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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 34.29-34.30


וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him.


nanAnd when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

72 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.18 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 9.4, 10.1-10.6, 30.11-30.14, 34.1-34.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.4. אַל־תֹּאמַר בִּלְבָבְךָ בַּהֲדֹף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם מִלְּפָנֶיךָ לֵאמֹר בְּצִדְקָתִי הֱבִיאַנִי יְהוָה לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּבְרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 10.1. וְאָנֹכִי עָמַדְתִּי בָהָר כַּיָּמִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֵלַי גַּם בַּפַּעַם הַהִוא לֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה הַשְׁחִיתֶךָ׃ 10.1. בָּעֵת הַהִוא אָמַר יְהוָה אֵלַי פְּסָל־לְךָ שְׁנֵי־לֻוחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וַעֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וְעָשִׂיתָ לְּךָ אֲרוֹן עֵץ׃ 10.2. וְאֶכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹת הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר שִׁבַּרְתָּ וְשַׂמְתָּם בָּאָרוֹן׃ 10.2. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא אֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבוֹ תִדְבָּק וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 10.3. וָאַעַשׂ אֲרוֹן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וָאֶפְסֹל שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וָאַעַל הָהָרָה וּשְׁנֵי הַלֻּחֹת בְּיָדִי׃ 10.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת כַּמִּכְתָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוָה אֵלָי׃ 10.5. וָאֵפֶן וָאֵרֵד מִן־הָהָר וָאָשִׂם אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת בָּאָרוֹן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוַּנִי יְהוָה׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נָסְעוּ מִבְּאֵרֹת בְּנֵי־יַעֲקָן מוֹסֵרָה שָׁם מֵת אַהֲרֹן וַיִּקָּבֵר שָׁם וַיְכַהֵן אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃ 30.11. כִּי הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לֹא־נִפְלֵאת הִוא מִמְּךָ וְלֹא רְחֹקָה הִוא׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 34.1. וְלֹא־קָם נָבִיא עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים׃ 34.1. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה מֵעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב אֶל־הַר נְבוֹ רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וַיַּרְאֵהוּ יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָד עַד־דָּן׃ 34.2. וְאֵת כָּל־נַפְתָּלִי וְאֶת־אֶרֶץ אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה עַד הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן׃ 34.3. וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃ 34.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו זֹאת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה הֶרְאִיתִיךָ בְעֵינֶיךָ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲבֹר׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 9.4. Speak not thou in thy heart, after that the LORD thy God hath thrust them out from before thee, saying: ‘For my righteousness the LORD hath brought me in to possess this land’; whereas for the wickedness of these nations the LORD doth drive them out from before thee." 10.1. At that time the LORD said unto me: ‘Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first, and come up unto Me into the mount; and make thee an ark of wood." 10.2. And I will write on the tables the words that were on the first tables which thou didst break, and thou shalt put them in the ark.’" 10.3. So I made an ark of acacia-wood, and hewed two tables of stone like unto the first, and went up into the mount, having the two tables in my hand." 10.4. And He wrote on the tables according to the first writing, the ten words, which the LORD spoke unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly; and the LORD gave them unto me." 10.5. And I turned and came down from the mount, and put the tables in the ark which I had made; and there they are, as the LORD commanded me.—" 10.6. And the children of Israel journeyed from Beeroth-benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died, and there he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered in the priest’s office in his stead." 30.11. For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too hard for thee, neither is it far off." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it." 34.1. And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land, even Gilead as far as Dan;" 34.2. and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah as far as the hinder sea;" 34.3. and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar." 34.4. And the LORD said unto him: ‘This is the land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying: I will give it unto thy seed; I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.’" 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.10, 3.3, 3.6, 4.6, 4.21, 15.1, 15.11, 15.21, 16.1, 19.3, 19.22, 20.21, 23.21, 24.9-24.11, 24.13-24.16, 25.10-25.16, 25.23-25.40, 26.31-26.37, 27.1, 27.17, 28.41, 30.1-30.10, 30.17-30.32, 31.2, 31.6, 31.18, 33.11, 33.18-33.20, 33.23, 34.1, 34.4-34.28, 34.30-34.35, 35.5-35.9, 36.3-36.7, 36.23, 37.3, 37.10-37.16, 39.27, 39.30, 40.9-40.11, 40.15, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אָסֻרָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה הַגָּדֹל הַזֶּה מַדּוּעַ לֹא־יִבְעַר הַסְּנֶה׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לוֹ עוֹד הָבֵא־נָא יָדְךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ וַיָּבֵא יָדוֹ בְּחֵיקוֹ וַיּוֹצִאָהּ וְהִנֵּה יָדוֹ מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.11. מִי־כָמֹכָה בָּאֵלִם יְהוָה מִי כָּמֹכָה נֶאְדָּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא׃ 15.21. וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 16.1. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵאֵילִם וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִין אֲשֶׁר בֵּין־אֵילִם וּבֵין סִינָי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 16.1. וַיְהִי כְּדַבֵּר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפְנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה נִרְאָה בֶּעָנָן׃ 19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.22. וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 20.21. מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה־לִּי וְזָבַחְתָּ עָלָיו אֶת־עֹלֹתֶיךָ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמֶיךָ אֶת־צֹאנְךָ וְאֶת־בְּקָרֶךָ בְּכָל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת־שְׁמִי אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ׃ 23.21. הִשָּׁמֶר מִפָּנָיו וּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ אַל־תַּמֵּר בּוֹ כִּי לֹא יִשָּׂא לְפִשְׁעֲכֶם כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 24.13. וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ מְשָׁרְתוֹ וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.14. וְאֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אָמַר שְׁבוּ־לָנוּ בָזֶה עַד אֲשֶׁר־נָשׁוּב אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִנֵּה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עִמָּכֶם מִי־בַעַל דְּבָרִים יִגַּשׁ אֲלֵהֶם׃ 24.15. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָהָר וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־הָהָר׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 25.11. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ תְּצַפֶּנּוּ וְעָשִׂיתָ עָלָיו זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 25.12. וְיָצַקְתָּ לּוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב וְנָתַתָּה עַל אַרְבַּע פַּעֲמֹתָיו וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הָאֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 25.13. וְעָשִׂיתָ בַדֵּי עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 25.14. וְהֵבֵאתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים בַּטַּבָּעֹת עַל צַלְעֹת הָאָרֹן לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הָאָרֹן בָּהֶם׃ 25.15. בְּטַבְּעֹת הָאָרֹן יִהְיוּ הַבַּדִּים לֹא יָסֻרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 25.16. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־הָאָרֹן אֵת הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּן אֵלֶיךָ׃ 25.23. וְעָשִׂיתָ שֻׁלְחָן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים אַמָּתַיִם אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ וְאַמָּה וָחֵצִי קֹמָתוֹ׃ 25.24. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 25.25. וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ מִסְגֶּרֶת טֹפַח סָבִיב וְעָשִׂיתָ זֵר־זָהָב לְמִסְגַּרְתּוֹ סָבִיב׃ 25.26. וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַטַּבָּעֹת עַל אַרְבַּע הַפֵּאֹת אֲשֶׁר לְאַרְבַּע רַגְלָיו׃ 25.27. לְעֻמַּת הַמִּסְגֶּרֶת תִּהְיֶיןָ הַטַּבָּעֹת לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן׃ 25.28. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב וְנִשָּׂא־בָם אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן׃ 25.29. וְעָשִׂיתָ קְּעָרֹתָיו וְכַפֹּתָיו וּקְשׂוֹתָיו וּמְנַקִּיֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר יֻסַּךְ בָּהֵן זָהָב טָהוֹר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם׃ 25.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה תֵּעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ׃ 25.32. וְשִׁשָּׁה קָנִים יֹצְאִים מִצִּדֶּיהָ שְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הָאֶחָד וּשְׁלֹשָׁה קְנֵי מְנֹרָה מִצִּדָּהּ הַשֵּׁנִי׃ 25.33. שְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפֶרַח וּשְׁלֹשָׁה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים בַּקָּנֶה הָאֶחָד כַּפְתֹּר וָפָרַח כֵּן לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 25.34. וּבַמְּנֹרָה אַרְבָּעָה גְבִעִים מְשֻׁקָּדִים כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ׃ 25.35. וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה וְכַפְתֹּר תַּחַת־שְׁנֵי הַקָּנִים מִמֶּנָּה לְשֵׁשֶׁת הַקָּנִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַמְּנֹרָה׃ 25.36. כַּפְתֹּרֵיהֶם וּקְנֹתָם מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ כֻּלָּהּ מִקְשָׁה אַחַת זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.37. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וְהֶעֱלָה אֶת־נֵרֹתֶיהָ וְהֵאִיר עַל־עֵבֶר פָּנֶיהָ׃ 25.38. וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.39. כִּכָּר זָהָב טָהוֹר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 26.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ פָרֹכֶת תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ כְּרֻבִים׃ 26.32. וְנָתַתָּה אֹתָהּ עַל־אַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים מְצֻפִּים זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב עַל־אַרְבָּעָה אַדְנֵי־כָסֶף׃ 26.33. וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־הַפָּרֹכֶת תַּחַת הַקְּרָסִים וְהֵבֵאתָ שָׁמָּה מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת וְהִבְדִּילָה הַפָּרֹכֶת לָכֶם בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 26.34. וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 26.35. וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה נֹכַח הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל צֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן תֵּימָנָה וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן תִּתֵּן עַל־צֶלַע צָפוֹן׃ 26.36. וְעָשִׂיתָ מָסָךְ לְפֶתַח הָאֹהֶל תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵם׃ 26.37. וְעָשִׂיתָ לַמָּסָךְ חֲמִשָּׁה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב וְיָצַקְתָּ לָהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה אַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 27.1. וְעַמֻּדָיו עֶשְׂרִים וְאַדְנֵיהֶם עֶשְׂרִים נְחֹשֶׁת וָוֵי הָעַמֻּדִים וַחֲשֻׁקֵיהֶם כָּסֶף׃ 27.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת אֹרֶךְ וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת רֹחַב רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קֹמָתוֹ׃ 27.17. כָּל־עַמּוּדֵי הֶחָצֵר סָבִיב מְחֻשָּׁקִים כֶּסֶף וָוֵיהֶם כָּסֶף וְאַדְנֵיהֶם נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 28.41. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם וּמִלֵּאתָ אֶת־יָדָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי׃ 30.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 30.1. וְכִפֶּר אַהֲרֹן עַל־קַרְנֹתָיו אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה מִדַּם חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם קֹדֶשׁ־קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 30.2. בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יִרְחֲצוּ־מַיִם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת לְהַקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 30.2. אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה וְאַמָּתַיִם קֹמָתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ קַרְנֹתָיו׃ 30.3. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר אֶת־גַּגּוֹ וְאֶת־קִירֹתָיו סָבִיב וְאֶת־קַרְנֹתָיו וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 30.3. וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תִּמְשָׁח וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי׃ 30.4. וּשְׁתֵּי טַבְּעֹת זָהָב תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ מִתַּחַת לְזֵרוֹ עַל שְׁתֵּי צַלְעֹתָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־שְׁנֵי צִדָּיו וְהָיָה לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֹתוֹ בָּהֵמָּה׃ 30.5. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 30.6. וְנָתַתָּה אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת לִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.9. לֹא־תַעֲלוּ עָלָיו קְטֹרֶת זָרָה וְעֹלָה וּמִנְחָה וְנֵסֶךְ לֹא תִסְּכוּ עָלָיו׃ 30.17. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ כִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת לְרָחְצָה וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ בֵּין־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנָתַתָּ שָׁמָּה מָיִם׃ 30.19. וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 30.21. וְרָחֲצוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם חָק־עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.23. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ מָר־דְּרוֹר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְקִנְּמָן־בֶּשֶׂם מַחֲצִיתוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם וּקְנֵה־בֹשֶׂם חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם׃ 30.24. וְקִדָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת הִין׃ 30.25. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתוֹ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵחַ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה׃ 30.26. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת׃ 30.27. וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה וְאֶת־כֵּלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת׃ 30.28. וְאֶת־מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנּוֹ׃ 30.29. וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְהָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִקְדָּשׁ׃ 30.31. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה לִי לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.32. עַל־בְּשַׂר אָדָם לֹא יִיסָךְ וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ כָּמֹהוּ קֹדֶשׁ הוּא קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 31.2. רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 31.6. וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי אִתּוֹ אֵת אָהֳלִיאָב בֶּן־אֲחִיסָמָךְ לְמַטֵּה־דָן וּבְלֵב כָּל־חֲכַם־לֵב נָתַתִּי חָכְמָה וְעָשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ׃ 31.18. וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 34.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פְּסָל־לְךָ שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וְכָתַבְתִּי עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹת הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר שִׁבַּרְתָּ׃ 34.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי כֹּרֵת בְּרִית נֶגֶד כָּל־עַמְּךָ אֶעֱשֶׂה נִפְלָאֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִבְרְאוּ בְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הַגּוֹיִם וְרָאָה כָל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בְקִרְבּוֹ אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂה יְהוָה כִּי־נוֹרָא הוּא אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה עִמָּךְ׃ 34.4. וַיִּפְסֹל שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וַיַּשְׁכֵּם מֹשֶׁה בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעַל אֶל־הַר סִינַי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת 34.7. נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפֶשַׁע וְחַטָּאָה וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־בְּנֵי בָנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 34.8. וַיְמַהֵר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּקֹּד אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 34.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲדֹנָי יֵלֶךְ־נָא אֲדֹנָי בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְחַטָּאתֵנוּ וּנְחַלְתָּנוּ׃ 34.11. שְׁמָר־לְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם הִנְנִי גֹרֵשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 34.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּא עָלֶיהָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה לְמוֹקֵשׁ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 34.13. כִּי אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם תִּתֹּצוּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָיו תִּכְרֹתוּן׃ 34.14. כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר כִּי יְהוָה קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ אֵל קַנָּא הוּא׃ 34.15. פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וְזָנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְזָבְחוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְקָרָא לְךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחוֹ׃ 34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.17. אֱלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 34.18. אֶת־חַג הַמַּצּוֹת תִּשְׁמֹר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ לְמוֹעֵד חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב כִּי בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב יָצָאתָ מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 34.19. כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לִי וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ תִּזָּכָר פֶּטֶר שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה׃ 34.21. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת בֶּחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר תִּשְׁבֹּת׃ 34.22. וְחַג שָׁבֻעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים וְחַג הָאָסִיף תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה׃ 34.23. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.24. כִּי־אוֹרִישׁ גּוֹיִם מִפָּנֶיךָ וְהִרְחַבְתִּי אֶת־גְּבוּלֶךָ וְלֹא־יַחְמֹד אִישׁ אֶת־אַרְצְךָ בַּעֲלֹתְךָ לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה׃ 34.25. לֹא־תִשְׁחַט עַל־חָמֵץ דַּם־זִבְחִי וְלֹא־יָלִין לַבֹּקֶר זֶבַח חַג הַפָּסַח׃ 34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 34.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.28. וַיְהִי־שָׁם עִם־יְהוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 35.5. קְחוּ מֵאִתְּכֶם תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה כֹּל נְדִיב לִבּוֹ יְבִיאֶהָ אֵת תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּנְחֹשֶׁת׃ 35.6. וּתְכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ וְעִזִּים׃ 35.7. וְעֹרֹת אֵילִם מְאָדָּמִים וְעֹרֹת תְּחָשִׁים וַעֲצֵי שִׂטִּים׃ 35.8. וְשֶׁמֶן לַמָּאוֹר וּבְשָׂמִים לְשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְלִקְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים׃ 35.9. וְאַבְנֵי־שֹׁהַם וְאַבְנֵי מִלֻּאִים לָאֵפוֹד וְלַחֹשֶׁן׃ 36.3. וַיִּקְחוּ מִלִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־הַתְּרוּמָה אֲשֶׁר הֵבִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִמְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָהּ וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֵלָיו עוֹד נְדָבָה בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר׃ 36.3. וְהָיוּ שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים וְאַדְנֵיהֶם כֶּסֶף שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר אֲדָנִים שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים תַּחַת הַקֶּרֶשׁ הָאֶחָד׃ 36.4. וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־הַחֲכָמִים הָעֹשִׂים אֵת כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ אִישׁ־אִישׁ מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה עֹשִׂים׃ 36.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר מַרְבִּים הָעָם לְהָבִיא מִדֵּי הָעֲבֹדָה לַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָהּ׃ 36.6. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בַּמַּחֲנֶה לֵאמֹר אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה אַל־יַעֲשׂוּ־עוֹד מְלָאכָה לִתְרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וַיִּכָּלֵא הָעָם מֵהָבִיא׃ 36.7. וְהַמְּלָאכָה הָיְתָה דַיָּם לְכָל־הַמְּלָאכָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתָהּ וְהוֹתֵר׃ 36.23. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁים לַמִּשְׁכָּן עֶשְׂרִים קְרָשִׁים לִפְאַת נֶגֶב תֵּימָנָה׃ 37.3. וַיִּצֹק לוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב עַל אַרְבַּע פַּעֲמֹתָיו וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הָאֶחָת וּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת עַל־צַלְעוֹ הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 37.11. וַיְצַף אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר וַיַּעַשׂ לוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 37.12. וַיַּעַשׂ לוֹ מִסְגֶּרֶת טֹפַח סָבִיב וַיַּעַשׂ זֵר־זָהָב לְמִסְגַּרְתּוֹ סָבִיב׃ 37.13. וַיִּצֹק לוֹ אַרְבַּע טַבְּעֹת זָהָב וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַטַּבָּעֹת עַל אַרְבַּע הַפֵּאֹת אֲשֶׁר לְאַרְבַּע רַגְלָיו׃ 37.14. לְעֻמַּת הַמִּסְגֶּרֶת הָיוּ הַטַּבָּעֹת בָּתִּים לַבַּדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן׃ 37.15. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וַיְצַף אֹתָם זָהָב לָשֵׂאת אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן׃ 37.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֶת־קְעָרֹתָיו וְאֶת־כַּפֹּתָיו וְאֵת מְנַקִּיֹּתָיו וְאֶת־הַקְּשָׂוֺת אֲשֶׁר יֻסַּךְ בָּהֵן זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 39.27. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַכָּתְנֹת שֵׁשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה אֹרֵג לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו׃ 40.9. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְהָיָה קֹדֶשׁ׃ 40.11. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנּוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ׃ 40.15. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם כַּאֲשֶׁר מָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי וְהָיְתָה לִהְיֹת לָהֶם מָשְׁחָתָם לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 2.10. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses, and said: ‘Because I drew him out of the water.’" 3.3. And Moses said: ‘I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.’" 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 4.6. And the LORD said furthermore unto him: ‘Put now thy hand into thy bosom.’ And he put his hand into his bosom; and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.11. Who is like unto Thee, O LORD, among the mighty? Who is like unto Thee, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?" 15.21. And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 16.1. And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt." 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:" 19.22. And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’" 20.21. An altar of earth thou shalt make unto Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy peace-offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come unto thee and bless thee." 23.21. Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him." 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;" 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink." 24.13. And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister; and Moses went up into the mount of God." 24.14. And unto the elders he said: ‘Tarry ye here for us, until we come back unto you; and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whosoever hath a cause, let him come near unto them.’" 24.15. And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 25.10. And they shall make an ark of acacia-wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof." 25.11. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about." 25.12. And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four feet thereof; and two rings shall be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it." 25.13. And thou shalt make staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold." 25.14. And thou shalt put the staves into the rings on the sides of the ark, wherewith to bear the ark." 25.15. The staves shall be in the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it." 25.16. And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee." 25.23. And thou shalt make a table of acacia-wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof." 25.24. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about." 25.25. And thou shalt make unto it a border of a handbreadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about." 25.26. And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof." 25.27. Close by the border shall the rings be, for places for the staves to bear the table." 25.28. And thou shalt make the staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them." 25.29. And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and the pans thereof, and the jars thereof, and the bowls thereof, wherewith to pour out; of pure gold shalt thou make them." 25.30. And thou shalt set upon the table showbread before Me always." 25.31. And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it." 25.32. And there shall be six branches going out of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candle-stick out of the other side thereof;" 25.33. three cups made like almond-blossoms in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three cups made like almond-blossoms in the other branch, a knop and a flower; so for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 25.34. And in the candlestick four cups made like almond-blossoms, the knops thereof, and the flowers thereof." 25.35. And a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of the candlestick." 25.36. Their knops and their branches shall be of one piece with it; the whole of it one beaten work of pure gold." 25.37. And thou shalt make the lamps thereof, seven; and they shall light the lamps thereof, to give light over against it." 25.38. And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold." 25.39. of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels." 25.40. And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount." 26.31. And thou shalt make a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; with cherubim the work of the skilful workman shall it be made." 26.32. And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, their hooks being of gold, upon four sockets of silver." 26.33. And thou shalt hang up the veil under the clasps, and shalt bring in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony; and the veil shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy." 26.34. And thou shalt put the ark-cover upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place." 26.35. And thou shalt set the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and thou shalt put the table on the north side." 26.36. And thou shalt make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the weaver in colours." 26.37. And thou shalt make for the screen five pillars of acacia, and overlay them with gold; their hooks shall be of gold; and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them." 27.1. And thou shalt make the altar of acacia-wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be four-square; and the height thereof shall be three cubits." 27.17. All the pillars of the court round about shall be filleted with silver; their hooks of silver, and their sockets of brass." 28.41. And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and upon his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 30.1. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon; of acacia-wood shalt thou make it." 30.2. A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be; and two cubits shall be the height thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it." 30.3. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about." 30.4. And two golden rings shalt thou make for it under the crown thereof, upon the two ribs thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make them; and they shall be for places for staves wherewith to bear it." 30.5. And thou shalt make the staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold." 30.6. And thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the ark-cover that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee." 30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations." 30.9. Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt-offering, nor meal-offering; and ye shall pour no drink-offering thereon." 30.10. And Aaron shall make atonement upon the horns of it once in the year; with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement once in the year shall he make atonement for it throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the LORD.’" 30.17. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.18. ’Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, whereat to wash; and thou shalt put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein." 30.19. And Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat;" 30.20. when they go into the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to cause an offering made by fire to smoke unto the LORD;" 30.21. so they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.’" 30.22. Moreover the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.23. ’Take thou also unto thee the chief spices, of flowing myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty," 30.24. and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive oil a hin." 30.25. And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil." 30.26. And thou shalt anoint therewith the tent of meeting, and the ark of the testimony," 30.27. and the table and all the vessels thereof, and the candlestick and the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense," 30.28. and the altar of burnt-offering with all the vessels thereof, and the laver and the base thereof." 30.29. And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy; whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy." 30.30. And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 30.31. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: This shall be a holy anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations." 30.32. Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any like it, according to the composition thereof; it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you." 31.2. ’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;" 31.6. And I, behold, I have appointed with him Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan; and in the hearts of all that are wise-hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee:" 31.18. And He gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent." 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’" 34.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first; and I will write upon the tables the words that were on the first tables, which thou didst break." 34.4. And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand two tables of stone." 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD." 34.6. And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;" 34.7. keeping mercy unto the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and unto the fourth generation.’" 34.8. And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped." 34.9. And he said: ‘If now I have found grace in Thy sight, O Lord, let the Lord, I pray Thee, go in the midst of us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for Thine inheritance.’" 34.10. And He said: ‘Behold, I make a covet; before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been wrought in all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD that I am about to do with thee, that it is tremendous." 34.11. Observe thou that which I am commanding thee this day; behold, I am driving out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite." 34.12. Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest they be for a snare in the midst of thee." 34.13. But ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and ye shall cut down their Asherim." 34.14. For thou shalt bow down to no other god; for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God;" 34.15. lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land, and they go astray after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and they call thee, and thou eat of their sacrifice;" 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods." 34.17. Thou shalt make thee no molten gods." 34.18. The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib, for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt." 34.19. All that openeth the womb is Mine; and of all thy cattle thou shalt sanctify the males, the firstlings of ox and sheep." 34.20. And the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck. All the first-born of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before Me empty." 34.21. Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest; in plowing time and in harvest thou shalt rest." 34.22. And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, even of the first-fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the turn of the year." 34.23. Three times in the year shall all thy males appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel." 34.24. For I will cast out nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders; neither shall any man covet thy land, when thou goest up to appear before the LORD thy God three times in the year." 34.25. Thou shalt not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto the morning." 34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’" 34.27. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covet with thee and with Israel.’" 34.28. And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covet, the ten words." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him." 35.5. Take ye from among you an offering unto the LORD, whosoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, the LORD’S offering: gold, and silver, and brass;" 35.6. and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats’hair;" 35.7. and rams’skins dyed red, and sealskins, and acacia-wood;" 35.8. and oil for the light, and spices for the anointing oil, and for the sweet incense;" 35.9. and onyx stones, and stones to be set, for the ephod, and for the breastplate." 36.3. And they received of Moses all the offering, which the children of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, wherewith to make it. And they brought yet unto him freewill-offerings every morning." 36.4. And all the wise men, that wrought all the work of the sanctuary, came every man from his work which they wrought." 36.5. And they spoke unto Moses, saying: ‘The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work, which the LORD commanded to make.’" 36.6. And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed throughout the camp, saying: ‘Let neither man nor woman make any more work for the offering of the sanctuary.’ So the people were restrained from bringing." 36.7. For the stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much." 36.23. And he made the boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side southward." 37.3. And he cast for it four rings of gold, in the four feet thereof: even two rings on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it." 37.10. And he made the table of acacia-wood: two cubits was the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof." 37.11. And he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereto a crown of gold round about." 37.12. And he made unto it a border of a hand-breadth round about, and made a golden crown to the border thereof round about." 37.13. And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that were on the four feet thereof." 37.14. Close by the border were the rings, the holders for the staves to bear the table." 37.15. And he made the staves of acacia-wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear the table." 37.16. And he made the vessels which were upon the table, the dishes thereof, and the pans thereof, and the bowls thereof, and the jars thereof, wherewith to pour out, of pure gold." 39.27. And they made the tunics of fine linen of woven work for Aaron, and for his sons," 39.30. And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a writing, like the engravings of a signet: HOLY TO THE LORD." 40.9. And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the furniture thereof; and it shall be holy." 40.10. And thou shalt anoint the altar of burnt-offering, and all its vessels, and sanctify the altar; and the altar shall be most holy." 40.11. And thou shalt anoint the laver and its base, and sanctify it." 40.15. And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office; and their anointing shall be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.’" 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 3.6-3.7, 3.9, 11.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 11.30. And Sarai was barren; she had no child."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 14.9-14.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.9. אֶפְרַיִם מַה־לִּי עוֹד לָעֲצַבִּים אֲנִי עָנִיתִי וַאֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ אֲנִי כִּבְרוֹשׁ רַעֲנָן מִמֶּנִּי פֶּרְיְךָ נִמְצָא׃ 14.9. Ephraim [shall say]: ‘What have I to do any more with idols?’ As for Me, I respond and look on him; I am like a leafy cypress-tree; From Me is thy fruit found." 14.10. Whoso is wise, let him understand these things, Whoso is prudent, let him know them. For the ways of the LORD are right, And the just do walk in them; But transgressors do stumble therein."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 7.10-7.12, 10.3, 18.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב לַיהוָה׃ 7.12. אִם עַל־תּוֹדָה יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ וְהִקְרִיב עַל־זֶבַח הַתּוֹדָה חַלּוֹת מַצּוֹת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן וְסֹלֶת מֻרְבֶּכֶת חַלֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשָּׁמֶן׃ 10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הוּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד וַיִּדֹּם אַהֲרֹן׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 7.10. And every meal-offering, mingled with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another." 7.11. And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which one may offer unto the LORD." 7.12. If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour soaked." 10.3. Then Moses said unto Aaron: ‘This is it that the LORD spoke, saying: Through them that are nigh unto Me I will be sanctified, and before all the people I will be glorified.’ And Aaron held his peace." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.4, 6.25, 7.1, 12.1, 20.23-20.29, 27.20, 33.37-33.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיָּמָת נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּהַקְרִבָם אֵשׁ זָרָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לָהֶם וַיְכַהֵן אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר עַל־פְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֲבִיהֶם׃ 3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פְּקֹד כָּל־בְּכֹר זָכָר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וָמָעְלָה וְשָׂא אֵת מִסְפַּר שְׁמֹתָם׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 7.1. וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂאִים אֵת חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִם אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 7.1. וַיְהִי בְּיוֹם כַּלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לְהָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וַיִּמְשָׁחֵם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם׃ 12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 20.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּהֹר הָהָר עַל־גְּבוּל אֶרֶץ־אֱדוֹם לֵאמֹר׃ 20.24. יֵאָסֵף אַהֲרֹן אֶל־עַמָּיו כִּי לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל אֲשֶׁר־מְרִיתֶם אֶת־פִּי לְמֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 20.25. קַח אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ וְהַעַל אֹתָם הֹר הָהָר׃ 20.26. וְהַפְשֵׁט אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּם אֶת־אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ וְאַהֲרֹן יֵאָסֵף וּמֵת שָׁם׃ 20.27. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶל־הֹר הָהָר לְעֵינֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 20.28. וַיַּפְשֵׁט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתָם אֶת־אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ וַיָּמָת אַהֲרֹן שָׁם בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה וְאֶלְעָזָר מִן־הָהָר׃ 20.29. וַיִּרְאוּ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כִּי גָוַע אַהֲרֹן וַיִּבְכּוּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם כֹּל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.37. וַיִּסְעוּ מִקָּדֵשׁ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּהֹר הָהָר בִּקְצֵה אֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם׃ 33.38. וַיַּעַל אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־הֹר הָהָר עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וַיָּמָת שָׁם בִּשְׁנַת הָאַרְבָּעִים לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ׃ 3.4. And Nadab and Abihu died before the LORD, when they offered strange fire before the LORD, in the wilderness of Sinai, and they had no children; and Eleazar and Ithamar ministered in the priest’s office in the presence of Aaron their father." 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 7.1. And it came to pass on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle, and had anointed it and sanctified it, and all the furniture thereof, and the altar and all the vessels thereof, and had anointed them and sanctified them;" 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 20.23. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in mount Hor, by the border of the land of Edom, saying:" 20.24. ’Aaron shall be gathered unto his people; for he shall not enter into the land which I have given unto the children of Israel, because ye rebelled against My word at the waters of Meribah." 20.25. Take Aaron and Eleazar his son, and bring them up unto mount Hor." 20.26. And strip Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron shall be gathered unto his people, and shall die there.’" 20.27. And Moses did as the LORD commanded; and they went up into mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation." 20.28. And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron died there in the top of the mount; and Moses and Eleazar came down from the mount." 20.29. And when all the congregation saw that Aaron was dead, they wept for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel." 27.20. And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken." 33.37. And they journeyed from Kadesh, and pitched in mount Hor, in the edge of the land of Edom.—" 33.38. And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the commandment of the LORD, and died there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first day of the month."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.15. בְּאוֹר־פְּנֵי־מֶלֶךְ חַיִּים וּרְצוֹנוֹ כְּעָב מַלְקוֹשׁ׃ 16.15. In the light of the king’s countece is life; And his favour is as a cloud of the latter rain."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 4.7, 31.16, 90.8, 104.1, 105.1, 106.1, 110.1, 111.1, 112.1, 114.1, 116.1, 148.1, 149.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.7. רַבִּים אֹמְרִים מִי־יַרְאֵנוּ טוֹב נְסָה־עָלֵינוּ אוֹר פָּנֶיךָ יְהוָה׃ 31.16. בְּיָדְךָ עִתֹּתָי הַצִּילֵנִי מִיַּד־אוֹיְבַי וּמֵרֹדְפָי׃ 90.8. שת [שַׁתָּה] עֲוֺנֹתֵינוּ לְנֶגְדֶּךָ עֲלֻמֵנוּ לִמְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 105.1. וַיַּעֲמִידֶהָ לְיַעֲקֹב לְחֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 105.1. הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה קִרְאוּ בִּשְׁמוֹ הוֹדִיעוּ בָעַמִּים עֲלִילוֹתָיו׃ 106.1. וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם מִיַּד שׂוֹנֵא וַיִּגְאָלֵם מִיַּד אוֹיֵב׃ 106.1. הַלְלוּיָהּ הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 111.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ אוֹדֶה יְהוָה בְּכָל־לֵבָב בְּסוֹד יְשָׁרִים וְעֵדָה׃ 111.1. רֵאשִׁית חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה שֵׂכֶל טוֹב לְכָל־עֹשֵׂיהֶם תְּהִלָּתוֹ עֹמֶדֶת לָעַד׃ 112.1. רָשָׁע יִרְאֶה וְכָעָס שִׁנָּיו יַחֲרֹק וְנָמָס תַּאֲוַת רְשָׁעִים תֹּאבֵד׃ 112.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ אַשְׁרֵי־אִישׁ יָרֵא אֶת־יְהוָה בְּמִצְוֺתָיו חָפֵץ מְאֹד׃ 114.1. בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם בֵּית יַעֲקֹב מֵעַם לֹעֵז׃ 116.1. הֶאֱמַנְתִּי כִּי אֲדַבֵּר אֲנִי עָנִיתִי מְאֹד׃ 116.1. אָהַבְתִּי כִּי־יִשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹלִי תַּחֲנוּנָי׃ 148.1. הַחַיָּה וְכָל־בְּהֵמָה רֶמֶשׂ וְצִפּוֹר כָּנָף׃ 148.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ הַלְלוּ אֶת־יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם הַלְלוּהוּ בַּמְּרוֹמִים׃ 149.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ בִּקְהַל חֲסִידִים׃ 4.7. Many there are that say: 'Oh that we could see some good!' LORD, lift Thou up the light of Thy countece upon us." 31.16. My times are in Thy hand; Deliver me from the hand of mine enemies, and from them that persecute me." 90.8. Thou hast set our iniquities before Thee, Our secret sins in the light of Thy countece." 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty." 105.1. O give thanks unto the LORD, call upon His name; Make known His doings among the peoples." 106.1. Hallelujah. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; for His mercy endureth for ever." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 111.1. Hallelujah. I will give thanks unto the LORD with my whole heart, . In the council of the upright, and in the congregation." 112.1. Hallelujah. Happy is the man that feareth the LORD, That delighteth greatly in His commandments." 114.1. When Israel came forth out of Egypt, The house of Jacob from a people of strange language;" 116.1. I love that the LORD should hear my voice and my supplications." 148.1. Hallelujah. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens; Praise Him in the heights." 149.1. Hallelujah. Sing unto the LORD a new song, And His praise in the assembly of the saints."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.10-8.11, 19.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.11. וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת מִפְּנֵי הֶעָנָן כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 19.13. וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיָּלֶט פָּנָיו בְּאַדַּרְתּוֹ וַיֵּצֵא וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הַמְּעָרָה וְהִנֵּה אֵלָיו קוֹל וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־לְּךָ פֹה אֵלִיָּהוּ׃ 8.10. And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the LORD," 8.11. so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; for the glory of the LORD filled the house of the LORD." 19.13. And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out, and stood in the entrance of the cave. And, behold, there came a voice unto him, and said: ‘What doest thou here, Elijah?’"
11. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.4. וְנֹגַהּ כָּאוֹר תִּהְיֶה קַרְנַיִם מִיָּדוֹ לוֹ וְשָׁם חֶבְיוֹן עֻזֹּה׃ 3.4. And a brightness appeareth as the light; rays hath He at His side; and there is the hiding of His power.
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 10.4-10.5, 23.21, 34.29 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.4. וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 10.5. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃ 23.21. וַתִּפְקְדִי אֵת זִמַּת נְעוּרָיִךְ בַּעְשׂוֹת מִמִּצְרַיִם דַּדַּיִךְ לְמַעַן שְׁדֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ׃ 34.29. וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃ 10.4. And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory." 10.5. And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh." 23.21. Thus thou didst call to remembrance the lewdness of thy youth, when they from Egypt bruised thy breasts for the bosom of thy youth." 34.29. And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 8.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.1. מִי כְּהֶחָכָם וּמִי יוֹדֵעַ פֵּשֶׁר דָּבָר חָכְמַת אָדָם תָּאִיר פָּנָיו וְעֹז פָּנָיו יְשֻׁנֶּא׃ 8.1. וּבְכֵן רָאִיתִי רְשָׁעִים קְבֻרִים וָבָאוּ וּמִמְּקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ יְהַלֵּכוּ וְיִשְׁתַּכְּחוּ בָעִיר אֲשֶׁר כֵּן־עָשׂוּ גַּם־זֶה הָבֶל׃ 8.1. Who is as the wise man? and who knoweth the interpretation of a thing? A man’s wisdom maketh his face to shine, And the boldness of his face is changed."
15. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.18 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever.
16. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38.4, 39.12-39.13, 104.2 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

38.4. From that time those that possess the earth shall no longer be powerful and exalted: And they shall not be able to behold the face of the holy, For the Lord of Spirits has caused His light to appear On the face of the holy, righteous, and elect. 39.12. generation unto generation. Those who sleep not bless Thee: they stand before Thy glory and bless, praise, and extol, saying: 'Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Spirits: He filleth the earth with spirits.' And here my eyes saw all those who sleep not: they stand before Him and bless and say: 'Blessed be Thou, and blessed be the name of the Lord for ever and ever.' And my face was changed; for I could no longer behold. 104.2. One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven
17. Anon., Jubilees, 8.1-8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.1. In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Râsû’ĕjâ, [the daughter of Sûsân,] the daughter of Elam 8.2. and she bare him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kâinâm. 8.3. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 8.4. And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe
18. Cicero, Topica, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 28.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 12.6, 12.28-12.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q400, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q491, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q491, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 3.21-3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.1-2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 28.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.57-3.58, 9.17, 12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.17. וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תַּחֲנוּנָיו וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ עַל־מִקְדָּשְׁךָ הַשָּׁמֵם לְמַעַן אֲדֹנָי׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 9.17. Now therefore, O our God, hearken unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplications, and cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever."
28. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.21-3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.21. Seek not what is too difficult for you,nor investigate what is beyond your power. 3.22. Reflect upon what has been assigned to you,for you do not need what is hidden.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 96-97, 95 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

95. But it is a peculiar property of those who serve the living God neither to regard the work of cup-bearers, or bakers, or cooks, or any other earthly employments, nor to trouble themselves about arranging or adorning their bodies like bricks, but to mount up with their reason to the height of heaven, having elected Moses, the type of the race which loves God, to be the guide of their path;
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 135, 139-140, 152, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. But Tamar, when she became pregt of divine seeds, and did not know who it was who had sown them (for it is said that at that time "she had covered her face," as Moses did when he turned away, having a reverential fear of beholding God), still when she saw the tokens and the evidences and decided within herself that it was not a mortal man who gave these things, cried out, "To whomsoever these things belong, it is by him that I am with Child.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 14, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. These suggestions and such as these are what he gives to the rest of the world, but he himself so insatiably desires to behold him, and to be beheld by him, that he supplicates him to display to his eye his nature of which it is impossible to form a conjecture, so that he may become acquainted with it, that thus he might receive a most well-grounded certainty of knowledge that could not be mistaken, in exchange for uncertain doubts; and he will never cease from urging his desire, but even, though he is aware that he desires a matter which is difficult of attainment, or rather which is wholly unattainable, he still strives on, in no way remitting his intense anxiety, but without admitting any excuse, or any hesitation, or vacillation; using all the means in his power to gain his object. V.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.44-2.45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.44. After that he puts on a golden necklace, a most illustrious halter, the circlet and wheel of interminable necessity, not the consequence and regular order of things in life, nor the connection of the affairs of nature as Thamar was; for her ornament was not a necklace, but an armlet. Moreover, he assumes a ring, a royal gift which is no gift, a pledge devoid of good faith, the very contrary gift to that which was given to the same Thamar by Judah the son of the seeing king, Israel; 2.45. for God gives to the soul a seal, a very beautiful gift, to show that he has invested with shape the essence of all things which was previously devoid of shape, and has stamped with a particular character that which previously had no character, and has endowed with form that which had previously no distinctive form, and having perfected the entire world, he has impressed upon it an image and appearance, namely, his own word.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.17, 2.66-2.186 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. and as she said that she wished that she would do so, the maiden went and fetched her own mother and that of the infant, as if she had been a stranger, who with great readiness and willingness cheerfully promised to take the child and bring him up, pretending to be tempted by the reward to be paid, the providence of God thus making the original bringing up of the child to accord with the genuine course of nature. Then she gave him a name, calling him Moses with great propriety, because she had received him out of the water, for the Egyptians call water "mos. 2.66. We have already, then, gone through two parts of the life of Moses, discussing his character in his capacity of a king and of a lawgiver. We must now consider him in a third light, as fulfilling the office of the priesthood. Now this man, Moses, practised beyond all other men that which is the most important and most indispensable virtue in a chief priest, namely, piety, partly because he was endowed with most admirable natural qualities; and philosophy, receiving his nature like a fertile field, cultivated and improved it by the contemplation of excellent and beautiful doctrines, and did not dismiss it until all the fruits of virtue were brought to perfection in him, in respect of words and actions. 2.67. Therefore he, with a few other men, was dear to God and devoted to God, being inspired by heavenly love, and honouring the Father of the universe above all things, and being in return honoured by him in a particular manner. And it was an honour well adapted to the wise man to be allowed to serve the true and living God. Now the priesthood has for its duty the service of God. of this honour, then, Moses was thought worthy, than which there is no greater honour in the whole world, being instructed by the sacred oracles of God in everything that related to the sacred offices and ministrations. 2.68. But, in the first place, before assuming that office, it was necessary for him to purify not only his soul but also his body, so that it should be connected with and defiled by no passion, but should be pure from everything which is of a mortal nature, from all meat and drink, and from all connection with women. 2.69. And this last thing, indeed, he had despised for a long time, and almost from the first moment that he began to prophesy and to feel a divine inspiration, thinking that it was proper that he should at all times be ready to give his whole attention to the commands of God. And how he neglected all meat and drink for forty days together, evidently because he had more excellent food than that in those contemplations with which he was inspired from above from heaven, by which also he was improved in the first instance in his mind, and, secondly, in his body, through his soul, increasing in strength and health both of body and soul, so that those who saw him afterwards could not believe that he was the same person. 2.70. For, having gone up into the loftiest and most sacred mountain in that district in accordance with the divine commands, a mountain which was very difficult of access and very hard to ascend, he is said to have remained there all that time without eating any of that food even which is necessary for life; and, as I said before, he descended again forty days afterwards, being much more beautiful in his face than when he went up, so that those who saw him wondered and were amazed, and could no longer endure to look upon him with their eyes, inasmuch as his countece shone like the light of the sun. 2.71. And while he was still abiding in the mountain he was initiated in the sacred will of God, being instructed in all the most important matters which relate to his priesthood, those which come first in order being the commands of God respecting the building of a temple and all its furniture. 2.72. If, then, they had already occupied the country into which they were migrating, it would have been necessary for them to have erected a most magnificent temple of the most costly stone in some place unincumbered with wood, and to have built vast walls around it, and abundant and wellfurnished houses for the keepers of the temple, calling the place itself the holy city. 2.73. But, as they were still wandering in the wilderness, it was more suitable for people who had as yet no settled habitation to have a moveable temple, that so, in all their journeyings, and military expeditions, and encampments, they might be able to offer up sacrifices, and might not feel the want of any of the things which related to their holy ministrations, and which those who dwell in cities require to have. 2.74. Therefore Moses now determined to build a tabernacle, a most holy edifice, the furniture of which he was instructed how to supply by precise commands from God, given to him while he was on the mount, contemplating with his soul the incorporeal patterns of bodies which were about to be made perfect, in due similitude to which he was bound to make the furniture, that it might be an imitation perceptible by the outward senses of an archetypal sketch and pattern, appreciable only by the intellect; 2.75. for it was suitable and consistent for the task of preparing and furnishing the temple to be entrusted to the real high priest, that he might with all due perfection and propriety make all his ministrations in the performance of his sacred duties correspond to the works which he was now to make. 2.76. Therefore the general form of the model was stamped upon the mind of the prophet, being accurately painted and fashioned beforehand invisibly without any materials, in species which were not apparent to the eye; and the completion of the work was made in the similitude of the model, the maker giving an accurate representation of the impression in material substances corresponding to each part of the model 2.77. and the fashion of the building was as follows. There were eight and forty pillars of cedar, which is the most incorruptible of all woods, cut out of solid trunks of great beauty, and they were all veneered with gold of great thickness. Then under each pillar there were placed two silver pedestals to support it, and on the top of each was placed one golden capital; 2.78. and of these pillars the architect arranged forty along the length of the tabernacle, one half of them, or twenty, on each side, placing nothing between them, but arranging them and uniting them all in regular order, and close together, so that they might present the appearance of one solid wall; and he ranged the other eight along the inner breadth, placing six in the middle space, and two at the extreme corners, one on each side at the right and left of the centre. Again, at the entrance he placed four others, like the first in all other respects except that they had only one pedestal instead of two, as those opposite to them had, and behind them he placed five more on the outside differing only in the pedestals, for the pedestals of these last were made of brass. 2.79. So that all the pillars of the tabernacle taken together, besides the two at the corners which could not be seen, were fifty-five in number, all conspicuous, being the number made by the addition of all the numbers from the unit to the complete and perfect decade. 2.80. And if any were inclined to count those five pillars of the outer vestibule in the open air separately, as being in the outer court as it was called, there will then be left that most holy number of fifty, being the power of a rectangular triangle, which is the foundation of the creation of the universe, and is here entirely completed by the pillars inside the tabernacle; there being first of all forty, twenty on either side, and those in the middle being six, without counting those which were out of sight and concealed at the corners, and those opposite to the entrance, from which the veil was suspended, being four; 2.81. and the reason for which I reckon the other five with the first fifty, and again why I separate them from the fifty, I will now explain. The number five is the number of the external senses, and the external sense in man at one time inclines towards external things, and at another time comes back again upon the mind, being as it were a kind of handmaid of the laws of its nature; on which account it is that the architect has here allotted a central position to the five pillars, for those which are inside of them leant towards the innermost shrine of the tabernacle, which under a symbol is appreciable only by the intellect; and the outermost pillars, which are in the open air, and in the outer courtyard, and which are also perceptible by the external senses 2.82. in reference to which fact it is that they are said to have differed from the others only in the pedestals, for they were made of brass. But since the mind is the principal thing in us, having an authority over the external senses, and since that which is an object of the external senses is the extremity, and as it were the pedestal or foundation of it, the architect has likened the mind to gold, and the object of the external sense to brass. 2.83. And these are the measures of the pillars, they are ten cubits in length, and five cubits and a half in width, in order that the tabernacle may be seen to be of equal dimensions in all its parts. 2.84. Moreover the architect surrounded the tabernacle with very beautiful woven work of all kinds, employing work of hyacinth colour, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen for the tapestry; for he caused to be wrought ten cloths, which in the sacred scriptures he has called curtains, of the kinds which I have just mentioned, every one of them being eight and twenty cubits in length, and extending four cubits in width, in order that the complete number of the decade, and also the number four, which is the essence of the decade, and also the number twenty-eight, which is likewise a perfect number, being equal to its parts; and also the number forty, the most prolific and productive of all numbers, in which number they say that man was fashioned in the workshop of nature. 2.85. Therefore the eight and twenty cubits of the curtains have this distribution: there are ten along the roof, for that is the width of the tabernacle, and the rest are placed along the sides, on each side nine, which are extended so as to cover and conceal the pillars, one cubit from the floor being left uncovered in order that the beautiful and holy looking embroidery might not be dragged. 2.86. And of the forty which are included in the calculation and made up of the width of the ten curtains, the length takes thirty, for such is the length of the tabernacle, and the chamber behind takes nine. And the remaining one is in the outer vestibule, that it may be the bond to unite the whole circumference. 2.87. And the outer vestibule is overshadowed by the veil; and the curtains themselves are nearly the same as veils, not only because they cover the roof and the walls, but also because they are woven and embroidered by the same figures, and with hyacinth colour, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen. And the veil, and that thing, too, which was called the covering, was made of the same things. That which was within was placed along the five pillars, that the innermost shrine might be concealed; and that which was outside being placed along the five pillars, that no one of those who were not holy men might be able from any secret or distant place to behold the holy rites and ceremonies. 2.88. Moreover, he chose the materials of this embroidery, selecting with great care what was most excellent out of an infinite quantity, choosing materials equal in number to the elements of which the world was made, and having a direct relation to them; the elements being the earth and the water, and the air and the fire. For the fine flax is produced from the earth, and the purple from the water, and the hyacinth colour is compared to the air (for, by nature, it is black 2.89. Therefore the tabernacle was built in the manner that has been here described, like a holy temple. And all around it a sacred precinct extended a hundred cubits in length and fifty cubits in width, having pillars all placed at an equal distance of five cubits from one another, so that there were in all sixty pillars; and they were divided so that forty were placed along the length and twenty along the breadth of the tabernacle, one half on each side. 2.90. And the material of which the pillars were composed was cedar within, and on the surface without silver; and the pedestals of all of them were made of brass, and the height was equal to five cubits. For it seemed to the architect to be proper to make the height of what was called the hall equal to one half of the entire length, that so the tabernacle might appear to be elevated to double its real height. And there were thin curtains fitted to the pillars along their entire length and breadth, resembling so many sails, in order that no one might be able to enter in who was not pure. 2.91. And the situation was as follows. In the middle was placed a tent, being in length thirty cubits and in width ten cubits, including the depth of the pillars. And it was distant from the centre space by three intervals of equal distance, two being at the sides and one along the back chamber. And the interval between was by measurement twenty cubits. But along the vestibule, as was natural, by reason of the number of those who entered, the distance between them was increased and extended to fifty cubits and more; for in this way the hundred pillars of the hall were intended to be made up, twenty being along the chamber behind, and those which the tent contained, thirty in number, being included in the same calculation with the fifty at the entrances; 2.92. for the outer vestibule of the tabernacle was placed as a sort of boundary in the middle of the two fifties, the one, I mean, towards the east where the entrance was, and the other being on the west, in which direction the length of the tabernacle and the surrounding wall behind was. 2.93. Moreover, another outer vestibule, of great size and exceeding beauty, was made at the beginning of the entrance into the hall, by means of four pillars, along which was stretched the embroidered curtain in the same manner as the inner curtains were stretched along the tabernacle, and wrought also of similar materials; 2.94. and with this there were also many sacred vessels made, an ark, and a candlestick, and a table, and an altar of incense, and an altar of sacrifice. Now, the altar of sacrifice was placed in the open air, right opposite to the entrances of the tabernacle, being distant from it just so far as was necessary to give the ministering officers room to perform the sacrifices that were offered up every day. 2.95. But the ark was in the innermost shrine, in the inaccessible holy of holies, behind curtains; being gilded in a most costly and magnificent manner within and without, the covering of which was like to that which is called in the sacred scriptures the mercy-seat. 2.96. Its length and width are accurately described, but its depth is not mentioned, being chiefly compared to and resembling a geometrical superficies; so that it appears to be an emblem, if looked at physically, of the merciful power of God; and, if regarded in a moral point of view, of a certain intellect spontaneously propitious to itself, which is especially desirous to contract and destroy, by means of the love of simplicity united with knowledge, that vain opinion which raises itself up to an unreasonable height and puffs itself up without any grounds. 2.97. But the ark is the depository of the laws, for in that are placed the holy oracles of God, which were given to Moses; and the covering of the ark, which is called the mercy-seat, is a foundation for two winged creatures to rest upon, which are called, in the native language of the Hebrews, cherubim, but as the Greeks would translate the word, vast knowledge and science. 2.98. Now some persons say, that these cherubim are the symbols of the two hemispheres, placed opposite to and fronting one another, the one beneath the earth and the other above the earth, for the whole heaven is endowed with wings. 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness; 2.100. for he, being the only true living God, is also really the Creator of the world; since he brought things which had no existence into being; and he is also a king by nature, because no one can rule over beings that have been created more justly than he who created them. 2.101. And in the space between the five pillars and the four pillars, is that space which is, properly speaking, the space before the temple, being cut off by two curtains of woven work, the inner one of which is called the veil, and the outer one is called the covering: and the remaining three vessels, of those which I have enumerated, were placed as follows:--The altar of incense was placed in the middle, between earth and water, as a symbol of gratitude, which it was fitting should be offered up, on account of the things that had been done for the Hebrews on both these elements, for these elements have had the central situation of the world allotted to them. 2.102. The candlestick was placed on the southern side of the tabernacle, since by it the maker intimates, in a figurative manner, the motions of the stars which give light; for the sun, and the moon, and the rest of the stars, being all at a great distance from the northern parts of the universe, make all their revolutions in the south. And from this candlestick there proceeded six branches, three on each side, projecting from the candlestick in the centre, so as altogether to complete the number of seven; 2.103. and in all the seven there were seven candles and seven lights, being symbols of those seven stars which are called planets by those men who are versed in natural philosophy; for the sun, like the candlestick, being placed in the middle of the other six, in the fourth rank, gives light to the three planets which are above him, and to those of equal number which are below him, adapting to circumstances the musical and truly divine instrument. 2.104. And the table, on which bread and salt are laid, was placed on the northern side, since it is the north which is the most productive of winds, and because too all nourishment proceeds from heaven and earth, the one giving rain, and the other bringing to perfection all seeds by means of the irrigation of water; 2.105. for the symbols of heaven and earth are placed side by side, as the holy scripture shows, the candlestick being the symbol of heaven, and that which is truly called the altar of incense, on which all the fumigatory offerings are made, being the emblem of the things of earth. 2.106. But it became usual to call the altar which was in the open air the altar of sacrifice, as being that which preserved and took care of the sacrifices; intimating, figuratively, the consuming power of these things, and not the lambs and different parts of the victims which were offered, and which were naturally calculated to be destroyed by fire, but the intention of him who offered them; 2.107. for if the man who made the offerings was foolish and ignorant, the sacrifices were no sacrifices, the victims were not sacred or hallowed, the prayers were ill-omened, and liable to be answered by utter destruction, for even when they appear to be received, they produce no remission of sins but only a reminding of them. 2.108. But if the man who offers the sacrifice be bold and just, then the sacrifice remains firm, even if the flesh of the victim be consumed, or rather, I might say, even if no victim be offered up at all; for what can be a real and true sacrifice but the piety of a soul which loves God? The gratitude of which is blessed with immortality, and without being recorded in writing is engraved on a pillar in the mind of God, being made equally everlasting with the sun, and moon, and the universal world. 2.109. After these things the architect of the tabernacle next prepared a sacred dress for him who was to be appointed high priest, having in its embroidery a most exceedingly beautiful and admirable work; and the robe was two-fold; one part of which was called the under-robe, and the other the robe over the shoulders. 2.110. Now the under-robe was of a more simple form and character, for it was entirely of hyacinthine colours, except the lowest and exterior portions, and these were ornamented with golden pomegranates, and bells, and wreaths of flowers; 2.111. but the robe over the shoulders or mantle was a most beautiful and skilful work, and was made with most perfect skill of all the aforesaid kinds of material, of hyacinth colour, and purple, and fine linen, and scarlet, gold thread being entwined and embroidered in it. For the leaves were divided into fine hairs, and woven in with every thread 2.112. and on the collar stones were fitted in, two being costly emeralds of exceeding value, on which the names of the patriarchs of the tribes were engraved, six on each, making twelve in all; and on the breast were twelve other precious stones, differing in colour like seals, in four rows of three stones each, and these were fitted in what was called the logeum 2.113. and the logeum was made square and double, as a sort of foundation, that it mighty bear on it, as an image, two virtues, manifestation and truth; and the whole was fastened to the mantle by fine golden chains, and fastened to it so that it might never get loose; 2.114. and a golden leaf was wrought like a crown, having four names engraved on it which may only be mentioned or heard by holy men having their ears and their tongues purified by wisdom, and by no one else at all in any place whatever. 2.115. And this holy prophet Moses calls the name, a name of four letters, making them perhaps symbols of the primary numbers, the unit, the number two, the number three, the number four: since all things are comprised in the number four, namely, a point, and a line, and a superficies, and a solid, and the measures of all things, and the most excellent symphonies of music, and the diatessaron in the sesquitertial proportion, and the chord in fifths, in the ratio of one and a half to one, and the diapason in the double ratio, and the double diapason in the fourfold ratio. Moreover, the number four has an innumerable list of other virtues likewise, the greater part of which we have discussed with accuracy in our dissertation on numbers. 2.116. And in it there was a mitre, in order that the leaf might not touch the head; and there was also a cidaris made, for the kings of the eastern countries are accustomed to use a cidaris, instead of a diadem. 2.117. Such, then, is the dress of the high priest. But we must not omit to mention the signification which it conceals beneath both in its whole and in its parts. In its whole it is a copy and representation of the world; and the parts are a representation of the separate parts of the world. 2.118. And we must begin with the long robe reaching down to the feet of the wearer. This tunic is wholly of the colour of a hyacinth, so as to be a representation of the air; for by nature the air is black, and in a measure it reaches down from the highest parts to the feet, being stretched from the parts about the moon, as far as the extremities of the earth, and being diffused everywhere. On which account also, the tunic reaches from the chest to the feet, and is spread over the whole body 2.119. and unto it there is attached a fringe of pomegranates round the ankles, and flowers, and bells. Now the flowers are an emblem of the earth; for it is from the earth that all flowers spring and bloom; but the pomegranates (rhoiskoi 2.120. And the place itself is the most distinct possible evidence of what is here meant to be expressed; for as the pomegranates, and the flowers, and the bells, are placed in the hem of the garment which reaches to the feet, so likewise the things of which they are the symbols, namely, the earth and water, have had the lowest position in the world assigned to them, and being in strict accord with the harmony of the universe, they display their own particular powers in definite periods of time and suitable seasons. 2.121. Now of the three elements, out of which and in which all the different kinds of things which are perceptible by the outward senses and perishable are formed, namely, the air, the water and the earth, the garment which reached down to the feet in conjunction with the ornaments which were attached to that part of it which was about the ankles have been plainly shown to be appropriate symbols; for as the tunic is one, and as the aforesaid three elements are all of one species, since they all have all their revolutions and changes beneath the moon, and as to the garment are attached the pomegranates, and the flowers; so also in certain manner the earth and the water may be said to be attached to and suspended from the air, for the air is their chariot. 2.122. And our argument will be able to bring forth twenty probable reasons that the mantle over the shoulders is an emblem of heaven. For in the first place, the two emeralds on the shoulderblades, which are two round stones, are, in the opinion of some persons who have studied the subject, emblems of those stars which are the rulers of night and day, namely, the sun and moon; or rather, as one might argue with more correctness and a nearer approach to truth, they are the emblems of the two hemispheres; for, like those two stones, the portion below the earth and that over the earth are both equal, and neither of them is by nature adapted to be either increased or diminished like the moon. 2.123. And the colour of the stars is an additional evidence in favour of my view; for to the glance of the eye the appearance of the heaven does resemble an emerald; and it follows necessarily that six names are engraved on each of the stones, because each of the hemispheres cuts the zodiac in two parts, and in this way comprehends within itself six animals. 2.124. Then the twelve stones on the breast, which are not like one another in colour, and which are divided into four rows of three stones in each, what else can they be emblems of, except of the circle of the zodiac? For that also is divided into four parts, each consisting of three animals, by which divisions it makes up the seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, distinguishing the four changes, the two solstices, and the two equinoxes, each of which has its limit of three signs of this zodiac, by the revolutions of the sun, according to that unchangeable, and most lasting, and really divine ratio which exists in numbers; 2.125. on which account they attached it to that which is with great propriety called the logeum. For all the changes of the year and the seasons are arranged by well-defined, and stated, and firm reason; and, though this seems a most extraordinary and incredible thing, by their seasonable changes they display their undeviating and everlasting permanence and durability. 2.126. And it is said with great correctness, and exceeding beauty also, that the twelve stones all differ in their colour, and that no one of them resembles the other; for also in the zodiac each animal produces that colour which is akin to and belongs to itself, both in the air, and in the earth, and in the water; and it produces it likewise in all the affections which move them, and in all kinds of animals and of plants. 2.127. And this logeum is described as double with great correctness; for reason is double, both in the universe and also in the nature of mankind, in the universe there is that reason which is conversant about incorporeal species which are like patterns as it were, from which that world which is perceptible only by the intellect was made, and also that which is concerned with the visible objects of sight, which are copies and imitations of those species above mentioned, of which the world which is perceptible by the outward senses was made. Again, in man there is one reason which is kept back, and another which finds vent in utterance: and the one is, as it were a spring, and the other (that which is uttered 2.128. And the architect assigned a quadrangular form to the logeum, intimating under an exceedingly beautiful figure, that both the reason of nature, and also that of man, ought to penetrate everywhere, and ought never to waver in any case; in reference to which, it is that he has also assigned to it the two virtues that have been already enumerated, manifestation and truth; for the reason of nature is true, and calculated to make manifest, and to explain everything; and the reason of the wise man, imitating that other reason, ought naturally, and appropriately to be completely sincere, honouring truth, and not obscuring anything through envy, the knowledge of which can benefit those to whom it would be explained; 2.129. not but what he has also assigned their two appropriate virtues to those two kinds of reason which exist in each of us, namely, that which is uttered and that which is kept concealed, attributing clearness of manifestation to the uttered one, and truth to that which is concealed in the mind; for it is suitable to the mind that it should admit of no error or falsehood, and to explanation that it should not hinder anything that can conduce to the most accurate manifestation. 2.130. Therefore there is no advantage in reason which expends itself in dignified and pompous language, about things which are good and desirable, unless it is followed by consistent practice of suitable actions; on which account the architect has affixed the logeum to the robe which is worn over the shoulder, in order that it may never get loose, as he does not approve of the language being separated from the actions; for he puts forth the shoulder as the emblem of energy and action. 2.131. Such then are the figurative meanings which he desires to indicate by the sacred vestments of the high priest; and instead of a diadem he represents a cidaris on the head, because he thinks it right that the man who is consecrated to God, as his high priest, should, during the time of his exercising his office be superior to all men, not only to all private individuals, but even to all kings; 2.132. and above this cidaris is a golden leaf, on which an engraving of four letters was impressed; by which letters they say that the name of the living God is indicated, since it is not possible that anything that it in existence, should exist without God being invoked; for it is his goodness and his power combined with mercy that is the harmony and uniter of all things. 2.133. The high priest, then, being equipped in this way, is properly prepared for the performance of all sacred ceremonies, that, whenever he enters the temple to offer up the prayers and sacrifices in use among his nation, all the world may likewise enter in with him, by means of the imitations of it which he bears about him, the garment reaching to his feet, being the imitation of the air, the pomegranate of the water, the flowery hem of the earth, and the scarlet dye of his robe being the emblem of fire; also, the mantle over his shoulders being a representation of heaven itself; the two hemispheres being further indicated by the round emeralds on the shoulder-blades, on each of which were engraved six characters equivalent to six signs of the zodiac; the twelve stones arranged on the breast in four rows of three stones each, namely the logeum, being also an emblem of that reason which holds together and regulates the universe. 2.134. For it was indispensable that the man who was consecrated to the Father of the world, should have as a paraclete, his son, the being most perfect in all virtue, to procure forgiveness of sins, and a supply of unlimited blessings; 2.135. perhaps, also, he is thus giving a previous warning to the servant of God, even if he is unable to make himself worthy of the Creator, of the world, at least to labour incessantly to make himself worthy of the world itself; the image of which he is clothed in, in a manner that binds him from the time that he puts it on, to bear about the pattern of it in his mind, so that he shall be in a manner changed from the nature of a man into the nature of the world, and, if one may say so (and one may by all means and at all times speak the plain truth in sincerity 2.136. Again, outside the outer vestibule, at the entrance, is a brazen laver; the architect having not taken any mere raw material for the manufacture of it, as is very common, but having employed on its formation vessels which had been constructed with great care for other purposes; and which the women contributed with all imaginable zeal and eagerness, in rivalry of one another, competing with the men themselves in piety, having determined to enter upon a glorious contest, and to the utmost extent of their power to exert themselves so as not to fall short of their holiness. 2.137. For though no one enjoined them to do so, they, of their own spontaneous zeal and earnestness, contributed the mirrors with which they had been accustomed to deck and set off their beauty, as the most becoming first fruits of their modesty, and of the purity of their married life, and as one may say of the beauty of their souls. 2.138. The maker then thought it well to accept these offerings, and to melt them down, and to make nothing except the laver of them, in order that the priests who were about to enter the temple might be supplied from it, with water of purification for the purpose of performing the sacred ministrations which were appointed for them; washing their feet most especially, and their hands, as a symbol of their irreproachable life, and of a course of conduct which makes itself pure in all kinds of praiseworthy actions, proceeding not along the rough road of wickedness which one may more properly call no road at all, but keeping straight along the level and direct path of virtue. 2.139. Let him remember, says he, let him who is about to be sprinkled with the water of purification from this laver, remember that the materials of which this vessel was composed were mirrors, that he himself may look into his own mind as into a mirror; and if there is perceptible in it any deformity arising from some agitation unconnected with reason or from any pleasure which would excite us, and raise us up in hostility to reason, or from any pain which might mislead us and turn us from our purpose of proceeding by the straight road, or from any desire alluring us and even dragging us by force to the pursuit of present pleasures, he seeks to relieve and cure that, desiring only that beauty which is genuine and unadulterated. 2.140. For the beauty of the body consists in symmetry of parts, and in a good complexion, and a healthy firmness of flesh, having also but a short period during which it is in its prime; but the beauty of the mind consists in a harmony of doctrines and a perfect accord of virtues, which do not fade away or become impaired by lapse of time, but as long as they endure at all are constantly acquiring fresh vigour and renewed youth, being set off by the preeminent complexion of truth, and the agreement of its words with its actions, and of its actions with its words, and also of its designs with both. 2.141. And when he had been taught the patterns of the sacred tabernacle, and had in turn himself taught those who were gifted with acute comprehension, and well-qualified by nature for the comprehension and execution of those works, which it was indispensably necessary should be made; then, as was natural, when the temple had been built and finished, it was fitting also, that most suitable persons should be appointed as priests, and should be instructed in what manner it was proper for them to offer up their sacrifices, and perform their sacred ministrations. 2.142. Accordingly, Moses selected his brother, choosing him out of all men, because of his superior virtue, to be high priest, and his sons he appointed priests, not giving precedence to his own family, but to the piety and holiness which he perceived to exist in those men; and what is the clearest proof of this is, that he did not think either of his sons worthy of this honour (and he had two 2.143. and he appointed them with the uimous consent of the whole nation, as the sacred scriptures have recorded, which was a most novel mode of proceeding, and one especially worthy of being mentioned; and, in the first place, he washed them all over with the most pure and vivifying water of the fountain; and then he gave them their sacred vestments, giving to his brother the robe which reached down to his feet, and the mantle which covered the shoulders, as a sort of breast-plate, being an embroidered robe, adorned with all kinds of figures, and a representation of the universe. And to all his nephews he gave linen tunics, and girdles, and trowsers; 2.144. the girdles, in order that the wearers might be unimpeded and ready for all their sacred ministrations, were fastened up tight round the loose waists of the tunics; and the breeches, that nothing which ought to be hidden might be visible, especially when they were going up to the altar, or coming down from the high place, and doing everything with earnestness and celerity. 2.145. For if their equipment had not been so accurately attended to for the sake of guarding against the uncertain future, and for the sake of providing for an energetic promptness in the sacred ministrations, the men would have appeared naked, not being able to preserve the becoming order necessary to holy men dedicated to the service of God. 2.146. And when he had thus furnished them with proper vestments, he took very fragrant ointment, which had been made by the skill of the perfumer, and first of all he anointed the altar in the open air, and the laver, sprinkling it with the perfume seven times; after that he anointed the tabernacle and every one of the sacred vessels, the ark, and the candlestick, and the altar of incense, and the table, and the censers, and the vials, and all the other things which were either necessary or useful for the sacrifices; and last of all bringing the high priest close to himself, he anointed his head with abundant quantities of oil. 2.147. When he had done all this, he then, in strict accordance with what was holy, commanded a heifer and two rams to be brought; the one that he might sacrifice it for the remission of sins, intimating by a figure that to sin is congenital with every created being, however good it may be, inasmuch as it is created, and that therefore it is indispensable that God should be propitiated in its behalf by means of prayers and sacrifices, that he may not be provoked to chastise it. 2.148. And of the rams, one he required for a whole burnt-offering of gratitude for the successful arrangement of all those things, of which every individual has such a share as is suited to him, deriving benefit from all the elements, enjoying the earth for his abode and in respect of the nourishment which is derived from it; the water for drinking, and washing, and sailing on; the air for breathing and for the comprehension of those things which are the objects of our outward senses (since the air is the medium in which they all are exerted 2.149. The other ram he employed for the complete accomplishment of the purification of the priests, which he appropriately called the ram of perfection, since the priests were intended to exercise their office in teaching proper and convenient rites and ceremonies to the servants and ministers of God. 2.150. And he took the blood, and with some of it he poured a libation all round the altar, and part he took, holding a vial under it to catch it, and with it he anointed three parts of the body of the initiated priests, the tip of the ear, the extremity of the hand, and the extremity of the foot, all on the right side, signifying by this action that the perfect man must be pure in every word and action, and in his whole life, for it is the hearing which judges of his words, and the hand is the symbol of action, and the foot of the way in which a man walks in life; 2.151. and since each of these members is an extremity of the body, and is likewise on the right side, we must imagine that it is here indicated by a figure that improvement in every thing is to be arrived at by a certain dexterity, being a portion of supreme felicity, and being the true aim in life, which a man must necessarily labour to attain, and to which he ought to refer all his actions, aiming at them in his life, as in the practice of archery men aim at a target. 2.152. Accordingly, he first of all anointed the three parts before mentioned of the bodies of the priests with the unmixed blood of one of the victims, that, namely, which was called the ram of perfection; and afterwards, taking some of the blood which was upon the altar, being the blood of all the victims mingled together, and some also of the unguent which has already been mentioned, which the ointment makers had prepared, and mixing some of the oil with the mingled blood of the different victims, he sprinkled some upon the priests and upon their garments, with the intention that they should have a share not only in that purity which was external and in the open air, but also of that which was in the inmost shrine, since they were about to minister within the temple. And all the things within the temple were anointed with oil. 2.153. And when they had brought forward other sacrifices in addition to the former ones, partly the priests sacrificing for themselves, and partly the elders sacrificing on behalf of the whole nation, then Moses entered into the tabernacle, leading his brother by the hand (and it was the eighth and last day of the festival, for the seven previous days had been devoted to the initiation of the hierophant 2.154. Then, when they had both come out and held up their hands in front of their head, they, with a pure and holy mind, offered up such prayers as were suitable and becoming for the nation. And while they were still praying a most marvellous prodigy happened; for from out of the inmost shrine, whether it was a portion of the purest possible aether, or whether the air, according to some natural change of the elements, had become dissolved with fire, on a sudden a body of flame shone forth, and with impetuous violence descended on the altar and consumed all that was thereon, with the view, as I imagine, of showing in the clearest manner that none of the things which had been done had been done without the especial providence of God. 2.155. For it was natural that an especial honour should be assigned to the holy place, not only by means of those things in which men are the workmen employed, but also by that purest of all essences, fire, in order that the ordinary fire which is used by men might not touch the altar; perhaps by reason of its being defiled by ten thousand impurities. 2.156. For it is concerned not only with irrational animals when they are roasted or boiled for the unjust appeasing of our miserable bellies, but also in the case of men who are slain by hostile attack, not merely in a small body of three or four, but in numerous hosts. 2.157. At all events, before now, arrows charged with fire have been aimed at vast naval fleets and have burnt them; and fire has destroyed whole cities, which have blazed away till they have been consumed down to their very foundations and reduced to ashes, so that no trace whatever has remained of their former situation. 2.158. It appears to me that this was the reason for which God rejected from his sacred altar the fire which is applied to common uses, as being defiled; and that, instead of it, he rained down celestial flame from heaven, in order to make a distinction between holy and profane things, and to separate the things belonging to man from the things belonging to God; for it was fitting that a more incorruptible essence of fire than that which served the common purposes of life should be set apart for sacrifices. 2.159. And as many sacrifices were of necessity offered up every day, and especially on all days of solemn assembly and festival, both on behalf of each individual separately and in common for the whole nation, for innumerable and various reasons, inasmuch as the nation was very populous and very pious, there was a need also of a multitude of keepers of the temple for the sacred and subordinate ministrations. 2.160. And, again, the election of these officers was conducted in a novel and not in the ordinary manner. God chose out one of the twelve tribes, having selected it for its superior excellence, and appointed that to furnish the keepers of the temple, giving it rewards and peculiar honours in return for its pious acting. And the action which it had to perform was of this kind. 2.161. When Moses had gone up into the neighbouring mountain and had remained several days alone with God, the fickle-minded among the people, thinking that his absence was a favourable opportunity, as if they had no longer any ruler at all, rushed unrestrainedly to impiety, and, forgetting the holiness of the living God, became eager imitators of the Egyptian inventions. 2.162. Then, having made a golden calf in imitation of that which appeared to be the most sacred animal in that district, they offered up unholy sacrifices, and instituted blasphemous dances, and sang hymns which differed in no respect from dirges, and, being filled with strong wine, gave themselves up to a twofold intoxication, the intoxication of wine and that of folly, revelling and devoting the night to feasting, and, having no foresight as to the future, they spent their time in pleasant sins, though justice had her eye upon them, who saw them while they would not see, and decided what punishments they deserved. 2.163. But when the continued outcries in the camp, from men collected in numerous and dense crowds, reached over a great distance, so that the sound penetrated even to the summit of the mountain, Moses, hearing the uproar, was in great perplexity, as being at the same time a devout worshipper of God and a friend to mankind, not being able to bring his mind to quit the society of God with whom he was conversing, and in which he, being alone with him, was conferring with him by himself, nor, on the other hand, could he be indifferent to the multitude thus full of anarchy and wickedness; 2.164. for he recognised the tumult, since he was a very shrewd man at conjecturing, from inarticulate sounds of no distinct meaning, the passions of the soul which were inaccessible to and out of the reach of the conjectures of others, because he perceived at once that the noise proceeded partly from intoxication, since intemperance had produced satiety and a disposition to insult the law. 2.165. And being drawn both ways, and under strong attraction in both directions, he fluctuated this way and that way, and did not know what he ought to do; and while he was considering the matter the following command was given to him. "Go down quickly; descend from this place, the people have turned with haste to lawlessness, having fashioned a god made with hand sin the form of a bull, they are falling down before that which is no god, and sacrificing unto him, forgetting all the things that they have seen, and all that they have heard, which might lead them to piety. 2.166. So Moses, being amazed, and being also constrained by this command, believes those incredible events, and springs down to be a mediator and reconciler; not however, in a moment, for first of all he addressed supplications and prayers on behalf of his nation to God, entreating God that he would pardon these their sins; then, this governor of and intercessor for his people, having appeased the Ruler of the universe, went down at the same time rejoicing and feeling sorrowful; he rejoiced indeed that God had admitted his supplication, but he was full of anxiety and depression, being greatly indigt at the lawless transgression of the multitude. 2.167. And when he came into the middle of the camp, and marvelled at the sudden way in which the multitude had forsaken all their ancient habits, and at the vast amount of falsehood which they had embraced instead of truth, he, seeing that the disease had not extended among them all, but that some were still sound, and still cherished a disposition which loathed wickedness; wishing to distinguish those who were incurable from those who felt indignation at what had taken place, and to know also whether any of those who had offended repented them of their sin, caused a proclamation to be made; and it was indeed a shrewd test of the inclination of each individual, to see how he was disposed to holiness, or to the contrary. 2.168. Whoever," said he, "is on the side of the Lord, let him come to me." It was but a brief sentence which he thus uttered, but the meaning concealed under it was important; for what was intimated by his words was the following sense: "If any one does not think anything whatever that is made by hands, or anything that is created, a god, but believes that there is one ruler of the universe only, let him come to me. 2.169. Now of the others, some resisted by reason of the admiration which they had conceived for the Egyptian pride, and they did not attend to what he said; others wanted courage to come nearer to him, perhaps out of fear of punishment; or else perhaps they dreaded punishment at the hand of Moses, or a rising up against them on the part of the people; for the multitude invariably attack those who do not share in their frenzy. 2.170. But that single tribe of the whole number which was called the tribe of Levi, when they heard the proclamation, as if by one preconcerted agreement, ran with great haste, displaying their earnestness by their promptness and rapidity, and proving the keenness of the desire of their soul for piety; 2.171. and, when Moses saw them rushing forward as if starting from the goal in a race, he said, "Surely it is not with your bodies alone that you are hastening to come unto me, but you shall soon bear witness with your minds to your eagerness; let every one of you take a sword, and slay those men who have done things worthy of ten thousand deaths, who have forsaken the true God, and made for themselves false gods, of perishable and created substances, calling them by the name which belongs only to the uncreated and everlasting God; let every one, I say, slay those men, whether it be his own kinsmen or his friends, looking upon nothing to be either friendship or kindred but the holy fellowship of good men. 2.172. And the tribe of Levi, outrunning his command with the most eager readiness, since they were already alienated from those men in their minds, almost from the first moment that they beheld the beginning of their lawless iniquity, killed them all to a man, to the number of three thousand, though they had been but a short time before their dearest friends; and as the corpses were lying in the middle of the place of the assembly of the people, the multitude beholding them pitied them, and fearing the still fervid, and angry, and indigt disposition of those who had slain them, reproved them out of fear; 2.173. but Moses, gladly approving of their exceeding virtue, devised in their favour and confirmed to them an honour which was appropriate to their exploit, for it was fitting that those who had undertaken a voluntary war for the sake of the honour of God, and who had carried it out successfully in a short time, should be thought worthy to receive the priesthood and charge of officiating in his service. 2.174. But, since there is not one order only of consecrated priests, but since to some of them the charge is committed of attending to all the prayers, and sacrifices, and other most sacred ceremonies, being allowed to enter into the inmost and most holy shrine; while others are not permitted to do any of these things, but have the duty of taking care of and guarding the temple and all that is therein, both day and night, whom some call keepers of the temple; a sedition arose respecting the precedency in honour, which was to many persons in many ways the cause of infinite evils, and it broke out now from the keepers of the temple attacking the priests, and endeavouring to deprive them of the honour which belonged to them; and they thought that they should be able easily to succeed in their object, since they were many times more numerous than the others. 2.175. But for the sake of not appearing to be planning any innovations of their own heads, they persuaded also the eldest of the twelve tribes to embrace their opinions, which last tribe was followed by many of the more fickle of the populace, as thinking it entitled to the precedence and to the principal share of authority over the whole host. 2.176. Moses now knew that a great plot was in agitation against him; for he had appointed his brother high priest in accordance with the will of God, which had been declared to him. And now false accusations were brought against him, as if he had falsified the oracles of God, and as if he had done so and made the appointment by reason of his family affection and goodwill towards his brother. 2.177. And he, being very naturally grieved at this, inasmuch as he was not only distrusted by such accusations while exhibiting his own good faith in a most genuine manner, but he was also grieved at those actions of his being calumniated which had for their object the honour of God, and which were of such a nature as to deserve by themselves that even such a man who had in other respects shown an insincere disposition should be looked upon as behaving in this case with truth; for truth is the invariable attendant of God. But he did not think fit to give any explanation by words respecting his appointment of his brother, knowing that it was difficult to endeavour to persuade those who were previously possessed by contrary opinions to change their minds; but he besought God to give the people a visible demonstration that he had in no respect behaved with dishonesty respecting the appointment to the priesthood. 2.178. And he, therefore, commanded that twelve rods should be taken, so as to be equal in number to the tribes of the nation; and he commanded further that the names of the other patriarchs of the tribes should be written on eleven of the rods, but on the remaining one the name of his brother, the high priest, and then that they should all be carried into the temple as far as the inmost shrine; and the officer who did what he had been commanded waited in expectation to see the result. 2.179. And on the next day, in obedience to a command from God, he went into the temple, while all the people were standing around, and brought out the rods, the others differing in no respect from the state in which they were when they were put in; but the one on which the name of his brother was written had undergone a miraculous change; for like a fine plant it suddenly put forth shoots all over, and was weighed down with the abundance of its crop of fruit. 2.180. And the fruit were almonds, which is a fruit of a different character from any other. For in most fruit, such as grapes, olives, and apples, the seed and the eatable part differ from one another, and being different are separated as to their position, for the eatable part is outside, and the seed is shut up within; but in the case of this fruit the seed and the eatable part are the same, both of them being comprised in one species, and their position is one and the same, being without strongly protected and fortified with a twofold fence, consisting partly of a very thick bark, and partly of what appears in no respect short of a wooden case 2.181. by which perfect virtue is figuratively indicated. For as in the almond the beginning and the end are the same, the beginning as far as it is seed, and the end as far as it is fruit; so also is it the case with the virtues; for each one of them is at the same time both beginning and end, a beginning, because it proceeds not from any other power, but from itself; and an end, because the life in accordance with nature hastens towards it. 2.182. This is one reason; and another is also mentioned, more clear and emphatic than the former; for the part of the almond which looks like bark is bitter, but that which lies inside the bark, like a wooden case, is very hard and impenetrable, so that the fruit, being enclosed in these two coverings, is not very easily to be got at. 2.183. This is an emblem of the soul which is inclined to the practice of meditation, from which he thinks it is proper to turn it to virtue by showing it that it is necessary first of all to encounter danger. But labour is a bitter, and distasteful, and harsh thing, from which good is produced, for the sake of which one must not yield to effeminate indolence; 2.184. for he who seeks to avoid labour is also avoiding good. And he, again, who encounters what is disagreeable to be borne with fortitude and manly perseverance, is taking the best road to happiness; for it is not the nature of virtue to abide with those who are given up to delicacy and luxury, and who have become effeminate in their souls, and whose bodies are enervated by the incessant luxury which they practise every day; but it is subdued by such conduct, and determined to change its abode, having first of all arranged its departure so as to depart to, and abide with, the ruler of right reason. 2.185. But, if I must tell the truth, the most sacred company of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice seeks the society of those who practise virtue, and of those who admire a life of austerity and rigid duty, devoting themselves to fortitude and self-denial, with wise economy and abstinence; by means of which virtues the most powerful of all the principles within us, namely, reason, improves and attains to a state of perfect health and vigour, overthrowing the violent attacks of the body, which the moderate use of wine, and epicurism, and licentiousness, and other insatiable appetites excite against it, engendering a fulness of flesh which is the direct enemy of shrewdness and wisdom. 2.186. Moreover, it is said, that of all the trees that are accustomed to blossom in the spring, the almond is the first to flourish, bringing as it were good tidings of abundance of fruit; and that afterwards it is the last to lose its leaves, extending the yearly old age of its verdure to the longest period; in each of which particulars it is an emblem of the tribe of the priesthood, as Moses intimates under the figure of this tree that this tribe shall be the first of the whole human race to flourish, and likewise the last; as long as it shall please God to liken our life to the revolutions of the spring, destroying covetousness that most treacherous of passions, and the fountain of all unhappiness.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 101-103, 97-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. Again, he takes with him his caduceus or herald's wand, as a token of reconciliation and peace, for wars receive their respites and terminations by means of heralds, who restore peace; and wars which have no heralds to terminate them cause endless calamities to both parties, both to those who invade their neighbours and to those who are endeavouring to repel the invasion.
35. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.219 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Anon., 2 Baruch, 51.3, 51.10-51.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Anon., Didache, 8.2, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 32.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

32.4. καὶ ἡμεῖς οὖν, διὰ θελήματος αὐτοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ κληθέντες, οὐ δἰ ἑαυτῶν δικαιούμεθα, οὐδὲ διὰ τῆς ἡμετέρας σοφίας ἢ συνέσεως ἢ εὐσεβείας ἢ ἔργων ὦν κατειργασάμεθα ἐν ὁσιότητι καρδίας, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς πίστεως, δἰ ἦς πάντας τοὺς ἀπ̓ αἰῶνος ʽ??ʼ παντοκράτωρ θεὸς ἐδικαίωσεν: ᾧ ἔστω ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.
40. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.67, 1.70, 3.102-3.103, 3.105-3.150, 3.180, 15.391-15.420 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.67. 3. Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the earth, (for our discourse must now be about him,) after Abel was slain, and Cain fled away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty years old; after which time he lived other seven hundred, and then died. 3.102. 1. Hereupon the Israelites rejoiced at what they had seen and heard of their conductor, and were not wanting in diligence according to their ability; for they brought silver, and gold, and brass, and of the best sorts of wood, and such as would not at all decay by putrefaction; camels’ hair also, and sheep-skins, some of them dyed of a blue color, and some of a scarlet; some brought the flower for the purple color, and others for white 3.103. with wool dyed by the flowers aforementioned; and fine linen and precious stones, which those that use costly ornaments set in ouches of gold; they brought also a great quantity of spices; for of these materials did Moses build the tabernacle, which did not at all differ from a movable and ambulatory temple. 3.105. Now their names are set down in writing in the sacred books; and they were these: Besaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, the grandson of Miriam, the sister of their conductor and Aholiab, file son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. 3.106. Now the people went on with what they had undertaken with so great alacrity, that Moses was obliged to restrain them, by making proclamation, that what had been brought was sufficient, as the artificers had informed him; so they fell to work upon the building of the tabernacle. 3.107. Moses also informed them, according to the direction of God, both what the measures were to be, and its largeness; and how many vessels it ought to contain for the use of the sacrifices. The women also were ambitious to do their parts, about the garments of the priests, and about other things that would be wanted in this work, both for ornament and for the divine service itself. 3.108. 2. Now when all things were prepared, the gold, and the silver, and the brass, and what was woven, Moses, when he had appointed beforehand that there should be a festival, and that sacrifices should be offered according to every one’s ability, reared up the tabernacle and when he had measured the open court, fifty cubits broad and a hundred long 3.109. he set up brazen pillars, five cubits high, twenty on each of the longer sides, and ten pillars for the breadth behind; every one of the pillars also had a ring. Their chapiters were of silver, but their bases were of brass: they resembled the sharp ends of spears, and were of brass, fixed into the ground. 3.111. And this was the structure of three of the sides of this enclosure; but as for the fourth side, which was fifty cubits in extent, and was the front of the whole, twenty cubits of it were for the opening of the gates, wherein stood two pillars on each side, after the resemblance of open gates. 3.112. These were made wholly of silver, and polished, and that all over, excepting the bases, which were of brass. Now on each side of the gates there stood three pillars, which were inserted into the concave bases of the gates, and were suited to them; and round them was drawn a curtain of fine linen; 3.113. but to the gates themselves, which were twenty cubits in extent, and five in height, the curtain was composed of purple, and scarlet, and blue, and fine linen, and embroidered with many and divers sorts of figures, excepting the figures of animals. 3.114. Within these gates was the brazen laver for purification, having a basin beneath of the like matter, whence the priests might wash their hands and sprinkle their feet; and this was the ornamental construction of the enclosure about the court of the tabernacle, which was exposed to the open air. 3.115. 3. As to the tabernacle itself, Moses placed it in the middle of that court, with its front to the east, that, when the sun arose, it might send its first rays upon it. Its length, when it was set up, was thirty cubits, and its breadth was twelve [ten] cubits. The one of its walls was on the south, and the other was exposed to the north, and on the back part of it remained the west. 3.116. It was necessary that its height should be equal to its breadth [ten cubits]. There were also pillars made of wood, twenty on each side; they were wrought into a quadrangular figure, in breadth a cubit and a half, but the thickness was four fingers: 3.117. they had thin plates of gold affixed to them on both sides, inwardly and outwardly: they had each of them two tenons belonging to them, inserted into their bases, and these were of silver, in each of which bases there was a socket to receive the tenon; 3.118. but the pillars on the west wall were six. Now all these tenons and sockets accurately fitted one another, insomuch that the joints were invisible, and both seemed to be one entire and united wall. It was also covered with gold, both within and without. The number of pillars was equal on the opposite sides 3.119. and there were on each part twenty, and every one of them had the third part of a span in thickness; so that the number of thirty cubits were fully made up between them; but as to the wall behind, where the six pillars made up together only nine cubits, they made two other pillars, and cut them out of one cubit, which they placed in the corners, and made them equally fine with the other. 3.121. but for the wall behind, there was but one row of bars that went through all the pillars, into which row ran the ends of the bars on each side of the longer walls; the male with its female being so fastened in their joints, that they held the whole firmly together; and for this reason was all this joined so fast together, that the tabernacle might not be shaken, either by the winds, or by any other means, but that it might preserve itself quiet and immovable continually. 3.122. 4. As for the inside, Moses parted its length into three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end, Moses placed four pillars, the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest; and they stood upon the like bases with them, each a small matter distant from his fellow. Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place; but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was open for the priests. 3.123. However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God. But the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only. 3.124. But at the front, where the entrance was made, they placed pillars of gold, that stood on bases of brass, in number seven; but then they spread over the tabernacle veils of fine linen and purple, and blue, and scarlet colors, embroidered. 3.125. The first veil was ten cubits every way, and this they spread over the pillars which parted the temple, and kept the most holy place concealed within; and this veil was that which made this part not visible to any. Now the whole temple was called The Holy Place: but that part which was within the four pillars, and to which none were admitted, was called The Holy of Holies. 3.126. This veil was very ornamental, and embroidered with all sorts of flowers which the earth produces; and there were interwoven into it all sorts of variety that might be an ornament, excepting the forms of animals. 3.127. Another veil there was which covered the five pillars that were at the entrance. It was like the former in its magnitude, and texture, and color; and at the corner of every pillar a ring retained it from the top downwards half the depth of the pillars, the other half affording an entrance for the priests, who crept under it. 3.128. Over this there was a veil of linen, of the same largeness with the former: it was to be drawn this way or that way by cords, the rings of which, fixed to the texture of the veil, and to the cords also, were subservient to the drawing and undrawing of the veil, and to the fastening it at the corner, that then it might be no hinderance to the view of the sanctuary, especially on solemn days; 3.129. but that on other days, and especially when the weather was inclined to snow, it might be expanded, and afford a covering to the veil of divers colors. Whence that custom of ours is derived, of having a fine linen veil, after the temple has been built, to be drawn over the entrances. 3.131. There were other curtains of the same breadth with these, but one more in number, and longer, for they were thirty cubits long; but these were woven of hair, with the like subtilty as those of wool were made, and were extended loosely down to the ground, appearing like a triangular front and elevation at the gates, the eleventh curtain being used for this very purpose. 3.132. There were also other curtains made of skins above these, which afforded covering and protection to those that were woven both in hot weather and when it rained. And great was the surprise of those who viewed these curtains at a distance, for they seemed not at all to differ from the color of the sky. 3.133. But those that were made of hair and of skins, reached down in the same manner as did the veil at the gates, and kept off the heat of the sun, and what injury the rains might do. And after this manner was the tabernacle reared. 3.134. 5. There was also an ark made, sacred to God, of wood that was naturally strong, and could not be corrupted. This was called Eron in our own language. 3.135. Its construction was thus: its length was five spans, but its breadth and height was each of them three spans. It was covered all over with gold, both within and without, so that the wooden part was not seen. It had also a cover united to it, by golden hinges, after a wonderful manner; which cover was every way evenly fitted to it, and had no eminences to hinder its exact conjunction. 3.136. There were also two golden rings belonging to each of the longer boards, and passing through the entire wood, and through them gilt bars passed along each board, that it might thereby be moved and carried about, as occasion should require; for it was not drawn in a cart by beasts of burden, but borne on the shoulders of the priests. 3.137. Upon this its cover were two images, which the Hebrews call Cherubims; they are flying creatures, but their form is not like to that of any of the creatures which men have seen, though Moses said he had seen such beings near the throne of God. 3.138. In this ark he put the two tables whereon the ten commandments were written, five upon each table, and two and a half upon each side of them; and this ark he placed in the most holy place. 3.139. 6. But in the holy place he placed a table, like those at Delphi. Its length was two cubits, and its breadth one cubit, and its height three spans. It had feet also, the lower half of which were complete feet, resembling those which the Dorians put to their bedsteads; but the upper parts towards the table were wrought into a square form. 3.141. there being a cavity where it was joined to the rings; for they were not entire rings; but before they came quite round they ended in acute points, the one of which was inserted into the prominent part of the table, and the other into the foot; and by these it was carried when they journeyed: 3.142. Upon this table, which was placed on the north side of the temple, not far from the most holy place, were laid twelve unleavened loaves of bread, six upon each heap, one above another: they were made of two tenth-deals of the purest flour, which tenth-deal [an omer] is a measure of the Hebrews, containing seven Athenian cotyloe; 3.143. and above those loaves were put two vials full of frankincense. Now after seven days other loaves were brought in their stead, on the day which is by us called the Sabbath; for we call the seventh day the Sabbath. But for the occasion of this intention of placing loaves here, we will speak to it in another place. 3.144. 7. Over against this table, near the southern wall, was set a candlestick of cast gold, hollow within, being of the weight of one hundred pounds, which the Hebrews call Chinchares, if it be turned into the Greek language, it denotes a talent. 3.145. It was made with its knops, and lilies, and pomegranates, and bowls (which ornaments amounted to seventy in all); by which means the shaft elevated itself on high from a single base, and spread itself into as many branches as there are planets, including the sun among them. 3.146. It terminated in seven heads, in one row, all standing parallel to one another; and these branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in imitation of the number of the planets. These lamps looked to the east and to the south, the candlestick being situate obliquely. 3.147. 8. Now between this candlestick and the table, which, as we said, were within the sanctuary, was the altar of incense, made of wood indeed, but of the same wood of which the foregoing vessels were made, such as was not liable to corruption; it was entirely crusted over with a golden plate. Its breadth on each side was a cubit, but the altitude double. 3.148. Upon it was a grate of gold, that was extant above the altar, which had a golden crown encompassing it round about, whereto belonged rings and bars, by which the priests carried it when they journeyed. 3.149. Before this tabernacle there was reared a brazen altar, but it was within made of wood, five cubits by measure on each side, but its height was but three, in like manner adorned with brass plates as bright as gold. It had also a brazen hearth of network; for the ground underneath received the fire from the hearth, because it had no basis to receive it. 15.391. 3. So Herod took away the old foundations, and laid others, and erected the temple upon them, being in length a hundred cubits, and in height twenty additional cubits, which [twenty], upon the sinking of their foundations fell down; and this part it was that we resolved to raise again in the days of Nero. 15.392. Now the temple was built of stones that were white and strong, and each of their length was twenty-five cubits, their height was eight, and their breadth about twelve; 15.393. and the whole structure, as also the structure of the royal cloister, was on each side much lower, but the middle was much higher, till they were visible to those that dwelt in the country for a great many furlongs, but chiefly to such as lived over against them, and those that approached to them. 15.394. The temple had doors also at the entrance, and lintels over them, of the same height with the temple itself. They were adorned with embroidered veils, with their flowers of purple, and pillars interwoven; 15.395. and over these, but under the crown-work, was spread out a golden vine, with its branches hanging down from a great height, the largeness and fine workmanship of which was a surprising sight to the spectators, to see what vast materials there were, and with what great skill the workmanship was done. 15.396. He also encompassed the entire temple with very large cloisters, contriving them to be in a due proportion thereto; and he laid out larger sums of money upon them than had been done before him, till it seemed that no one else had so greatly adorned the temple as he had done. There was a large wall to both the cloisters, which wall was itself the most prodigious work that was ever heard of by man. 15.397. The hill was a rocky ascent, that declined by degrees towards the east parts of the city, till it came to an elevated level. 15.398. This hill it was which Solomon, who was the first of our kings, by divine revelation, encompassed with a wall; it was of excellent workmanship upwards, and round the top of it. He also built a wall below, beginning at the bottom, which was encompassed by a deep valley; and at the south side he laid rocks together, and bound them one to another with lead, and included some of the inner parts, till it proceeded to a great height 15.399. and till both the largeness of the square edifice and its altitude were immense, and till the vastness of the stones in the front were plainly visible on the outside, yet so that the inward parts were fastened together with iron, and preserved the joints immovable for all future times. 15.401. but within this wall, and on the very top of all, there ran another wall of stone also, having, on the east quarter, a double cloister, of the same length with the wall; in the midst of which was the temple itself. This cloister looked to the gates of the temple; and it had been adorned by many kings in former times; 15.402. and round about the entire temple were fixed the spoils taken from barbarous nations; all these had been dedicated to the temple by Herod, with the addition of those he had taken from the Arabians. 15.403. 4. Now on the north side [of the temple] was built a citadel, whose walls were square, and strong, and of extraordinary firmness. This citadel was built by the kings of the Asamonean race, who were also high priests before Herod, and they called it the Tower, in which were reposited the vestments of the high priest, which the high priest only put on at the time when he was to offer sacrifice. 15.404. These vestments king Herod kept in that place; and after his death they were under the power of the Romans, until the time of Tiberius Caesar; 15.405. under whose reign Vitellius, the president of Syria, when he once came to Jerusalem, and had been most magnificently received by the multitude, he had a mind to make them some requital for the kindness they had shewn him; so, upon their petition to have those holy vestments in their own power, he wrote about them to Tiberius Caesar, who granted his request: and this their power over the sacerdotal vestments continued with the Jews till the death of king Agrippa; 15.406. but after that, Cassius Longinus, who was president of Syria, and Cuspius Fadus, who was procurator of Judea, enjoined the Jews to reposit those vestments in the tower of Antonia 15.407. for that they ought to have them in their power, as they formerly had. However, the Jews sent ambassadors to Claudius Caesar, to intercede with him for them; upon whose coming, king Agrippa, junior, being then at Rome, asked for and obtained the power over them from the emperor, who gave command to Vitellius, who was then commander in Syria, to give it them accordingly. 15.408. Before that time they were kept under the seal of the high priest, and of the treasurers of the temple; which treasurers, the day before a festival, went up to the Roman captain of the temple guards, and viewed their own seal, and received the vestments; and again, when the festival was over, they brought it to the same place, and showed the captain of the temple guards their seal, which corresponded with his seal, and reposited them there. 15.409. And that these things were so, the afflictions that happened to us afterwards [about them] are sufficient evidence. But for the tower itself, when Herod the king of the Jews had fortified it more firmly than before, in order to secure and guard the temple, he gratified Antonius, who was his friend, and the Roman ruler, and then gave it the name of the Tower of Antonia. 15.411. but the fourth front of the temple, which was southward, had indeed itself gates in its middle, as also it had the royal cloisters, with three walks, which reached in length from the east valley unto that on the west, for it was impossible it should reach any farther: 15.412. and this cloister deserves to be mentioned better than any other under the sun; for while the valley was very deep, and its bottom could not be seen, if you looked from above into the depth, this further vastly high elevation of the cloister stood upon that height, insomuch that if any one looked down from the top of the battlements, or down both those altitudes, he would be giddy, while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth. 15.413. This cloister had pillars that stood in four rows one over against the other all along, for the fourth row was interwoven into the wall, which [also was built of stone]; and the thickness of each pillar was such, that three men might, with their arms extended, fathom it round, and join their hands again, while its length was twenty-seven feet, with a double spiral at its basis; 15.414. and the number of all the pillars [in that court] was a hundred and sixty-two. Their chapiters were made with sculptures after the Corinthian order, and caused an amazement [to the spectators], by reason of the grandeur of the whole. 15.415. These four rows of pillars included three intervals for walking in the middle of this cloister; two of which walks were made parallel to each other, and were contrived after the same manner; the breadth of each of them was thirty feet, the length was a furlong, and the height fifty feet; but the breadth of the middle part of the cloister was one and a half of the other, and the height was double, for it was much higher than those on each side; 15.416. but the roofs were adorned with deep sculptures in wood, representing many sorts of figures. The middle was much higher than the rest, and the wall of the front was adorned with beams, resting upon pillars, that were interwoven into it, and that front was all of polished stone, insomuch that its fineness, to such as had not seen it, was incredible, and to such as had seen it, was greatly amazing. 15.417. Thus was the first enclosure. In the midst of which, and not far from it, was the second, to be gone up to by a few steps: this was encompassed by a stone wall for a partition, with an inscription, which forbade any foreigner to go in under pain of death. 15.418. Now this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters three gates [equally] distant one from another; but on the east quarter, towards the sun-rising, there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives; 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God.
41. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.184-5.226 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.184. 1. Now this temple, as I have already said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it was very uneven, and like a precipice; 5.185. but when king Solomon, who was the person that built the temple, had built a wall to it on its east side, there was then added one cloister founded on a bank cast up for it, and on the other parts the holy house stood naked. But in future ages the people added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. 5.186. They then broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed afterward for the compass of the entire temple. 5.187. And when they had built walls onthree sides of the temple round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than could be hoped for (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to God from the whole habitable earth), they then encompassed their upper courts with cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest [court of the] temple. 5.188. The lowest part of this was erected to the height of three hundred cubits, and in some places more; yet did not the entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth, and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city; 5.189. wherein they made use of stones of forty cubits in magnitude; for the great plenty of money they then had, and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible degree; and what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished, was, by perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection. 5.191. and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable; nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. 5.192. The cloisters [of the outmost court] were in breadth thirty cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure six furlongs, including the tower of Antonia; those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts. 5.193. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; 5.194. upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;” 5.195. and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court. This court was foursquare, and had a wall about it peculiar to itself; 5.196. the height of its buildings, although it were on the outside forty cubits, was hidden by the steps, and on the inside that height was but twenty-five cubits; for it being built over against a higher part of the hill with steps, it was no further to be entirely discerned within, being covered by the hill itself. 5.197. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the distance of ten cubits; this was all plain; 5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 5.207. 4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court], that most sacred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each a hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits further. 5.208. Its first gate was seventy cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad; but this gate had no doors; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; 5.209. but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. 5.211. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth; 5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.215. 5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height sixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits: 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies. 5.221. But the superior part of the temple had no such little houses any further, because the temple was there narrower, and forty cubits higher, and of a smaller body than the lower parts of it. Thus we collect that the whole height, including the sixty cubits from the floor, amounted to a hundred cubits. 5.222. 6. Now the outward face of the temple in its front wanted nothing that was likely to surprise either men’s minds or their eyes; for it was covered all over with plates of gold of great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendor, and made those who forced themselves to look upon it to turn their eyes away, just as they would have done at the sun’s own rays. 5.223. But this temple appeared to strangers, when they were coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow; for as to those parts of it that were not gilt, they were exceeding white. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time. 5.226. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight; this encompassed the holy house and the altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests.
42. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.279 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.279. 31. It now remains that I debate with Manetho about Moses. Now the Egyptians acknowledge him to have been a wonderful, and a divine person; nay they would willingly lay claim to him themselves, though after a most abusive and incredible manner; and pretend that he was of Heliopolis, and one of the priests of that place, and was ejected out of it among the rest, on account of his leprosy;
43. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
44. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. If any man speaks, let it be as it were oracles of God. If any man serves, let it be as of the strength which God supplies, that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belong the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
45. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come.
46. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. to the end that you should walk worthily of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory.
47. New Testament, 2 Peter, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.18. But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and forever. Amen.
48. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.7-3.18, 4.3-4.4, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. New Testament, Apocalypse, 19.1, 19.3-19.4, 19.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.3. A second said, "Hallelujah! Her smoke goes up forever and ever. 19.4. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah! 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns!
50. New Testament, Jude, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

51. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
52. New Testament, Galatians, 4.21-4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman.
53. New Testament, Romans, 1.23, 3.23, 5.2, 6.4, 9.23, 10.5-10.13, 11.16-11.24, 15.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 5.2. through whom we also have our access by faith into this grace in which we stand. We rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? 15.7. Therefore receive one another, even as Christ also received you, to the glory of God.
54. New Testament, John, 1.14, 1.18, 6.46, 10.30, 13.31-13.32, 14.9, 17.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 6.46. Not that anyone has seen the Father, except he who is from God. He has seen the Father. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 13.31. When he had gone out, Jesus said, "Now the Son of Man has been glorified, and God has been glorified in him. 13.32. If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and he will glorify him immediately. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 17.1. Jesus said these things, and lifting up his eyes to heaven, he said, "Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may also glorify you;
55. New Testament, Luke, 4.2, 4.16-4.30, 9.28-9.36, 24.13-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 9.28. It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 9.29. As he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became white and dazzling. 9.30. Behold, two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 9.32. Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they were fully awake, they saw his glory, and the two men who stood with him. 9.33. It happened, as they were parting from him, that Peter said to Jesus, "Master, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah," not knowing what he said. 9.34. While he said these things, a cloud came and overshadowed them, and they were afraid as they entered into the cloud. 9.35. A voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him! 9.36. When the voice came, Jesus was found alone. They were silent, and told no one in those days any of the things which they had seen. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
56. New Testament, Mark, 1.13, 9.2-9.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.3. His clothing became glistening, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no launderer on earth can whiten them. 9.4. Elijah and Moses appeared to them, and they were talking with Jesus. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9.6. For he didn't know what to say, for they were very afraid. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him. 9.8. Suddenly looking around, they saw no one with them any more, except Jesus only. 9.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no one what things they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead.
57. New Testament, Matthew, 2.13-2.15, 4.2, 17.1-17.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. Now when they had departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. 2.14. He arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt 2.15. and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 17.1. After six days, Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John his brother, and brought them up into a high mountain by themselves. 17.2. He was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his garments became as white as the light. 17.3. Behold, Moses and Elijah appeared to them talking with him. 17.4. Peter answered, and said to Jesus, "Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you want, let's make three tents here: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 17.5. While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them. Behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him. 17.6. When the disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were very afraid. 17.7. Jesus came and touched them and said, "Get up, and don't be afraid. 17.8. Lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, except Jesus alone. 17.9. As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, "Don't tell anyone what you saw, until the Son of Man has risen from the dead.
58. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 5.10.88, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.10.88.  Points of law may be proved in a similar manner; from something greater, as in the sentence "If it is lawful to kill an adulterer, it is lawful to scourge him"; from something less, "If it is lawful to kill a man attempting theft by night, how much more lawful it is to kill one who attempts robbery with violence"; from something equal, "The penalty which is just in the case of parricide is also just in the case of matricide." In all these cases we follow the syllogistic method.
60. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

61. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 11.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11.3. וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (משלי לא, כט): רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה, מַהוּ וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה, מְדַבֵּר בְּמשֶׁה, עַל שֶׁנִּתְעַלָּה יוֹתֵר מִן הַכֹּל. כֵּיצַד, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצַלְּמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כז): וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, אוֹמֵר לוֹ משֶׁה, אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה כָּבוֹד שֶׁנִּתַּן לְךָ נִטַּל מִמְּךָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מט, יג): וְאָדָם בִּיקָר בַּל יָלִין, אֲבָל אֲנִי זִיו הַפָּנִים שֶׁנָּתַן לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, עִמִּי הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לד, ז): לֹא כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא נָס לֵחֹה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, נֹחַ אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּצַּלְתִּי מִדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה הִצַּלְתָּ אֶת עַצְמְךָ וְלֹא הָיָה בְךָ כֹּחַ לְהַצִּיל אֶת דּוֹרְךָ, אֲבָל אֲנִי הִצַּלְתִּי אֶת עַצְמִי וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶת דּוֹרִי כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַיְּבוּ כְּלָיָה בָּעֵגֶל, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, יד): וַיִּנָּחֶם ה' עַל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁתֵּי סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַּיָּם וְהָיוּ בְּתוֹכָן שְׁנֵי קַבַּרְנִיטִים, אֶחָד הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא הִצִּיל אֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, וְאֶחָד הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, לְמִי מְקַלְּסִין לֹא לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, כָּךְ נֹחַ לֹא הִצִּיל אֶלָּא אֶת עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל משֶׁה הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת דּוֹרוֹ, הֱוֵי וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אַבְרָהָם אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁהָיִיתִי זָן לָעוֹבְרִים וְשָׁבִים, אוֹמֵר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה הָיִיתָ זָן בְּנֵי אָדָם עֲרֵלִים, וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי זָן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּלִים, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא אַתְּ הָיִיתָ זָן בַּיִּשּׁוּב, וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי זָן בַּמִּדְבָּר. יִצְחָק אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁפָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת צַוָּארִי עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְרָאִיתִי אֶת פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה רָאִיתָ פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וְכָהוּ עֵינֶיךָ, מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כז, א): וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וַתִּכְהֶיןָ עֵינָיו מֵרְאֹת, מַהוּ מֵרְאֹת, מֵרְאוֹת בַּשְּׁכִינָה, אֲבָל אֲנִי הָיִיתִי מְדַבֵּר עִם הַשְּׁכִינָה פָּנִים בְּפָנִים וְלֹא כָהוּ עֵינָי, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כט): וּמשֶׁה לֹא יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו. יַעֲקֹב אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּפְגַּשְׁתִּי עִם הַמַּלְאָךְ וְנִצַּחְתִּי אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אַתָּה נִפְגַּשְׁתָּ עִם הַמַּלְאָךְ בַּפִּירְבּוֹרִין שֶׁלָּךְ, וַאֲנִי עוֹלֶה אֶצְלָן בַּפִּירְבּוֹרִין שֶׁלָּהֶן וְהֵן מִתְיָרְאִין מִמֶּנִּי, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים סח, יג): מַלְכֵי צְבָאוֹת יִדֹּדוּן יִדֹּדוּן וגו', לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה: רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וגו', אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְנִתְעַלָּה מִן הַכֹּל הוּא יְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה.
62. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 22.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22.3. 3 And I, again, Pionius, wrote it out from the former writings, after searching for it, because the blessed Polycarp showed it me in a vision, as I will explain in what follows, and I gathered it together when it was almost worn out by age, that the Lord Jesus Christ may also gather me together with his elect into his heavenly kingdom, to whom be glory with the Father and the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever, Amen.
63. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\""
64. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 20.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

65. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 140 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

66. Anon., Targum Onqelos, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

67. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שהקב"ה מתפלל שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי תפלתם לא נאמר אלא תפלתי מכאן שהקב"ה מתפלל.,מאי מצלי,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב יה"ר מלפני שיכבשו רחמי את כעסי ויגולו רחמי על מדותי ואתנהג עם בני במדת רחמים ואכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין.,תניא א"ר ישמעאל בן אלישע פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטורת לפני ולפנים וראיתי אכתריאל יה ה' צבאות שהוא יושב על כסא רם ונשא ואמר לי ישמעאל בני ברכני אמרתי לו יה"ר מלפניך שיכבשו רחמיך את כעסך ויגולו רחמיך על מדותיך ותתנהג עם בניך במדת הרחמים ותכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין ונענע לי בראשו וקמ"ל שלא תהא ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שאין מרצין לו לאדם בשעת כעסו דכתיב (שמות לג, יד) פני ילכו והנחותי לך אמר לו הקב"ה למשה המתן לי עד שיעברו פנים של זעם ואניח לך,ומי איכא רתחא קמיה דקודשא בריך הוא,אין דתניא (תהלים ז, יב) ואל זועם בכל יום,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע אחד מחמשת רבוא ושמונת אלפים ושמנה מאות ושמנים ושמנה בשעה וזו היא רגע ואין כל בריה יכולה לכוין אותה שעה חוץ מבלעם הרשע דכתיב ביה (במדבר כד, טז) ויודע דעת עליון,השתא דעת בהמתו לא הוה ידע דעת עליון הוה ידע,אלא מלמד שהיה יודע לכוין אותה שעה שהקב"ה כועס בה,והיינו דאמר להו נביא לישראל (מיכה ו, ה) עמי זכר נא מה יעץ בלק מלך מואב וגו' מאי (מיכה ו, ה) למען דעת צדקות ה',א"ר אלעזר אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל דעו כמה צדקות עשיתי עמכם שלא כעסתי בימי בלעם הרשע שאלמלי כעסתי לא נשתייר משונאיהם של ישראל שריד ופליט,והיינו דקא"ל בלעם לבלק (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ומה אזעם לא זעם ה' מלמד שכל אותן הימים לא זעם.,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע א"ר אבין ואיתימא רבי אבינא רגע כמימריה.,ומנא לן דרגע רתח שנא' (תהלים ל, ו) כי רגע באפו חיים ברצונו ואב"א מהכא (ישעיהו כו, כ) חבי כמעט רגע עד יעבור זעם,ואימת רתח אמר אביי בהנך תלת שעי קמייתא כי חיורא כרבלתא דתרנגולא וקאי אחד כרעא,כל שעתא ושעתא נמי קאי הכי,כל שעתא אית ביה שורייקי סומקי בההיא שעתא לית ביה שורייקי סומקי.,ההוא צדוקי דהוה בשבבותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי הוה קא מצער ליה טובא בקראי יומא חד שקל תרנגולא ואוקמיה בין כרעי' דערסא ועיין ביה סבר כי מטא ההיא שעתא אלטייה כי מטא ההיא שעתא ניים אמר ש"מ לאו אורח ארעא למעבד הכי (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו כתיב,וכתיב (משלי יז, כו) גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב,תנא משמיה דר' מאיר בשעה שהחמה זורחת וכל מלכי מזרח ומערב מניחים כתריהם בראשיהם ומשתחוים לחמה מיד כועס הקב"ה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי טובה מרדות אחת בלבו של אדם יותר מכמה מלקיות שנא' (הושע ב, ט) ורדפה את מאהביה וגו' ואמרה אלכה ואשובה אל אישי הראשון כי טוב לי אז מעתה וריש לקיש אמר יותר ממאה מלקיות שנאמר (משלי יז, י) תחת גערה במבין מהכות כסיל מאה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי שלשה דברים בקש משה מלפני הקב"ה ונתן לו בקש שתשרה שכינה על ישראל ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) הלוא בלכתך עמנו,בקש שלא תשרה שכינה על עובדי כוכבים ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) ונפלינו אני ועמך,בקש להודיעו דרכיו של הקב"ה ונתן לו שנא' (שמות לג, יג) הודיעני נא את דרכיך אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה יש צדיק וטוב לו ויש צדיק ורע לו יש רשע וטוב לו ויש רשע ורע לו אמר לו משה צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע רשע וטוב לו רשע בן צדיק רשע ורע לו רשע בן רשע:,אמר מר צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע איני והא כתיב (שמות לד, ז) פקד עון אבות על בנים וכתיב (דברים כד, טז) ובנים לא יומתו על אבות ורמינן קראי אהדדי,ומשנינן לא קשיא הא כשאוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם הא כשאין אוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם,אלא הכי קא"ל צדיק וטוב לו צדיק גמור צדיק ורע לו צדיק שאינו גמור רשע וטוב לו רשע שאינו גמור רשע ורע לו רשע גמור,ופליגא דר' מאיר דא"ר מאיר שתים נתנו לו ואחת לא נתנו לו שנא' (שמות לג, יט) וחנתי את אשר אחון אע"פ שאינו הגון ורחמתי את אשר ארחם אע"פ שאינו הגון,(שמות לג, כ) ויאמר לא תוכל לראות את פני תנא משמיה דר' יהושע בן קרחה כך א"ל הקב"ה למשה כשרציתי לא רצית עכשיו שאתה רוצה איני רוצה,ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בשכר שלש זכה לשלש,בשכר (שמות ג, ו) ויסתר משה פניו זכה לקלסתר פנים בשכר כי ירא זכה (שמות לד, ל) לוייראו מגשת אליו בשכר מהביט זכה (במדבר יב, ח) לותמונת ה' יביט:,(שמות לג, כג)והסירתי את כפי וראית את אחרי אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא מלמד שהראה הקב"ה למשה קשר של תפילין:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי כל דבור ודבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה לטובה אפי' על תנאי לא חזר בו,מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני ואשמידם וגו' ואעשה אותך לגוי עצום אע"ג דבעא משה רחמי עלה דמלתא ובטלה אפ"ה אוקמה בזרעיה שנא' (דברי הימים א כג, טו) בני משה גרשום ואליעזר ויהיו בני אליעזר רחביה הראש וגו' ובני רחביה רבו למעלה וגו',ותני רב יוסף למעלה מששים רבוא אתיא רביה רביה כתיב הכא רבו למעלה וכתיב התם (שמות א, ז) ובני ישראל פרו וישרצו וירבו: 7a. Along the same lines, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays? As it is stated: “I will bring them to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in the house of My prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). The verse bdoes not saythe house of btheir prayer, but rather, “ /bthe house of bMy prayer”; from herewe see bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat doesGod bpray? /b, bRav Zutra bar Tovia saidthat bRav said: brGod says: bMay it be My will that My mercy will overcome My angertowards Israel for their transgressions, br band may My mercy prevail over Myother battributesthrough which Israel is punished, br band may I conductmyself btoward My children,Israel, bwith the attribute of mercy, br band may I enter before them beyond the letter of the law. /b,Similarly, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha,the High Priest, said: bOnce,on Yom Kippur, bI entered the innermost sanctum,the Holy of Holies, bto offer incense, andin a vision bI saw Akatriel Ya, the Lord of Hosts,one of the names of God expressing His ultimate authority, bseated upon a high and exalted throne(see Isaiah 6). br bAnd He said to me: Yishmael, My son, bless Me. br bI said to Himthe prayer that God prays: b“May it be Your will that Your mercy overcome Your anger, br band may Your mercy prevail over Yourother battributes, br band may You act toward Your children with the attribute of mercy, br band may You enter before them beyond the letter of the law.”brThe Holy One, Blessed be He, bnodded His headand accepted the blessing. This event bteaches us that you should not take the blessing of an ordinary person lightly.If God asked for and accepted a man’s blessing, all the more so that a man must value the blessing of another man., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat one must not placate a person whilehe is in the throes of bhis anger,rather he should mollify him after he has calmed down? bAs it is written,when following the sin of the Golden Calf, Moses requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it had previously, God said to him: b“My face will go, and I will give you rest”(Exodus 33:14). Rabbi Yoḥa explained: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses: bWait until My face of wrath will pass and I will grant yourrequest. One must wait for a person’s anger to pass as well.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is there anger before the Holy One, Blessed be He?Can we speak of God using terms like anger?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, God becomes angry, as it is stated: “God vindicates the righteous, bGod is furious every day”(Psalms 7:12)., bHow muchtime does bHis angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? One fifty-eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty-eighth of an hour, that is a moment.The Gemara adds: bAnd no creature canprecisely bdetermine that momentwhen God becomes angry, bexcept for Balaam the wicked, about whom it is written: “He who knows the knowledge of the Most High”(Numbers 24:16).,This should not be understood to mean that Balaam was a full-fledged prophet. bNow,clearly, Balaam bdid not know the mind of his animal; and he did know the mind of the Most High?If he could not understand the rebuke of his donkey, he was certainly unable to understand the mind of the Most High., bRather, thisverse from Numbers bteaches thatBalaam bwas able toprecisely bdetermine the hour that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry.At that moment, Balaam would utter his curse and, through God’s anger, it would be fulfilled., bAnd that is what the prophet said to Israel: “My nation, remember what Balak king of Moab advised,and how Balaam, son of Beor, responded; from Shittim to Gilgal, so that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord” (Micah 6:5). bWhat ismeant by the statement: b“So that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord”? /b, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: Know how many acts of kindness I performed on your behalf, that I did not become angry during the days of Balaam the wicked, for had I become angry, there would have been no remt or survivor remaining among the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaam’s curse went unfulfilled., bAnd that is what Balaam said to Balak: “How can I curse whom God has not cursed? And how can I condemn whom God has not condemned?”(Numbers 23:8). This verse bteaches that all those days,God bwas not angry. /b, bAnd howlong bdoes His angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? Rabbi Avin, and some say Rabbi Avina, said:A moment lasts as long as it takes bto say it [ irega /i] /b., bFrom where do wederive that God bisonly bangry for a moment? As it is stated: “His anger is but for a moment, His favor, for a lifetime”(Psalms 30:6). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead, bfrom here,as it is stated: b“Hide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passes”(Isaiah 26:20), meaning that God’s anger passes in a mere moment.,The Gemara asks: bWhen isthe Holy One, Blessed be He, bangry? Abaye said:God’s anger is revealed through animals. bDuring the first three hoursof the day, bwhen the sun whitens the crest of the rooster and it stands on one leg.When it appears that its life has left him and he suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry.,The Gemara asks: The rooster balso stands that way every hour.What kind of sign is this?,The Gemara answers: The difference is that beveryother bhourwhen the rooster stands in that way, bthere are red streaksin his crest. But bwhenGod is angry, bthere are no red streaksin his crest.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic who was in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s neighborhood would upset himby incessantly challenging the legitimacy of bverses. One day,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi btook a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bedupon which he sat band looked at it. He thought: When the momentof God’s anger barrives, I will curse himand be rid of him. bWhen the momentof God’s anger barrived,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bslept.When he woke up, bhe saidto himself: bConclude fromthe fact that I nodded off bthat it is not proper conduct to do so,to curse people, even if they are wicked. b“His mercy is over all His creations”(Psalms 145:9) bis writteneven with regard to sinners.,Moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as bit is written: “Punishment, even for the righteous, is not good”(Proverbs 17:26), even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.,Explaining the cause of God’s anger, bit is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the sun rises and the kings of the East and the West place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry.Since this occurs in the early hours every day, God becomes angry at His world at that moment every day., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: A single regretor pang of guilt bin one’s heart is preferable to many lashesadministered by others that cause only physical pain, bas it is stated: “And she chases her lovers,but she does not overtake them; she seeks them, but she will not find them; band she will say ‘I will go and return to my first husband; for it was better for me then than now’”(Hosea 2:9). Remorse is more effective than any externally imposed punishment listed in the verses that follow (Hosea 2:11–19). bAnd Reish Lakish saidthat in the Bible, it seems that such remorse is bpreferable to one hundred lashes, as it is stated: “A rebuke enters deeper into a man of understanding than a hundred lashes to a fool”(Proverbs 17:10)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yoseiregarding Moses’ request that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it once had: Moses brequested three things from the Holy One, Blessed be He,at that time, ball of which were granted him. He requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israeland not leave, band He grantedit bto him, as it is stated:“For how can it be known that I have found grace in Your sight, I and Your people? bIs it not in that You go with us,so that we are distinguished, I and Your people, from all the people that are on the face of the earth?” (Exodus 33:16). The request: Is it not in that You go with us, refers to the resting of the Divine Presence upon Israel.,Moses brequested that the Divine Presence not rest upon the nations of the world, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “So that we are distinguished, I and Your people,from all the people on the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16).,Lastly, Moses brequested that the waysin which bGodconducts the bworld be revealed to him, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “Show me Your waysand I will know You” (Exodus 33:13). brMoses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe. Why is it thatthe brighteous prosper, the righteous suffer,the bwicked prosper,the bwicked suffer? brGod bsaid to him: Moses, the righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson, who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho prospers is a wickedperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho suffers is a wicked person, the son of a wicked person,who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors.,The Gemara expands upon these righteous and wicked individuals: bThe Master said: The righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson. The Gemara asks: bIs it sothat one is always punished for his ancestors’ transgressions? bIsn’t it written: “He visits iniquity of the fathers upon the children,and upon the children’s children, unto the third and fourth generations” (Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is writtenelsewhere: “Fathers shall not die for their children, band children shall not be put to death for the fathers;every man shall die for his own transgression” (Deuteronomy 24:16). bAndthe Gemara braises a contradiction between the two verses. /b,The Gemara bresolvesthe contradiction: bThis is not difficult. Thisverse from Exodus, which states that God punishes descendants for the transgressions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own. While thisverse from Deuteronomy, which states that descendants are not punished for the actions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they do not adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own,as it is stated: “I visit iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and fourth generations of my enemies” (Exodus 20:5).,A righteous person is clearly not punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bRather,it must be that God bsaid toMoses bas follows: br bThe righteousperson bwho prospers isa bcompletely righteousperson whose actions are entirely good and whose reward is entirely good both in this world and in the World-to-Come. br bThe righteousperson bwho suffers isone who is bnot a completely righteousperson. Because he does have some transgressions, he is punished in this world so that he will receive a complete reward in the World-to-Come. br bThe wickedperson bwho prospers isone who is bnot a completely wickedperson. God rewards him in this world for the good deeds that he performed, so that he will receive a complete punishment in the World-to-Come. brFinally, bthe wickedperson bwho suffers isa bcompletely wickedperson. Since he performed absolutely no mitzvot and deserves no reward, he receives only punishment both in this world and in the World-to-Come (Maharsha).,Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion, that God granted Moses all three of his requests, bdisagrees withthat of bRabbi Meir,as bRabbi Meir said: Twoof Moses’ requests bwere granted to him, and one was not granted to him.God granted him that the Divine Presence would rest upon Israel and not leave, and that the Divine Presence would not rest upon the nations of the world, but God did not reveal to Moses the ways in which He conducts the world. bAs it is said: “And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious”(Exodus 33:19); in His mercy, God bestows His grace upon every person, beven though he is not worthy.Similarly, God says: b“And I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy,” even though he is not worthy.According to Rabbi Meir, the way in which God conducts the world and bestows grace and mercy was not revealed even to Moses.,The Gemara continues to cite the Sages’ explanation of verses that require clarification on the same topic. With regard to God’s statement to Moses, b“And He said: ‘You cannot see My face,for man shall not see Me and live’” (Exodus 33:20), bit was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses bas follows: When I wantedto show you My glory at the burning bush, byou did not wantto see it, as it is stated: “And Moses concealed his face, fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6). But bnow that you wantto see My glory, as you said: “Show me Your glory,” bI do not wantto show it to you. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa interprets Moses’ initial refusal to look upon God’s glory negatively, as he rebuffed God’s desire to be close to him.,This bdisagrees withthat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatansaid, as bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:Specifically bas a reward for threeacts of humility in averting his glance at the burning bush, Moses bwas privilegedto experience bthreegreat revelations:,Because “Moses bconcealed his face,fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6), bhe was privileged tohave his bcountece [ ikelaster /i]glow. brBecause bhe “feared,” he was privileged that “they feared to approach him”(Exodus 34:30). brBecause he did not b“gaze,” he was privileged to “behold the likeness of the Lord”(Numbers 12:8).,What did Moses see? It is said: b“And I will remove My hand, and you will see My back,but My face you will not see” (Exodus 33:23). bRav Ḥana bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida,the expression: “And you will see My back,” should be understood as follows: bThis teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He,Who, as mentioned above, wears phylacteries, bshowed him the knot of the phylacteriesof His head, which is worn on the back of the head.,On this subject, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Every statementto a person or to a nation bthat emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a promise bof good, even if it was conditional, He did not renegeon it. Ultimately, every promise made by God will be fulfilled., bFrom where do wederive that all of God’s promises are fulfilled? We know this bfrom Moses our teacher,as God promised and bsaid: “Leave Me alone; I will destroy themand blot out their name from under heaven; band I will make from you a nation mightierand greater than they” (Deuteronomy 9:14). bEven thoughMoses bprayedto have the decree repealed, bandit bwas nullified, the promise was fulfilledand Moses’ bdescendantsbecame a nation mightier and greater than the 600,000 Israelites in the desert. bAs it is statedwith regard to the Levites: b“The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer…and the sons of Eliezer were Reḥaviya the chief.And Eliezer had no other sons; band the sons of Reḥaviya were very many”(I Chronicles 23:15–17)., bAnd Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Many”means more bthan 600,000.This is learned through a verbal analogy between the words bmanyand bmany. It is written herewith regard to Reḥaviya’s sons: b“Were very many.” And it is written therewith regard to the Israelites in Egypt: b“And the children of Israel became numerous and multiplied and were very many,and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them” (Exodus 1:7). Just as when the children of Israel were in Egypt, very many meant that there were 600,000 of them, so too the descendants of Reḥaviya were 600,000.
68. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19b. הכתובה בין הכתובים אמר ליה הרי אמרו הקורא במגילה הכתובה בין הכתובים לא יצא,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן הקורא במגילה הכתובה בין הכתובים לא יצא ומחו לה אמוחא בצבור שנו,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן שיור התפר הלכה למשה מסיני ומחו לה אמוחא ולא אמרו אלא כדי שלא יקרע,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אלמלי נשתייר במערה שעמד בה משה ואליהו כמלא נקב מחט סדקית לא היו יכולין לעמוד מפני האורה שנאמר (שמות לג, כ) כי לא יראני האדם וחי,ואמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים ט, י) ועליהם ככל הדברים אשר דבר ה' עמכם בהר מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה למשה דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים ומה שהסופרים עתידין לחדש ומאי ניהו מקרא מגילה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הכל כשרין לקרות את המגילה חוץ מחרש שוטה וקטן ר' יהודה מכשיר בקטן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן תנא חרש דיעבד נמי לא אמר רב מתנה ר' יוסי היא דתנן הקורא את שמע ולא השמיע לאזנו יצא רבי יוסי אומר לא יצא,וממאי דרבי יוסי היא ודיעבד נמי לא דלמא רבי יהודה היא ולכתחלה הוא דלא הא דיעבד שפיר דמי,לא סלקא דעתך דקתני חרש דומיא דשוטה וקטן מה שוטה וקטן דיעבד נמי לא אף חרש דיעבד נמי לא,ודלמא הא כדאיתא והא כדאיתא מדקתני סיפא רבי יהודה מכשיר בקטן מכלל דרישא לאו ר' יהודה היא,ודלמא כולה ר' יהודה היא מי דמי רישא לפסולה וסיפא לכשירה,ודלמא כולה ר' יהודה היא ותרי גווני קטן קתני לה וחסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני הכל כשרין לקרות את המגילה חוץ מחרש שוטה וקטן בד"א בקטן שלא הגיע לחינוך אבל בקטן שהגיע לחינוך אפילו לכתחלה שר' יהודה מכשיר בקטן,במאי אוקימתא כר' יהודה ודיעבד,אלא הא דתני (ר') יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי חרש המדבר ואינו שומע תורם לכתחלה מני אי רבי יהודה דיעבד אין לכתחלה לא אי רבי יוסי דיעבד נמי לא,ואלא מאי ר' יהודה ואפי' לכתחלה אלא הא דתניא לא יברך אדם ברכת המזון בלבו ואם בירך יצא מני לא רבי יהודה ולא רבי יוסי אי ר' יהודה אפי' לכתחלה אי ר' יוסי אפי' דיעבד נמי לא 19b. bthat was written together withthe rest of bthe Writings.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:The Sages bhave said: If one reads from a Megilla that was written together withthe rest of bthe Writings he has not fulfilledhis obligation., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: If one reads from a Megilla that was written together withthe rest of bthe Writings he has not fulfilledhis obligation. bBut they hitthis ihalakha bon its head,i.e., immediately after reporting this ruling they added a qualification that removed much of its force: bThey taughtthis ihalakhaonly with respect btoreading the Megilla for ba congregation.An individual who reads the Megilla in private fulfills his obligation even if the Megilla was written together with the rest of the Writings. Only when it is read in public must it be from a Megilla that is a separate scroll., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbaalso bsaidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakhaof bleavinga space without bstitches,i.e., that the parchment sheets of a Torah scroll must not be sewn all the way to the edge, but rather a small margin must be left at the top and at the bottom, bis a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai,i.e., it was not written in the Torah but was received in the framework of the Oral Law. bBut theyimmediately bhitthis ihalakha bon its head,explaining that this ihalakhais not due to the special sanctity of a Torah scroll; rather, bthey saidthat it is bonly so that it not rip.If the scroll is wound too forcefully, the sheets of parchment will begin to spread apart since they are not sewn together at their extremities, and the one who is winding will cease to wind it so forcefully. If the stitching went all the way to the end there would be no such warning and the stitches would cause the parchment to rip., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbaalso bsaidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Had there been leftopen ba crackso much as bthe size of small sewing needle in the cave in which Moses and Elijah stoodwhen God’s glory was revealed to them, as it is written: “And it shall come to pass, while My glory passes by, that I will put you in a cleft of the rock” (Exodus 33:22), and: “And he came there to a cave…and, behold, the Lord passed by” (I Kings 19:9–11), bthey would not have been able to endure due to theintense blightthat would have entered that crack, bas it is stated: “For no man shall see Me and live”(Exodus 33:20)., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbafurther bsaidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written:“And the Lord delivered to me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God; band on them was written according to all the words which the Lord spoke with you in the mountain”(Deuteronomy 9:10)? bThis teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Moseson the mountain all bthe inferencesthat can be derived from the words of bthe Torah; andall bthe inferencesthat can be derived from the words bof the Scribes,the early Sages; bandalso ballthe new ihalakhot bthat the Scribes were destined to introducein the future in addition to the laws of the Torah. bAnd what is itspecifically that the Scribes would introduce in addition to the laws of the Torah? bThe reading of the Megilla. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bEveryone is fit to read the Megilla, except for a deaf person, an imbecile, and a minor. Rabbi Yehudadisagrees and bsays that a minor is fitto read the Megilla., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWho is the itanna /ithat btaughtthat the reading of ba deaf person, even after the fact, no,it is not valid? bRav Mattana said: It is Rabbi Yosei, as we learnedin a mishna elsewhere ( iBerakhot15a): bIf one recites the iShemabut does not make it audible to his ears, he hasnevertheless bfulfilledhis obligation. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. bRabbi Yosei said: He has not fulfilledhis obligation. Rabbi Yosei’s statement implies that one who does not hear what he is saying does not fulfill his obligation. Presumably the ihalakhotfor iShemarecitation and Megilla reading are equivalent.,The Gemara questions the assumption on which the previous discussion is based: bBut from wheredo you know that the mishna, which states that a deaf person may not read the Megilla, reflects the opinion of bRabbi Yosei,and that it means to say that beven after the fact, no,one does not fulfill his obligation if the Megilla is read by a deaf person? bPerhapsthe mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, andit should be understood as saying that a deaf person bmay notread iab initio /i, but after the facthis reading bis valid. /b,The Gemara rejects this proposal: bThis should not enter your mind, asthe mishna bteachesthe ihalakhaof a deaf person, an imbecile, and a minor together, implying that ba deaf person is similar to an imbecile or a minor.Therefore, it may be inferred that bjust asthe readings of ban imbecile and a minorare bnotvalid beven after the fact, so too, even after the fact, no,the reading of ba deaf personis not valid.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsit is not so that all three cases are equivalent. Perhaps with regard to the imbecile and the minor, bthis ihalakhais bas it is, andwith regard to a deaf person, bthat ihalakhais bas it is.Although all three cases are taught together, this may be merely because in all three cases he may not read iab initio /i; there may be a difference between them with regard to their status after the fact. It is possible that the mishna means that the reading of a deaf person is valid after the fact, and is citing the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara rejects this: It is impossible to say that the anonymous first itannaof the mishna is Rabbi Yehuda, as bfromthe fact bthat the latter clause teaches: Rabbi Yehuda says that a minor is fit, it may be inferred that the first clauseof the mishna bwas nottaught by bRabbi Yehuda. /b,The Gemara continues to ask: bBut perhapsthe mishna bin its entirety wastaught by bRabbi Yehudaafter all, but the first clause of the mishna was taught anonymously, whereas the latter clause was taught explicitly in the name of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara rejects this argument: bArethe two parts of the mishna bcomparable,that they can be associated with a single Sage? bThe first clauseof the mishna comes bto disqualifythe reading of a minor, bwhereas the latter clausecomes bto declarea minor bfit.These two contradictory opinions therefore cannot be understood as the statement of a single Sage.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe mishna bin its entiretyexpresses the opinion of bRabbi Yehudaafter all. bAnd it is teachingthe ihalakhaconcerning btwodifferent btypes of minors, andthe mishna bis incomplete,lacking some words of elaboration, band is teaching the following: Everyone is fit to read the Megilla except for a deaf person, an imbecile, and a minor. In whatcase bis this statement said?Only bwith regard to a minor who has not reachedthe age of btrainingin mitzvot. bBut a minor who has reachedthe age of btrainingin mitzvot may read the Megilla beven iab initio /i, as Rabbi Yehuda says that a minorwho has reached that requisite age bis fitto read the Megilla.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation of the mishna: bIn whatmanner bdid you establishthe mishna? You established it as being bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,and you understand the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda to be that a deaf person is disqualified from reading the Megilla iab initio /i, but bafter the facthis reading is valid., bButthen bthat which Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taughtwill present a difficulty, as he taught a ibaraita /i: bA deaf person who can speak but cannot hear may set aside iteruma /ieven iab initio /i,although he cannot hear himself reciting the blessing that is recited before setting aside iteruma /i. Upon bwhoseopinion is this ibaraitabased? bIfyou say it is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,that cannot be, as you have established that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that if one recites something and does not hear it, bafter the fact, yes,his action is valid, but he should bnotdo so iab initio /i. And ifyou say it is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei,this is even more difficult, as he maintains that beven after the fact, no,his action is not valid. Who, then, is the Sage who would say that a deaf person may set aside iterumaeven iab initio /i?,The Gemara rejects this reasoning: bRather, whatthen do you propose to say, that this ibaraitais in accordance with bRabbi Yehuda andthat Rabbi Yehuda permits a deaf person to read beven iab initio /i,whereas Rabbi Yosei would disqualify him even after the fact? bButthen bwhose isthe opinion that is represented in bthat which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person should not recite the Grace after Meals in his heart,i.e., inaudibly, bbut if he recitedit in this manner, bhe has fulfilledhis obligation. It is the opinion of bneither Rabbi Yehuda nor Rabbi Yosei.As, bifit follows the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it should be permitted beven iab initio /i,and bifit follows the opinion of bRabbi Yosei,then beven after the fact, no,this should not be valid.
69. Anon., 2 Enoch, 37.2

70. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.16, 7.97, 7.125, 13.54

6.16. that the speech concerns them. They will tremble and be shaken, for they know that their end must be changed. 7.97. The sixth order, when it is shown to them how their face is to shine like the sun, and how they are to be made like the light of the stars, being incorruptible from then on. 13.54. because you have forsaken your own ways and have applied yourself to mine, and have searched out my law;
71. Anon., Sifre Zuta Numbers, 27

72. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 15-17, 14



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(artapanus), hylogenēs Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
1 enoch book of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 25
a minori ad maius Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 146, 147
aaron Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
abraham, covenant of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135
abraham, sons of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 168
abraham, the patriarch, descent from Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
abraham Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
abram/abraham, prayer for ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551
adam, inside paradise Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
adam Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 115
adoption Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
aggadah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 143, 147
allegory/allegorical, a short history of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, genealogical allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, in alexandria Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, jewish-hellenistic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, philonic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
allelujah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
alphabetic culture Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 112
analogy Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 140
angel, angelic, angelic transformation, angelomorphism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
angel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
angels Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 25
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
apocalyptic Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 138
apologetic texts Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
aristobulus, mosess two-tablet law Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
aristotle, on reason Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 282
aristotle Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 282
art and architecture Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 323
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
ascent, angels, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
banquet Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
beginning, middle, end, god as Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
birth of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 25
blessing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
bloom, harold Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
body Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
boyarin, daniel, on circumcision Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
boyarin, daniel, on pauls hermeneutics Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
boyarin, daniel, on tevlo~ Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 28
chariot Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
circumcision, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 383
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
commandment Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
community, corinth Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
comparative method Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 131
contagion, sacred Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
covenant, old/new Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135, 145, 146, 168
covenant Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 141, 146
day of the lord Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
divine, splendor/glory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 144, 145, 146, 147, 158, 159, 160
divine essence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
divine immanence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
divine presence, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
dream, vision Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
drink Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
eagles Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
ecstasis, ecstasy, ecstatic, ex stasis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
egypt, egyptian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
elijah, in early christianity DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 266
elijah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136, 142, 143; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
emmaus pericope, allusions to genesis Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
emmaus pericope Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
eucharist, emmaus table and Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
eve Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
exegesis Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
exile\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
eyes, feeding the Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158, 159
ezekiel Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136
face, frozen Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 142
face Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
food Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
fragmentation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
frei, frei on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
frei, hans, agreement with origen Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
frei, hans, divergence from origen Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
frei, hans, on moses veil Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192
frei, literalism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
frei Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
genealogy, as flesh Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
gentiles, and the torah/law Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 168, 169
giants Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 25
glorification, of god Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
glorification, origen on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822, 1066
glory, lord, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
glory, of moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
glory, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
glory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175; Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 115, 116; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
god, beginning, middle, end Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
god, face of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
god, glorification of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
god, goodness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
god, intervention of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
god, knowledge of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
god, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
golden calf Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136, 140
gospel of john, johannine epistemology Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
gospel of john, johannine travel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
grace, and faith Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
greek language, hellenistic greek, use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
greek language, of septuagint Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
greek language, pentateuch Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
greek language, vernacular, non-literary (koine) character of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
greek language Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
hagar Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 168
halakhah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 147, 169
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
hays, richard b., echoes of scripture in the letters of paul Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
heaven\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
heine, ronald e. Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
hekhalot Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
hellenistic greek, of septuagint Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
hermeneutics, and the endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158, 159, 160, 164, 168, 169
hermeneutics, and unveiling Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158, 159, 160, 168, 169
hermeneutics, hellenistic and rabbinic Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 160
hermeneutics, marcionites Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
hermeneutics, methods of interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136
high priests of jerusalem, and the hebrew bible Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
high priests of jerusalem, in philo Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
high priests of jerusalem Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
holiness Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
honor/shame Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 115
hur Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
hypostasis Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
identity, loss of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 28
identity, supersession by presence Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
identity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 159
interpretation, christian Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
isaiah, vision of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551
israel, community of, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822, 1066; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
james Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
jerusalem, second temple of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
jerusalem Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 143
jesus, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 266
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
jesus, son of god as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
jesus, the clothes of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 143
jesus/christ Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323
jesus Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 138, 142, 143; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
jesus christ, glorification of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
jesus christ, identity of, as function of resurrection Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192
jesus christ, identity of, in relation to god Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192, 199
jesus christ, transfiguration of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
johannine logos, shekhinah and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 387; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 140
josephus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
joshua son of nun Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
journey, spiritual journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
judaism, mosess birth Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
judaism in egypt, ps.-orpheus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
kavod Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
kinship Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
knowledge\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
koine greek, of septuagint Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
kraemer, david Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 282
law, 2 corinthians Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
law, christianity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
law, laws Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 116
light, illumination Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
lord see god, armies (hosts), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
lord see god, spirits, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822, 1066
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
magic, magical, magician, magico-mystical Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
manna Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 147
marcionites, hermeneutics of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
mari (city in ancient syria) Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
mary Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 323
meir, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 282
messiahs name Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
metaphor Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 137, 159, 169
midrash, as restrained and limited Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158, 159
minor, hylogenēs Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
minor, two pillars, adams prediction of two world destructions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
modesty Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158, 159, 160, 168, 169
moses, appearance Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323
moses, christ Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323
moses, divine Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
moses, glorified countenance of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 199
moses, his priesthood Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 139
moses, mosaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
moses, pagan literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
moses, philos interpretation of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 139
moses, sprouting horns Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136, 137
moses, veil of, frei on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192
moses, veil of, paul on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 28, 192, 199
moses, veil of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 158, 159, 160, 164, 168, 169
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 387; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 25, 175; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 131, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 158, 159, 160, 168, 169; Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 282; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822, 1066; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 116; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
mt. sinai Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
mysticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 116
myth and mythmaking Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 168
narrative, crafting new narratives out of old Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 137, 138, 139
narrative, fluidity of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 137, 138, 139
narrative Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 159, 164, 168
nietzsche, friedrich Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192
noah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 25
nourishment Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
old testament, as shadow Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192
ordeal Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 147
origens Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
paradise, fruit in Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
patriarchs Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 115, 116
paul, the apostle, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
paul, the apostle, interpretation of israel Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 226
paul, the apostle, on veil of moses Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 28, 192, 199
paul Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323
perfection Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551
peter, simon Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
pharaoh Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 387
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
pistis Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 168
prayer Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
priest, priesthood Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 115
priesthood, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
priests adolescent, jewish, memory of after the destruction of the second temple Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
priests adolescent, of the second temple in jerusalem Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 387
prooftext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 144
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 130
ps.-orpheus, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
ps.-orpheus, recension c Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
ps.-orpheus, recensional history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
ps.-orpheus, recensions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
ps.-orpheus, riedweg, c. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
ps.-orpheus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 94
public reading of the law in israel, of septuagint Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 27
purity, radiance Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 138, 140, 141, 142, 168
quotation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135, 164
rabbi akiva, school of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 169
rabbi akiva Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 169
rabbinic writings\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 149
redaction Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
reformation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 323
resurrection, role in christs identity Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 192
resurrection Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 116
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323
rhetoric Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135, 146, 147
righteousness by pistis/deeds Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
rock Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
rome, roman Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 115
sacrifice Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 551; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164, 168
scripture, reworking of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 164
seeing Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
seraphim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
shefa, divine presence related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
shefa, glory related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
shefa, johannine logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
shekhinah Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
sinai, covenant, revelation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175, 323; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 135, 136, 137, 139, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 282; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
son of god, jesus as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 160
sophistry Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 175
spells, incantations Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822, 1066
spiritual Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
splendour Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
strength Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
supersession, of identity by presence Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 272
sweat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
symbolism Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 136
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129, 130
table Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 84
tablets, heavenly tablets Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 131
tablets, stone tablets Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 131, 135, 136, 139, 140
tacitus, boyarin on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 28
tamar Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 387
teacher of righteousness Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 138, 141
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129
theophany Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 137, 139, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 158, 159
throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
throne of glory Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 129