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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 32.6-32.14


nanNow therefore let Me alone, that My wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make of thee a great nation.’


וַיְחַל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָה יְהוָה יֶחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ בְּעַמֶּךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹחַ גָּדוֹל וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said: ‘LORD, why doth Thy wrath wax hot against Thy people, that Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?


לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר בְּרָעָה הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲרֹג אֹתָם בֶּהָרִים וּלְכַלֹּתָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה שׁוּב מֵחֲרוֹן אַפֶּךָ וְהִנָּחֵם עַל־הָרָעָה לְעַמֶּךָ׃Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying: For evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from Thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against Thy people.


זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ וַתְּדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְכָל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶתֵּן לְזַרְעֲכֶם וְנָחֲלוּ לְעֹלָם׃Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Thy servants, to whom Thou didst swear by Thine own self, and saidst unto them: I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.’


וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה עַל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ׃And the LORD repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people.


וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ מִמָּחֳרָת וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיַּגִּשׁוּ שְׁלָמִים וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְשָׁתוֹ וַיָּקֻמוּ לְצַחֵק׃And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to make merry.


וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֶךְ־רֵד כִּי שִׁחֵת עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלֵיתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃And the LORD spoke unto Moses: ‘Go, get thee down; for thy people, that thou broughtest up out of the land of Egypt, have dealt corruptly;


סָרוּ מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ־לוֹ וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־לוֹ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃they have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed unto it, and said: This is thy god, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’


וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְהִנֵּה עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא׃And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.11, 4.34, 5.2-5.7, 5.15, 6.15, 7.12, 7.19, 9.14, 9.20-9.21, 9.26-9.29, 11.2, 11.17, 27.8, 28.11-28.12, 29.24, 30.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵכֶם יֹסֵף עֲלֵיכֶם כָּכֶם אֶלֶף פְּעָמִים וִיבָרֵךְ אֶתְכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָכֶם׃ 4.34. אוֹ הֲנִסָּה אֱלֹהִים לָבוֹא לָקַחַת לוֹ גוֹי מִקֶּרֶב גּוֹי בְּמַסֹּת בְּאֹתֹת וּבְמוֹפְתִים וּבְמִלְחָמָה וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמוֹרָאִים גְּדֹלִים כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לָכֶם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּמִצְרַיִם לְעֵינֶיךָ׃ 5.2. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם׃ 5.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב׃ 5.3. לֹא אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי אִתָּנוּ אֲנַחְנוּ אֵלֶּה פֹה הַיּוֹם כֻּלָּנוּ חַיִּים׃ 5.3. בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּן וְטוֹב לָכֶם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּם יָמִים בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תִּירָשׁוּן׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.5. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר׃ 5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת׃ 6.15. כִּי אֵל קַנָּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ פֶּן־יֶחֱרֶה אַף־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּךְ וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 7.12. וְהָיָה עֵקֶב תִּשְׁמְעוּן אֵת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הָאֵלֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְשָׁמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת־הַבְּרִית וְאֶת־הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 7.19. הַמַּסֹּת הַגְּדֹלֹת אֲשֶׁר־רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וְהָאֹתֹת וְהַמֹּפְתִים וְהַיָּד הַחֲזָקָה וְהַזְּרֹעַ הַנְּטוּיָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כֵּן־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְכָל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה יָרֵא מִפְּנֵיהֶם׃ 9.14. הֶרֶף מִמֶּנִּי וְאַשְׁמִידֵם וְאֶמְחֶה אֶת־שְׁמָם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי־עָצוּם וָרָב מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 9.26. וָאֶתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ בְּגָדְלֶךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 9.28. פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָנוּ מִשָּׁם מִבְּלִי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לַהֲבִיאָם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם וּמִשִּׂנְאָתוֹ אוֹתָם הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲמִתָם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 9.29. וְהֵם עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ בְּכֹחֲךָ הַגָּדֹל וּבִזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 11.2. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזוֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.2. וִידַעְתֶּם הַיּוֹם כִּי לֹא אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־רָאוּ אֶת־מוּסַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶת־גָּדְלוֹ אֶת־יָדוֹ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעוֹ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 27.8. וְכָתַבְתָּ עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בַּאֵר הֵיטֵב׃ 28.11. וְהוֹתִרְךָ יְהוָה לְטוֹבָה בִּפְרִי בִטְנְךָ וּבִפְרִי בְהַמְתְּךָ וּבִפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ׃ 28.12. יִפְתַּח יְהוָה לְךָ אֶת־אוֹצָרוֹ הַטּוֹב אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם לָתֵת מְטַר־אַרְצְךָ בְּעִתּוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ אֵת כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶךָ וְהִלְוִיתָ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאַתָּה לֹא תִלְוֶה׃ 29.24. וְאָמְרוּ עַל אֲשֶׁר עָזְבוּ אֶת־בְּרִית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתָם אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת עִמָּם בְּהוֹצִיאוֹ אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 30.19. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 1.11. The LORD, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times so many more as ye are, and bless you, as He hath promised you!—" 4.34. Or hath God assayed to go and take Him a nation from the midst of another nation, by trials, by signs, and by wonders, and by war, and by a mighty hand, and by an outstretched arm, and by great terrors, according to all that the LORD your God did for you in Egypt before thine eyes?" 5.2. The LORD our God made a covet with us in Horeb." 5.3. The LORD made not this covet with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 5.5. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare unto you the word of the LORD; for ye were afraid because of the fire, and went not up into the mount—saying: ." 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.15. And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day." 6.15. for a jealous God, even the LORD thy God, is in the midst of thee; lest the anger of the LORD thy God be kindled against thee, and He destroy thee from off the face of the earth." 7.12. And it shall come to pass, because ye hearken to these ordices, and keep, and do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep with thee the covet and the mercy which He swore unto thy fathers," 7.19. the great trials which thine eyes saw, and the signs, and the wonders, and the mighty hand, and the outstretched arm, whereby the LORD thy God brought thee out; so shall the LORD thy God do unto all the peoples of whom thou art afraid." 9.14. let Me alone, that I may destroy them, and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of thee a nation mightier and greater than they.’" 9.26. And I prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘O Lord GOD, destroy not Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou hast redeemed through Thy greatness, that Thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand." 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 9.28. lest the land whence Thou broughtest us out say: Because the LORD was not able to bring them into the land which He promised unto them, and because He hated them, He hath brought them out to slay them in the wilderness." 9.29. Yet they are Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou didst bring out by Thy great power and by Thy outstretched arm.’" 11.2. And know ye this day; for I speak not with your children that have not known, and that have not seen the chastisement of the LORD your God, His greatness, His mighty hand, and His outstretched arm," 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 27.8. And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law very plainly.’" 28.11. And the LORD will make thee over-abundant for good, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy land, in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers to give thee." 28.12. The LORD will open unto thee His good treasure the heaven to give the rain of thy land in its season, and to bless all the work of thy hand; and thou shalt lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not borrow." 29.24. then men shall say: ‘Because they forsook the covet of the LORD, the God of their fathers, which He made with them when He brought them forth out of the land of Egypt;" 30.19. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.1, 1.12, 3.13, 8.11, 8.17, 9.5, 9.10, 9.13-9.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּטוֹב לֵב־הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּיִן אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה׃ 1.12. וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃ 3.13. וְנִשְׁלוֹחַ סְפָרִים בְּיַד הָרָצִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים מִנַּעַר וְעַד־זָקֵן טַף וְנָשִׁים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 8.11. אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־עִיר־וָעִיר לְהִקָּהֵל וְלַעֲמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם לְהַשְׁמִיד וְלַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־חֵיל עַם וּמְדִינָה הַצָּרִים אֹתָם טַף וְנָשִׁים וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 8.17. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וּבְכָל־עִיר וָעִיר מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וְרַבִּים מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ מִתְיַהֲדִים כִּי־נָפַל פַּחַד־הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.5. וַיַּכּוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּכָל־אֹיְבֵיהֶם מַכַּת־חֶרֶב וְהֶרֶג וְאַבְדָן וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם כִּרְצוֹנָם׃ 9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.14. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן תָּלוּ׃ 1.1. NOW IT came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus—this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces—" 1.12. But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him." 3.13. And letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey." 8.11. that the king had granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, and to slay, and to cause to perish, all the forces of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey," 8.17. And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, the Jews had gladness and joy, a feast and a good day. And many from among the peoples of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews was fallen upon them." 9.5. And the Jews smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword, and with slaughter and destruction, and did what they would unto them that hated them." 9.10. the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Jews’enemy, slew they; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’" 9.14. And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.10, 24.3-24.8, 32.1-32.9, 32.11-32.34, 33.2-33.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.3. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְסַפֵּר לָעָם אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וְאֵת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וַיַּעַן כָּל־הָעָם קוֹל אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 32.1. וְעַתָּה הַנִּיחָה לִּי וְיִחַר־אַפִּי בָהֶם וַאֲכַלֵּם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל׃ 32.1. וַיַּרְא הָעָם כִּי־בֹשֵׁשׁ מֹשֶׁה לָרֶדֶת מִן־הָהָר וַיִּקָּהֵל הָעָם עַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו קוּם עֲשֵׂה־לָנוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ כִּי־זֶה מֹשֶׁה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֹא יָדַעְנוּ מֶה־הָיָה לוֹ׃ 32.2. וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָעֵגֶל אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וַיִּשְׂרֹף בָּאֵשׁ וַיִּטְחַן עַד אֲשֶׁר־דָּק וַיִּזֶר עַל־פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אַהֲרֹן פָּרְקוּ נִזְמֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר בְּאָזְנֵי נְשֵׁיכֶם בְּנֵיכֶם וּבְנֹתֵיכֶם וְהָבִיאוּ אֵלָי׃ 32.3. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַתֶּם חֲטָאתֶם חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה וְעַתָּה אֶעֱלֶה אֶל־יְהוָה אוּלַי אֲכַפְּרָה בְּעַד חַטַּאתְכֶם׃ 32.3. וַיִּתְפָּרְקוּ כָּל־הָעָם אֶת־נִזְמֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶל־אַהֲרֹן׃ 32.4. וַיִּקַּח מִיָּדָם וַיָּצַר אֹתוֹ בַּחֶרֶט וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 32.5. וַיַּרְא אַהֲרֹן וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ לְפָנָיו וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמַר חַג לַיהוָה מָחָר׃ 32.6. וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ מִמָּחֳרָת וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיַּגִּשׁוּ שְׁלָמִים וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְשָׁתוֹ וַיָּקֻמוּ לְצַחֵק׃ 32.7. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֶךְ־רֵד כִּי שִׁחֵת עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלֵיתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 32.8. סָרוּ מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ־לוֹ וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־לוֹ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 32.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְהִנֵּה עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא׃ 32.11. וַיְחַל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָה יְהוָה יֶחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ בְּעַמֶּךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹחַ גָּדוֹל וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 32.12. לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר בְּרָעָה הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲרֹג אֹתָם בֶּהָרִים וּלְכַלֹּתָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה שׁוּב מֵחֲרוֹן אַפֶּךָ וְהִנָּחֵם עַל־הָרָעָה לְעַמֶּךָ׃ 32.13. זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ וַתְּדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְכָל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶתֵּן לְזַרְעֲכֶם וְנָחֲלוּ לְעֹלָם׃ 32.14. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה עַל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ׃ 32.15. וַיִּפֶן וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה מִן־הָהָר וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיָדוֹ לֻחֹת כְּתֻבִים מִשְּׁנֵי עֶבְרֵיהֶם מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה הֵם כְּתֻבִים׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 32.17. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־קוֹל הָעָם בְּרֵעֹה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קוֹל מִלְחָמָה בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 32.18. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין קוֹל עֲנוֹת גְּבוּרָה וְאֵין קוֹל עֲנוֹת חֲלוּשָׁה קוֹל עַנּוֹת אָנֹכִי שֹׁמֵעַ׃ 32.19. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר קָרַב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיַּרְא אֶת־הָעֵגֶל וּמְחֹלֹת וַיִּחַר־אַף מֹשֶׁה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ מידו [מִיָּדָיו] אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֹתָם תַּחַת הָהָר׃ 32.21. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן מֶה־עָשָׂה לְךָ הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי־הֵבֵאתָ עָלָיו חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה׃ 32.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אַל־יִחַר אַף אֲדֹנִי אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם כִּי בְרָע הוּא׃ 32.23. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לִי עֲשֵׂה־לָנוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ לְפָנֵינוּ כִּי־זֶה מֹשֶׁה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֹא יָדַעְנוּ מֶה־הָיָה לוֹ׃ 32.24. וָאֹמַר לָהֶם לְמִי זָהָב הִתְפָּרָקוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ־לִי וָאַשְׁלִכֵהוּ בָאֵשׁ וַיֵּצֵא הָעֵגֶל הַזֶּה׃ 32.25. וַיַּרְא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם כִּי פָרֻעַ הוּא כִּי־פְרָעֹה אַהֲרֹן לְשִׁמְצָה בְּקָמֵיהֶם׃ 32.26. וַיַּעֲמֹד מֹשֶׁה בְּשַׁעַר הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מִי לַיהוָה אֵלָי וַיֵּאָסְפוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־בְּנֵי לֵוִי׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימוּ אִישׁ־חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בַּמַּחֲנֶה וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ־אֶת־אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבוֹ׃ 32.28. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־לֵוִי כִּדְבַר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּפֹּל מִן־הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי אִישׁ׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מִלְאוּ יֶדְכֶם הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה כִּי אִישׁ בִּבְנוֹ וּבְאָחִיו וְלָתֵת עֲלֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּרָכָה׃ 32.31. וַיָּשָׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר אָנָּא חָטָא הָעָם הַזֶּה חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם אֱלֹהֵי זָהָב׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 32.33. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה מִי אֲשֶׁר חָטָא־לִי אֶמְחֶנּוּ מִסִּפְרִי׃ 32.34. וְעַתָּה לֵךְ נְחֵה אֶת־הָעָם אֶל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ הִנֵּה מַלְאָכִי יֵלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ וּבְיוֹם פָּקְדִי וּפָקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם חַטָּאתָם׃ 33.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תוּכַל לִרְאֹת אֶת־פָּנָי כִּי לֹא־יִרְאַנִי הָאָדָם וָחָי׃ 33.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ מַלְאָךְ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 33.3. אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ כִּי לֹא אֶעֱלֶה בְּקִרְבְּךָ כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף אַתָּה פֶּן־אֲכֶלְךָ בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 3.10. Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth My people the children of Israel out of Egypt.’" 24.3. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the ordices; and all the people answered with one voice, and said: ‘All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 32.1. And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him: ‘Up, make us a god who shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him.’" 32.2. And Aaron said unto them: ‘Break off the golden rings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me.’" 32.3. And all the people broke off the golden rings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron." 32.4. And he received it at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf; and they said: ‘This is thy god, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’" 32.5. And when Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said: ‘To-morrow shall be a feast to the LORD.’" 32.6. And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to make merry." 32.7. And the LORD spoke unto Moses: ‘Go, get thee down; for thy people, that thou broughtest up out of the land of Egypt, have dealt corruptly;" 32.8. they have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed unto it, and said: This is thy god, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’" 32.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people." 32.11. And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said: ‘LORD, why doth Thy wrath wax hot against Thy people, that Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?" 32.12. Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying: For evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from Thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against Thy people." 32.13. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Thy servants, to whom Thou didst swear by Thine own self, and saidst unto them: I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.’" 32.14. And the LORD repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people." 32.15. And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, with the two tables of the testimony in his hand; tables that were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written." 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables." 32.17. And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said unto Moses: ‘There is a noise of war in the camp.’" 32.18. And he said: ‘It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome, but the noise of them that sing do I hear.’" 32.19. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dancing; and Moses’anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and broke them beneath the mount." 32.20. And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it." 32.21. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought a great sin upon them?’" 32.22. And Aaron said: ‘Let not the anger of my lord wax hot; thou knowest the people, that they are set on evil." 32.23. So they said unto me: Make us a god, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him." 32.24. And I said unto them: Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off; so they gave it me; and I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.’" 32.25. And when Moses saw that the people were broken loose—for Aaron had let them loose for a derision among their enemies—" 32.26. then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said: ‘Whoso is on the LORD’S side, let him come unto me.’ And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him." 32.27. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’" 32.28. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses; and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men." 32.29. And Moses said: ‘Consecrate yourselves to-day to the LORD, for every man hath been against his son and against his brother; that He may also bestow upon you a blessing this day.’" 32.30. And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people: ‘Ye have sinned a great sin; and now I will go up unto the LORD, peradventure I shall make atonement for your sin.’" 32.31. And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said: ‘Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them a god of gold." 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’" 32.33. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Whosoever hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book." 32.34. And now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee; behold, Mine angel shall go before thee; nevertheless in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon them.’" 33.2. and I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite—" 33.3. unto a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I consume thee in the way.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.22-2.24, 4.12, 6.5-6.7, 18.22-18.33, 38.16, 40.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 18.22. וַיִּפְנוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּלְכוּ סְדֹמָה וְאַבְרָהָם עוֹדֶנּוּ עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 18.23. וַיִּגַּשׁ אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע׃ 18.24. אוּלַי יֵשׁ חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא לַמָּקוֹם לְמַעַן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבָּהּ׃ 18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃ 18.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אִם־אֶמְצָא בִסְדֹם חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וְנָשָׂאתִי לְכָל־הַמָּקוֹם בַּעֲבוּרָם׃ 18.27. וַיַּעַן אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי וְאָנֹכִי עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 18.28. אוּלַי יַחְסְרוּן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם חֲמִשָּׁה הֲתַשְׁחִית בַּחֲמִשָּׁה אֶת־כָּל־הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 18.29. וַיֹּסֶף עוֹד לְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה בַּעֲבוּר הָאַרְבָּעִים׃ 18.31. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם עֶשְׂרִים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית בַּעֲבוּר הָעֶשְׂרִים׃ 18.32. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אַךְ־הַפַּעַם אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם עֲשָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית בַּעֲבוּר הָעֲשָׂרָה׃ 18.33. וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר כִּלָּה לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אַבְרָהָם וְאַבְרָהָם שָׁב לִמְקֹמוֹ׃ 38.16. וַיֵּט אֵלֶיהָ אֶל־הַדֶּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָבָה־נָּא אָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ כִּי לֹא יָדַע כִּי כַלָּתוֹ הִוא וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִּי כִּי תָבוֹא אֵלָי׃ 40.2. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יוֹם הֻלֶּדֶת אֶת־פַּרְעֹה וַיַּעַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וַיִּשָּׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ שַׂר הַמַּשְׁקִים וְאֶת־רֹאשׁ שַׂר הָאֹפִים בְּתוֹךְ עֲבָדָיו׃ 40.2. וַיִּקְצֹף פַּרְעֹה עַל שְׁנֵי סָרִיסָיו עַל שַׂר הַמַּשְׁקִים וְעַל שַׂר הָאוֹפִים׃ 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 2.23. And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’" 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 18.22. And the men turned from thence, and went toward Sodom; but Abraham stood yet before the LORD." 18.23. And Abraham drew near, and said: ‘Will You indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked?" 18.24. Peradventure there are fifty righteous within the city; wilt Thou indeed sweep away and not forgive the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?" 18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’" 18.26. And the LORD said: ‘If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will forgive all the place for their sake.’" 18.27. And Abraham answered and said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes." 18.28. Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt Thou destroy all the city for lack of five?’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it, if I find there forty and five.’" 18.29. And he spoke unto Him yet again, and said: ‘Peradventure there shall be forty found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not do it for the forty’s sake.’" 18.30. And he said: ‘Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak. Peradventure there shall thirty be found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not do it, if I find thirty there.’" 18.31. And he said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord. Peradventure there shall be twenty found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it for the twenty’s sake.’" 18.32. And he said: ‘Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once. Peradventure ten shall be found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it for the ten’s sake.’" 18.33. And the LORD went His way, as soon as He had left off speaking to Abraham; and Abraham returned unto his place." 38.16. And he turned unto her by the way, and said: ‘Come, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee’; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said: ‘What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me?’" 40.2. And Pharaoh was wroth against his two officers, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 32.2, 40.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.2. אֲדַבְּרָה וְיִרְוַח־לִי אֶפְתַּח שְׂפָתַי וְאֶעֱנֶה׃ 32.2. וַיִּחַר אַף אֱלִיהוּא בֶן־בַּרַכְאֵל הַבּוּזִי מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת רָם בְּאִיּוֹב חָרָה אַפּוֹ עַל־צַדְּקוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ מֵאֱלֹהִים׃ 32.2. Then was kindled the wrath of Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite, of the family of Ram; against Job was his wrath kindled, because he justified himself rather than God." 40.30. Will the bands of fishermen make a banquet of him? Will they part him among the merchants?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.24-18.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.24. אַל־תִּטַּמְּאוּ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה כִּי בְכָל־אֵלֶּה נִטְמְאוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם׃ 18.25. וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ וָאֶפְקֹד עֲוֺנָהּ עָלֶיהָ וַתָּקִא הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ׃ 18.26. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אַתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 18.27. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵל עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ׃ 18.28. וְלֹא־תָקִיא הָאָרֶץ אֶתְכֶם בְּטַמַּאֲכֶם אֹתָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר קָאָה אֶת־הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם׃ 18.29. כִּי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 18.24. Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things; for in all these the nations are defiled, which I cast out from before you." 18.25. And the land was defiled, therefore I did visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land vomited out her inhabitants." 18.26. Ye therefore shall keep My statutes and Mine ordices, and shall not do any of these abominations; neither the home-born, nor the stranger that sojourneth among you—" 18.27. for all these abominations have the men of the land done, that were before you, and the land is defiled—" 18.28. that the land vomit not you out also, when ye defile it, as it vomited out the nation that was before you." 18.29. For whosoever shall do any of these abominations, even the souls that do them shall be cut off from among their people." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.1, 11.4-11.34, 14.4, 14.11-14.23, 16.20, 23.7-23.10, 24.10, 25.3-25.4, 35.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. וַיְהִי הָעָם כְּמִתְאֹנְנִים רַע בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ וַתִּבְעַר־בָּם אֵשׁ יְהוָה וַתֹּאכַל בִּקְצֵה הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 11.1. וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם בֹּכֶה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָיו אִישׁ לְפֶתַח אָהֳלוֹ וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה מְאֹד וּבְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה רָע׃ 11.4. וְהָאסַפְסֻף אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבּוֹ הִתְאַוּוּ תַּאֲוָה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ גַּם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ מִי יַאֲכִלֵנוּ בָּשָׂר׃ 11.5. זָכַרְנוּ אֶת־הַדָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־נֹאכַל בְּמִצְרַיִם חִנָּם אֵת הַקִּשֻּׁאִים וְאֵת הָאֲבַטִּחִים וְאֶת־הֶחָצִיר וְאֶת־הַבְּצָלִים וְאֶת־הַשּׁוּמִים׃ 11.6. וְעַתָּה נַפְשֵׁנוּ יְבֵשָׁה אֵין כֹּל בִּלְתִּי אֶל־הַמָּן עֵינֵינוּ׃ 11.7. וְהַמָּן כִּזְרַע־גַּד הוּא וְעֵינוֹ כְּעֵין הַבְּדֹלַח׃ 11.8. שָׁטוּ הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ וְטָחֲנוּ בָרֵחַיִם אוֹ דָכוּ בַּמְּדֹכָה וּבִשְּׁלוּ בַּפָּרוּר וְעָשׂוּ אֹתוֹ עֻגוֹת וְהָיָה טַעְמוֹ כְּטַעַם לְשַׁד הַשָּׁמֶן׃ 11.9. וּבְרֶדֶת הַטַּל עַל־הַמַּחֲנֶה לָיְלָה יֵרֵד הַמָּן עָלָיו׃ 11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לָמָה הֲרֵעֹתָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ וְלָמָּה לֹא־מָצָתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ לָשׂוּם אֶת־מַשָּׂא כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה עָלָי׃ 11.12. הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם־אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו׃ 11.13. מֵאַיִן לִי בָּשָׂר לָתֵת לְכָל־הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי־יִבְכּוּ עָלַי לֵאמֹר תְּנָה־לָּנוּ בָשָׂר וְנֹאכֵלָה׃ 11.14. לֹא־אוּכַל אָנֹכִי לְבַדִּי לָשֵׂאת אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי כָבֵד מִמֶּנִּי׃ 11.15. וְאִם־כָּכָה אַתְּ־עֹשֶׂה לִּי הָרְגֵנִי נָא הָרֹג אִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וְאַל־אֶרְאֶה בְּרָעָתִי׃ 11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃ 11.17. וְיָרַדְתִּי וְדִבַּרְתִּי עִמְּךָ שָׁם וְאָצַלְתִּי מִן־הָרוּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ וְשַׂמְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ אִתְּךָ בְּמַשָּׂא הָעָם וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא אַתָּה לְבַדֶּךָ׃ 11.18. וְאֶל־הָעָם תֹּאמַר הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לְמָחָר וַאֲכַלְתֶּם בָּשָׂר כִּי בְּכִיתֶם בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוָה לֵאמֹר מִי יַאֲכִלֵנוּ בָּשָׂר כִּי־טוֹב לָנוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם וְנָתַן יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּשָׂר וַאֲכַלְתֶּם׃ 11.19. לֹא יוֹם אֶחָד תֹּאכְלוּן וְלֹא יוֹמָיִם וְלֹא חֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים וְלֹא עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים וְלֹא עֶשְׂרִים יוֹם׃ 11.21. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף רַגְלִי הָעָם אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בָּשָׂר אֶתֵּן לָהֶם וְאָכְלוּ חֹדֶשׁ יָמִים׃ 11.22. הֲצֹאן וּבָקָר יִשָּׁחֵט לָהֶם וּמָצָא לָהֶם אִם אֶת־כָּל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם יֵאָסֵף לָהֶם וּמָצָא לָהֶם׃ 11.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הֲיַד יְהוָה תִּקְצָר עַתָּה תִרְאֶה הֲיִקְרְךָ דְבָרִי אִם־לֹא׃ 11.24. וַיֵּצֵא מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעָם אֵת דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיֶּאֱסֹף שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי הָעָם וַיַּעֲמֵד אֹתָם סְבִיבֹת הָאֹהֶל׃ 11.25. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו וַיָּאצֶל מִן־הָרוּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּתֵּן עַל־שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ הַזְּקֵנִים וַיְהִי כְּנוֹחַ עֲלֵיהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ וְלֹא יָסָפוּ׃ 11.26. וַיִּשָּׁאֲרוּ שְׁנֵי־אֲנָשִׁים בַּמַּחֲנֶה שֵׁם הָאֶחָד אֶלְדָּד וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִי מֵידָד וַתָּנַח עֲלֵיהֶם הָרוּחַ וְהֵמָּה בַּכְּתֻבִים וְלֹא יָצְאוּ הָאֹהֱלָה וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 11.27. וַיָּרָץ הַנַּעַר וַיַּגֵּד לְמֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמַר אֶלְדָּד וּמֵידָד מִתְנַבְּאִים בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 11.28. וַיַּעַן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן מְשָׁרֵת מֹשֶׁה מִבְּחֻרָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנִי מֹשֶׁה כְּלָאֵם׃ 11.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 11.31. וְרוּחַ נָסַע מֵאֵת יְהוָה וַיָּגָז שַׂלְוִים מִן־הַיָּם וַיִּטֹּשׁ עַל־הַמַּחֲנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ יוֹם כֹּה וּכְדֶרֶךְ יוֹם כֹּה סְבִיבוֹת הַמַּחֲנֶה וּכְאַמָּתַיִם עַל־פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.32. וַיָּקָם הָעָם כָּל־הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וְכָל־הַלַּיְלָה וְכֹל יוֹם הַמָּחֳרָת וַיַּאַסְפוּ אֶת־הַשְּׂלָו הַמַּמְעִיט אָסַף עֲשָׂרָה חֳמָרִים וַיִּשְׁטְחוּ לָהֶם שָׁטוֹחַ סְבִיבוֹת הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 11.33. הַבָּשָׂר עוֹדֶנּוּ בֵּין שִׁנֵּיהֶם טֶרֶם יִכָּרֵת וְאַף יְהוָה חָרָה בָעָם וַיַּךְ יְהוָה בָּעָם מַכָּה רַבָּה מְאֹד׃ 11.34. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא קִבְרוֹת הַתַּאֲוָה כִּי־שָׁם קָבְרוּ אֶת־הָעָם הַמִּתְאַוִּים׃ 14.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו נִתְּנָה רֹאשׁ וְנָשׁוּבָה מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 14.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶל־רֹאשׁ־הָהָר לֵאמֹר הִנֶּנּוּ וְעָלִינוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר יְהוָה כִּי חָטָאנוּ׃ 14.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עַד־אָנָה יְנַאֲצֻנִי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְעַד־אָנָה לֹא־יַאֲמִינוּ בִי בְּכֹל הָאֹתוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 14.12. אַכֶּנּוּ בַדֶּבֶר וְאוֹרִשֶׁנּוּ וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אֹתְךָ לְגוֹי־גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 14.13. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה וְשָׁמְעוּ מִצְרַיִם כִּי־הֶעֱלִיתָ בְכֹחֲךָ אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה מִקִּרְבּוֹ׃ 14.14. וְאָמְרוּ אֶל־יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת שָׁמְעוּ כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־עַיִן בְּעַיִן נִרְאָה אַתָּה יְהוָה וַעֲנָנְךָ עֹמֵד עֲלֵהֶם וּבְעַמֻּד עָנָן אַתָּה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם וּבְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לָיְלָה׃ 14.15. וְהֵמַתָּה אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד וְאָמְרוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמְעוּ אֶת־שִׁמְעֲךָ לֵאמֹר׃ 14.16. מִבִּלְתִּי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לְהָבִיא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לָהֶם וַיִּשְׁחָטֵם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 14.17. וְעַתָּה יִגְדַּל־נָא כֹּחַ אֲדֹנָי כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ לֵאמֹר׃ 14.18. יְהוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפָשַׁע וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 14.19. סְלַח־נָא לַעֲוֺן הָעָם הַזֶּה כְּגֹדֶל חַסְדֶּךָ וְכַאֲשֶׁר נָשָׂאתָה לָעָם הַזֶּה מִמִּצְרַיִם וְעַד־הֵנָּה׃ 14.21. וְאוּלָם חַי־אָנִי וְיִמָּלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.22. כִּי כָל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הָרֹאִים אֶת־כְּבֹדִי וְאֶת־אֹתֹתַי אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי בְמִצְרַיִם וּבַמִּדְבָּר וַיְנַסּוּ אֹתִי זֶה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹלִי׃ 14.23. אִם־יִרְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָם וְכָל־מְנַאֲצַי לֹא יִרְאוּהָ׃ 23.7. וַיִּשָּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר מִן־אֲרָם יַנְחֵנִי בָלָק מֶלֶךְ־מוֹאָב מֵהַרְרֵי־קֶדֶם לְכָה אָרָה־לִּי יַעֲקֹב וּלְכָה זֹעֲמָה יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 23.8. מָה אֶקֹּב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל וּמָה אֶזְעֹם לֹא זָעַם יְהוָה׃ 23.9. כִּי־מֵרֹאשׁ צֻרִים אֶרְאֶנּוּ וּמִגְּבָעוֹת אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ הֶן־עָם לְבָדָד יִשְׁכֹּן וּבַגּוֹיִם לֹא יִתְחַשָּׁב׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.5. וּמַדֹּתֶם מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶת־פְּאַת־קֵדְמָה אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־נֶגֶב אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־יָם אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְאֵת פְּאַת צָפוֹן אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְהָעִיר בַּתָּוֶךְ זֶה יִהְיֶה לָהֶם מִגְרְשֵׁי הֶעָרִים׃ 11.1. And the people were as murmurers, speaking evil in the ears of the LORD; and when the LORD heard it, His anger was kindled; and the fire of the LORD burnt among them, and devoured in the uttermost part of the camp." 11.4. And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: ‘Would that we were given flesh to eat!" 11.5. We remember the fish, which we were wont to eat in Egypt for nought; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic;" 11.6. but now our soul is dried away; there is nothing at all; we have nought save this manna to look to.’—" 11.7. Now the manna was like coriander seed, and the appearance thereof as the appearance of bdellium." 11.8. The people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in mortars, and seethed it in pots, and made cakes of it; and the taste of it was as the taste of a cake baked with oil." 11.9. And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it.—" 11.10. And Moses heard the people weeping, family by family, every man at the door of his tent; and the anger of the LORD was kindled greatly; and Moses was displeased." 11.11. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘Wherefore hast Thou dealt ill with Thy servant? and wherefore have I not found favour in Thy sight, that Thou layest the burden of all this people upon me?" 11.12. Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?" 11.13. Whence should I have flesh to give unto all this people? for they trouble me with their weeping, saying: Give us flesh, that we may eat." 11.14. I am not able to bear all this people myself alone, because it is too heavy for me." 11.15. And if Thou deal thus with me, kill me, I pray Thee, out of hand, if I have found favour in Thy sight; and let me not look upon my wretchedness.’" 11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee." 11.17. And I will come down and speak with thee there; and I will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with thee, that thou bear it not thyself alone." 11.18. And say thou unto the people: Sanctify yourselves against to-morrow, and ye shall eat flesh; for ye have wept in the ears of the LORD, saying: Would that we were given flesh to eat! for it was well with us in Egypt; therefore the LORD will give you flesh, and ye shall eat." 11.19. Ye shall not eat one day, nor two days, nor five days, neither ten days, nor twenty days;" 11.20. but a whole month, until it come out at your nostrils, and it be loathsome unto you; because that ye have rejected the LORD who is among you, and have troubled Him with weeping, saying: Why, now, came we forth out of Egypt?’" 11.21. And Moses said: ‘The people, among whom I am, are six hundred thousand men on foot; and yet Thou hast said: I will give them flesh, that they may eat a whole month!" 11.22. If flocks and herds be slain for them, will they suffice them? or if all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, will they suffice them?’" 11.23. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Is the LORD’S hand waxed short? now shalt thou see whether My word shall come to pass unto thee or not.’" 11.24. And Moses went out, and told the people the words of the LORD; and he gathered seventy men of the elders of the people, and set them round about the Tent." 11.25. And the LORD came down in the cloud, and spoke unto him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and put it upon the seventy elders; and it came to pass, that, when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, but they did so no more." 11.26. But there remained two men in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Medad; and the spirit rested upon them; and they were of them that were recorded, but had not gone out unto the Tent; and they prophesied in the camp." 11.27. And there ran a young man, and told Moses, and said: ‘Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp.’" 11.28. And Joshua the son of Nun, the minister of Moses from his youth up, answered and said: ‘My lord Moses, shut them in.’" 11.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’" 11.30. And Moses withdrew into the camp, he and the elders of Israel." 11.31. And there went forth a wind from the LORD, and brought across quails from the sea, and let them fall by the camp, about a day’s journey on this side, and a day’s journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth." 11.32. And the people rose up all that day, and all the night, and all the next day, and gathered the quails; he that gathered least gathered ten heaps; and they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp." 11.33. While the flesh was yet between their teeth, ere it was chewed, the anger of the LORD was kindled against the people, and the LORD smote the people with a very great plague." 11.34. And the name of that place was called Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted." 14.4. And they said one to another: ‘Let us make a captain, and let us return into Egypt.’" 14.11. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘How long will this people despise Me? and how long will they not believe in Me, for all the signs which I have wrought among them?" 14.12. I will smite them with the pestilence, and destroy them, and will make of thee a nation greater and mightier than they.’" 14.13. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘When the Egyptians shall hear—for Thou broughtest up this people in Thy might from among them—" 14.14. they will say to the inhabitants of this land, who have heard that Thou LORD art in the midst of this people; inasmuch as Thou LORD art seen face to face, and Thy cloud standeth over them, and Thou goest before them, in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night;" 14.15. now if Thou shalt kill this people as one man, then the nations which have heard the fame of Thee will speak, saying:" 14.16. Because the LORD was not able to bring this people into the land which He swore unto them, therefore He hath slain them in the wilderness." 14.17. And now, I pray Thee, let the power of the Lord be great, according as Thou hast spoken, saying:" 14.18. The LORD is slow to anger, and plenteous in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation." 14.19. Pardon, I pray Thee, the iniquity of this people according unto the greatness of Thy lovingkindness, and according as Thou hast forgiven this people, from Egypt even until now.’" 14.20. And the LORD said: ‘I have pardoned according to thy word’" 14.21. But in very deed, as I live—and all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the LORD—" 14.22. surely all those men that have seen My glory, and My signs, which I wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, yet have put Me to proof these ten times, and have not hearkened to My voice;" 14.23. surely they shall not see the land which I swore unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that despised Me see it." 16.20. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 23.7. And he took up his parable, and said: From Aram Balak bringeth me, The king of Moab from the mountains of the East: ‘Come, curse me Jacob, And come, execrate Israel.’" 23.8. How shall I curse, whom God hath not cursed? And how shall I execrate, whom the LORD hath not execrated?" 23.9. For from the top of the rocks I see him, And from the hills I behold him: Lo, it is a people that shall dwell alone, And shall not be reckoned among the nations." 23.10. Who hath counted the dust of Jacob, Or numbered the stock of Israel? Let me die the death of the righteous, And let mine end be like his!" 24.10. And Balak’s anger was kindled against Balaam, and he smote his hands together; and Balak said unto Balaam: ‘I called thee to curse mine enemies, and, behold, thou hast altogether blessed them these three times." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’" 35.5. And ye shall measure without the city for the east side two thousand cubits, and for the south side two thousand cubits, and for the west side two thousand cubits, and for the north side two thousand cubits, the city being in the midst. This shall be to them the open land about the cities."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 16.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.14. חֲמַת־מֶלֶךְ מַלְאֲכֵי־מָוֶת וְאִישׁ חָכָם יְכַפְּרֶנָּה׃ 16.14. The wrath of a king is as messengers of death; But a wise man will pacify it."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 76.3, 106.23, 106.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

76.3. וַיְהִי בְשָׁלֵם סֻכּוֹ וּמְעוֹנָתוֹ בְצִיּוֹן׃ 106.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לְהַשְׁמִידָם לוּלֵי מֹשֶׁה בְחִירוֹ עָמַד בַּפֶּרֶץ לְפָנָיו לְהָשִׁיב חֲמָתוֹ מֵהַשְׁחִית׃ 76.3. In Salem also is set His tabernacle, And His dwelling-place in Zion." 106.23. Therefore He said that He would destroy them, Had not Moses His chosen stood before Him in the breach, To turn back His wrath, lest He should destroy them." 106.30. Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 1.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. אֲנִי מְלֵאָה הָלַכְתִּי וְרֵיקָם הֱשִׁיבַנִי יְהוָה לָמָּה תִקְרֶאנָה לִי נָעֳמִי וַיהוָה עָנָה בִי וְשַׁדַּי הֵרַע לִי׃ 1.21. I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me back home empty; why call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?’"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 20.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.30. Then Sha᾽ul’s anger burned against Yehonatan, and he said to him, Thou perverse and rebellious son, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Yishay to thine own disgrace, and to the disgrace of thy mother’s nakedness?"
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.11-4.37 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.11. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹא שָׁמָּה וַיָּסַר אֶל־הָעֲלִיָּה וַיִּשְׁכַּב־שָׁמָּה׃ 4.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־גֵּחֲזִי נַעֲרוֹ קְרָא לַשּׁוּנַמִּית הַזֹּאת וַיִּקְרָא־לָהּ וַתַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֱמָר־נָא אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה חָרַדְתְּ אֵלֵינוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַחֲרָדָה הַזֹּאת מֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לָךְ הֲיֵשׁ לְדַבֶּר־לָךְ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ אֶל־שַׂר הַצָּבָא וַתֹּאמֶר בְּתוֹךְ עַמִּי אָנֹכִי יֹשָׁבֶת׃ 4.14. וַיֹּאמֶר וּמֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ וַיֹּאמֶר גֵּיחֲזִי אֲבָל בֵּן אֵין־לָהּ וְאִישָׁהּ זָקֵן׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר קְרָא־לָהּ וַיִּקְרָא־לָהּ וַתַּעֲמֹד בַּפָּתַח׃ 4.16. וַיֹּאמֶר לַמּוֹעֵד הַזֶּה כָּעֵת חַיָּה אתי [אַתְּ] חֹבֶקֶת בֵּן וַתֹּאמֶר אַל־אֲדֹנִי אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אַל־תְּכַזֵּב בְּשִׁפְחָתֶךָ׃ 4.17. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן לַמּוֹעֵד הַזֶּה כָּעֵת חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיהָ אֱלִישָׁע׃ 4.18. וַיִּגְדַּל הַיָּלֶד וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיֵּצֵא אֶל־אָבִיו אֶל־הַקֹּצְרִים׃ 4.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אָבִיו רֹאשִׁי רֹאשִׁי וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הַנַּעַר שָׂאֵהוּ אֶל־אִמּוֹ׃ 4.21. וַתַּעַל וַתַּשְׁכִּבֵהוּ עַל־מִטַּת אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַתִּסְגֹּר בַּעֲדוֹ וַתֵּצֵא׃ 4.22. וַתִּקְרָא אֶל־אִישָׁהּ וַתֹּאמֶר שִׁלְחָה נָא לִי אֶחָד מִן־הַנְּעָרִים וְאַחַת הָאֲתֹנוֹת וְאָרוּצָה עַד־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וְאָשׁוּבָה׃ 4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ אתי [אַתְּ] הלכתי [הֹלֶכֶת] אֵלָיו הַיּוֹם לֹא־חֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא שַׁבָּת וַתֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם׃ 4.24. וַתַּחֲבֹשׁ הָאָתוֹן וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־נַעֲרָהּ נְהַג וָלֵךְ אַל־תַּעֲצָר־לִי לִרְכֹּב כִּי אִם־אָמַרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 4.25. וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא אֶל־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַר הַכַּרְמֶל וַיְהִי כִּרְאוֹת אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים אֹתָהּ מִנֶּגֶד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־גֵּיחֲזִי נַעֲרוֹ הִנֵּה הַשּׁוּנַמִּית הַלָּז׃ 4.26. עַתָּה רוּץ־נָא לִקְרָאתָהּ וֶאֱמָר־לָהּ הֲשָׁלוֹם לָךְ הֲשָׁלוֹם לְאִישֵׁךְ הֲשָׁלוֹם לַיָּלֶד וַתֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם׃ 4.27. וַתָּבֹא אֶל־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָהָר וַתַּחֲזֵק בְּרַגְלָיו וַיִּגַּשׁ גֵּיחֲזִי לְהָדְפָהּ וַיֹּאמֶר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים הַרְפֵּה־לָהּ כִּי־נַפְשָׁהּ מָרָה־לָהּ וַיהוָה הֶעְלִים מִמֶּנִּי וְלֹא הִגִּיד לִי׃ 4.28. וַתֹּאמֶר הֲשָׁאַלְתִּי בֵן מֵאֵת אֲדֹנִי הֲלֹא אָמַרְתִּי לֹא תַשְׁלֶה אֹתִי׃ 4.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִי חֲגֹר מָתְנֶיךָ וְקַח מִשְׁעַנְתִּי בְיָדְךָ וָלֵךְ כִּי־תִמְצָא אִישׁ לֹא תְבָרְכֶנּוּ וְכִי־יְבָרֶכְךָ אִישׁ לֹא תַעֲנֶנּוּ וְשַׂמְתָּ מִשְׁעַנְתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי הַנָּעַר׃ 4.31. וְגֵחֲזִי עָבַר לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַמִּשְׁעֶנֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַנַּעַר וְאֵין קוֹל וְאֵין קָשֶׁב וַיָּשָׁב לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ לֵאמֹר לֹא הֵקִיץ הַנָּעַר׃ 4.32. וַיָּבֹא אֱלִישָׁע הַבָּיְתָה וְהִנֵּה הַנַּעַר מֵת מֻשְׁכָּב עַל־מִטָּתוֹ׃ 4.33. וַיָּבֹא וַיִּסְגֹּר הַדֶּלֶת בְּעַד שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 4.34. וַיַּעַל וַיִּשְׁכַּב עַל־הַיֶּלֶד וַיָּשֶׂם פִּיו עַל־פִּיו וְעֵינָיו עַל־עֵינָיו וְכַפָּיו עַל־כפו [כַּפָּיו] וַיִּגְהַר עָלָיו וַיָּחָם בְּשַׂר הַיָּלֶד׃ 4.35. וַיָּשָׁב וַיֵּלֶךְ בַּבַּיִת אַחַת הֵנָּה וְאַחַת הֵנָּה וַיַּעַל וַיִּגְהַר עָלָיו וַיְזוֹרֵר הַנַּעַר עַד־שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וַיִּפְקַח הַנַּעַר אֶת־עֵינָיו׃ 4.36. וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־גֵּיחֲזִי וַיֹּאמֶר קְרָא אֶל־הַשֻּׁנַמִּית הַזֹּאת וַיִּקְרָאֶהָ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר שְׂאִי בְנֵךְ׃ 4.37. וַתָּבֹא וַתִּפֹּל עַל־רַגְלָיו וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה וַתִּשָּׂא אֶת־בְּנָהּ וַתֵּצֵא׃ 4.11. And it fell on a day, that he came thither, and he turned into the upper chamber and lay there." 4.12. And he said to Gehazi his servant: ‘Call this Shunammite.’ And when he had called her, she stood before him." 4.13. And he said unto him: ‘Say now unto her: Behold, thou hast been careful for us with all this care; what is to be done for thee? wouldest thou be spoken for to the king, or to the captain of the host?’ And she answered: ‘I dwell among mine own people.’" 4.14. And he said: ‘What then is to be done for her?’ And Gehazi answered: ‘Verily she hath no son, and her husband is old.’" 4.15. And he said: ‘Call her.’ And when he had called her, she stood in the door." 4.16. And he said: ‘At this season, when the time cometh round, thou shalt embrace a son.’ And she said: ‘Nay, my lord, thou man of God, do not lie unto thy handmaid.’" 4.17. And the woman conceived, and bore a son at that season, when the time came round, as Elisha had said unto her." 4.18. And when the child was grown, it fell on a day, that he went out to his father to the reapers." 4.19. And he said unto his father: ‘My head, my head.’ And he said to his servant: ‘Carry him to his mother.’" 4.20. And when he had taken him, and brought him to his mother, he sat on her knees till noon, and then died." 4.21. And she went up, and laid him on the bed of the man of God, and shut the door upon him, and went out." 4.22. And she called unto her husband, and said: ‘Send me, I pray thee, one of the servants, and one of the asses, that I may run to the man of God, and come back.’" 4.23. And he said: Wherefore wilt thou go to him today? it is neither new moon nor sabbath.’ And she said: ‘It shall be well.’" 4.24. Then she saddled an ass, and said to her servant: ‘Drive, and go forward; slacken me not the riding, except I bid thee.’" 4.25. So she went, and came unto the man of God to mount Carmel. And it came to pass, when the man of God saw her afar off, that he said to Gehazi his servant: ‘Behold, yonder is that Shunammite." 4.26. Run, I pray thee, now to meet her, and say unto her: Is it well with thee? is it well with thy husband? is it well with the child?’ And she answered: ‘It is well.’" 4.27. And when she came to the man of God to the hill, she caught hold of his feet. And Gehazi came near to thrust her away; but the man of God said: ‘Let her alone; for her soul is bitter within her; and the LORD hath hid it from me, and hath not told Me.’" 4.28. Then she said: ‘Did I desire a son of my lord? did I not say: Do not deceive me?’" 4.29. Then he said to Gehazi: ‘Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not; and lay my staff upon the face of the child.’" 4.30. And the mother of the child said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ And he arose, and followed her." 4.31. And Gehazi passed on before them, and laid the staff upon the face of the child; but there was neither voice, nor hearing. Wherefore he returned to meet him, and told him, saying: ‘The child is not awaked.’" 4.32. And when Elisha was come into the house, behold, the child was dead, and laid upon his bed." 4.33. He went in therefore, and shut the door upon them twain, and prayed unto the LORD." 4.34. And he went up, and lay upon the child, and put his mouth upon his mouth, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands upon his hands; and he stretched himself upon him; and the flesh of the child waxed warm." 4.35. Then he returned, and walked in the house once to and fro; and went up, and stretched himself upon him; and the child sneezed seven times, and the child opened his eyes." 4.36. And he called Gehazi, and said: ‘Call this Shunammite.’ So he called her. And when she was come in unto him, he said: ‘Take up thy son.’" 4.37. Then she went in, and fell at his feet, and bowed down to the ground; and she took up her son, and went out."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.25, 24.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.25. וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יְדִידְיָהּ בַּעֲבוּר יְהוָה׃ 24.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה בִּרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּכֶּה בָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי וְאָנֹכִי הֶעֱוֵיתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי׃ 12.25. And he sent by the hand of Natan the prophet; and he called his name Yedidya, for the Lord’s sake." 24.17. And David spoke to the Lord when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done perversely: but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, be against me, and against my father’s house."
14. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

15. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.12-1.14 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.12. הֲלוֹא אַתָּה מִקֶּדֶם יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי קְדֹשִׁי לֹא נָמוּת יְהוָה לְמִשְׁפָּט שַׂמְתּוֹ וְצוּר לְהוֹכִיחַ יְסַדְתּוֹ׃ 1.13. טְהוֹר עֵינַיִם מֵרְאוֹת רָע וְהַבִּיט אֶל־עָמָל לֹא תוּכָל לָמָּה תַבִּיט בּוֹגְדִים תַּחֲרִישׁ בְּבַלַּע רָשָׁע צַדִּיק מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 1.14. וַתַּעֲשֶׂה אָדָם כִּדְגֵי הַיָּם כְּרֶמֶשׂ לֹא־מֹשֵׁל בּוֹ׃ 1.12. Art not Thou from everlasting, O LORD my God, my Holy One? We shall not die. O LORD, Thou hast ordained them for judgment, And Thou, O Rock, hast established them for correction. ." 1.13. Thou that art of eyes too pure to behold evil, And that canst not look on mischief, Wherefore lookest Thou, when they deal treacherously, And holdest Thy peace, when the wicked swalloweth up The man that is more righteous than he;" 1.14. And makest men as the fishes of the sea, As the creeping things, that have no ruler over them?"
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 63.12, 63.14-63.15, 65.13-65.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

63.12. מוֹלִיךְ לִימִין מֹשֶׁה זְרוֹעַ תִּפְאַרְתּוֹ בּוֹקֵעַ מַיִם מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֵׁם עוֹלָם׃ 63.14. כַּבְּהֵמָה בַּבִּקְעָה תֵרֵד רוּחַ יְהוָה תְּנִיחֶנּוּ כֵּן נִהַגְתָּ עַמְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ שֵׁם תִּפְאָרֶת׃ 63.15. הַבֵּט מִשָּׁמַיִם וּרְאֵה מִזְּבֻל קָדְשְׁךָ וְתִפְאַרְתֶּךָ אַיֵּה קִנְאָתְךָ וּגְבוּרֹתֶךָ הֲמוֹן מֵעֶיךָ וְרַחֲמֶיךָ אֵלַי הִתְאַפָּקוּ׃ 65.13. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה עֲבָדַי יֹאכֵלוּ וְאַתֶּם תִּרְעָבוּ הִנֵּה עֲבָדַי יִשְׁתּוּ וְאַתֶּם תִּצְמָאוּ הִנֵּה עֲבָדַי יִשְׂמָחוּ וְאַתֶּם תֵּבֹשׁוּ׃ 65.14. הִנֵּה עֲבָדַי יָרֹנּוּ מִטּוּב לֵב וְאַתֶּם תִּצְעֲקוּ מִכְּאֵב לֵב וּמִשֵּׁבֶר רוּחַ תְּיֵלִילוּ׃ 63.12. That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses? That divided the water before them, To make Himself an everlasting name?" 63.14. As the cattle that go down into the valley, the spirit of the LORD caused them to rest; So didst Thou lead Thy people, To make Thyself a glorious name.’" 63.15. Look down from heaven, and see, even from Thy holy and glorious habitation; Where is Thy zeal and Thy mighty acts, The yearning of Thy heart and Thy compassions, Now restrained toward me?" 65.13. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, My servants shall eat, But ye shall be hungry; Behold, My servants shall drink, But ye shall be thirsty; Behold, My servants shall rejoice, But ye shall be ashamed;" 65.14. Behold, My servants shall sing For joy of heart, But ye shall cry for sorrow of heart, And shall wail for vexation of spirit."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 12-20, 11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.1, 7.7-7.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ קֻם לָךְ לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל־פָּנֶיךָ׃ 7.1. וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעַל בַּחֵרֶם וַיִּקַּח עָכָן בֶּן־כַּרְמִי בֶן־זַבְדִּי בֶן־זֶרַח לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה מִן־הַחֵרֶם וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָמָה הֵעֲבַרְתָּ הַעֲבִיר אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַאֲבִידֵנוּ וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ וַנֵּשֶׁב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 7.8. בִּי אֲדֹנָי מָה אֹמַר אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הָפַךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹרֶף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבָיו׃ 7.9. וְיִשְׁמְעוּ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְכֹל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ וְנָסַבּוּ עָלֵינוּ וְהִכְרִיתוּ אֶת־שְׁמֵנוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וּמַה־תַּעֲשֵׂה לְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל׃ 7.1. But the children of Israel committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing; for Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the devoted thing; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against the children of Israel." 7.7. And Joshua said: ‘Alas, O Lord GOD, wherefore hast Thou at all brought this people over the Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to cause us to perish? would that we had been content and dwelt beyond the Jordan!" 7.8. Oh, Lord, what shall I say, after that Israel hath turned their backs before their enemies!" 7.9. For when the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land hear of it, they will compass us round, and cut off our name from the earth; and what wilt Thou do for Thy great name?’"
19. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.8. וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּמְכְּרֵם בְּיַד כּוּשַׁן רִשְׁעָתַיִם מֶלֶךְ אֲרַם נַהֲרָיִם וַיַּעַבְדוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־כּוּשַׁן רִשְׁעָתַיִם שְׁמֹנֶה שָׁנִים׃ 3.8. Therefore the anger of the Lord burned against Yisra᾽el and he sold them into the hand of Kushan-rish῾atayim, king of Aram: and the children of Yisra᾽el served Kushan-rish῾atayim eight years."
20. Homer, Iliad, 6.168 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

6.168. /seeing he was minded to lie with me in love against my will. So she spake, and wrath gat hold upon the king to hear that word. To slay him he forbare, for his soul had awe of that; but he sent him to Lycia, and gave him baneful tokens, graving in a folded tablet many signs and deadly
21. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 9.6, 11.13, 11.19, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.6. זָקֵן בָּחוּר וּבְתוּלָה וְטַף וְנָשִׁים תַּהַרְגוּ לְמַשְׁחִית וְעַל־כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָלָיו הַתָּו אַל־תִּגַּשׁוּ וּמִמִּקְדָּשִׁי תָּחֵלּוּ וַיָּחֵלּוּ בָּאֲנָשִׁים הַזְּקֵנִים אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי הַבָּיִת׃ 11.13. וַיְהִי כְּהִנָּבְאִי וּפְלַטְיָהוּ בֶן־בְּנָיָה מֵת וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶזְעַק קוֹל־גָּדוֹל וָאֹמַר אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כָּלָה אַתָּה עֹשֶׂה אֵת שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.19. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 9.6. slay utterly the old man, the young man and the maiden, and little children and women; but come not near any man upon whom is the mark; and begin at My sanctuary.’ Then they began at the elders that were before the house." 11.13. And it came to pass, when I prophesied, that Pelatiah the son of Benaiah died. Then fell I down upon my face, and cried with a loud voice, and said: ‘Ah Lord GOD! wilt Thou make a full end of the remt of Israel?’" 11.19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh;" 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh."
22. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.17 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים הֲלֹא אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי לִמְנוֹת בָּעָם וַאֲנִי־הוּא אֲשֶׁר־חָטָאתִי וְהָרֵעַ הֲרֵעוֹתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי וּבְעַמְּךָ לֹא לְמַגֵּפָה׃ 21.17. And David said unto God: ‘Is it not I that commanded the people to be numbered? even I it is that have sinned and done very wickedly; but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, O LORD my God, be against me, and against my father’s house; but not against Thy people, that they should be plagued.’"
23. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 12.12 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.12. וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר׃ 12.12. And furthermore, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh."
24. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.8-9.9, 9.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.8. וְעַתָּה כִּמְעַט־רֶגַע הָיְתָה תְחִנָּה מֵאֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְהַשְׁאִיר לָנוּ פְּלֵיטָה וְלָתֶת־לָנוּ יָתֵד בִּמְקוֹם קָדְשׁוֹ לְהָאִיר עֵינֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וּלְתִתֵּנוּ מִחְיָה מְעַט בְּעַבְדֻתֵנוּ׃ 9.9. כִּי־עֲבָדִים אֲנַחְנוּ וּבְעַבְדֻתֵנוּ לֹא עֲזָבָנוּ אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַיַּט־עָלֵינוּ חֶסֶד לִפְנֵי מַלְכֵי פָרַס לָתֶת־לָנוּ מִחְיָה לְרוֹמֵם אֶת־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵינוּ וּלְהַעֲמִיד אֶת־חָרְבֹתָיו וְלָתֶת־לָנוּ גָדֵר בִּיהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 9.14. הֲנָשׁוּב לְהָפֵר מִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּלְהִתְחַתֵּן בְּעַמֵּי הַתֹּעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הֲלוֹא תֶאֱנַף־בָּנוּ עַד־כַּלֵּה לְאֵין שְׁאֵרִית וּפְלֵיטָה׃ 9.8. And now for a little moment grace hath been shown from the LORD our God, to leave us a remt to escape, and to give us a nail in His holy place, that our God may lighten our eyes, and give us a little reviving in our bondage." 9.9. For we are bondmen; yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the ruins thereof, and to give us a fence in Judah and in Jerusalem." 9.14. shall we again break Thy commandments, and make marriages with the peoples that do these abominations? wouldest not Thou be angry with us till Thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remt, nor any to escape?"
25. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.9-9.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.9. וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־עֳנִי אֲבֹתֵינוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־זַעֲקָתָם שָׁמַעְתָּ עַל־יַם־סוּף׃ 9.11. וְהַיָּם בָּקַעְתָּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְרוּ בְתוֹךְ־הַיָּם בַּיַּבָּשָׁה וְאֶת־רֹדְפֵיהֶם הִשְׁלַכְתָּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אֶבֶן בְּמַיִם עַזִּים׃ 9.12. וּבְעַמּוּד עָנָן הִנְחִיתָם יוֹמָם וּבְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לַיְלָה לְהָאִיר לָהֶם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.13. וְעַל הַר־סִינַי יָרַדְתָּ וְדַבֵּר עִמָּהֶם מִשָּׁמָיִם וַתִּתֵּן לָהֶם מִשְׁפָּטִים יְשָׁרִים וְתוֹרוֹת אֱמֶת חֻקִּים וּמִצְוֺת טוֹבִים׃ 9.14. וְאֶת־שַׁבַּת קָדְשְׁךָ הוֹדַעַתָ לָהֶם וּמִצְווֹת וְחֻקִּים וְתוֹרָה צִוִּיתָ לָהֶם בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 9.15. וְלֶחֶם מִשָּׁמַיִם נָתַתָּה לָהֶם לִרְעָבָם וּמַיִם מִסֶּלַע הוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם לִצְמָאָם וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לָבוֹא לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָשָׂאתָ אֶת־יָדְךָ לָתֵת לָהֶם׃ 9.16. וְהֵם וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ הֵזִידוּ וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃ 9.17. וַיְמָאֲנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ וְלֹא־זָכְרוּ נִפְלְאֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּהֶם וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם וַיִּתְּנוּ־רֹאשׁ לָשׁוּב לְעַבְדֻתָם בְּמִרְיָם וְאַתָּה אֱלוֹהַּ סְלִיחוֹת חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אֶרֶךְ־אַפַּיִם וְרַב־וחסד [חֶסֶד] וְלֹא עֲזַבְתָּם׃ 9.18. אַף כִּי־עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ זֶה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֶלְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ נֶאָצוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 9.19. וְאַתָּה בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים לֹא עֲזַבְתָּם בַּמִּדְבָּר אֶת־עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן לֹא־סָר מֵעֲלֵיהֶם בְּיוֹמָם לְהַנְחֹתָם בְּהַדֶּרֶךְ וְאֶת־עַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ בְּלַיְלָה לְהָאִיר לָהֶם וְאֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.21. וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה כִּלְכַּלְתָּם בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא חָסֵרוּ שַׂלְמֹתֵיהֶם לֹא בָלוּ וְרַגְלֵיהֶם לֹא בָצֵקוּ׃ 9.9. And Thou sawest the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest their cry by the Red Sea;" 9.10. and didst show signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land; for Thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them; and didst get Thee a name, as it is this day." 9.11. And Thou didst divide the sea before them, so that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; and their pursuers Thou didst cast into the depths, as a stone into the mighty waters." 9.12. Moreover in a pillar of cloud Thou didst lead them by day; and in a pillar of fire by night, to give them light in the way wherein they should go." 9.13. Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spokest with them from heaven, and gavest them right ordices and laws of truth, good statutes and commandments;" 9.14. and madest known unto them Thy holy sabbath, and didst command them commandments, and statutes, and a law, by the hand of Moses Thy servant;" 9.15. and gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and didst command them that they should go in to possess the land which Thou hadst lifted up Thy hand to give them." 9.16. But they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardened their neck, and hearkened not to Thy commandments," 9.17. and refused to hearken, neither were mindful of Thy wonders that Thou didst among them; but hardened their neck, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage; but Thou art a God ready to pardon, gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy, and forsookest them not." 9.18. Yea, when they had made them a molten calf, and said: ‘This is thy God that brought thee up out of Egypt, and had wrought great provocations;" 9.19. yet Thou in Thy manifold mercies forsookest them not in the wilderness; the pillar of cloud departed not from over them by day, to lead them in the way; neither the pillar of fire by night, to show them light, and the way wherein they should go." 9.20. Thou gavest also Thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not Thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst." 9.21. Yea, forty years didst Thou sustain them in the wilderness, and they lacked nothing; their clothes waxed not old, and their feet swelled not."
26. Herodotus, Histories, 3.32, 3.34, 7.11, 7.210 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.32. There are two tales of her death, as there are of the death of Smerdis. The Greeks say that Cambyses had set a lion cub to fight a puppy, and that this woman was watching too; and that as the puppy was losing, its brother broke its leash and came to help, and the two dogs together got the better of the cub. ,Cambyses, they say, was pleased with the sight, but the woman wept as she sat by. Cambyses perceiving it asked why she wept, and she said that when she saw the puppy help its brother she had wept, recalling Smerdis and knowing that there would be no avenger for him. ,For saying this, according to the Greek story, she was killed by Cambyses. But the Egyptian tale is that as the two sat at table the woman took a lettuce and plucked off the leaves, then asked her husband whether he preferred the look of it with or without leaves. “With the leaves,” he said; whereupon she answered: ,“Yet you have stripped Cyrus' house as bare as this lettuce.” Angered at this, they say, he sprang upon her, who was great with child, and she miscarried and died of the hurt he gave her. 3.34. I will now relate his mad dealings with the rest of Persia . He said, as they report, to Prexaspes—whom he held in particular honor, who brought him all his messages, whose son held the very honorable office of Cambyses' cup-bearer—thus, I say, he spoke to Prexaspes: ,“What manner of man, Prexaspes, do the Persians think me to be, and how do they speak of me?” “Sire,” said Prexaspes, “for all else they greatly praise you, but they say that you love wine too well.” ,So he reported of the Persians. The king angrily replied: “If the Persians now say that it is my fondness for wine that drives me to frenzy and madness, then it would seem that their former saying also was a lie.” ,For it is said that before this, while some Persians and Croesus were sitting with him, Cambyses asked what manner of man they thought him to be in comparison with Cyrus his father; and they answered, “Cambyses was the better man; for he had all of Cyrus' possessions and had won Egypt and the sea besides.” ,So said the Persians; but Croesus, who was present, and was dissatisfied with their judgment, spoke thus to Cambyses: “To me, son of Cyrus, you do not seem to be the equal of your father; for you have as yet no son such as he left after him in you.” This pleased Cambyses, and he praised Croesus' judgment. 7.11. Thus spoke Artabanus. Xerxes answered angrily, “Artabanus, you are my father's brother; that will save you from receiving the fitting reward of foolish words. But for your cowardly lack of spirit I lay upon you this disgrace, that you will not go with me and my army against Hellas, but will stay here with the women; I myself will accomplish all that I have said, with no help from you. ,May I not be the son of Darius son of Hystaspes son of Arsames son of Ariaramnes son of Teispes son of Cyrus son of Cambyses son of Teispes son of Achaemenes, if I do not have vengeance on the Athenians; I well know that if we remain at peace they will not; they will assuredly invade our country, if we may infer from what they have done already, for they burnt Sardis and marched into Asia. ,It is not possible for either of us to turn back: to do or to suffer is our task, so that what is ours be under the Greeks, or what is theirs under the Persians; there is no middle way in our quarrel. ,Honor then demands that we avenge ourselves for what has been done to us; thus will I learn what is this evil that will befall me when I march against these Greeks—men that even Pelops the Phrygian, the slave of my forefathers, did so utterly subdue that to this day they and their country are called by the name of their conqueror.” 7.210. He let four days go by, expecting them to run away at any minute. They did not leave, and it seemed to him that they stayed out of folly and lack of due respect. On the fifth day he became angry and sent the Medes and Cissians against them, bidding them take them prisoner and bring them into his presence. ,The Medes bore down upon the Hellenes and attacked. Many fell, but others attacked in turn, and they made it clear to everyone, especially to the king himself, that among so many people there were few real men. The battle lasted all day.
27. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 411, 699, 855, 1274 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.13, 3.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.19. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא וּצְלֵם אַנְפּוֹהִי אשתנו [אֶשְׁתַּנִּי] עַל־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְמֵזֵא לְאַתּוּנָא חַד־שִׁבְעָה עַל דִּי חֲזֵה לְמֵזְיֵהּ׃ 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.19. Then was Nebuchadnezzar filled with fury, and the form of his visage was changed, against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; he spoke, and commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times more than it was wont to be heated."
29. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.39. The king fell into a rage, and handled him worse than the others, being exasperated at his scorn.'
30. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 8.2, 8.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.2. For when the tyrant was conspicuously defeated in his first attempt, being unable to compel an aged man to eat defiling foods, then in violent rage he commanded that others of the Hebrew captives be brought, and that any who ate defiling food should be freed after eating, but if any were to refuse, these should be tortured even more cruelly. 8.9. But if by disobedience you rouse my anger, you will compel me to destroy each and every one of you with dreadful punishments through tortures.
31. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.1, 5.1, 5.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. When the impious king comprehended this situation, he became so infuriated that not only was he enraged against those Jews who lived in Alexandria, but was still more bitterly hostile toward those in the countryside; and he ordered that all should promptly be gathered into one place, and put to death by the most cruel means. 3.1. And already some of their neighbors and friends and business associates had taken some of them aside privately and were pledging to protect them and to exert more earnest efforts for their assistance. 5.1. Then the king, completely inflexible, was filled with overpowering anger and wrath; so he summoned Hermon, keeper of the elephants 5.1. Hermon, however, when he had drugged the pitiless elephants until they had been filled with a great abundance of wine and satiated with frankincense, presented himself at the courtyard early in the morning to report to the king about these preparations.
32. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 21.2, 23.2, 29.2-29.3 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.419 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.419. I am sensible that this danger will extend to my mother, and wife, and to that family of mine who have been by no means ignoble, and indeed to one that hath been very eminent in old time; and perhaps you may imagine that it is on their account only that I give you this advice; if that be all, kill them; nay, take my own blood as a reward, if it may but procure your preservation; for I am ready to die, in case you will but return to a sound mind after my death.”
34. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.243 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.243. that some of them are harpers, or delight in archery; and besides, that mutual seditions arise among them, and that they quarrel about men, and this so far that they not only lay hands upon one another, but that they are wounded by men, and lament, and take on for such their afflictions;
35. Josephus Flavius, Life, 415, 426-427, 414 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. New Testament, Acts, 19.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.14. There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this.
37. New Testament, Luke, 9.30-9.31, 9.35, 9.40-9.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.30. Behold, two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 9.35. A voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him! 9.40. I begged your disciples to cast it out, and they couldn't. 9.41. Jesus answered, "Faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you and bear with you? Bring your son here.
38. New Testament, Matthew, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.'
39. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 56.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56.10. \"And Avraham called the name of the place \"Ad-nai Yireh\" [Ad-nai will see] (Gen. 22:14). Rabbi Yocha said \"he said to Him: 'Master of Worlds, at the hour that you said to me \"Take please your son, your only son\" (Gen. 22:2), I had what to respond. Yesterday You said \"For through Itzchak [will I make your line great]\" (Gen. 21:22) but now \"Take please your son\"!? And God forbid that I don't do as you've asked me; instead, I conquered my mercy to do Your will. May it be your will, Ad-nai our God, that in the hour when the sons of Itzchak come to do transgressions and bad deeds, that this very Binding [Akeidah] be remembered for them, and may You be filled with Mercy on them!' Avraham called it \"Yireh\", as it says \"and Avraham called the name of the place Ad-nai Yireh.\" Shem called it Shalem, as it says \"And Malchitzedek, the king of Shalem...\"(Genesis 14:18) The Holy One of Blessing said \"If I call it Yireh, as Avraham called it, then Shem, who was a righteous man, will become angry; and if I call it Shalem, Abraham, who was a righteous man, will be angry. Instead, I call it Yerushalayim [Jerusalem], as they called it together: Yireh Shalem. Jerusalem. Rabbi Berechiah said in Rabbi Helbo’s name: While it was Shalem, the Holy One of Blessing made for Godself a sukkah [booth] and prayed in it, since it says \"In Shalem is set His tabernacle, and His dwelling-place in Tzion\" (Psalms 76:3). And what did He say? ‘May it happen that I see the building of My house.\" Another interpretation: It [this verse] teaches that the Holy One of Blessing showed him the Temple destroyed and built, destroyed and build [a second time], since it says: \"the name of that place Ad-nai Yireh\" (Ad-nai sees): this is it built, as you say [the verse] \"Three times in a year shall all your males be seen [yira'eh] (Deut. 16:16). \"As it is said to this day in the Mountain of Ad-nai [is seen, Heb. yira'eh]\" (Gen.22:14) This is it destroyed, as in the verse \"on the mountain of Tzion, which is desolate\" (Lam. 5:18). \"Ad-nai is seen\" this is it built and perfected in the future to come as the topic [in the verse] that is said: \"When Ad-nai built Tzion, He will be seen in His glory\" (Psalms 102:17)."
40. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, 1.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

42. Babylonian Talmud, Arakhin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. {שמות טז } אל תצאו ויצאו אל תותירו ויותירו,שנים בשליו ראשון ובשליו שני בשליו ראשון {שמות ט״ז:ג׳ } בשבתכם על סיר הבשר,בשליו שני (במדבר יא, ד) והאספסוף אשר בקרבו,בעגל כדאיתיה במדבר פארן כדאיתיה,אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן זימרא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכ, ג) מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה אמר לו הקב"ה ללשון כל אבריו של אדם זקופים ואתה מוטל כל אבריו של אדם מבחוץ ואתה מבפנים ולא עוד אלא שהקפתי לך שתי חומות אחת של עצם ואחת של בשר מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה,אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זימרא כל המספר לשון הרע כאילו כפר בעיקר שנאמר (תהלים יב, ה) אשר אמרו ללשוננו נגביר שפתינו אתנו מי אדון לנו,ואמר ר' יוסי בן זימרא כל המספר לשון הרע נגעים באים עליו שנאמר (תהלים קא, ה) מלשני בסתר רעהו אותו אצמית וכתיב התם {ויקרא כה } לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין,ותנן אין בין מצורע מוסגר למצורע מוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,אמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (ויקרא יד, ב) זאת תהיה תורת המצורע זאת תהיה תורתו של מוציא שם רע,ואמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, יא) אם ישוך הנחש בלא לחש ואין יתרון לבעל הלשון לעתיד לבא מתקבצות כל החיות ובאות אצל נחש ואומרות ארי דורס ואוכל זאב טורף ואוכל אתה מה הנאה יש לך אומר להם וכי מה יתרון לבעל הלשון,ואמר ריש לקיש כל המספר לשון הרע מגדיל עונות עד לשמים שנאמר (תהלים עג, ט) שתו בשמים פיהם ולשונם תהלך בארץ,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע ראוי לסוקלו באבן כתיב הכא אותו אצמית וכתיב התם (איכה ג, נג) צמתו בבור חיי וידו אבן בי,ואמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע אמר הקב"ה אין אני והוא יכולין לדור בעולם שנאמר תהלים קא, ה) מלשני בסתר רעהו אותו אצמית גבה עינים ורחב לבב אותו לא אוכל אל תיקרי אותו לא אוכל אלא אתו לא אוכל ואיכא דמתני לה על גסי הרוח,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע אומר הקב"ה [לשר של] גיהנם אני עליו מלמעלה ואתה עליו מלמטה נדוננו שנאמר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים עם גחלי רתמים אין חץ אלא לשון שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, ז) חץ שחוט לשונם מרמה דבר,ואין גבור אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ישעיהו מב, יג) ה' כגבור יצא גחלי רתמים היינו גיהנם,אמר רבי חמא בר' חנינא מה תקנתו של מספרי לשון הרע אם תלמיד חכם הוא יעסוק בתורה שנא' (משלי טו, ד) מרפא לשון עץ חיים ואין לשון אלא לשון הרע שנאמר חץ שחוט לשונם ואין עץ אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואם עם הארץ הוא ישפיל דעתו שנאמר (משלי טו, ד) וסלף בה שבר רוח,רבי אחא ברבי חנינא אומר סיפר אין לו תקנה שכבר כרתו דוד ברוח הקדש שנאמר (תהלים יב, ד) יכרת ה' כל שפתי חלקות לשון מדברת גדולות אלא מה תקנתו שלא יבא לידי לשון הרע אם תלמיד חכם הוא יעסוק בתורה ואם ע"ה הוא ישפיל דעתו שנאמר וסלף בה שבר רוח,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כל המספר לשון הרע מגדיל עונות כנגד שלש עבירות עבודת כוכבים וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים כתיב הכא לשון מדברת גדולות וכתיב בעבודת כוכבים (שמות לב, לא) אנא חטא העם הזה חטאה גדולה,בגילוי עריות כתיב (בראשית לט, ט) ואיך אעשה הרעה הגדולה הזאת בשפיכות דמים כתיב (בראשית ד, יג) גדול עוני מנשוא,גדולות אימא תרתי הי מינייהו מפקא,במערבא אמרי לשון תליתאי קטיל תליתאי הורג למספרו ולמקבלו ולאומרו,א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, כא) מות וחיים ביד לשון וכי יש יד ללשון לומר לך מה יד ממיתה אף לשון ממיתה אי מה יד אינה ממיתה אלא בסמוך לה אף לשון אינה ממיתה אלא בסמוך לה ת"ל חץ שחוט לשונם,אי מה חץ עד ארבעים וחמשים אמה אף לשון עד ארבעים וחמשים אמה תלמוד לומר שתו בשמים פיהם ולשונם תהלך בארץ,וכי מאחר דכתיב שתו בשמים פיהם חץ שחוט לשונם למה לי הא קמשמע לן דקטיל כחץ,וכי מאחר דכתיב חץ שחוט לשונם מות וחיים ביד לשון למה לי לכדרבא דאמר רבא בעי חיים בלישניה דבעי מיתה בלישניה,היכי דמי לישנא בישא (רבא אמר) כגון דאמר איכא נורא בי פלניא אמר ליה אביי מאי קא עביד גלויי מילתא בעלמא הוא אלא דמפיק בלישנא בישא דאמר היכא משתכח נורא אלא בי פלניא [דאיכא בשרא וכוורי],אמר רבה כל מילתא דמיתאמרא באפי מרה לית בה משום לישנא בישא אמר ליה כל שכן חוצפא ולישנא בישא אמר ליה אנא כרבי יוסי סבירא לי דאמר רבי יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי אמר 15b. bDo not go out,as indicated in the verse: “And Moses said: Eat that today; for today is a Sabbath for the Lord; today you will not find it in the field” (Exodus 16:25). bButnevertheless there were people who bwent outto look for manna, as it is written: “And it came to pass on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather, and they found none” (Exodus 16:27). The verse also states: “And Moses said to them: Let bnoman bleave any of ituntil the morning” (Exodus 16:19), bandthere were people who bleft ituntil morning, as it states: “But they did not listen to Moses; and some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and rotted; and Moses was angry with them” (Exodus 16:20).,The Gemara continues its elucidation of the ibaraita /i: There were btwotrials relating to the quail, one was bon the firstoccasion when the bquailappeared, bandthe other bon the secondoccasion the bquailappeared. The Gemara clarifies: The trial bof the first quailis described in the verse: “And the children of Israel said to them: Would that we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, bwhen we sat by the meat pots,when we ate bread to the full; for you have brought us into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger” (Exodus 16:3). Immediately afterward the quail arrived, as the verse states: “And it came to pass in the evening, that the quail came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a layer of dew round about the camp” (Exodus 16:13).,The bsecondtrial of the bquailis described in the verse: b“And the mixed multitude that was among themdesired; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: Would that we were given meat to eat” (Numbers 11:4). Later the verse states: “And there went forth a wind from the Lord, and brought across quails from the sea and let them fall by the camp, about a day’s journey on this side and a day’s journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth” (Numbers 11:31).,The Gemara concludes its detailing of the Jewish people’s ten trials of God: The trial of bthegolden bcalfis bas it isdescribed in the Torah (Exodus, chapter 32), and the trial in bthe wilderness of Paranis bas it isdescribed in the Torah (Numbers, chapter 13).,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of malicious speech. bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “What shall be given to you, and what more shall be done for you, you deceitful tongue”(Psalms 120:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He said to the tongue: All theother blimbs of a person are upright, but you are lyinghorizontally. bAll theother blimbs of a person are external, but you are internal. And moreover, I have surrounded you with two walls, one of bone,i.e., the teeth, band one of flesh,the lips. bWhat shall be given to you and what more shall be done for you,to prevent byoufrom speaking in ba deceitfulmanner, btongue? /b,Furthermore, bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Anyone who speaks malicious speechis considered bas though he denied the fundamentalbelief in God. bAs it is stated: “Who have said: We will make our tongue mighty; our lips are with us: Who is lord over us”(Psalms 12:5)., bAnd Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra says: Anyone who speaks malicious speechwill be afflicted by bleprous marks coming upon him, as it is stated: “Whoever defames his neighbor in secret, I will destroy him [ iatzmit /i];whoever is haughty of eye and proud of heart, I will not suffer him” (Psalms 101:5). bAnd it is written there:“And the land shall not be sold bin perpetuity [ iletzmitut /i];for the land is Mine; for you are strangers and settlers with Me” (Leviticus 25:23). bAnd we translatethis term iletzmitutas ilaḥalutin /i,in perpetuity or confirmed.,Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra continues: bAnd we learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla8b): bThe difference between a quarantined leper,i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop, band a confirmed [ imuḥlat /i] leper,one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a definite leper, bis onlywith regard to blettingthe hair on one’s head grow bwild and rendingone’s garments. A confirmed leper is obligated to let the hair on his head grow wild and rend his garments; a quarantined leper is not. The similarity in the terms teaches that one who speaks malicious speech will be afflicted with leprous marks., bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This shall be the law of the leper [ imetzora /i]in the day of his cleansing: He shall be brought to the priest” (Leviticus 14:2)? This means that bthis shall be the law of a defamer [ imotzi shem ra /i]. /b, bAnd Reish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “If the serpent bites before it is charmed, then what advantage is there to the master of the tongue”(Ecclesiastes 10:11). What is the connection between the serpent and the master of the tongue? bIn the future, all the animalswill bgather and come to the serpent andwill bsayto it: bA lion trampleswith its paws to kill its prey band eats; a wolf tearswith its teeth to kill its prey band eats.But byou, what benefit do you havewhen you bite, as you cannot eat every animal that you kill? The serpent will bsay to them: And what is the benefit to the master of the tonguethat speaks malicious speech?, bAnd Reish Lakish says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech increaseshis bsins until the heavens, as it is stated: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth”(Psalms 73:9). In other words, while his tongue walks on the earth, his sin reaches the heavens., bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech,it is bappropriate to stone him with stones. It is written here:“Whoever defames his neighbor in secret, bI will destroy him [ iatzmit /i]”(Psalms 101:5), band it is written there: “They have destroyed [ itzamtu /i] my life in the dungeon, and have cast stones upon me”(Lamentations 3:53)., bAnd Rav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says:With regard to banyone who speaks malicious speech, the Holy One, Blessed be He saysabout him: bHe and I cannot dwelltogether bin the world. As it is statedin the verse: b“Whoever slanders his neighbor in secret, I will destroy him; whoever is haughty of eye and proud of heart, I will not suffer him”(Psalms 101:5). bDo not readthe phrase as: b“I will not suffer him [iotob],” butas: bWith him [ iito /i] I cannotbear to dwell. God is saying that He cannot bear having this person in the world with Him. bAnd there arethose bwho teach thisnotion of God’s not being able to tolerate a certain type of person in reference bto the arrogant,i.e., they apply it to the last part of the verse: Proud of heart., bRav Ḥisdafurther bsaysthat bMar Ukva says:With regard to banyone who speaks malicious speech, the Holy One Blessed be He saysabout him bto Gehenna: Iwill be bon him from above, and youwill be bon him from below,and together bwe will judge himand punish him. bAs it is stated: “Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of broom”(Psalms 120:4), bandthe word b“arrow”means bnothing other than the tongue, as it is stated: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow; it speaks deceit.One speaks peaceably to his neighbor with his mouth, but in his heart he lies in wait for him” (Jeremiah 9:7).,Mar Ukva continued: bAndthe word b“mighty” inPsalms 120:4 means bnothing other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord will go forth as a mighty man,He will stir up jealousy like a man of war; He will cry; He will shout aloud, He will prove Himself mighty against His enemies” (Isaiah 42:13). And as for the bcoals ofthe bbroomtree [igaḥalei retamim/b] that burn for a long time, bthis isan allusion to bGehenna. /b, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina says: What is the remedy for those who speak malicious speech? If he is a Torah scholar,let him bstudy Torah, as it is stated: “A soothing tongue is a tree of life,but its perverseness is a broken spirit” (Proverbs 15:4). bAndthe word b“tongue”means bnothing other than malicious speech, as it is stated: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow;it speaks deceit” (Jeremiah 9:7). bAndthe word b“tree”means bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them that lay hold of it”(Proverbs 3:18). bAnd if he is an ignoramus,let him bhumble his mind, as it is stated: “Its perverseness is a broken spirit”(Proverbs 15:4). In other words, one who perverts his tongue with malicious speech should remedy his behavior by cultivating a broken and humble spirit., bRabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina says:If one has already bspokenmalicious speech, bhe has no remedy, asKing bDavid,inspired bby Divine Spirit, has alreadycut him off with the punishment of ikaret /i, as it is stated: “May the Lord cut off [ iyakhret /i] all flattering lips, the tongue that speaks great things”(Psalms 12:4). bRather, what is his remedybeforehand, bso that he does not come tospeak bmalicious speech? If he is a Torah scholar,let him bstudy Torah; and if he is an ignoramuslet him bhumble his mind, as it is stated:“A soothing tongue is a tree of life, bbut its perverseness is a broken spirit”(Proverbs 15:4). One who is humble will not come to speak badly about another., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Anyone who speaks malicious speech increaseshis bsinsto the degree that they bcorrespondto the bthreecardinal btransgressions: Idol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed.This can be derived from a verbal analogy based on the word “great.” bIt is written here:“May the Lord cut off all flattering lips, bthe tongue that speaks great things”(Psalms 12:4). bAnd it is written with regard to idol worship:“And Moses returned to the Lord, and said: bOh, this people have sinned a great sin,and have made for themselves a god of gold” (Exodus 32:31)., bWith regard to forbidden sexual relations it is writtenthat when Potiphar’s wife attempted to seduce Joseph he responded: b“How can I do this great wickedness,and sin against God” (Genesis 39:9). bWith regard to bloodshed it is written,after Cain murdered his brother: “And Cain said to the Lord: bMy punishment is greater than I can bear”(Genesis 4:13). The Torah describes each of these three cardinal sins with the word “great” in the singular, whereas malicious speech is described with the plural term “great things,” indicating that it is equivalent to all three of the other transgressions together.,The Gemara asks: Granted that with regard to malicious speech the verse uses the plural: b“Great things,”but the plural indicates a minimum of two. If so, one can only bsaythat malicious speech is equivalent to btwoof the cardinal transgressions. The Gemara responds: bWhich of themcould be btaken outas less than the other two? All three are equal. Therefore malicious speech must be equivalent to all three., bIn the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey say: Third speech,i.e., malicious speech about a third party, bkills threepeople. bIt kills the one who speaksmalicious speech, band the one who acceptsthe malicious speech when he hears it, bandthe one baboutwhom the malicious speech is bsaid. /b, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Death and life are in the hand ofthe btongue”(Proverbs 18:21). bDoes the tongue have a hand?Rather the verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a hand can kill, so too a tongue can kill. Ifyou were to claim that bjust as the hand kills only from close by, so too the tongue kills only from close by,therefore bthe verse states: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow”(Jeremiah 9:7). The tongue kills like an arrow that is fired from a bow, at a great distance., bIfyou say that bjust as an arrowcan kill only within the distance it can be shot, which is bup toabout bforty or fifty cubits, so too a tonguecan kill only from bup to forty or fifty cubits,therefore bthe verse teaches: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth”(Psalms 73:9). This teaches that malicious speech can reach great distances, even the distance between heaven and earth.,The Gemara asks: bBut since it is written: “They have set their mouth against the heavens,and their tongue walks through the earth” (Psalms 73:9), which teaches that malicious speech reaches between heaven and earth, bwhy do Ineed that which we derived from the verse: b“Their tongue is a sharpened arrow”(Jeremiah 9:7), i.e. that a tongue can kill from the distance an arrow flies? The Gemara answers: bThis teaches us thata tongue bkillsin the bsamemanner that ban arrowkills.,The Gemara further asks: bBut since it is written: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow”(Jeremiah 9:7), bwhy do Ineed the verse: b“Death and life are in the hand of the tongue”(Proverbs 18:21), which merely teaches that a tongue can kill? The Gemara answers: This verse is necessary bfora statement bof Rava, as Rava says: One who wants lifecan attain it bbymeans of bhis tongue,which he can use for speaking appropriately and studying Torah. bOne who wants deathcan also attain it bbymeans of bhis tongue,by using it for inappropriate and malicious speech.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is considered malicious speech?In other words, how is malicious speech defined and what are the limits of the prohibition? bRava said: For example, if one says: There isalways bfire at so-and-so’s home,indicating that they are always cooking food there. bAbaye said toRava: bWhat didthis person bdowrong by saying that there is always fire in that home? His statement bis merely revealingthe true bfacts,and is not malicious speech. bRather,it is considered malicious speech if he bexpressedthis bin a slanderousmanner. For example, bif he says: Whereelse can one bfind fire except at so-and-so’s home,because they are always cooking food there., bRabba says: Any statement that is said in the presence of its master,i.e., if the subject of the statement was there, bdoes not haveany prohibition bdue to malicious speech.Abaye bsaid to him: All the more soit is proscribed speech, as it is both bimpudence and malicious speech.Rabba bsaid toAbaye: bI hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei says: In all my days I never said something and then turned aroundto see if the person I was speaking about was standing behind me listening, as I would say it even to the person involved. He bsays, /b
43. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35b. כאן לאחר ברכה,א"ר חנינא בר פפא כל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה כאילו גוזל להקב"ה וכנסת ישראל שנא' (משלי כח, כד) גוזל אביו ואמו ואומר אין פשע חבר הוא לאיש משחית ואין אביו אלא הקב"ה שנא' (דברים לב, ו) הלא הוא אביך קנך ואין אמו אלא כנסת ישראל שנא' (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך,מאי חבר הוא לאיש משחית א"ר חנינא בר פפא חבר הוא לירבעם בן נבט שהשחית את ישראל לאביהם שבשמים:,ר' חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (הושע ב, יא) ולקחתי דגני בעתו וגו' וכתיב (דברים יא, יד) ואספת דגנך וגו',ל"ק כאן בזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום כאן בזמן שאין ישראל עושין רצונו של מקום,ת"ר ואספת דגנך מה ת"ל לפי שנא' (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך יכול דברים ככתבן ת"ל ואספת דגנך הנהג בהן מנהג דרך ארץ דברי ר' ישמעאל,ר"ש בן יוחי אומר אפשר אדם חורש בשעת חרישה וזורע בשעת זריעה וקוצר בשעת קצירה ודש בשעת דישה וזורה בשעת הרוח תורה מה תהא עליה אלא בזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום מלאכתן נעשית ע"י אחרים שנא' (ישעיהו סא, ה) ועמדו זרים ורעו צאנכם וגו' ובזמן שאין ישראל עושין רצונו של מקום מלאכתן נעשית ע"י עצמן שנא' (דברים יא, יד) ואספת דגנך ולא עוד אלא שמלאכת אחרים נעשית על ידן שנא' (דברים כח, מח) ועבדת את אויביך וגו',אמר אביי הרבה עשו כרבי ישמעאל ועלתה בידן כר' שמעון בן יוחי ולא עלתה בידן,א"ל רבא לרבנן במטותא מינייכו ביומי ניסן וביומי תשרי לא תתחזו קמאי כי היכי דלא תטרדו במזונייכו כולא שתא:,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן משום רבי יהודה בר' אלעאי בא וראה שלא כדורות הראשונים דורות האחרונים דורות הראשונים עשו תורתן קבע ומלאכתן עראי זו וזו נתקיימה בידן דורות האחרונים שעשו מלאכתן קבע ותורתן עראי זו וזו לא נתקיימה בידן,ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אר"י משום ר"י בר' אלעאי בא וראה שלא כדורות הראשונים דורות האחרונים דורות הראשונים היו מכניסין פירותיהן דרך טרקסמון כדי לחייבן במעשר דורות האחרונים מכניסין פירותיהן דרך גגות דרך חצרות דרך קרפיפות כדי לפטרן מן המעשר דא"ר ינאי אין הטבל מתחייב במעשר עד שיראה פני הבית שנא' (דברים כו, יג) בערתי הקדש מן הבית,ור' יוחנן אמר אפי' חצר קובעת שנא' (דברים כו, יב) ואכלו בשעריך ושבעו:,חוץ מן היין וכו': מאי שנא יין אילימא משום דאשתני לעלויא אשתני לברכה והרי שמן דאשתני לעלויא ולא אשתני לברכה דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל וכן א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן שמן זית מברכין עליו בפה"ע,אמרי התם משום דלא אפשר היכי נבריך נבריך בורא פרי הזית פירא גופיה זית אקרי,ונבריך עליה בורא פרי עץ זית אלא אמר מר זוטרא חמרא זיין משחא לא זיין,ומשחא לא זיין והתנן הנודר מן המזון מותר במים ובמלח והוינן בה מים ומלח הוא דלא אקרי מזון הא כל מילי אקרי מזון,נימא תיהוי תיובתא דרב ושמואל דאמרי אין מברכין בורא מיני מזונות אלא בה' המינין בלבד וא"ר הונא באומר כל הזן עלי,אלמא משחא זיין אלא חמרא סעיד ומשחא לא סעיד וחמרא מי סעיד והא רבא הוה שתי חמרי כל מעלי יומא דפסחא כי היכי דנגרריה ללביה וניכול מצה טפי טובא גריר פורתא סעיד,ומי סעיד כלל והכתיב (תהלים קד, טו) ויין ישמח לבב אנוש ולחם לבב אנוש יסעד וגו' נהמא הוא דסעיד חמרא לא סעיד אלא חמרא אית ביה תרתי סעיד ומשמח נהמא מסעד סעיד שמוחי לא משמח,אי הכי נבריך עליה שלש ברכות לא קבעי אינשי סעודתייהו עלויה,א"ל רב נחמן בר יצחק לרבא אי קבע עלויה סעודתיה מאי א"ל לכשיבא אליהו ויאמר אי הויא קביעותא השתא מיהא בטלה דעתו אצל כל אדם:,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל וכן א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן שמן זית מברכין עליו בורא פרי העץ היכי דמי אילימא דקא שתי ליה (משתה) אוזוקי מזיק ליה דתניא השותה שמן של תרומה משלם את הקרן ואינו משלם את החומש הסך שמן של תרומה משלם את הקרן ומשלם את החומש,אלא דקא אכיל ליה על ידי פת אי הכי הויא ליה פת עיקר והוא טפל ותנן זה הכלל כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה אלא דקא שתי ליה ע"י אניגרון דאמר רבה בר שמואל אניגרון מיא דסלקא אנסיגרון מיא 35b. and bhere,where it says that He gave the earth to mankind refers to bafter a blessingis recited., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he stole from God and the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a destroyer”(Proverbs 28:24). The phrase, bhis father, refers to none other than God, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you,Who made you and established you” (Deuteronomy 32:6). The phrase bhis mother refers to none other than the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother”(Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mouth of the mother, apparently means that your mother is the community of Israel., bWhatis the meaning of the continuation of the verse: bHe is the companion of a destroyer? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said:He is ba companion of Jeroboam ben Nevat, who corrupted Israel before their Father in heavenby sinning and causing others to sin.,On a similar note, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction: It is written, “I will take back My grain at its timeand wine in its season” (Hosea 2:11), band it is written: “And you shall gather your grain,your wine and your oil” (Deuteronomy 11:14). To whom does the grain belong: To God, or to the people?,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Here,where God promises Israel that they will gather their grain, the verse refers to ba time when they perform God’s will. Here,where the verse indicates that the grain belongs to God, it refers to ba time when they do not perform God’s will,as then He will take back the grain, demonstrating that it belongs to Him., bThe Sages taught: Whatis the meaning of that which bthe verse states: “And you shall gather your grain”? Because it is stated: “This Torah shall not depart from your mouths,and you shall contemplate in it day and night” (Joshua 1:8), bI mighthave thought bthat these matters areto be understood bas they are written;one is to literally spend his days immersed exclusively in Torah study. Therefore, bthe verse states: “And you shall gather your grain,your wine and your oil,” bassume in theirregard, bthe way of the world;set aside time not only for Torah, but also for work. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Is it possible that a person plows in the plowing season and sows in the sowing season and harvests in the harvest season and threshes in the threshing season and winnows in the windy season,as grain is separated from the chaff by means of the wind, and is constantly busy; bwhat will become of Torah? Rather,one must dedicate himself exclusively to Torah at the expense of other endeavors; as bwhen Israel performs God’s will, their work is performed by others, as it is stated: “And strangers will stand and feed your flocks,and foreigners will be your plowmen and your vinedressers” (Isaiah 61:5). bWhen Israel does not perform God’s will, their work is performed by themthemselves, as it is stated: b“And you shall gather your grain.” Moreover,if Israel fails to perform God’s will, bothers’ work will be performed by them, as it is stated: “You shall serve your enemywhom God shall send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness and in want of all things” (Deuteronomy 28:48).,Summing up this dispute, bAbaye said:Although there is room for both opinions, bmany have acted in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael,and combined working for a living and learning Torah, bandalthough they engaged in activities other than the study of Torah, bwere successfulin their Torah study. bMany have acted in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai and were not successfulin their Torah study. They were ultimately forced to abandon their Torah study altogether.,Similarly, bRava said to the Sageswho would attend his study hall: bI implore you; duringthe months of bNisan and Tishrei,the crucial agricultural periods, bdo not appear before me.Engage in your agricultural work then bso that you will not be preoccupied with your sustece all year. /b,Summarizing these statements, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name ofthe itanna bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations;rather they are their inferiors. bThe earlier generations made their Torah permanent and their work occasional,and bthis,Torah study, band that,their work, bwere successful for them.However, bthe latter generations who made their work permanent and their Torah occasional, neither this nor that was successful for them. /b,Along these lines, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations.In the bearlier generations,people bwould bring their fruits into their courtyards through the main gate in order to obligate them in tithes.However, bthe latter generations bring their fruits through roofs, through courtyards and through enclosed courtyards,avoiding the main gate bin order to exempt them fromthe mitzva of btithing. As Rabbi Yannai said: Untithed produce is not obligated inthe mitzva of btithing until it sees the front of the housethrough which people enter and exit, and it is brought into the house that way bas it is statedin the formula of the confession of the tithes: b“I have removed the consecrated from the house”(Deuteronomy 26:13), as the obligation to tithe produce whose purpose has not yet been designated takes effect only when it is brought into the house., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Evenbringing it into the bcourtyard determinesits status as having completed the production process and obligates the produce to be tithed, bas it is writtenin the confession of the tithes: “And I have given to the Levite, the stranger, the orphan and the widow, band they shall eat in your gates and be satisfied”(Deuteronomy 26:12).,We learned in our mishna: Over fruits that grow on a tree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, bwith the exception of winethat even though it originates from fruit of the tree, a separate blessing was established for it: Who creates the fruit of the vine. The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bwine,that a separate blessing was established for it? bIf you say that because the fruit changed for the betterinto wine, therefore, bthe blessing changed.Olive boil changed for the better andnevertheless, bits blessing did not change. As Rabbi Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Over olive oil, one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree,just as he does over the fruit itself.,The Sages bsaid: There,in the case of oil, bit is because it is impossibleto find an appropriate blessing, as bhow shall we recite the blessing?If bwe recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive, the fruit itself is called oliveand that is what was created. The oil is a man-made product of that fruit, rendering that formula inappropriate. Similarly, reciting a formula parallel to the blessing on wine: Who creates the fruit of the vine, is inappropriate as the grapes themselves are the fruit that was created, as opposed to oil which was not.,The Gemara challenges: Nevertheless, it is still possible to formulate a blessing, bas we may recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive tree,which would be parallel to the blessing recited over wine. bRather, Mar Zutra offereda different rationale: The reason that no separate blessing was established over oil is because, as opposed to bwinethat bnourishes, oil does not nourish. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd oil does not nourish? Didn’t we learnin a mishna: bOne who vows that nourishmentis forbidden to him bis permittedto eat bwater and salt,as they are not considered nourishment. bAnd we discussed this ihalakha /i: By inference, bwater and salt are not considered nourishment, but allother edible bitems are considered nourishment. /b, bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav and Shmuel, who said: One only recites: Who creates various kinds of nourishment, over the five speciesof grain balone,as they alone are considered nourishing. bAnd Rav Huna saidas a solution that this mishna referred to a case bwherehe vows band says: Anything that nourishesis prohibited bto me.That formula includes anything that is at all nourishing and therefore only water and salt are excluded. Olive oil is not excluded., bApparently, oil nourishes. Rather,there is another distinction between wine and oil: bWine satisfies, oil does not satisfy.Wine not only nourishes, but it is also filling. The Gemara asks: bAnd does wine satisfy? Wouldn’t Rava drink wine allday on bthe eve of Passover in order to stimulate his heart,i.e., whet his appetite bso that he might eat more imatza /iat the seder? Wine does not satisfy, it whets the appetite. The Gemara answers: bA lotof wine bstimulates, a little satisfies. /b,Again, the Gemara asks: bDoeswine bsatisfy at all? Isn’t it written: “Wine gladdens the heart of man,making the face brighter than oil, band bread fills man’s heart”(Psalms 104:15); bbread is that which satisfies, wine does not satisfy. Rather,this verse is not a proof; bwine has twoadvantages, bit satisfies and gladdens. Bread,however, bsatisfies but does not gladden. /b,Since wine possesses all of these virtues, the Gemara asks: bIf so, let us recitethe bthree blessingsof Grace after Meals bover itafter drinking, just as we do after eating bread. The Gemara answers: bPeople do not base their meals onwine., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rava: If one based his meal on it, what is theruling? Must he recite the Grace after Meals as he does after bread? He replied: bWhen Elijah comes and says whetheror not bit can serve as the basisfor a meal, this will be resolved. bNevertheless, now,until then, bhis intention isrendered birrelevant bythe opinions of ball other menand he is not required to recite the complete Grace after Meals.,Previously, the Gemara cited the ihalakhathat one recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil. The Gemara discusses bthe matter itself. Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oiljust as he does over the fruit itself. bWhat are the circumstances? If you say that he drank itplain, bit causes damage tothe drinker. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who drinks oil of iteruma /i,while unaware that it was iteruma /i, bpays the principal and does not paythe additional bfifthwhich is the typical penalty for unintentional misuse of consecrated property, as in that case the individual is considered to have only damaged consecrated property without deriving benefit from it. bOne who anointshis body bwith the oil of iterumapays the principal and pays the fifth,as he derived benefit from it. Apparently, one who drinks oil derives no benefit and it even causes him damage., bRather,it is referring to a case where bhe eatsthe oil bbydipping bbreadinto it. bIf so,the bbread is primary andthe oil bsecondary, and we learnedin a mishna: bThis is the principle: Anyfood bthat is primary, andis eaten bwithfood that is bsecondary, one recites a blessing over the primaryfood, and that blessing bexempts the secondaryfrom the requirement to recite a blessing before eating it. A blessing need only be recited over the bread, not over the oil. bRather,it is referring to a case bwhere he is drinking it by means of an ianigeron /i, as Rabba bar Shmuel said: iAnigeron /iis bwaterin which a bbeetwas boiled, iansigeron /iis bthe water /b
44. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. ברוך אופנים הוא דאמרי ליה ואיבעית אימא כיון דאתיהיב רשותא אתיהיב,(הושע יב, ה) וישר אל מלאך ויוכל בכה ויתחנן לו איני יודע מי נעשה שר למי כשהוא אומר (בראשית לב, כט) כי שרית עם אלהים הוי אומר יעקב נעשה שר למלאך,בכה ויתחנן לו איני יודע מי בכה למי כשהוא אומר ויאמר שלחני הוי אומר מלאך בכה ליעקב,כי שרית [עם אלהים ועם אנשים] אמר רבה רמז רמז לו שעתידים שני שרים לצאת ממנו ראש גולה שבבבל ונשיא שבארץ ישראל מכאן רמז לו גלות,(בראשית מ, י) ובגפן שלשה שריגים אמר רב חייא בר אבא אמר רב אלו ג' שרי גאים היוצאים מישראל בכל דור ודור פעמים ששנים כאן ואחד בארץ ישראל פעמים ששנים בארץ ישראל ואחד כאן יהיבו רבנן עינייהו ברבנא עוקבא ורבנא נחמיה בני ברתיה דרב,רבא אמר אלו שלשה שרי גוים שמלמדים זכות על ישראל בכל דור ודור,תניא רבי אליעזר אומר גפן זה העולם שלשה שריגים זה אברהם יצחק ויעקב והיא כפורחת עלתה נצה אלו האמהות הבשילו אשכלותיה ענבים אלו השבטים,אמר לו רבי יהושע וכי מראין לו לאדם מה שהיה והלא אין מראין לו לאדם אלא מה שעתיד להיות אלא גפן זה תורה שלשה שריגים אלו משה ואהרן ומרים והיא כפורחת עלתה נצה אלו סנהדרין הבשילו אשכלותיה ענבים אלו הצדיקים שבכל דור ודור,אמר ר"ג עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דמוקים ליה כוליה בחד מקום רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר גפן זה ירושלים שלשה שריגים זה מקדש מלך וכהן גדול והיא כפורחת עלתה נצה אלו פרחי כהונה הבשילו אשכלותיה ענבים אלו נסכים,רבי יהושע בן לוי מוקים לה במתנות דאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי גפן זו תורה שלשה שריגים זה באר עמוד ענן ומן והיא כפורחת עלתה נצה אלו הבכורים הבשילו אשכלותיה ענבים אלו נסכים,רבי ירמיה בר אבא אמר גפן אלו ישראל וכן הוא אומר (תהלים פ, ט) גפן ממצרים תסיע שלשה שריגים אלו שלשה רגלים שישראל עולין בהן בכל שנה ושנה והיא כפורחת עלתה נצה הגיע זמנן של ישראל לפרות ולרבות וכן הוא אומר (שמות א, ז) ובני ישראל פרו וישרצו,עלתה נצה הגיע זמנן של ישראל ליגאל וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו סג, ג) ויז נצחם על בגדי וכל מלבושי אגאלתי הבשילו אשכלותיה ענבים הגיע זמנה של מצרים לשתות כוס התרעלה,והיינו דאמר רבא שלשה כוסות האמורות במצרים למה אחד ששתה בימי משה ואחד ששתה בימי פרעה נכה ואחד שעתידה לשתות עם כל העובדי כוכבים,אמר ליה רבי אבא לרבי ירמיה בר אבא כי דריש להו רב להני קראי באגדתא כוותך דריש להו,אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אומה זו כגפן נמשלה זמורות שבה אלו בעלי בתים אשכולות שבה אלו תלמידי חכמים עלין שבה אלו עמי הארץ קנוקנות שבה אלו ריקנים שבישראל,והיינו דשלחו מתם ליבעי רחמים איתכליא על עליא דאילמלא עליא לא מתקיימין איתכליא,(הושע ג, ב) ואכרה לי בחמשה עשר כסף א"ר יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יהוצדק אין כירה אלא לשון מכירה שנאמר (בראשית נ, ה) בקברי אשר כריתי לי,בחמשה עשר זה ט"ו בניסן שבו נגאלו ישראל ממצרים כסף אלו צדיקים וכן הוא אומר (משלי ז, כ) צרור הכסף לקח בידו,חומר שעורים ולתך שעורים אלו מ"ה צדיקים שהעולם מתקיים בהם ואיני יודע אם שלשים כאן וט"ו בארץ ישראל ואם שלשים בארץ ישראל וט"ו כאן כשהוא אומר (זכריה יא, יג) ואקחה שלשים הכסף ואשליך אותו בית ה' אל היוצר הוי אומר שלשים בארץ ישראל וט"ו כאן,אמר אביי ורובייהו משתכחי בבי כנישתא דתותי אפתא והיינו דכתיב (זכריה יא, יב) ואומר אליהם אם טוב בעיניכם הבו שכרי ואם לא חדלו וישקלו את שכרי שלשים כסף,רבי יהודה אומר אלו שלשים צדיקי אומות העולם שאומות העולם מתקיימים עליהם עולא אמר אלו שלשים מצות שקבלו עליהם בני נח ואין מקיימין אלא שלשה אחת 92a. The Gemara answers that it is the iofanimwho saythe verse: b“Blessed bethe glory of the Lord from His place,” as the next verse mentions “the noise of the iofanim /i” (Ezekiel 3:13), and Rav Ḥanina’s statement citing Rav was referring not to iofanimbut to ministering angels. bAnd if you wish, saythat bonce permission has been givento them to mention the name of God after three words when they say: “Holy, holy, holy,” permission is also bgivento them to mention the name of God again while praising Him even after fewer than three words.,The Gemara continues to discuss Jacob wrestling with the angel. The prophet states: b“So he strove [ ivayyasar /i] with an angel, and prevailed; he wept, and made supplication to him;at Beth El he would find him, and there he would speak with us” (Hosea 12:5). From this verse bI do not know who became master [ isar /i],i.e., was victorious, bover whom. Whenanother verse bstates:“And he said: Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel; bfor you have striven with angelsand with men, and have prevailed” (Genesis 32:29), byou must saythat bJacob became master over the angel. /b,The verse in Hosea states: b“He wept, and made supplication to him.”From this verse bI do not know who cried to whom. Whenanother verse bstates: “And he said: Let me go,for the dawn has risen” (Genesis 32:27), byou must saythat bthe angel cried to Jacob. /b,The verse states: “And he said: Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel; bfor you have striven with angels [ ielohim /i] and with men,and have prevailed” (Genesis 32:29). bRabba says:The angel bintimated toJacob bthat in the future two princes would emerge from him:They are the bExilarch who is in Babylonia and the iNasiwho is in Eretz Yisrael.And bfrom here healso bintimated toJacob that there would be ban exile. /b,Similarly, with regard to the dream of Pharaoh’s butler, the verse states: b“And in the vine were three branches [ isarigim /i];and as it was budding, its blossoms shot forth, and its clusters brought forth ripe grapes” (Genesis 40:10). bRav Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRav says: Thesethree branches refer to the bthree proud princes [ isarei ge’im /i] who emerge from the Jewish people in each and every generation.There are btimeswhen btwo are herein Babylonia band one is in Eretz Yisrael,and there are btimeswhen btwo are in Eretz Yisrael and one is herein Babylonia. When this was stated in the study hall, bthe Sagespresent bturned their eyes toward Rabbana Ukva and Rabbana Neḥemya, the sons of the daughter of Rav,who were from the family of the Exilarch and were two leaders of the generation who resided in Babylonia., bRava saysa different explanation of the verse: bThesethree branches [ isarigim /i] bare the three ministeringangels appointed to oversee bthe gentiles [ isarei goyim /i], who plead in favor of the Jewish people in each and every generation. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer saysan alternate interpretation of the verse. b“Vine”; thisis a reference to bthe world. “Three branches”; thisis a reference to bAbraham, Isaac, and Jacob. “And as it was budding, its blossoms shot forth”; these are the matriarchs. “And its clusters brought forth ripe grapes”; these are thetwelve btribes,i.e., the twelve sons of Jacob., bRabbi Yehoshua said to him: But is a person shownin a dream bwhat wasin the past? bIsn’tit true that bone is shown only what will be in the future?Since the patriarchs, matriarchs, and sons of Jacob were all born prior to this dream, the dream was not alluding to them. bRather,the verse should be interpreted as follows: b“Vine”; thisis a reference to bthe Torah. “Three branches”; these are Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. “And as it was budding, its blossoms shot forth”; these are themembers of the bSanhedrin. “And its clusters brought forth ripe grapes”; these are the righteouspeople bwholive bin each and every generation. /b, bRabban Gamliel said:In order to understand this verse (Genesis 40:10) bwe still needthe explanation bofRabbi Elazar bHaModa’i, whois an expert in matters of iaggada /i, as he binterprets all ofthe phrases in the verse as referring to bone location. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: “Vine”; thisis a reference to bJerusalem. “Three branches”; thisis a reference to the bTemple,the bking andthe bHigh Priest. “And as it was budding [ iporaḥat /i], its blossoms shot forth”; these are the young priests [ ipirḥei khehunna /i]. “And its clusters brought forth ripe grapes”; these are thewine blibations. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi interprets it withreference to the bgiftsthat God gave the Jewish people, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: “Vine”; thisis a reference to the bTorah. “Three branches”; thisis a reference to the miraculous items that accompanied the Jewish people in the wilderness and sustained and protected them: The bwell, the pillar of cloud, and the manna. “And as it was budding, its blossoms shot forth”; these are the first fruitsthat are brought to the Temple. b“And its clusters brought forth ripe grapes”; these arethe wine blibations. /b, bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: “Vine”; thisis a reference to bthe Jewish people, and similarlyanother verse bstates: “You plucked up a vine out of Egypt;You drove out the nations and planted it” (Psalms 80:9). b“Three branches”; these are the threepilgrimage bFestivals, on which the Jewish people ascendto Jerusalem bevery year. “And as it was budding, its blossoms shot forth,”means that bthe time has arrived for the Jewish people to be fruitful and multiply, and similarlyanother verse bstates: “And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly,and multiplied, and became exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them” (Exodus 1:7)., b“Its blossoms [ initzah /i] shot forth”means that bthe time has arrived for the Jewish people to be redeemed. And similarlyanother verse bstates: “And their eternity [ initzḥam /i] is dashed against My garments, and I have redeemed all My raiment”(Isaiah 63:3). b“And its clusters brought forth ripe grapes”means that bthe time has arrived for Egypt to drink the cup of fury,i.e., to receive its punishment., bAnd this is as Rava said: Whyare there bthree cups stated with regard to Egyptin the dream of Pharaoh’s butler (see Genesis 40:11)? They are an allusion to three cups of misfortune that would later befall Egypt: bOne thatEgypt bdrank in the days of Mosesduring the ten plagues and the Exodus; bone thatEgypt bdrank in the days of Pharaoh Nekho,the king of Egypt defeated by Nebuchadnezzar; band one thatEgypt bwill drink in the future with all theother bnations,when they are punished in the time of the Messiah., bRabbi Abba said to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba: When Rav interpreted these verses homiletically he interpreted them according tothe way in which byouhave interpreted them, and not according to any of the other opinions cited above.,Similar to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba’s interpretation of the word vine as an allusion to the Jewish people, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: This nation is likened to a vine. The branches ofthe vine support the clusters of grapes, the leaves, and the tendrils; bthese arerepresented among the Jewish people by bthe homeowners,who provide ficial support for the entire nation. bThe clustersof grapes bonthe vine, bthese are the Torah scholars. The leaves onthe vine, which protect the grapes, bthese are the ignoramuses,who protect the Torah scholars. bThe tendrils ofthe vine, which do not directly serve the grapes themselves, bthese are the emptyones bof the Jewish people. /b, bAnd this isthe meaning of the instruction bthat they sent from there,i.e., from Eretz Yisrael: bLet the clustersof grapes bpray for the leaves, as were it not for the leaves, the clustersof grapes bwould not survive. /b,§ The Gemara cites homiletical interpretations of other verses that pertain to the leaders of the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael and Babylonia. The verse states: b“So I bought her [ iva’ekkereha /i] to me for fifteen pieces of silver,and a iḥomerof barley, and a half- iḥomerof barley” (Hosea 3:2). bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak:The term ikira /i,which forms the basis of the verb iva’ekkereha /i, bis nothing other than languagereferring to ba sale [ imekhira /i], as it is statedthat Joseph said: “My father made me swear, saying: Lo, I die; bin my grave that I have acquired [ ikariti /i] for mein the land of Canaan, there shall you bury me” (Genesis 50:5).,Rabbi Yoḥa continues: b“For fifteenpieces of silver”; bthisis a reference to bthe fifteenth of Nisan,the date bon which the Jewish people were redeemed from Egypt. “Silver”; these are the righteouspeople. bAnd similarly,another verse bstates: “He has taken the bag of silver with him”(Proverbs 7:20), a reference to God taking the righteous away prior to the destruction of the First Temple (see iSanhedrin96b).,The verse states: b“A iḥomerof barley, and a half- iḥomerof barley.”A iḥomerequals thirty ise’a /i, and a half- iḥomerequals fifteen ise’a /i, totaling forty-five ise’a /i; bthese are the forty-five righteousindividuals bin whosemerit bthe worldcontinues to bexist. Andalthough the verse alludes to the fact that thirty of these righteous individuals are in one place and fifteen are elsewhere, bI do not know if thirty are herein Babylonia band fifteen are in Eretz Yisrael, or if thirty are in Eretz Yisrael and fifteen are herein Babylonia. bWhen it saysin a different verse: b“And I took the thirty pieces of silver and cast them into the treasury, in the house of the Lord”(Zechariah 11:13), byou must saythat bthirtyof the righteous individuals are bin Eretz Yisrael and fifteen are herein Babylonia., bAbaye said: And most of thefifteen righteous individuals in Babylonia bare found in the synagogue under the upper room. And this isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And I said to them: If it is good in your eyes, give me my hire; and if not, refrain. And they weighed for my hire thirty pieces of silver”(Zechariah 11:12)., bRabbi Yehuda says: These are the thirty righteousindividuals among the bnations of the world, in whosemerit bthe nations of the worldcontinue to bexist. Ulla says: These are the thirty mitzvot that the descendants of Noahinitially baccepted upon themselves; but they fulfill only threeof them. bOneof these three mitzvot i
45. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. b“And this is the law of the meal offering: The sons of Aaron shall sacrifice it before the Lord in front of the altar…And that which is left of it Aaron and his sons shall eat; it shall be eaten as imatzot /i”(Leviticus 6:7–9). These verses demonstrate that there is a general requirement that meal offerings must be brought as imatza /i. Rabbi Perida bsaid toRabbi Ami: bI do not raise the dilemmawith regard to the source of the bmitzva iab initio /i, as that is clearly derived from these verses. bWhere I raise the dilemma,it is bwith regard tothe source that indicates this requirement is bindispensable,i.e., that if one violated the mitzva and brought a meal offering not as imatzathe offering is not valid.,Rabbi Ami bsaid toRabbi Perida: bWith regard tothe ihalakhathat the requirement that meal offerings must come as imatzais bindispensable, it is also written: “It shall not be baked as leavened bread”(Leviticus 6:10), bbutrather must come as imatza /i.This additional verse indicates that even after the fact, if a meal offering was not made as imatzait is not valid.,Rav bḤisda objects to this: Butone can bsaythat the verse should be interpreted as follows: b“It shall not be baked as leavened bread,”i.e., fully leavened, bbutit can be brought even if it has been leavened slightly with bleavening [ isiur /i]dough. Although it does not have the status of leavened bread and is therefore not prohibited by the verse, it also does not have the status of imatza /i.,The Gemara analyzes Rav Ḥisda’s objection, as there is a dispute among the Sages with regard to the definition of isiur(see iPesaḥim48b). According to Rabbi Meir, isiuris dough at the beginning of the leavening process, when its surface has become pale. Conversely, Rabbi Yehuda maintains that isiuris dough that has been leavened to the point that it has cracks that look like the antennae of locusts. In this light, the Gemara inquires: This isiur /i,mentioned by Rav Ḥisda in his suggested interpretation of the verse, is in accordance bwith whoseopinion? bIfhe is referring to isiuras defined bby Rabbi Meir,then baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi YehudaRav Ḥisda’s objection does not arise, as Rabbi Yehuda maintains this bis full-fledged imatza /i.And bifRav Ḥisda is referring to isiuras defined bby Rabbi Yehuda,then baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi MeirRav Ḥisda’s objection does not arise either, as Rabbi Meir holds that it bis full-fledged leavened bread. /b,Furthermore, bifRav Ḥisda is referring to isiuras defined bby Rabbi Meir,then even baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi Meirhimself the objection does not arise. The reason is that bfromthe fact that Rabbi Meir rules bthatone who eats this isiuron Passover bis flogged for it,this indicates that bit isdeemed bfull-fledged leavened bread. Rather,Rav Ḥisda’s objection arises with regard to leavening dough as defined bby Rabbi Yehuda, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who maintains that this dough is not considered full-fledged leavened bread., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakalso bobjects toRabbi Ami’s explanation: bButone can bsaythat the verse can be interpreted as follows: b“It shall not be baked as leavened bread,” butone may bring a meal offering that has been bboiled,as this is not leavened bread; although it is also not imatza /i. The Gemara asks: This bboileddough, bwhat is it?It is bpoached [ irevikha /i],as described in the verse: “In a pan it shall be made of oil, when it is soaked [ imurbekhet /i]” (Leviticus 6:14). If so, there is no need to derive the ihalakhaof boiled dough from the verse: “It shall not be baked as leavened bread.” bIfit is a meal offering that must be bpoached, it isexplicitly bwritten with regard to itthat it must be bpoached. Andif it is a meal offering that is not to be poached, bit is not written with regard to itthat it is bpoached. /b,The Gemara challenges: bButone can bsaythat the verse: “It shall not be baked as leavened bread,” indicates that with regard to a meal offering babout which it is writtenexplicitly that it must be bpoached,it is a bmitzva thatit be bpoached, andwith regard to a meal offering babout which it is not writtenthat it must be bpoached,the one who brings the offering can decide: bIf he wants, let him bringit bpoached,and bif he wants, let him bringit as imatza /i.Accordingly, Rabbi Ami’s proof from the verse is inconclusive., bRavinaalso bobjects toRabbi Ami’s explanation: bButone can bsaythat the verse: b“It shall not be baked as leavened bread,”serves bto determinethat this bmanwho brings a meal offering as leavened bread bisliable bforviolating ba mere prohibition, butthe meal offering itself is bnot invalid. /b,All these objections indicate that the verse: “It shall not be baked as leavened bread,” can be interpreted in ways other than that suggested by Rabbi Ami. Accordingly, the Gemara asks: bRather, from where do wederive that all meal offerings not brought as imatzaare not valid? The Gemara answers: We derive it bas it is taughtin a ibaraitadiscussing a verse concerning meal offerings: “It shall be of imatza /i”(Leviticus 2:5): One bmighthave thought that it is only ba mitzva iab initiofor a meal offering to be of imatza /i. Therefore, bthe verse states: “It shall be,”which indicates that bthe verse established itas ban obligation,i.e., if the meal offering was not brought as imatzait is not valid.,§ bRabbi Perida raisedanother bdilemma before Rabbi Ami: From whereis it derived with regard bto all the meal offeringsthat must be brought as imatza bthat they are kneaded with lukewarmwater so that the dough will be baked well, as only a small amount of oil is added, bandthat bone must watch over themto ensure bthat they do notbecome bleavenedwhile kneading and shaping them? Shall bwe derive this ihalakha bfromthe prohibition concerning leavened bread on the festival of bPassover, as it is written: “And you shall watch over the imatzot /i”(Exodus 12:17), which indicates that one must watch over any dough that is supposed to be made into imatza /i, to ensure that it does not become leavened?,Rabbi Ami bsaid toRabbi Perida: The ihalakhaof meal offerings is not derived from Passover, as bit is written inthe context of a meal offering bitself: “It shall be [ itehiye /i] of imatza /i”(Leviticus 2:5), which can be read as meaning: bPreserve [ ihaḥaye /i] imatza /i, i.e., preserve the imatzaas it is, and do not let it become leavened.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t youalready bderivefrom the term “it shall be” that the requirement that a meal offering must be made as imatza bis indispensable?The Gemara answers: bIf so,that this term serves to teach only one ihalakha /i, blet the verse write: It is imatza /i. Whatis the reason that it writes: b“It shall beof imatza /i”? bLearn from it twoconclusions, both that the requirement that it be made as imatzais indispensable and that one must watch over the imatzato ensure that it does not become leavened.,§ The Gemara relates an incident that involves the aforementioned Rabbi Perida. bThe Sages said to Rabbi Perida:The Sage bRabbi Ezra,who is of especially fine lineage, ba grandson of Rabbi Avtolus, whoin turn bis atenth-generation descendant bof Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who is atenth-generation descendant bof Ezrathe Scribe, bis standingand waiting bat the gateof the house and seeks entry. Rabbi Perida bsaidto the Sages: bWhat isthe need for ball thisdetail about Rabbi Ezra’s lineage?,Rabbi Perida elaborated: bIf he is a man of Torahstudy, he is bworthyof entry on his own account, regardless of his ancestors. And bif he isboth ba man of Torahstudy band a man of lineage,he is also bworthyof entry. bBut ifhe is ba man of lineage and not a man of Torah,better for bfire to devour himthan for him to enter my house. In this case, his lineage is to his detriment, as it highlights his failure to become a Sage like his ancestors. The Sages bsaid toRabbi Perida: Rabbi Ezra bis a man of Torahstudy. Rabbi Perida bsaid to them:If so, blet him enter and come. /b,When Rabbi Ezra entered his house, Rabbi Perida bsaw thatRabbi Ezra’s bmind was troubledwith embarrassment at having to wait outside. Therefore, Rabbi Perida taught a homily to comfort Rabbi Ezra. bHe began and saidan interpretation of the verse: b“I have said to the Lord: You are my Lord; I have no good but in You [ itovati bal alekha /i]”(Psalms 16:2). Rabbi Perida interpreted: bThe congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, give me credit, as I made YourName bknown in the world,as indicated by the phrase: “You are my Lord.”,God bsaid tothe congregation of Israel: bI give no credit to you [ itovati bal alekha /i].God explained: bI give credit only tothe three Patriarchs, bAbraham, Isaac, and Jacob, whowere the bfirst who made MyName bknown in the world, as it is stated: “As for the holy that are in the earth, they are the excellent [ ive’addirei /i] in whom is all My delight”(Psalms 16:3). The holy in the earth are the Patriarchs, in whom God delights. In this manner Rabbi Perida alluded to the importance of the ancestors of the Jewish people, including Ezra the Scribe, from whom Rabbi Ezra was descended., bWhenRabbi Ezra bheardRabbi Perida bsaythe word: bExcellent [ iaddir /i],he too bbegana homily, one that plays with different forms of this term, band said: Let the iAddircome and exact punishment for the iaddirimfrom the iaddirimin the iaddirim /i. /b,Rabbi Ezra explained this statement: With regard to iAddirin the phrase: bLet the iAddircome, this is the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: “The Lord on high is mighty [ iaddir /i]”(Psalms 93:4). In the phrase: bAnd exact punishment for the iaddirim /i, these iaddirim bare the Jews, as it is stated: “The excellent [ ive’addirei /i] in whom is all My delight”(Psalms 16:3). In the phrase: bFrom the iaddirim /i, these iaddirim bare the Egyptians, as it is writtenwith regard to the splitting of the Red Sea: b“The mighty [ iaddirim /i] sank as lead in the waters”(Exodus 15:10). In the phrase: bIn the iaddirim /i, these iaddirim bare the waters, as it is stated: “Above the voices of many waters, the mighty [ iaddirim /i] breakers of the sea”(Psalms 93:4).,Rabbi Ezra stated another, similar, homiletic interpretation: bLet iyadid /i, son of iyadid /i, come and build iyadidfor iyadidin the portion of iyadid /i, and let iyedidimachieve atonement through it. /b,Rabbi Ezra explained this statement: With regard to iyadidin the phrase: bLet iyadid /i, this is King Solomon, as it is writtenafter Solomon’s birth: b“And He sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet, and he called his name Yedidya, for the Lord’s sake”(II Samuel 12:25).
46. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34a. מאי טעמא דר' יוסי בר יהודה דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, ל) עד אחד לא יענה בנפש למות למות הוא דאינו עונה אבל לזכות עונה ורבנן אמר ריש לקיש משום דמיחזי כנוגע בעדותו,ורבנן האי למות מאי דרשי ביה מוקמי ליה באחד מן התלמידים כדתניא אמר אחד מן העדים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל עד אחד לא יענה מניין לאחד מן התלמידים שאמר יש לי ללמד עליו חובה מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל אחד לא יענה בנפש למות:,דיני נפשות המלמד כו': אמר רב לא שנו אלא בשעת משא ומתן אבל בשעת גמר דין מלמד זכות חוזר ומלמד חובה,מיתיבי למחרת משכימין ובאין המזכה אומר אני המזכה ומזכה אני במקומי המחייב אומר אני המחייב ומחייב אני במקומי המלמד חובה מלמד זכות אבל המלמד זכות אינו יכול לחזור וללמד חובה,והא למחרת גמר דין הוא וליטעמיך למחרת משא ומתן מי ליכא כי קתני בשעת משא ומתן,ת"ש דנין אלו כנגד אלו עד שיראה אחד מן המחייבין דברי המזכין ואם איתא ליתני נמי איפכא תנא אזכות קא מהדר אחובה לא קא מהדר,ת"ש דאמר ר' יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו ואמאי נימא אילו הוה קיים הדר ביה השתא מיהא לא הדר ביה,והא שלחו מתם לדברי ר' יוסי בר חנינא מוצא מכלל רבינו אין מוצא איתמר,תא שמע שני סופרי הדיינין עומדין לפניהן אחד מן הימין ואחד מן השמאל וכותבין דברי המזכין ודברי המחייבין,בשלמא דברי המחייבין למחר חזו טעמא אחרינא ובעו למעבד הלנת דין אלא דברי המזכין מאי טעמא לאו משום דאי חזו טעמא אחרינא לחובה לא משגחינן בהו,לא כדי שלא יאמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות כדבעא מיניה רבי אסי מרבי יוחנן אמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות מהו אמר ליה אין מונין להן אלא אחד,מנהני מילי אמר אביי דאמר קרא (תהלים סב, יב) אחת דבר אלהים שתים זו שמעתי כי עז לאלהים מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים ואין טעם אחד יוצא מכמה מקראות דבי ר' ישמעאל תנא (ירמיהו כג, כט) וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע מה פטיש זה מתחלק לכמה ניצוצות אף מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים,היכי דמי טעם אחד משני מקראות אמר רב זביד כדתנן מזבח מקדש את הראוי לו,רבי יהושע אומר כל הראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר (ויקרא ו, ב) העולה על מוקדה מה עולה שהיא ראויה לאשים אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד,רבן גמליאל אומר כל הראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר היא העולה על מוקדה על המזבח מה עולה שהיא ראויה לגבי מזבח אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד,ותרוייהו מאי קמרבו פסולין מר מייתי לה ממוקדה ומר מייתי לה ממזבח,והא התם מיפלג פליגי דקתני סיפא אין בין דברי רבן גמליאל לדברי ר' יהושע אלא הדם והנסכים שר"ג אומר לא ירדו ור' יהושע אומר ירדו,אלא אמר רב פפא כדתניא ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר מתוך שנאמר 34a. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reason of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda? As the verse states: “But one witness shall not testify against any person that he die.”One can infer: bThat he die isthe matter concerning bwhich he does not testify, but he does testify to acquit.The Gemara asks: bAndwhat is the reasoning of bthe Rabbis? Reish Lakish says:A witness cannot offer any statements beyond his testimony bbecause it appears as though he is biased in his testimony.If the court finds the accused liable based on the witness’s testimony, the witness could later be accused of being a conspiring witness. Therefore, it is to his advantage to have the court acquit the accused.,The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Rabbis,in bwhatmanner do bthey interpret thisterm: b“That he die”?The Gemara answers: bThey establish itas teaching the ihalakha bwith regard to one of the students. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone of the witnesses said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to bacquit him, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states: “One witness shall not testify.” From whereis it derived bthatif there is bone of the students who said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to deem bhim liable, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states:“But bonewitness bshall not testify against any person that he die.” /b,§ The mishna teaches: In cases of bcapital law, one whoinitially bteachesa reason to deem the accused liable may then teach a reason to acquit, but one who initially teaches a reason to acquit him may not return and teach a reason to deem him liable. bRav says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonly with regard to the time ofthe bdeliberationsof the court, bbut at the time ofthe bverdict,one who initially bteachesa reason to bacquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a mishna (40a): bThe following day,i.e., the day after the initial deliberations, the judges would barise early and cometo court. bOne whoyesterday was of the opinion to bacquit says: Isaid to bacquit, and I acquit in my place,i.e., I stand by my statement to acquit. bAnd one whoyesterday was of the opinion to bdeemhim bliable says: Isaid to bdeemhim bliable, and I deemhim bliable in my place. One whoyesterday btaughta reason to deem him bliable maythen bteacha reason to bacquit, but one whoyesterday btaughta reason to bacquit may notthen bteacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bBut the following day isat the time of bthe verdict,and the mishna rules that a judge who had said to acquit may not change his opinion. The Gemara questions this reading of the mishna: bAnd according to your reasoning, are there no deliberations on the following day?The deliberations may resume on the next day. Therefore, one can say that bwhenthe mishna bteachesthat the judge may not change his opinion, it is bwith regard to the time ofthe bdeliberations. /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the continuation of that mishna, which teaches that if the number of judges who deem him liable is one more than the number of judges who acquit, btheycontinue to bdeliberatethe matter, bthesejudges bagainst thosejudges, buntil one of those who deemshim bliable seesthe validity of bthe statements of those who acquitand changes his position, as the court does not condemn someone to death by a majority of one judge. The Gemara states its proof: bAnd if it is sothat one who initially bteachesa reason bto acquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable, letthe mishna balso teach the oppositepossibility. The Gemara explains: bThe itannais searching forscenarios of bacquittal,he bis not searching forscenarios of bliability.It may be that the ihalakhais the same in the opposite case, but the itannaprefers to employ an example of acquittal.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: bAs Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says:In a case where there was bone of the students whoargued to bacquit andthen bdied,the court bviews him as ifhe were balive and standing in his placeand voting to acquit. The Gemara asks: bBut why?According to the opinion of Rav, that a judge may change his opinion at the time of the verdict, blet us say:Perhaps bifthat student bwere alive,he would bretracthis opinion and find the accused liable. The Gemara explains: bNow, in any event,he bdid not retract fromhis opinion. The assumption is that he would not have changed his opinion, although one can do so.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bButthe Sages bsenta statement bfrom there,Eretz Yisrael: bAccording tothis version of bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina,he engages in ba dispute with our teacher,i.e., Rav. Apparently, the previous explanation, which reconciles their opinions, is incorrect. The Gemara answers: That tradition was not accurate, and it bwas statedthat he does bnotengage in ba disputewith Rav.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: After the initial deliberations, btwo judges’ scribes stand beforethe court, bone on the right, and one on the left, and they write the statements of those who acquitthe accused band the statements of those who findhim bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the proof: bGranted,they write the bstatements of those who findthe accused bliableeven though they may not change their opinions, as bon the following day theymay bsee another reasonto find the accused liable, not the reason they gave the day before. bAndonce this new reason is given, the court bis required to perform a suspension of the trialuntil the following day, as they may not issue a verdict in cases of capital law on the same day as the deliberations. bBut what is the reasonthe scribes write bthe statements of those who acquitthe accused? Is it bnot becausethe ihalakhais that bifthe judges would bsee another reason tofind the accused bliable, we do not pay heed to them,and in order to ensure that the judges do not change their opinions, the scribes write their statements?,The Gemara answers: bNo,the reason they write their statements is bso that twoof the judges bshould not say one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses.If two judges each say the same reason to acquit, but derive their reason from different verses, they are not counted as two votes. bAs Rabbi Asi asked of Rabbi Yoḥa:If btwoof the judges bsay one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses, what isthe ihalakha /i? bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: We count them only as one,as it is clear that one of the derivations is in error.,§ The Gemara discusses the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa: bFrom where is this matterderived? bAbaye says: As the verse states: “God has spoken once, twice I have heard this; that strength belongs to God”(Psalms 62:12). Abaye explains: bOne verseis stated by God and from it bemerge several explanations, but one explanation does not emerge from several verses.Alternatively, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse states: “Is not My word like as fire? says the Lord; band like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as this hammer breaksa stone binto several fragments, so too, one verseis stated by God bandfrom it bemerge several explanations. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is considered one explanation from twodifferent bverses? Rav Zevid says: As we learnedin a mishna ( iZevaḥim83a): With regard to certain items that are disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, once they have been placed on the altar they are nevertheless sacrificed, but bthe altar sanctifiesonly items bthat are suited for it,as the Gemara will explain. The itanna’imdisagree as to what is considered suited for the altar., bRabbi Yehoshua says: Anyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, e.g., burnt-offerings and the portions of other offerings burned on the altar, bif it ascendedupon the altar, even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bit shall not descend.Since it was sanctified by its ascent upon the altar, it is sacrificed upon it, bas it is stated:“It is bthe burnt-offering on the pyreupon the altar” (Leviticus 6:2), from which it is derived: bJust aswith regard to ba burnt-offering that is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend, so toowith regard to banyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend. /b, bRabban Gamliel says:With regard to banyitem bthat is suited toascend upon bthe altar,even if it is not typically consumed, bif it ascended, it shall not descend,even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bas it is stated: “It is the burnt-offering on the pyre upon the altar,”from which it is derived: bJust as a burnt-offering that is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend, so too anyitem bthat is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend. /b,Rav Zevid explains: bAnd what do the two of them includeby means of these explanations? bDisqualifiedofferings, teaching that if they ascend they do not descend. One bSage,Rabbi Yehoshua, bbringsproof for bthis ihalakha bfromthe term b“on the pyre,” andone bSage,Rabban Gamliel, bbringsproof to bthis ihalakha bfromthe term “upon the baltar.”This is an example of one explanation from two different verses.,The Gemara questions this example: bBut there,Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabban Gamliel bdisagree,and their explanations cannot therefore be identical. bAs the latter clauseof that mishna bteaches: The difference between the statement of Rabban Gamliel and the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua is onlywith regard to disqualified bblood and libations,which are not consumed by the fire, but do ascend onto the altar, bas Rabban Gamliel says: They shall not descend,as they are fit to ascend on the altar, band Rabbi Yehoshua says: They shall descend,as they are not burned on the altar., bRather, Rav Pappa says:An example of one explanation from two different verses is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: From the fact that it is stated: /b
47. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. אקפח את בני שזו הלכה מקופחת ששמע השומע וטעה האיכר עובר ומרדעו על כתפו ואיהל צדו אחת על הקבר טימאו אותו משום כלים המאהילים על המת,א"ר עקיבא אני אתקן שיהו דברי חכמים קיימים שיהו כל המטלטלים מביאין את הטומאה על האדם שנושא אותן בעובי המרדע ועל עצמן בכל שהן ועל שאר אדם וכלים בפותח טפח,וא"ר ינאי ומרדע שאמרו אין בעביו טפח ויש בהיקפו טפח וגזרו על היקפו משום עביו,ולר' טרפון דאמר אקפח את בני שהלכה זו מקופחת בצרו להו א"ר נחמן בר יצחק אף בנות כותים נדות מעריסתן בו ביום גזרו ובאידך ס"ל כר' מאיר:,ואידך הבוצר לגת שמאי אומר הוכשר הלל אומר לא הוכשר א"ל הלל לשמאי מפני מה בוצרין בטהרה ואין מוסקין בטהרה,א"ל אם תקניטני. גוזרני טומאה אף על המסיקה נעצו חרב בבית המדרש אמרו הנכנס יכנס והיוצא אל יצא ואותו היום היה הלל כפוף ויושב לפני שמאי כאחד מן התלמידים והיה קשה לישראל כיום שנעשה בו העגל וגזור שמאי והלל ולא קבלו מינייהו ואתו תלמידייהו גזור וקבלו מינייהו,מ"ט אמר (ר') זעירי אמר ר' חנינא גזירה שמא יבצרנו בקופות טמאות,הניחא למ"ד כלי טמא חושב משקין שפיר אלא למ"ד אין כלי טמא חושב משקין מאי איכא למימר אלא אמר זעירי אמר ר' חנינא גזירה שמא יבצרנו בקופות מזופפות,רבא אמר גזירה משום הנושכות (דאמר) רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה פעמים שאדם הולך לכרמו לידע אם הגיעו ענבים לבצירה או לא ונוטל אשכול ענבים לסוחטו ומזלף על גבי ענבים ובשעת בצירה עדיין משקה טופח עליהם:,ואידך אמר 17a. bI will bury my sonsif bthis isnot ba truncated ihalakha /i, i.e., that the one who heardit, bhearda halakhic ruling concerning a different situation band erred.He thought this ihalakhawas established with regard to the following: Movable objects with the thickness of an ox goad transmit impurity to another vessel when the movable object is over both the source of impurity and the vessel at the same time. However, the original ihalakhais as follows: If bthe farmer was passing and his ox goad was on his shoulder and one side ofthe ox goad bcovered the grave,the Sages bdeemedthe ox goad itself bimpure due tothe impurity bof vessels that cover a corpse.Any object located over a grave becomes impure. However, just because the ox goad itself became impure, this does not necessarily mean that it transmits impurity to other objects., bRabbi Akiva said: I will correctand explain the ihalakhaso bthat the statements of the Sages will be upheldas they were originally said, and this ihalakhawill be explained as follows: bAll movable objects transmit impurity to the person carrying themif the objects are at least as thick as an ox goad. As will be explained below, there is room to decree that a round object with the circumference of an ox goad should have the legal status of a tent over a corpse. Something that serves as a covering over a corpse not only becomes impure itself, but also transmits impurity, as it is written: “Anything that is in the tent will become impure for seven days” (Numbers 19:14). Therefore, even the person carrying the ox goad becomes impure due to the ox goad. bAnd,however, movable objects that covered the corpse bring impurity bupon themselvesby means of this makeshift tent bat any size,and there is no minimum measure. bAnd,however, those objects that cover the corpse do not transmit impurity bto other peoplewho are not carrying them. bAndthe same is true with regard to bvessels,unless the width of these vessels is at least bone handbreadth. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yannai said: And the ox goad that they mentionedis specifically one in which bits width is not a handbreadth and,however, bits circumference is a handbreadth, and they,the Sages, bissued a decree on its circumference due to its width.If its width was a handbreadth it would transmit impurity as a tent by Torah law. Therefore, they issued a rabbinic decree with regard to an object whose circumference is a handbreadth. This is another of the eighteen decrees.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording bto Rabbi Tarfon, who said: I will bury my sonif bthis isnot ba truncated ihalakha /i,the tally of the decrees bis lacking,and there are not eighteen. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The decree that the bdaughters ofthe bSamaritans areconsidered to already have the status of bmenstruating women from their cradle, they issued on that day. And in the othermatter of drawn water, bhe holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir,and thereby the tally of the decrees is complete., bAnd anotherof those decrees is the matter of bone who harvestsgrapes in order to take them bto the press. Shammai says: It has become susceptible, and Hillel says: It has not become susceptible. Hillel said to Shammai:If so, bfor whatpurpose bdo they harvestgrapes bin purity,i.e., utilizing pure vessels, as in your opinion, since the grapes are susceptible to impurity by means of the juice that seeps from them, care must be taken to avoid impurity while gathering; band,however, bthey do not harvestolives bin purity?According to your opinion that liquid that seeps out renders the fruit susceptible to impurity, why is there not a similar concern with regard to the liquid that seeps out of olives?,Shammai bsaid to him: If you provoke meand insist that there is no difference between gathering olives and grapes, then, in order not to contradict this, bI will decree impurity on the gatheringof olives bas well.They related that since the dispute was so intense, bthey stuck a sword in the study hall, and they said: One whoseeks to benterthe study hall, blet him enter, and one whoseeks to bleave may not leave,so that all of the Sages will be assembled to determine the ihalakha /i. bThat day Hillel was bowed and was sitting before Shammai like one of the students.The Gemara said: bAndthat day bwas as difficult for Israel as the day theGolden bCalf was made,as Hillel, who was the iNasi /i, was forced to sit in submission before Shammai, and the opinion of Beit Shammai prevailed in the vote conducted that day. bAnd Shammai and Hillel issued the decree, andthe people bdid not accept it from them. And their students cameand bissued the decree, andthe people baccepted it from them. /b,As to the essence of the matter, the Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthey decreed that liquids that seeped from the grapes unintentionally render the grapes susceptible to impurity? bRabbi Ze’iri saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said:The Sages issued ba decreedue to concern blest he gatherthe grapes bin impure baskets.The impurity of the vessel would accord the liquid in it the status of a liquid that renders food items susceptible to impurity.,The Gemara asks: This bworks out well,according bto the one who saidthat ban impure vessel accords liquidsin it the halakhic status as if they were placed there willfully, and they render foods susceptible to impurity even if he did not want the liquids in the vessel. However, according bto the one who saidthat ban impure vessel does not accord liquidsthat status, bwhat can be saidin explanation of the decree? bRather, Rabbi Ze’iri saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina saidthe following: The reason is not as we suggested; rather, this is ba decreeinstituted by the Sages blest he gather them in pitched baskets,which are sealed. Since liquids that seep out of the grapes do not spill out of the baskets, it is opportune for him to have the liquids seep out of the grapes as he thereby accelerates the production of wine in the press. Because the seeping of the liquid is opportune, it renders the grapes susceptible to impurity., bRava said:The reason for the bdecreeis bdue to thecase of liquid that squirted out when one separated clusters of grapes that were bstuck together /b. Since he did so by his own hand, consciously and willfully, the liquid that seeps out renders the grapes susceptible to impurity. Just as bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said: Sometimes a person goes to his vineyardin order bto ascertain whether or not the grapes have reachedthe time for bgathering, and he takes a cluster of grapes to squeeze it, and he spraysthe juice bontothe bgrapes.Based on the quality of the juice, he determines whether or not the grapes are sufficiently ripe. If so, this grape juice was squeezed by his own hand willfully and it renders the grapes susceptible to impurity, as even bat the time of gatheringit is conceivable that the bliquid is still moist uponthe grapes.,Since all eighteen decrees decreed that day have not yet been enumerated, the Gemara asks: bAndwhat is bthe other? Said /b
48. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 1.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 268, 711
abraham, as defense lawyer Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
abraham Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 62
aggadah, anonymous voices in Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
ahasuerus Gera, Judith (2014) 128
amoraim, babylonian, attitude to moses, torah Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 99
anger, gods Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 37
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 268
anonymous voices Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
anthropomorphism, wrath Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346, 376
anthropophagy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
antiochus iv epiphanes Gera, Judith (2014) 128
apocrypha Gera, Judith (2014) 128
arm/hand Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
aspirationalism in bible Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
assyrian royal inscriptions Gera, Judith (2014) 128
babylonian rabbis, sages, comments on moses Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 99
balaam Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 35
balak Gera, Judith (2014) 128
battle Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
berekhia (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
bible Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
blood of abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 268, 711
cambyses Gera, Judith (2014) 128
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
children Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 174
clement of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 458
creation Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
creed, attributes of yahweh in Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188
darius i Gera, Judith (2014) 128
david Gera, Judith (2014) 128
destruction Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
discourses of divine law, in biblical literature Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
divine/god, command Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346
drink Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 139
egypt Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
elazar, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
emotions, gods Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 37
eruv as legal fiction, role of the law in Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
ethics Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
ezra Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 189
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 52
form, of speech Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 175
fortschreibung Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
geerah shavah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
gender, women Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
god, anger of Gera, Judith (2014) 128
god, as judge Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 189
golden age in bible Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
golden calf Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346, 376; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 139
greek Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 182
halberstam, chaya Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 192
hanging Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
heavenly court advocates, in bible and second temple literature Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
heavenly court advocates Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
hellenistic, writings Gera, Judith (2014) 128
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 128
hisda, r., exegetical techniques of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
impalement Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
individual Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
intercessory prayer Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188
ishmael, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
israel, obedience Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
israel, rebellion of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
jeremiah Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 62
jerusalem Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
job Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 62
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 189; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 62
judah b. ila͗͑i (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346
king, parable Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
king Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
kings, angry and cruel Gera, Judith (2014) 128
kirschl¨ager, w. Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 174
korah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
lamah li? Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
legitimacy Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
levites Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 175, 188
lorberbaum, yair Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
may darasht beh? Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
memory figures Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188
messianic era Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
midah keneged midah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
military Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
moral freedom in bible Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
mose Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
moses, intercession of Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346, 376
moses, views of non-rabbis, non-jews Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 99
moses Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 182; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 34, 35; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
mourning Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
mouth, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
muffs, yochanan Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
namburbi/û Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 20
narrative Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
narrative as grounding biblical divine law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 128
nebuchadnezzar of judith, angry Gera, Judith (2014) 128
nebuchadnezzar of judith, as rival of god Gera, Judith (2014) 128
nebuchadnezzar of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 128
oedipus rex Gera, Judith (2014) 128
ordeal Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 139
papanikri (ritual) Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 34
patriarchs Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
penitential prayer Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
perfectionism in bible Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
perpetua Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
persia Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
pharaoh Gera, Judith (2014) 128
philo Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 37
phinehas Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188
plea, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 711
power Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
promised land Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
ptolemy iv philopator Gera, Judith (2014) 128
rabbah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
rav, exegetical techniques of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
rava, unembellished counsel of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
reading Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 93
rebellion Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
resh lakish, on human reproduction Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
retaliation Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
robo-righteousness Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 49
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 128
schema Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188
scripture, israels, before Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 62
septuagint Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 181
shame and disgrace Gera, Judith (2014) 128
shema mineh, lidrashah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
shepherd Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 33
simeon b. pazzi (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
simeon b. yohai, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
sinai, single man Gera, Judith (2014) 128
sinai Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
sodom Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
speech act Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 20, 34, 35
status Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
stone, suzanne last Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 244
temple, destruction of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
temple, founding of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
theophany Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
threat of violence Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 80
tora/torah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
torah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 181, 182
torahs deviation from Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 192
trito-isaianic Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 104
venom Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 268
vespasian Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 189
wanderings Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 188
will Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
wrath Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 268
writing' Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 93
xerxes Gera, Judith (2014) 128
yetera Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
yohanan, r., unembellished counsel of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 227
ḥelbo (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), influence on divine realms Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 376
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), righteous among Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 346