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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6282
Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 27.30


nanAnd shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, And shall cry bitterly, And shall cast up dust upon their heads, They shall roll themselves in the ashes;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.1, 4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַהֲתָךְ וַתְּצַוֵּהוּ אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 4.1. וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה׃ 4.3. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד שַׂק וָאֵפֶר יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים׃ 4.1. Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;" 4.3. And in every province, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.22, 18.27, 37.29, 37.34, 44.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 18.27. וַיַּעַן אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי וְאָנֹכִי עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 37.29. וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 37.34. וַיִּקְרַע יַעֲקֹב שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם שַׂק בְּמָתְנָיו וַיִּתְאַבֵּל עַל־בְּנוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים׃ 44.13. וַיִּקְרְעוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם וַיַּעֲמֹס אִישׁ עַל־חֲמֹרוֹ וַיָּשֻׁבוּ הָעִירָה׃ 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 18.27. And Abraham answered and said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes." 37.29. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes." 37.34. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days." 44.13. And they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city."
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.20, 2.8, 16.15, 30.19, 42.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃ 16.15. שַׂק תָּפַרְתִּי עֲלֵי גִלְדִּי וְעֹלַלְתִּי בֶעָפָר קַרְנִי׃ 30.19. הֹרָנִי לַחֹמֶר וָאֶתְמַשֵּׁל כֶּעָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 1.20. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;" 2.8. And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself therewith; and he sat among the ashes." 16.15. I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, And have laid my horn in the dust." 30.19. He hath cast me into the mire, And I am become like dust and ashes." 42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes."
4. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.6. וַיִּגַּע הַדָּבָר אֶל־מֶלֶך נִינְוֵה וַיָּקָם מִכִּסְאוֹ וַיַּעֲבֵר אַדַּרְתּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וַיְכַס שַׂק וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הָאֵפֶר׃ 3.8. וְיִתְכַּסּוּ שַׂקִּים הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל־אֱלֹהִים בְּחָזְקָה וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמִן־הֶחָמָס אֲשֶׁר בְּכַפֵּיהֶם׃ 3.6. And the tidings reached the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes." 3.8. but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast, and let them cry mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands." 3.10. And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, which He said He would do unto them; and He did it not."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.4, 35.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 35.13. וַאֲנִי בַּחֲלוֹתָם לְבוּשִׁי שָׂק עִנֵּיתִי בַצּוֹם נַפְשִׁי וּתְפִלָּתִי עַל־חֵיקִי תָשׁוּב׃ 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 35.13. But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth, I afflicted my soul with fasting; And my prayer, may it return into mine own bosom."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.12. וַיָּרָץ אִישׁ־בִּנְיָמִן מֵהַמַּעֲרָכָה וַיָּבֹא שִׁלֹה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמַדָּיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 4.12. And there ran a man of Binyamin out of the army, and came to Shilo the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.2, 1.11, 3.31, 13.19, 15.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ בָּא מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבְגָדָיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיְהִי בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל־דָּוִד וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 1.2. אַל־תַּגִּידוּ בְגַת אַל־תְּבַשְּׂרוּ בְּחוּצֹת אַשְׁקְלוֹן פֶּן־תִּשְׂמַחְנָה בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן־תַּעֲלֹזְנָה בְּנוֹת הָעֲרֵלִים׃ 1.11. וַיַּחֲזֵק דָּוִד בבגדו [בִּבְגָדָיו] וַיִּקְרָעֵם וְגַם כָּל־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 3.31. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ קִרְעוּ בִגְדֵיכֶם וְחִגְרוּ שַׂקִּים וְסִפְדוּ לִפְנֵי אַבְנֵר וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה׃ 13.19. וַתִּקַּח תָּמָר אֵפֶר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וּכְתֹנֶת הַפַּסִּים אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ קָרָעָה וַתָּשֶׂם יָדָהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ וְזָעָקָה׃ 15.32. וַיְהִי דָוִד בָּא עַד־הָרֹאשׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה שָׁם לֵאלֹהִים וְהִנֵּה לִקְרָאתוֹ חוּשַׁי הָאַרְכִּי קָרוּעַ כֻּתָּנְתּוֹ וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 1.2. it came to pass on the third day, that, behold, a man came out of the camp from Sha᾽ul, with his clothes rent, and earth upon his head: and so it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the earth, and bowed down." 1.11. Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him:" 3.31. And David said to Yo᾽av, and to all the people that were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn before Avner. And king David himself followed the bier." 13.19. And Tamar put ashes on her head, and tore her long sleeved garment that was on her, and laid her hand on her head, crying aloud as she went." 15.32. And it came to pass, that when David was come to the top of the hill, where he bowed down to God, behold, Ĥushay the Arkite came to meet him with his coat rent, and earth upon his head:"
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 58.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

58.5. הֲכָזֶה יִהְיֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ יוֹם עַנּוֹת אָדָם נַפְשׁוֹ הֲלָכֹף כְּאַגְמֹן רֹאשׁוֹ וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר יַצִּיעַ הֲלָזֶה תִּקְרָא־צוֹם וְיוֹם רָצוֹן לַיהוָה׃ 58.5. Is such the fast that I have chosen? The day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, And to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? Wilt thou call this a fast, And an acceptable day to the LORD?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.26. בַּת־עַמִּי חִגְרִי־שָׂק וְהִתְפַּלְּשִׁי בָאֵפֶר אֵבֶל יָחִיד עֲשִׂי לָךְ מִסְפַּד תַּמְרוּרִים כִּי פִתְאֹם יָבֹא הַשֹּׁדֵד עָלֵינוּ׃ 6.26. O daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, And wallow thyself in ashes; Make thee mourning, as for an only son, Most bitter lamentation; For the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us."
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.6. וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה עַד־הָעֶרֶב הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם׃ 7.6. And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the evening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust upon their heads."
11. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 11.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.35. וַיְהִי כִרְאוֹתוֹ אוֹתָהּ וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲהָהּ בִּתִּי הַכְרֵעַ הִכְרַעְתִּנִי וְאַתְּ הָיִיתְ בְּעֹכְרָי וְאָנֹכִי פָּצִיתִי־פִי אֶל־יְהוָה וְלֹא אוּכַל לָשׁוּב׃ 11.35. And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou hast become the cause of trouble to me: for I have opened my mouth to the Lord, and I cannot go back."
12. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.7, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.7. זָנַח אֲדֹנָי מִזְבְּחוֹ נִאֵר מִקְדָּשׁוֹ הִסְגִּיר בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב חוֹמֹת אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ קוֹל נָתְנוּ בְּבֵית־יְהוָה כְּיוֹם מוֹעֵד׃ 2.7. The Lord hath cast off His altar, He hath abhorred His sanctuary, He hath given up into the hand of the enemy The walls of her palaces; They have made a noise in the house of the LORD, As in the day of a solemn assembly." 2.10. They sit upon the ground, and keep silence, The elders of the daughter of Zion; They have cast up dust upon their heads, They have girded themselves with sackcloth; The virgins of Jerusalem hang down Their heads to the ground."
13. Homer, Iliad, 18.23-18.24 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18.23. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. 18.24. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. So spake he, and a black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles, and with both his hands he took the dark dust
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 23.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.13. וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל־עַמּוּדוֹ בַּמָּבוֹא וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ וְתוֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַמְשׁוֹרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר וּמוֹדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־בְּגָדֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר׃ 23.13. and she looked, and, behold, the king stood on his platform at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets; the singers also [played] on instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said: ‘Treason, treason.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.3. וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה קָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶמְרְטָה מִשְּׂעַר רֹאשִׁי וּזְקָנִי וָאֵשְׁבָה מְשׁוֹמֵם׃ 9.3. And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled."
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה נֶאֶסְפוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְשַׂקִּים וַאֲדָמָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.1. וַתִּתֵּן אֹתֹת וּמֹפְתִים בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּבְכָל־עַם אַרְצוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתָּ כִּי הֵזִידוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַתַּעַשׂ־לְךָ שֵׁם כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 9.1. Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackcloth, and earth upon them."
17. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. I therefore, when I heard this, rent my garments, and said unto her: Woman, reverence God, and do not this evil deed, lest thou be destroyed; for know indeed that I will declare this thy device unto all men.
18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.21, 18.3-18.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.21, 18.3-18.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.3. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃ 9.3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes."
21. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.14, 3.47, 10.25, 11.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. And Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned greatly. 3.47. They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes. 10.25. So he sent a message to them in the following words:"King Demetrius to the nation of the Jews, greeting. 11.71. Jonathan rent his garments and put dust on his head, and prayed.
22. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 10.25, 14.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.25. As he drew near, Maccabeus and his men sprinkled dust upon their heads and girded their loins with sackcloth, in supplication to God.' 14.15. When the Jews heard of Nicanor's coming and the gathering of the Gentiles, they sprinkled dust upon their heads and prayed to him who established his own people for ever and always upholds his own heritage by manifesting himself.'
23. Septuagint, Judith, 4.11, 4.13-4.15, 8.5, 9.1, 10.3, 14.16, 14.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.13. So the Lord heard their prayers and looked upon their affliction; for the people fasted many days throughout Judea and in Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty. 4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 8.5. She set up a tent for herself on the roof of her house, and girded sackcloth about her loins and wore the garments of her widowhood. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments. 14.19. When the leaders of the Assyrian army heard this, they rent their tunics and were greatly dismayed, and their loud cries and shouts arose in the midst of the camp.
24. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.18. The virgins who had been enclosed in their chambers rushed out with their mothers, sprinkled their hair with dust, and filled the streets with groans and lamentations.
25. Anon., 2 Baruch, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.322 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.322. Whence we are not to wonder at what was then done, while to this very day the writings left by Moses have so great a force, that even those that hate us do confess, that he who established this settlement was God, and that it was by the means of Moses, and of his virtue; but as to these matters, let every one take them as he thinks fit.
27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.316 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.316. at which the men of power were affrighted, together with the high priests, and rent their garments, and fell down before each of them, and besought them to leave off, and not to provoke Florus to some incurable procedure, besides what they had already suffered.
28. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. The blasphemer is punished only if he utters [the divine] name. Rabbi Joshua b. Korcha said: “The whole day [of the trial] the witnesses are examined by means of a substitute for the divine name:, ‘may Yose smite Yose.” When the trial was finished, the accused was not executed on this evidence, but all persons were removed [from court], and the chief witness was told, ‘State literally what you heard.’ Thereupon he did so, [using the divine name]. The judges then arose and tore their garments, which were not to be resewn. The second witness stated: “I too have heard thus” [but not uttering the divine name], and the third says: “I too heard thus.”"
29. New Testament, Acts, 14.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 18.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her great wealth!' For in one hour is she made desolate.
31. New Testament, Mark, 14.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses?
32. New Testament, Matthew, 26.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God.
33. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26a. ואלו קרעין שאין מתאחין הקורע על אביו ועל אמו ועל רבו שלימדו תורה ועל נשיא ועל אב ב"ד ועל שמועות הרעות ועל ברכת השם ועל ספר תורה שנשרף ועל ערי יהודה ועל המקדש ועל ירושלים וקורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים,אביו ואמו ורבו שלימדו תורה מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ואלישע ראה והוא מצעק אבי אבי רכב ישראל ופרשיו אבי אבי זה אביו ואמו רכב ישראל ופרשיו זה רבו שלימדו תורה,מאי משמע כדמתרגם רב יוסף רבי רבי דטב להון לישראל בצלותיה מרתיכין ופרשין,ולא מתאחין מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ויחזק בבגדיו ויקרעם לשנים קרעים ממשמע שנאמר ויקרעם איני יודע שלשנים אלא מלמד שקרועים ועומדים לשנים לעולם,אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן אליהו חי הוא אמר ליה כיון דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ולא ראהו עוד לגבי דידיה כמת דמי,נשיא ואב בית דין ושמועות הרעות מנלן דכתיב (שמואל ב א, יא) ויחזק דוד בבגדיו ויקרעם וגם כל האנשים אשר אתו ויספדו ויבכו ויצומו עד הערב על שאול ועל יהונתן בנו ועל עם ה' ועל בית ישראל כי נפלו בחרב,שאול זה נשיא יהונתן זה אב ב"ד על עם ה' ועל בית ישראל אלו שמועות הרעות,א"ל רב בר שבא לרב כהנא ואימא עד דהוו כולהו א"ל על על הפסיק הענין,ומי קרעינן אשמועות הרעות והא אמרו ליה לשמואל קטל שבור מלכא תריסר אלפי יהודאי במזיגת קסרי ולא קרע לא אמרו אלא ברוב צבור וכמעשה שהיה,ומי קטל שבור מלכא יהודאי והא א"ל שבור מלכא לשמואל תיתי לי דלא קטלי יהודי מעולם התם אינהו גרמי לנפשייהו דא"ר אמי לקל יתירי דמזיגת קסרי פקע שורא דלודקיא,על ברכת השם מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, לז) ויבא אליקים בן חלקיה אשר על הבית ושבנא הסופר ויואח בן אסף המזכיר אל חזקיהו קרועי בגדים,ת"ר אחד השומע ואחד השומע מפי השומע חייב לקרוע והעדים אינן חייבין לקרוע שכבר קרעו בשעה ששמעו,בשעה ששמעו מאי הוי הא קא שמעי השתא לא ס"ד דכתיב (מלכים ב יט, א) ויהי כשמוע המלך חזקיהו ויקרע את בגדיו המלך קרע והם לא קרעו,ולא מתאחין מנלן אתיא קריעה קריעה,ספר תורה שנשרף מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו לו, כג) ויהי כקרא יהודי שלש דלתות וארבעה ויקרעה בתער הסופר והשלך אל האש אשר אל האח וגו' מאי שלש דלתות וארבעה,אמרו ליה ליהויקים כתב ירמיה ספר קינות אמר להו מה כתיב ביה (איכה א, א) איכה ישבה בדד אמר להו אנא מלכא א"ל (איכה א, ב) בכה תבכה בלילה אנא מלכא (איכה א, ג) גלתה יהודה מעוני אנא מלכא (איכה א, ד) דרכי ציון אבלות אנא מלכא,(איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש אמר להו מאן אמרה (איכה א, ה) כי ה' הוגה על רוב פשעיה מיד קדר כל אזכרות שבה ושרפן באש והיינו דכתיב (ירמיהו לו, כד) ולא פחדו ולא קרעו את בגדיהם מכלל דבעו למיקרע,אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי אימר משום שמועות הרעות א"ל שמועות רעות בההיא שעתא מי הוו,א"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא הרואה ספר תורה שנקרע חייב לקרוע שתי קריעות אחד על הגויל ואחד על הכתב שנאמר (ירמיהו לו, כז) אחרי שרוף המלך את המגלה ואת הדברים,רבי אבא ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי קמיה דרבי אבא בעא לאפנויי שקליה לטוטפתיה אחתיה אבי סדיא אתאי בת נעמיתא בעא למיבלעיה,אמר השתא איחייבין לי שתי קריעות א"ל מנא לך הא והא בדידי הוה עובדא ואתאי לקמיה דרב מתנה ולא הוה בידיה אתאי לקמיה דרב יהודה ואמר לי הכי אמר שמואל לא אמרו אלא בזרוע וכמעשה שהיה,ערי יהודה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו מא, ה) ויבאו אנשים משכם משילו ומשמרון שמונים איש מגולחי זקן וקרועי בגדים ומתגודדים ומנחה ולבונה בידם להביא בית ה' וגו',א"ר חלבו אמר עולא ביראה אמר ר' אלעזר הרואה ערי יהודה בחורבנן אומר (ישעיהו סד, ט) ערי קדשך היו מדבר וקורע ירושלים בחורבנה אומר (ישעיהו סד, ט) ציון מדבר היתה ירושלם שממה וקורע בית המקדש בחורבנו אומר (ישעיהו סד, י) בית קדשנו ותפארתנו אשר הללוך אבותינו היה לשריפת אש וכל מחמדינו היה לחרבה וקורע:,קורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים: ורמינהו אחד השומע ואחד הרואה כיון שהגיע לצופים קורע וקורע על מקדש בפני עצמו ועל ירושלים בפני עצמה,לא קשיא הא דפגע במקדש ברישא הא דפגע בירושלים ברישא,תנו רבנן וכולן רשאין לשוללן ולמוללן וללוקטן ולעשותן כמין סולמות אבל לא לאחותן,אמר רב חסדא 26a. bAnd these are the rentsof mourning bthat may never beproperly bmended: One who rendshis garments bforthe death bhis father, or for his mother, or for his teacher who taught him Torah, or forthe iNasi /i, or forthe bpresident of the court; or uponhearing bevil tidings; orhearing God’s bname being blessed,which is a euphemism for hearing God’s name being cursed; bor when a Torah scroll has been burned; or uponseeing bthe cities of Judeathat were destroyed bor thedestroyed bTemple or Jerusalemin ruins. This is the way one conducts himself when approaching Jerusalem when it lies in ruin: bHefirst brendshis garments bfor the Temple andthen bextendsthe rent bfor Jerusalem. /b,The Gemara elaborates upon the ihalakhotmentioned in this ibaraita /i: bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his clothing for bhis father, his mother, and his teacher who taught him Torah? As it is writtenwith regard to the prophet Elijah, when he ascended to Heaven in a tempest: b“And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen”(II Kings 2:12). The Gemara interprets this verse as follows: b“My father, my father”; thiscomes to teach that one must rend his garments for the death of bhis father or mother. “The chariots of Israel and their horsemen”; thiscomes to include also bone’s teacher who taught him Torah. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to one’s teacher? The Gemara explains: bAsthe verse bwas translated by Rav Yosef: My teacher, my teacher, who was better forthe protection of the bJewish people with his prayers thanan army with bchariots and horsemen. /b, bAnd from where do wederive that these rents bare neverto be properly bmended? As it is written: “And he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces”(II Kings 2:12). bFrom the fact thatit bis stated: “And he rent them,” do I not know thathe rent them bin twopieces? bRather,when the verse adds that they were torn into two pieces, bit teaches that they must remain torn in twopieces bforever.Accordingly, this rent must never be properly mended., bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa:But isn’t bElijahstill balive?Why, then, did Elisha rend his garments for him? bHe said to him: Since it is written: “And he saw him no more”(II Kings 2:12), Elijah was bconsidered dead fromElisha’s perspective, and so Elisha rent his clothing for him.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his clothing for the death of the iNasiorthe bpresident of the court andupon hearing bevil tidings? As it is written,when David heard about the defeat of Israel and the death of Saul and his sons: b“Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him: And they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Saul and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the sword”(II Samuel 1:11–12).,The Gemara explains how the aforementioned ihalakhotare derived from the verse: b“Saul”; this isa reference to the iNasi /i,as Saul was king of Israel. b“Jonathan”; this isa reference to the bpresident of the court. “For the people of the Lord, and for the house of the Israel”; these area reference to bevil tidings. /b, bRav bar Shaba said to Rav Kahana: Butperhaps you can bsaythat one need not rend his clothing buntil all thesecalamities occur together, and that rending clothing is performed only over a tragedy of this magnitude. bHe said to him:The repetition of the word “for”: b“ForSaul,” b“forJonathan,” and “for the people of the Lord” bdivides the matterand teaches that each individual misfortune is sufficient cause to rend one’s garments.,The Gemara asks: bBut do weactually brendour clothing upon hearing bevil tidings? But didn’t they say to Shmuel: King Shapur killed twelve thousand Jews in Mezigat Caesarea, andShmuel bdid not rendhis clothing?The Gemara answers: bThey saidthat one must rend his clothing upon hearing evil tidings bonlyin a case where the calamity involved bthe majority of the communityof Israel band resembles the incident that occurredwhen Saul was killed and the entire nation of Israel suffered defeat.,The Gemara tangentially asks: bDid King Shapurreally bkill Jews? But didn’t King Shapur say to Shmuel: I havea blessing bcoming to me, for I have never killed a Jew?The Gemara answers: King Shapur never instigated the killing of Jews; bthere,however, bthey brought it upon themselves, as Rabbi Ami saidin an exaggerated manner: bDue to the noise of theharp bstringsof bMezigat Caesarea, the walls of Laodicea were breached,for the residents of the city celebrated when they rebelled against King Shapur. Because they rebelled against him and threatened his rule, he was forced to kill them.,§ The Gemara continues its analysis of the ibaraita /i: bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments buponhearing God’s bname being blessed,i.e., cursed? bAs it is writtenwith regard to the blasphemous words said by Rab-shakeh: b“Then came Eliakim, son of Hilkiya, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent”(II Kings 18:37)., bThe Sages taughta ibaraitawith regard to this issue: Both bone whoactually bhearsthe curse band one who hears from the mouth ofthe one bwho heardthe curse bare obligated to rendtheir garments. bBut the witnesseswho testify against the person who uttered the blasphemy bare not obligated to rendtheir clothing when they testify as to what they heard bbecause they already renttheir clothing bwhen they heardthe curse the first time.,The Gemara asks: bWhatdifference bdoesit make that they rent their garments bwhen they heardthe curse the first time? bDidn’t they hearit again bnow?The Gemara rejects this argument: bThis will not enter your mind, as it is written: “And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes”(II Kings 19:1). This indicates that bthe king renthis garments, bbutthose who reported the blasphemy to him bdid not rendtheirs, as they had already rent their garments the first time., bAnd from where do wederive that these rents bmay not beproperly bmended? This is derivedby way of a verbal analogy between the verb brendingused here with regard to Hezekiah and the verb brendingused in the case of Elijah and Elisha.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments when ba Torah scroll has been burned? As it is written: “And it came to pass, that when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he would cut it with a penknife, and cast it into the fire that was in the brazier”(Jeremiah 36:23). With regard to the verse itself the Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by b“three or four leaves,”and why did he cut the book only at that point?,The Gemara explains: bThey said to Jehoiakim: Jeremiah has written a book of Lamentationsover the future downfall and destruction of Jerusalem. bHe said to them: What is written in it?They read him the first verse: b“How does the city sit solitary”(Lamentations 1:1). bHe said to them: I am king,and this does not apply to me. bThey read himthe second verse: b“She weeps sore in the night”(Lamentations 1:2). He said to them: bI am king,and this does not apply to me. They read him the third verse: b“Judah is gone into exile due to affliction”(Lamentations 1:3). He said to them: bI am king.They read to him: b“The ways of Zion do mourn”(Lamentations 1:4). He said to them: bI am king.These are the four leaves, or verses, that he read first.,They read him an additional verse: b“Her adversaries have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), i.e., the reigning king will be removed from power. Once he heard this, bhe said to them: Who saidthis? They said to him: This is the continuation of the verse: b“For the Lord has afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions”(Lamentations 1:5). bImmediately, he cut out all the namesof God bfromthe book band burned them in fire. This is as it is written: “Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments,neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words” (Jeremiah 36:24). bBy inference,this shows bthatthey bwere required to rendtheir clothing when they saw this., bRav Pappa said to Abaye:Perhaps you can bsaythat they should have rent their garments bdue to the evil tidingscontained in the scroll and not because of the destruction of the book? Abaye bsaid to him: Were they evil tidings at that time?This was a prophecy and not an account of current events., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who sees a Torah scroll that was torn is obligated to make two rents, one for the parchmentthat was damaged band one for the writing, as it is stated:“Then the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah, bafter the king had burned the scroll and the words”(Jeremiah 36:27). This implies that a separate rent must be made for each of them, both the parchment and the writing.,It was related that bRabbi Abba and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya were sitting before Rabbi Abba.Rabbi Abba bneeded to relieve himself. He removed his phylacteriesfrom his head and bplaced them on the cushionon which he was sitting. bAn ostrich came and wanted to swallowthe phylacteries., bHe said: Now,had it succeeded to swallow it, bI would have been obligated to make two rents. He said to him: From where do youderive bthis? There was an incident in which Iwas involved band I came before Rav Mattanaasking what to do, bbut he did not havean answer readily available. bIthen bcame before Rav Yehuda, and he said to me: Shmuel said as follows: They saidthat one is obligated to rend his clothing bonlywhen a Torah scroll or some other sacred book is torn bby force, and it resembles the incident that occurredwith Jehoiakim.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments upon seeing bthe cities of Judeain ruin? bAs it is written: “There came certain men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, eighty people, their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring to the house of the Lord”(Jeremiah 41:5). This indicates that they rent their garments upon seeing the destruction., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bUlla Bira’a saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: One who sees the cities of Judea in their desolation says: “Your sacred cities are become a wilderness”(Isaiah 64:9), bandthen brendshis garments. One who sees bJerusalem in its desolation says: “Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation”(Isaiah 64:9), bandthen brendshis garments. One who sees bthe Temple in its desolation says: “Our sacred and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised You, is burned with fire; and all our pleasant things are laid waste” ( /bIsaiah 64:10), bandthen brendshis garments.,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: bHefirst brendshis garments bfor the Temple andthen bextendsthe rent bfor Jerusalem. And they raise a contradictionfrom another ibaraitathat states: Both bone who hearsthat Jerusalem is in ruin band one who seesthe destruction, bonce he reachesMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i], rendshis garments. bAnd he rendshis garments bfor the Temple separately and for Jerusalem separately. /b,The Gemara answers: bThis is not difficult. This ibaraita /i, which states that instead of making a separate rent for Jerusalem one may extend the first rent that he had made for the Temple, is referring to the case where bone reached the Temple first,before seeing the rest of Jerusalem, and saw it in ruin. bThat ibaraita /i, which states that one must make separate rents for Jerusalem and for the Temple, is referring to the case where bone reached Jerusalem first,and only afterward the Temple.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bAnd all of theserents, bone may tack themtogether with loose stitches, band hem them, and gather them, and fix themwith imprecise bladder-likestitches. bBut one may not mend themwith precise stitches., bRav Ḥisda said: /b
34. Anon., 4 Ezra, 9.38

9.38. When I said these things in my heart, I lifted up my eyes and saw a woman on my right, and behold, she was mourning and weeping with a loud voice, and was deeply grieved at heart, and her clothes were rent, and there were ashes on her head.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 424
abraham, isaac, and jacob/patriarchs Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
angels Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
anthropomorphism Gera, Judith (2014) 184
ash(es) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
ashes Gera, Judith (2014) 184; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 184
communal laments Gera, Judith (2014) 184
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
dust Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
earth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
ezekiel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
fasting Gera, Judith (2014) 184
god, gift of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
god, goodness of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
god, plan of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
israelites, prayers and blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 184
israelites Gera, Judith (2014) 184
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 184
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 184
knowledge, depravity/lack of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge, god's own" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge, of god's wisdom/secrets/glory" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge, revealed' "151.0_204.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
language and style, book of judith, nominatives and subjects Gera, Judith (2014) 184
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
literature' Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
mortality/immortality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
mourning Gera, Judith (2014) 184; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
parallelism/repetition Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 424
penitence and sins Gera, Judith (2014) 184
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 184
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
prostration and bowing Gera, Judith (2014) 184
repent/repentance Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 184; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
seth, head of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 311
sin/sinner, sin, forgiveness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
sons, of heaven Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, characterizations as, depravity Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, modes of presence, put/placed within Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
stoning Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 424
temple in jerusalem, altar and vessels Gera, Judith (2014) 184
temple in jerusalem, altar of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 184