world; on the secondday, the reason is bthat He separated His works and ruled over themas King; bon the thirdday, the reason is bthat He revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assembly. /b, bOn the fourthday, the reason is bthat He created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punish those who worship them; on the fifthday, the reason is bthat He created birds and fish to praise His name; on the sixthday, the reason is bthat He completed His labor and ruled overall of creation. However, bon the seventhday, the reason is bthat He restedfrom His work, as the phrase “A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat” is referring to the first Shabbat of Creation.,The Gemara comments: bAndthese itanna’im bdisagree withregard to a statement bof Rav Ketina, as Rav Ketina said: The world will exist for six thousand years, andfor bonethousand years it will be bdestroyed, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day”(Isaiah 2:11), and one day for God is a thousand years, as indicated in the verse: “For a thousand years in Your sight are but as yesterday when it is past” (Psalms 90:4). Rav Ketina’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. Conversely, bAbaye said:The world will be bdestroyedfor btwothousand years, bas it is stated: “After two days He will revive us”(Hosea 6:2). According to the opinion of Abaye that the destruction will be for two days, there is no connection between the future world and the day of Shabbat, which is only one day.,§ The Gemara further asks: When it came bto the additional offerings of Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rav A bar Rava saidthat bRav said:They would recite in accordance with the mnemonic ihei /i, izayin /i, iyod /i, ivav /i, ilamed /i, ikaf /i.They would divide the song of iHa’azinuinto six sections, each of which began with a letter of the mnemonic: “Give ear [ iha’azinu /i], you heavens” (Deuteronomy 32:1); “Remember [ izekhor /i] the days of old” (Deuteronomy 32:7); “He made him ride [ iyarkivehu /i] on the high places of the earth” (Deuteronomy 32:13); “The Lord saw it [ ivayar /i] and spurned” (Deuteronomy 32:19); “Were it not [ ilulei /i] that I dread the enemy’s provocation” (Deuteronomy 32:27); “For i[ki]the Lord will judge His people” (Deuteronomy 32:36)., bAnd Rav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: In the manner thatthe verses of the song of iHa’azinu bare divided herefor the recitation of the additional offerings of Shabbat in the Temple, bso too are they dividedwhen they are read bin the synagogueon Shabbat.,The Gemara asks another question: When it came bto thedaily bafternoon offering on Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rabbi Yoḥa said: “Then sangMoses” (Exodus 15:1), band: “Who is like You”(Exodus 15:11), the two halves of the Song of the Sea, band: “Then Israel sangthis song” (Numbers 21:17), the entire Song of the Well., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Does bone recite all thesesections of the song of iHa’azinu bon each Shabbat, or perhaps on each and every Shabbatthey would brecite onesection? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: Bythe time bthatthose who recite bthe firstset, i.e., the verses for the additional offerings brought on Shabbat, breciteit bonce,those who recite bthe secondset, for the daily afternoon offering, would brepeattheir cycle btwice,as the first set was comprised of six sections, whereas the second set included only three sections. bLearn from herethat beach and every Shabbat they would reciteonly bonesection. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from herethat this is correct.,§ bRav Yehuda bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,i.e., it left the Temple and Eretz Yisrael in ten stages at the time of the destruction of the First Temple, as derived bfrom verses. And corresponding to them the Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition. /b,The Gemara elaborates. bThe Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,as derived bfrom verses.The ten journeys are: bFrom the Ark cover to the cherub; and fromone bcherub tothe other bcherub; and fromthe second bcherub to the thresholdof the Sanctuary; band from the threshold to the courtyard; and from the courtyard to the altar; and from the altar to the roof; and from the roof to the wallof the Temple Mount; band from the wall to the city; and from the city to a mountainclose to Jerusalem; band fromthat bmountain to the wilderness; and from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, isolated from humanity, bas it is stated: “I will go and return to My place”(Hosea 5:15).,The Gemara cites the sources for each of these stages: bFrom the Ark coverthe Divine Presence traveled bto the cherub,and bfromone bcherub tothe other bcherub, and from thesecond bcherub to the threshold, as it is writtenwith regard to Moses in the Tabernacle: b“And there I will meet with you, and I will speak to you from above the Ark cover,from between the two cherubs” (Exodus 25:22). bAnd it is written: “And He rode upon a cherub, and flew”(II Samuel 22:11), which indicates that the glory of the Divine Presence can rest upon one cherub. bAnd it is written: “And the glory of the God of Israel had ascended from the cherub, on which it was, to the threshold of the House”(Ezekiel 9:3), i.e., the Divine Presence moved from the cherub to the threshold., bAnd from the thresholdof the Sanctuary the Divine Presence went bto the courtyard, as it is written: “And the House was filled with the cloud and the courtyard was full of the brightness of the Lord’s glory”(Ezekiel 10:4). bFrom the courtyard to the altar, as it is written: “I saw the Lord standing on the altar”(Amos 9:1). bAnd from the altar to the roof, as it is written: “It is better to dwell in a corner of the roofthan in a house together with a contentious woman” (Proverbs 21:9). bFrom the roof to the wall, as it is written: “And behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line”(Amos 7:7). bFrom the wall to the city, as it is written: “The Lord’s voice cries to the city”(Micah 6:9)., bAnd from the citythe Divine Presence arose bto the mountainnearest the Sanctuary, i.e., the Mount of Olives, bas it is written: “And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain, which is on the east side of the city”(Ezekiel 11:23). bAnd from the mountain to the wilderness, as it is written: “It is better to live in the wildernessthan with a contentious and fretful woman” (Proverbs 21:19). bAnd from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, bas it is written: “I will go and return to My placeuntil they acknowledge their guilt” (Hosea 5:15)., bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bsix months the Divine Presence lingered in the wilderness,waiting bfor the Jewish people,hoping that bperhaps they would repentand it would be able to return to its place. bWhen they did not repent,the Divine Presence bsaid: Let themdespair and bbe lost, as it is stated: “But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall have no way to flee, and their hope shall be the drooping of the soul”(Job 11:20). This concludes the discussion of the ten stages of the exile of the Divine Presence from the Holy of Holies., bAnd corresponding tothese ten stages, bthe Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition: From the Chamber of Hewn Stone,its fixed seat in the Temple, bto iḤanut /i,literally, shop, a designated spot on the Temple Mount outside the Temple proper; band from iḤanutto Jerusalem; and from Jerusalem to Yavne; /b
71. Origen, On First Principles, 2.9.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9.1. But let us now return to the order of our proposed discussion, and behold the commencement of creation, so far as the understanding can behold the beginning of the creation of God. In that commencement, then, we are to suppose that God created so great a number of rational or intellectual creatures (or by whatever name they are to be called), which we have formerly termed understandings, as He foresaw would be sufficient. It is certain that He made them according to some definite number, predetermined by Himself: for it is not to be imagined, as some would have it, that creatures have not a limit, because where there is no limit there can neither be any comprehension nor any limitation. Now if this were the case, then certainly created things could neither be restrained nor administered by God. For, naturally, whatever is infinite will also be incomprehensible. Moreover, as Scripture says, God has arranged all things in number and measure; and therefore number will be correctly applied to rational creatures or understandings, that they may be so numerous as to admit of being arranged, governed, and controlled by God. But measure will be appropriately applied to a material body; and this measure, we are to believe, was created by God such as He knew would be sufficient for the adorning of the world. These, then, are the things which we are to believe were created by God in the beginning, i.e., before all things. And this, we think, is indicated even in that beginning which Moses has introduced in terms somewhat ambiguous, when he says, In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. For it is certain that the firmament is not spoken of, nor the dry land, but that heaven and earth from which this present heaven and earth which we now see afterwards borrowed their names.
72. Augustine, The City of God, 11.14-11.15, 11.17, 11.19-11.22, 12.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11.14. Moreover, as if we had been inquiring why the devil did not abide in the truth, our Lord subjoins the reason, saying, because the truth is not in him. Now, it would be in him had he abode in it. But the phraseology is unusual. For, as the words stand, He abode not in the truth, because the truth is not in him, it seems as if the truth's not being in him were the cause of his not abiding in it; whereas his not abiding in the truth is rather the cause of its not being in him. The same form of speech is found in the psalm: I have called upon You, for You have heard me, O God, where we should expect it to be said, You have heard me, O God, for I have called upon You. But when he had said, I have called, then, as if some one were seeking proof of this, he demonstrates the effectual earnestness of his prayer by the effect of God's hearing it; as if he had said, The proof that I have prayed is that You have heard me. 11.15. As for what John says about the devil, The devil sins from the beginning 1 John 3:8 they who suppose it is meant hereby that the devil was made with a sinful nature, misunderstand it; for if sin be natural, it is not sin at all. And how do they answer the prophetic proofs - either what Isaiah says when he represents the devil under the person of the king of Babylon, How are you fallen, O Lucifer, son of the morning! Isaiah 14:12 or what Ezekiel says, You have been in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, Ezekiel 28:13 where it is meant that he was some time without sin; for a little after it is still more explicitly said, You were perfect in your ways? And if these passages cannot well be otherwise interpreted, we must understand by this one also, He abode not in the truth, that he was once in the truth, but did not remain in it. And from this passage, The devil sins from the beginning, it is not to be supposed that he sinned from the beginning of his created existence, but from the beginning of his sin, when by his pride he had once commenced to sin. There is a passage, too, in the Book of Job, of which the devil is the subject: This is the beginning of the creation of God, which He made to be a sport to His angels, which agrees with the psalm, where it is said, There is that dragon which You have made to be a sport therein. But these passages are not to lead us to suppose that the devil was originally created to be the sport of the angels, but that he was doomed to this punishment after his sin. His beginning, then, is the handiwork of God; for there is no nature, even among the least, and lowest, and last of the beasts, which was not the work of Him from whom has proceeded all measure, all form, all order, without which nothing can be planned or conceived. How much more, then, is this angelic nature, which surpasses in dignity all else that He has made, the handiwork of the Most High! 11.17. It is with reference to the nature, then, and not to the wickedness of the devil, that we are to understand these words, This is the beginning of God's handiwork; for, without doubt, wickedness can be a flaw or vice only where the nature previously was not vitiated. Vice, too, is so contrary to nature, that it cannot but damage it. And therefore departure from God would be no vice, unless in a nature whose property it was to abide with God. So that even the wicked will is a strong proof of the goodness of the nature. But God, as He is the supremely good Creator of good natures, so is He of evil wills the most just Ruler; so that, while they make an ill use of good natures, He makes a good use even of evil wills. Accordingly, He caused the devil (good by God's creation, wicked by his own will) to be cast down from his high position, and to become the mockery of His angels - that is, He caused his temptations to benefit those whom he wishes to injure by them. And because God, when He created him, was certainly not ignorant of his future malignity, and foresaw the good which He Himself would bring out of his evil, therefore says the psalm, This leviathan whom You have made to be a sport therein, that we may see that, even while God in His goodness created him good, He yet had already foreseen and arranged how He would make use of him when he became wicked. 11.19. Accordingly, though the obscurity of the divine word has certainly this advantage, that it causes many opinions about the truth to be started and discussed, each reader seeing some fresh meaning in it, yet, whatever is said to be meant by an obscure passage should be either confirmed by the testimony of obvious facts, or should be asserted in other and less ambiguous texts. This obscurity is beneficial, whether the sense of the author is at last reached after the discussion of many other interpretations, or whether, though that sense remain concealed, other truths are brought out by the discussion of the obscurity. To me it does not seem incongruous with the working of God, if we understand that the angels were created when that first light was made, and that a separation was made between the holy and the unclean angels, when, as is said, God divided the light from the darkness; and God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. For He alone could make this discrimination, who was able also before they fell, to foreknow that they would fall, and that, being deprived of the light of truth, they would abide in the darkness of pride. For, so far as regards the day and night, with which we are familiar, He commanded those luminaries of heaven that are obvious to our senses to divide between the light and the darkness. Let there be, He says, lights in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the day from the night; and shortly after He says, And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: the stars also. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. Genesis 1:14-18 But between that light, which is the holy company of the angels spiritually radiant with the illumination of the truth, and that opposing darkness, which is the noisome foulness of the spiritual condition of those angels who are turned away from the light of righteousness, only He Himself could divide, from whom their wickedness (not of nature, but of will), while yet it was future, could not be hidden or uncertain. 11.20. Then, we must not pass from this passage of Scripture without noticing that when God said, Let there be light, and there was light, it was immediately added, And God saw the light that it was good. No such expression followed the statement that He separated the light from the darkness, and called the light Day and the darkness Night, lest the seal of His approval might seem to be set on such darkness, as well as on the light. For when the darkness was not subject of disapprobation, as when it was divided by the heavenly bodies from this light which our eyes discern, the statement that God saw that it was good is inserted, not before, but after the division is recorded. And God set them, so runs the passage, in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. For He approved of both, because both were sinless. But where God said, Let there be light, and there was light; and God saw the light that it was good; and the narrative goes on, and God divided the light from the darkness! And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night, there was not in this place subjoined the statement, And God saw that it was good, lest both should be designated good, while one of them was evil, not by nature, but by its own fault. And therefore, in this case, the light alone received the approbation of the Creator, while the angelic darkness, though it had been ordained, was yet not approved. 11.21. For what else is to be understood by that invariable refrain, And God saw that it was good, than the approval of the work in its design, which is the wisdom of God? For certainly God did not in the actual achievement of the work first learn that it was good, but, on the contrary, nothing would have been made had it not been first known by Him. While, therefore, He sees that that is good which, had He not seen it before it was made, would never have been made, it is plain that He is not discovering, but teaching that it is good. Plato, indeed, was bold enough to say that, when the universe was completed, God was, as it were, elated with joy. And Plato was not so foolish as to mean by this that God was rendered more blessed by the novelty of His creation; but he wished thus to indicate that the work now completed met with its Maker's approval, as it had while yet in design. It is not as if the knowledge of God were of various kinds, knowing in different ways things which as yet are not, things which are, and things which have been. For not in our fashion does He look forward to what is future, nor at what is present, nor back upon what is past; but in a manner quite different and far and profoundly remote from our way of thinking. For He does not pass from this to that by transition of thought, but beholds all things with absolute unchangeableness; so that of those things which emerge in time, the future, indeed, are not yet, and the present are now, and the past no longer are; but all of these are by Him comprehended in His stable and eternal presence. Neither does He see in one fashion by the eye, in another by the mind, for He is not composed of mind and body; nor does His present knowledge differ from that which it ever was or shall be, for those variations of time, past, present, and future, though they alter our knowledge, do not affect His, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. James 1:17 Neither is there any growth from thought to thought in the conceptions of Him in whose spiritual vision all things which He knows are at once embraced. For as without any movement that time can measure, He Himself moves all temporal things, so He knows all times with a knowledge that time cannot measure. And therefore He saw that what He had made was good, when He saw that it was good to make it. And when He saw it made, He had not on that account a twofold nor any way increased knowledge of it; as if He had less knowledge before He made what He saw. For certainly He would not be the perfect worker He is, unless His knowledge were so perfect as to receive no addition from His finished works. Wherefore, if the only object had been to inform us who made the light, it had been enough to say, God made the light; and if further information regarding the means by which it was made had been intended, it would have sufficed to say, And God said, Let there be light, and there was light, that we might know not only that God had made the world, but also that He had made it by the word. But because it was right that three leading truths regarding the creature be intimated to us, viz., who made it, by what means, and why, it is written, God said, Let there be light, and there was light. And God saw the light that it was good. If, then, we ask who made it, it was God. If, by what means, He said Let it be, and it was. If we ask, why He made it, it was good. Neither is there any author more excellent than God, nor any skill more efficacious than the word of God, nor any cause better than that good might be created by the good God. This also Plato has assigned as the most sufficient reason for the creation of the world, that good works might be made by a good God; whether he read this passage, or, perhaps, was informed of these things by those who had read them, or, by his quick-sighted genius, penetrated to things spiritual and invisible through the things that are created, or was instructed regarding them by those who had discerned them. 11.22. This cause, however, of a good creation, namely, the goodness of God - this cause, I say, so just and fit, which, when piously and carefully weighed, terminates all the controversies of those who inquire into the origin of the world, has not been recognized by some heretics, because there are, forsooth, many things, such as fire, frost, wild beasts, and so forth, which do not suit but injure this thin blooded and frail mortality of our flesh, which is at present under just punishment. They do not consider how admirable these things are in their own places, how excellent in their own natures, how beautifully adjusted to the rest of creation, and how much grace they contribute to the universe by their own contributions as to a commonwealth; and how serviceable they are even to ourselves, if we use them with a knowledge of their fit adaptations - so that even poisons, which are destructive when used injudiciously, become wholesome and medicinal when used in conformity with their qualities and design; just as, on the other hand, those things which give us pleasure, such as food, drink, and the light of the sun, are found to be hurtful when immoderately or unseasonably used. And thus divine providence admonishes us not foolishly to vituperate things, but to investigate their utility with care; and, where our mental capacity or infirmity is at fault, to believe that there is a utility, though hidden, as we have experienced that there were other things which we all but failed to discover. For this concealment of the use of things is itself either an exercise of our humility or a levelling of our pride; for no nature at all is evil, and this is a name for nothing but the want of good. But from things earthly to things heavenly, from the visible to the invisible, there are some things better than others; and for this purpose are they unequal, in order that they might all exist. Now God is in such sort a great worker in great things, that He is not less in little things - for these little things are to be measured not by their own greatness (which does not exist), but by the wisdom of their Designer; as, in the visible appearance of a man, if one eyebrow be shaved off, how nearly nothing is taken from the body, but how much from the beauty!- for that is not constituted by bulk, but by the proportion and arrangement of the members. But we do not greatly wonder that persons, who suppose that some evil nature has been generated and propagated by a kind of opposing principle proper to it, refuse to admit that the cause of the creation was this, that the good God produced a good creation. For they believe that He was driven to this enterprise of creation by the urgent necessity of repulsing the evil that warred against Him, and that He mixed His good nature with the evil for the sake of restraining and conquering it; and that this nature of His, being thus shamefully polluted, and most cruelly oppressed and held captive, He labors to cleanse and deliver it, and with all His pains does not wholly succeed; but such part of it as could not be cleansed from that defilement is to serve as a prison and chain of the conquered and incarcerated enemy. The Manich ans would not drivel, or rather, rave in such a style as this, if they believed the nature of God to be, as it is, unchangeable and absolutely incorruptible, and subject to no injury; and if, moreover, they held in Christian sobriety, that the soul which has shown itself capable of being altered for the worse by its own will, and of being corrupted by sin, and so, of being deprived of the light of eternal truth - that this soul, I say, is not a part of God, nor of the same nature as God, but is created by Him, and is far different from its Creator. 12.2. This may be enough to prevent any one from supposing, when we speak of the apostate angels, that they could have another nature, derived, as it were, from some different origin, and not from God. From the great impiety of this error we shall disentangle ourselves the more readily and easily, the more distinctly we understand that which God spoke by the angel when He sent Moses to the children of Israel: I am that I am. Exodus 3:14 For since God is the supreme existence, that is to say, supremely is, and is therefore unchangeable, the things that He made He empowered to be, but not to be supremely like Himself. To some He communicated a more ample, to others a more limited existence, and thus arranged the natures of beings in ranks. For as from sapere comes sapientia, so from esse comes essentia - a new word indeed, which the old Latin writers did not use, but which is naturalized in our day, that our language may not want an equivalent for the Greek οὐσία . For this is expressed word for word by essentia. Consequently, to that nature which supremely is, and which created all else that exists, no nature is contrary save that which does not exist. For nonentity is the contrary of that which is. And thus there is no being contrary to God, the Supreme Being, and Author of all beings whatsoever.
73. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.1-9.4

9.1. Now those who were with Jeremiah were rejoicing and offeringsacrifices on behalf of the people for nine days. 9.2. But on the tenth, Jeremiah alone offered sacrifice. 9.3. And he prayed a prayer, saying: Holy, holy, holy, fragrant aroma of the living trees, true light that enlightens me until I ascend to you; 9.4. For your mercy, I beg you -- for the sweet voice of the two seraphim, I beg -- for another fragrant aroma.
74. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 243



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
about,users of Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 165
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
adam Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
adam and eve Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 71
alexander the great Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58
allegory/allegorical Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
analogy Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256; Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
anaxagoras of clazomenae Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
angel/angelic passim see also archangel,humanity,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 838
angels,scribes Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
angels Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 321
anger,divine Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833
anger Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
animals,eating Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
animals,purity of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
animals,vs. humans Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
anthropogony Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
anthropomorphism,sorrow Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 321
anthropomorphism,sympathy/engagement Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 321
anthropomorphism,tears/weeping Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 321
apocalyptic Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 838
apostles Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
arabia Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
aratus,phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
architect and king Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 71
areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
aristotelians/aristotelianism,and origen Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
aristotle,origen and Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
arrogance/arrogant Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
artagnes heracles ares astronomy,astrology,and astral lore Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 165
ascent,ascension Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
astrology Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 361
augustine,saint,on human will Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
augustine,saint,on origin of evil Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
augustine,saint,on sin Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
augustine Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
authority of jesus Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
autogenes Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
awareness,origin of Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
behemah (animal) Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
bethulia,people of Gera (2014), Judith, 404
binaries,as hierarchies Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
bird/birds Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
birds (of),classification of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
birds (of) Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
blame and praise Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
blessing Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
blessing ,goes together with sanctity Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
blood,consuming Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
body,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833, 838
body Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 236; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
books,by enoch Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
books,of sinners Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
breath,as pneuma Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
breath,as spiritus/spirit Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
breath Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
buber,martin Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
calendar/calendrical issues Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 256, 258
calendar Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
canaanites Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 199
causation,as goodness of god Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
chaos,answers gods appeal by giving birth Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
chaos Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
chariot Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833
cherubim Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
children,adam and eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 867
children Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 838
choice,bad Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
christians,christianity Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
christology,low and high Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 84
classification,priestly Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
clay Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 48
clement of alexandria Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 472
cloud Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
coats of skin Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 89
collocutions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
community Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
confession,eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833
constellations,on god Ward (2022), Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian, 143
context,sociopolitical Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58
contingency,contingent (ἐνδεχόμενον),origen on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
cosmogony Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
cosmology,ancient greek cosmologies Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58
cosmology,pneumatic/spiritual Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
cosmology Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
cosmos,intelligible/noetic Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 236
cosmos Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 64
covenant Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 125
creatio ex nihilo Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 71
creation,as a dialogic act Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
creation,dominion and Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
creation,ex nihilo or ex materia? Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
creation,in midrashim,and their relation to the dialogic reading Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
creation/creator Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
creation Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 129; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
creation and tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 217
creation myths,in feminine and masculine respect Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
creation myths,reflect the birth from womb of chaos Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
creation myths Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
creation topoi Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 48
creativity Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
crush/ shatter enemy Gera (2014), Judith, 404
cult of ištar,in priestly texts Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 56
curses Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34
darkness,light Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 129
darkness Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 320; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
david Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
day,god (lord),of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
dead sea scrolls Bowen and Rochberg (2020), Hellenistic Astronomy: The Science in its contexts, 529
death of jesus Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
deeds,wicked of humans Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
delight Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 844
demons,origen on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
derveni papyrus deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 307
devil,nature of Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
dialogue,and creation as a dialogic act Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
dietary laws Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
difference,between humans and animals Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
difference,dietary law depending on Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
dillon,john Ward (2022), Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian, 143
divine/god,,roar Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 321
divine Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
divine presence (shekhinah) Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
dominion Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
douglas,mary Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
dualism/dualistic Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
dust Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 48
earth Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 64
easter Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
ehrlich,arnold bogumil Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
emanuely,isaac moshe Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
encomia,on eyes and sight Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 295
enos Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
epicurus/epicureans/epicureanism,and origen Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
equality Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 64
eschatological,cataclysm Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 867
eschatology Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 217
ethiopians Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 867
eusebius of emesa,questions formulations Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 89
eve Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
evening Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
evil,in the creation myth,according to knohl Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
evil,was not created by god Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
evil Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 320, 321; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
extant Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34
eyes,encomium on Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 295
faith,as fulfillment of hopes Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
faith Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
fear,vs. hope Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
fear Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161, 295
festivals Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
festivals—see also calendar Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 256, 258
finding god,elusive Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
fish Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
five-day moratorium Gera (2014), Judith, 404
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 125
flood narrative,in bible Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 56
four,the number Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
galilee Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 228
generation,of seth Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
glory,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833
gnostic/ gnosticism deJauregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 307
god,and the creation Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
god,as father Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 228
god,benevolence in creation Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 228
god,celebrated Gera (2014), Judith, 404
god,goodness of Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
god,handiwork of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833, 838
god,hands of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833, 838
god,holiness of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
god,in philo Ward (2022), Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian, 143
god,knowledge belonging to Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
god,light of the whole creation,as Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 867
god,nearness,stoic view Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
god,nearness to humanity Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
god,presence of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 844
god,responds to prayers Gera (2014), Judith, 404
god,shatters/crushes foes Gera (2014), Judith, 404
god Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174, 187
godhead; see also attributes,defilement/obstruction Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 320, 321
godhead; see also attributes,left side Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 320
gods,origen on Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
gospels Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
groping after god Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
hands,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833, 838
hands Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 361
hayah (living being) Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
heart Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
hearts Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
heaven,christian Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
heaven Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34
heaven as text Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 165
heavenly bodies Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 236
hebraism and hellenism Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 84
heliopolis Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
hierarchies,binaries as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
high priest Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 19
historical epochs,cyclical Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
holiness,separation as Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
holophernes,death and decapitation Gera (2014), Judith, 404
homer/homeric scholarship Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 472
hope,as gatekeeper of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
hope,vs. fear Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
horeb Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
human,primal Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
humans,vs. animals Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
idols Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
image of god,and adams image Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
image of god Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 838; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
imperium Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 58
incense Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 833, 844
intercession Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 867
interpretation,rabbinic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 299
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
israel,suffering of Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 321
israel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 870
jacob Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 361
jesus,and galilee Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 228
jesus / christ Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
jesus christ Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
john (the baptist) Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
joy Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 844
judas Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
judas maccabeusnan,prays Gera (2014), Judith, 404
judean calendar plaques Ganzel and Holtz (2020), Contextualizing Jewish Temples, 56
judith,prayers Gera (2014), Judith, 404
justice Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 64
kiel,yehuda Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
knowledge Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 299
koren,israel Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 187
lactantius Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
last supper,law,moral demand of Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 228
law of nature,mosaic laws consonant with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
lies Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
life,likeness Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
life in god and stoicism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
light,darkness Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 129
light Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 320
lights,versus darkness Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
likeness,of adam Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
liturgy,liturgical Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
liturgy,prayer Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 129
liturgy Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 34; Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
logos,christological Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 9
logos of god Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 236
lordship of yahweh Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 19
love Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
luminaries Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
mary Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 89; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
mary magdalene Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
masculine-feminine relationship Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 174
matter Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 71
maśkîl Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 129
memory,sites of Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
minor,lords nearness Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
moon Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 844, 867, 870
morning Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 337
mortality Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 48
mosaic law,law of nature and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 299
moses,author of the torah Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 236
moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 299; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 199
mourning Gera (2014), Judith, 404
mystery/mysteries Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 582
mystery Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 844
mythology Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 867, 870
nature,defect in Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 230
nature,god as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
nicanor Gera (2014), Judith, 404
noah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 125
noahs ark Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 295
non-literal interpretation,theodorets formulations Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 89
numbers,four Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 64
numbers,ten Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 64
numbers,theory of Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 236
observed by,image and likeness of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
observed by,seth begotten by Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29
offerings,sacrifices Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 125
origen,and aristotle Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen,and epicureanism Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen,on god Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen,on jesus christ Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen,on judas Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen,on providence (πρόνοια) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen,on up to us (ἐφ ἡμῖν) Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
origen Brouwer and Vimercati (2020), Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age, 296
parable Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
paradise Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
parts Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
passions,fear among Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 161
passions,stoicism and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 295
patristics\t Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
paul,areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
paul,saint Horkey (2019), Cosmos in the Ancient World, 271
performance Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 256
persecution Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
peter (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
philip Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 203
philo of alexandria,and mosaic exegesis Ward (2022), Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian, 143