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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 30.23-30.26


וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ מָר־דְּרוֹר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְקִנְּמָן־בֶּשֶׂם מַחֲצִיתוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם וּקְנֵה־בֹשֶׂם חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם׃’Take thou also unto thee the chief spices, of flowing myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty


וְקִדָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת הִין׃and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive oil a hin.


וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתוֹ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵחַ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה׃And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.


וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת׃And thou shalt anoint therewith the tent of meeting, and the ark of the testimony


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.13, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. צְרוֹר הַמֹּר דּוֹדִי לִי בֵּין שָׁדַי יָלִין׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 1.13. My beloved is unto me as a bag of myrrh, That lieth betwixt my breasts. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 28.41, 29.21, 29.36-29.37, 29.44, 30.22, 30.24-30.32, 30.37-30.38, 34.29, 34.33-34.35, 40.9-40.11, 40.13-40.15, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.41. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם וּמִלֵּאתָ אֶת־יָדָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי׃ 29.21. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִן־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִשֶּׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְהִזֵּיתָ עַל־אַהֲרֹן וְעַל־בְּגָדָיו וְעַל־בָּנָיו וְעַל־בִּגְדֵי בָנָיו אִתּוֹ וְקָדַשׁ הוּא וּבְגָדָיו וּבָנָיו וּבִגְדֵי בָנָיו אִתּוֹ׃ 29.36. וּפַר חַטָּאת תַּעֲשֶׂה לַיּוֹם עַל־הַכִּפֻּרִים וְחִטֵּאתָ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּכַפֶּרְךָ עָלָיו וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ לְקַדְּשׁוֹ׃ 29.37. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תְּכַפֵּר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְהָיָה הַמִּזְבֵּחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ יִקְדָּשׁ׃ 29.44. וְקִדַּשְׁתִּי אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אֲקַדֵּשׁ לְכַהֵן לִי׃ 30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.24. וְקִדָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת הִין׃ 30.25. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתוֹ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵחַ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה׃ 30.26. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת׃ 30.27. וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה וְאֶת־כֵּלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת׃ 30.28. וְאֶת־מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנּוֹ׃ 30.29. וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְהָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִקְדָּשׁ׃ 30.31. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה לִי לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.32. עַל־בְּשַׂר אָדָם לֹא יִיסָךְ וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ כָּמֹהוּ קֹדֶשׁ הוּא קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 30.37. וְהַקְּטֹרֶת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּמַתְכֻּנְתָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לְךָ לַיהוָה׃ 30.38. אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה כָמוֹהָ לְהָרִיחַ בָּהּ וְנִכְרַת מֵעַמָּיו׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 40.9. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְהָיָה קֹדֶשׁ׃ 40.11. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנּוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ׃ 40.13. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֵת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְכִהֵן לִי׃ 40.14. וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תַּקְרִיב וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם כֻּתֳּנֹת׃ 40.15. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם כַּאֲשֶׁר מָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי וְהָיְתָה לִהְיֹת לָהֶם מָשְׁחָתָם לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 28.41. And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and upon his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 29.21. And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him; and he and his garments shall be hallowed, and his sons and his sons’garments with him." 29.36. And every day shalt thou offer the bullock of sin-offering, beside the other offerings of atonement; and thou shalt do the purification upon the altar when thou makest atonement for it; and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it." 29.37. Seven days thou shalt make atonement for the altar, and sanctify it; thus shall the altar be most holy; whatsoever toucheth the altar shall be holy." 29.44. And I will sanctify the tent of meeting, and the altar; Aaron also and his sons will I sanctify, to minister to Me in the priest’s office." 30.22. Moreover the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.24. and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive oil a hin." 30.25. And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil." 30.26. And thou shalt anoint therewith the tent of meeting, and the ark of the testimony," 30.27. and the table and all the vessels thereof, and the candlestick and the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense," 30.28. and the altar of burnt-offering with all the vessels thereof, and the laver and the base thereof." 30.29. And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy; whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy." 30.30. And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 30.31. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: This shall be a holy anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations." 30.32. Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any like it, according to the composition thereof; it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you." 30.37. And the incense which thou shalt make, according to the composition thereof ye shall not make for yourselves; it shall be unto thee holy for the LORD." 30.38. Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereof, he shall be cut off from his people.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him." 40.9. And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the furniture thereof; and it shall be holy." 40.10. And thou shalt anoint the altar of burnt-offering, and all its vessels, and sanctify the altar; and the altar shall be most holy." 40.11. And thou shalt anoint the laver and its base, and sanctify it." 40.13. And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 40.14. And thou shalt bring his sons, and put tunics upon them." 40.15. And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office; and their anointing shall be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.’" 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 7.10-7.12, 8.10-8.12, 8.30, 15.19-15.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב לַיהוָה׃ 7.12. אִם עַל־תּוֹדָה יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ וְהִקְרִיב עַל־זֶבַח הַתּוֹדָה חַלּוֹת מַצּוֹת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן וְסֹלֶת מֻרְבֶּכֶת חַלֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשָּׁמֶן׃ 8.11. וַיַּז מִמֶּנּוּ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וַיִּמְשַׁח אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנּוֹ לְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 8.12. וַיִּצֹק מִשֶּׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה עַל רֹאשׁ אַהֲרֹן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ לְקַדְּשׁוֹ׃ 15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.21. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.22. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.23. וְאִם עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־הִוא יֹשֶׁבֶת־עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ־בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 7.10. And every meal-offering, mingled with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another." 7.11. And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which one may offer unto the LORD." 7.12. If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour soaked." 8.10. And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the tabernacle and all that was therein, and sanctified them." 8.11. And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar seven times, and anointed the altar and all its vessels, and the laver and its base, to sanctify them." 8.12. And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron’s head, and anointed him, to sanctify him." 8.30. And Moses took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was upon the altar, and sprinkled it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon his sons’garments with him, and sanctified Aaron, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons’garments with him." 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even." 15.20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her impurity shall be unclean; every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean." 15.21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sitteth upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.23. And if he be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 7.1, 18.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.1. וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂאִים אֵת חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִם אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 7.1. וַיְהִי בְּיוֹם כַּלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לְהָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וַיִּמְשָׁחֵם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם׃ 18.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃ 18.3. וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃ 7.1. And it came to pass on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle, and had anointed it and sanctified it, and all the furniture thereof, and the altar and all the vessels thereof, and had anointed them and sanctified them;" 18.3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 7.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.17. נַפְתִּי מִשְׁכָּבִי מֹר אֲהָלִים וְקִנָּמוֹן׃ 7.17. I have perfumed my bed With myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 55.13, 66.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

55.13. תַּחַת הַנַּעֲצוּץ יַעֲלֶה בְרוֹשׁ תחת [וְתַחַת] הַסִּרְפַּד יַעֲלֶה הֲדַס וְהָיָה לַיהוָה לְשֵׁם לְאוֹת עוֹלָם לֹא יִכָּרֵת׃ 66.19. וְשַׂמְתִּי בָהֶם אוֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי מֵהֶם פְּלֵיטִים אֶל־הַגּוֹיִם תַּרְשִׁישׁ פּוּל וְלוּד מֹשְׁכֵי קֶשֶׁת תֻּבַל וְיָוָן הָאִיִּים הָרְחֹקִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ אֶת־שִׁמְעִי וְלֹא־רָאוּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִי וְהִגִּידוּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִי בַּגּוֹיִם׃ 55.13. Instead of the thorn shall come up the cypress, And instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle; And it shall be to the LORD for a memorial, For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off." 66.19. And I will work a sign among them, and I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the isles afar off, that have not heard My fame, neither have seen My glory; and they shall declare My glory among the nations."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.20. To what purpose is to Me the frankincense that cometh from Sheba, And the sweet cane, from a far country? Your burnt-offerings are not acceptable, Nor your sacrifices pleasing unto Me."
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 27.6, 42.13-42.14, 44.19, 46.20 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.6. אַלּוֹנִים מִבָּשָׁן עָשׂוּ מִשּׁוֹטָיִךְ קַרְשֵׁךְ עָשׂוּ־שֵׁן בַּת־אֲשֻׁרִים מֵאִיֵּי כתים [כִּתִּיִּים׃] 42.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לִשְׁכוֹת הַצָּפוֹן לִשְׁכוֹת הַדָּרוֹם אֲשֶׁר אֶל־פְּנֵי הַגִּזְרָה הֵנָּה לִשְׁכוֹת הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר יֹאכְלוּ־שָׁם הַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר־קְרוֹבִים לַיהוָה קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים שָׁם יַנִּיחוּ קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וְהַמִּנְחָה וְהַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם כִּי הַמָּקוֹם קָדֹשׁ׃ 42.14. בְּבֹאָם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְלֹא־יֵצְאוּ מֵהַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה וְשָׁם יַנִּיחוּ בִגְדֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־יְשָׁרְתוּ בָהֶן כִּי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵנָּה ילבשו [וְלָבְשׁוּ] בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וְקָרְבוּ אֶל־אֲשֶׁר לָעָם׃ 44.19. וּבְצֵאתָם אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה אֶל־הָעָם יִפְשְׁטוּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה מְשָׁרְתִם בָּם וְהִנִּיחוּ אוֹתָם בְּלִשְׁכֹת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְלָבְשׁוּ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־יְקַדְּשׁוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּבִגְדֵיהֶם׃ 27.6. of the oaks of Bashan Have they made thine oars; Thy deck have they made of ivory inlaid in larch, From the isles of the Kittites." 42.13. Then said he unto me: ‘The north chambers and the south chambers, which are before the separate place, they are the holy chambers, where the priests that are near unto the LORD shall eat the most holy things; there shall they lay the most holy things, and the meal-offering, and the sin-offering, and the guilt-offering; for the place is holy." 42.14. When the priests enter in, then shall they not go out of the holy place into the outer court, but there they shall lay their garments wherein they minister, for they are holy; and they shall put on other garments, and shall approach to that which pertaineth to the people.’" 44.19. And when they go forth into the outer court, even into the outer court to the people, they shall put off their garments wherein they minister, and lay them in the holy chambers, and they shall put on other garments, that they sanctify not the people with their garments."
9. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 9.13, 10.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.13. כִּי־דָרַכְתִּי לִי יְהוּדָה קֶשֶׁת מִלֵּאתִי אֶפְרַיִם וְעוֹרַרְתִּי בָנַיִךְ צִיּוֹן עַל־בָּנַיִךְ יָוָן וְשַׂמְתִּיךְ כְּחֶרֶב גִּבּוֹר׃ 10.9. וְאֶזְרָעֵם בָּעַמִּים וּבַמֶּרְחַקִּים יִזְכְּרוּנִי וְחָיוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וָשָׁבוּ׃ 9.13. For I bend Judah for Me, I fill the bow with Ephraim; And I will stir up thy sons, O Zion, Against thy sons, O Javan, And will make thee as the sword of a mighty man." 10.9. And I will sow them among the peoples, And they shall remember Me in far countries; And they shall live with their children, and shall return."
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 31.1-31.2, 32.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

31.1. And I saw other mountains, and amongst them were groves of trees, and there flowed forth from 31.2. them nectar, which is named sarara and galbanum. And beyond these mountains I saw another mountain to the east of the ends of the earth, whereon were aloe-trees, and all the trees were full 32.1. And after these fragrant odours, as I looked towards the north over the mountains I saw seven mountains full of choice nard and fragrant trees and cinnamon and pepper.
11. Anon., Jubilees, 3.12, 3.27, 8.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.27. Hath God commanded you, saying, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? 8.19. and his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth
12. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 11.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.25. It fills men with wisdom, like the Pishon,and like the Tigris at the time of the first fruits.
14. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 29.3, 29.6, 40.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.197 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.197. 3. Moses now purified the tabernacle and the priests; which purification was performed after the following manner:—He commanded them to take five hundred shekels of choice myrrh, an equal quantity of cassia, and half the foregoing weight of cinnamon and calamus (this last is a sort of sweet spice); to beat them small, and wet them with an hin of oil of olives (an hin is our own country measure, and contains two Athenian choas, or congiuses); then mix them together, and boil them, and prepare them after the art of the apothecary, and make them into a very sweet ointment;
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use.
17. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

6a. בבואה לבבואה דבבואה נידע דאתי לביתיה ולאו מילתא היא דילמא חלשא דעתיה ומתרע מזליה,אמר אביי השתא דאמרת סימנא מילתא היא יהא רגיל איניש למיכל ריש שתא קרא ורוביא כרתי סילקא ותמרי,א"ל רב משרשיא לבניה כי בעיתו למיזל למגמר קמיה רבכון גרוסו מעיקרא מתני' והדר עולו קמי רבכון וכי יתביתו קמי רבכון חזו לפומיה דרבכון שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך וכי גריסיתו שמעתא גרוסו על מיא דכי היכי דמשכי מיא תמשוך שמעתכון,אקילקי דמתא מחסיא ולא אפדני דפומבדיתא טב גילדנא סריא למיכל מכותחא דרמי כיפי,(שמואל א ב, א) ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' רמה קרני רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותם שאול ויהוא שנמשחו מן הפך לא נמשכה מלכותם:,המפטם את הקטרת: ת"ר המפטם את הקטרת ללמד בה או למוסרה לציבור פטור להריח בה חייב והמריח בה פטור אלא שמעל,ומי איכא מעילה והאמר ר"ש בן פזי א"ר יהושע ב"ל משום בר קפרא קול ומראה וריח אין בהן משום מעילה,ריח אחר שתעלה תמרתו אין בו משום מעילה [שהרי] אין לך דבר אחר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בו,אלמה לא והרי תרומת הדשן דנעשית מצותה ומועלין בה,משום דהוי תרומת הדשן ובגדי כהונה שני כתובים הבאים כאחד וכל שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדים,הניחא לרבנן אלא לר' דוסא מאי איכא למימר דתניא (ויקרא טז, כג) והניחם שם מלמד שטעונין גניזה,רבי דוסא אומר כשירין הן לכהן הדיוט ומה תלמוד לומר והניחם שם שלא ישתמש בהן ביום הכפורים אחר,משום דהוי תרומת הדשן ועגלה ערופה שני כתובין הבאין כאחד וכל שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדין תרומת הדשן מאי היא דתניא (ויקרא ו, ג) ושמו אצל המזבח מלמד שטעונין גניזה עגלה ערופה מאי היא דתניא (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל מלמד שטעונין גניזה,ולמ"ד שני כתובין הבאים כאחד מלמדין הכא ודאי אין מלמדין משום דהוי תרי מיעוטי בתרומת הדשן כתיב ושמו הדין אין מידי אחרינא לא גבי עגלה ערופה כתיב הערופה ערופה אין מידי אחרינא לא,ת"ר פיטום הקטרת הצרי והציפורן והחלבנה והלבונה משקל שבעי' של שבעים מנה מור וקציעה שיבולת נרד וכרכום משקל ששה עשר של ששה עשר מנה הקושט שנים עשר קילופה שלשה וקנמון תשעה בורית כרשינה תשעה קבין יין קפריסין סאין תלתא קבין תלתא אם אין לו יין קפריסין מביא חמר חיוריין עתיק מלח סדומית רובע מעלה עשן כל שהוא ר' נתן אומר אף כיפת הירדן כל שהוא,ואם נתן בה דבש פסלה חיסר אחת מכל סממניה חייב מיתה רש"א הצרי אינו אלא שרף [הנוטף] מעצי הקטף בורית כרשינה ששפין בה את הציפורן כדי שתהא נאה יין קפריסין ששורין בו את הציפורן כדי שתהא עזה והלא מי רגלים יפין לה אלא שאין מכניסין מי רגלים למקדש,מסייע ליה לר' יוסי בר"ח דאמר (שמות ל, לב) קדש היא קדש תהיה לכם כל מעשיה לא יהו אלא בקדש,מיתיבי המקדיש נכסיו והיו בה דברים הראויין לקרבנות הציבור ינתנו לאומנין בשכרן,הני דברים הראויין מאי נינהו אי בהמה וחיה תנא ליה אי יינות שמנים וסלתות תנא ליה אלא לאו קטרת,א"ר אושעיא באותה הניתנת לאומנים בשכרן דתניא מותר הקטרת מה היו עושין בה היו מפרישין (ממנה) שכר האומנין ומחללין אותה על מעות האומנין ונותנין אותן לאומנין בשכרן וחוזרים ולוקחין אותה מתרומה חדשה,מתקיף לה רב יוסף הא בכולהו מותרות תני חוזרין ולוקחין אותה מתרומה חדשה והכא לא תני,אלא אמר רב יוסף באחד מסממני הקטרת,ת"ר קטרת היתה נעשית שס"ח מנה שס"ה כנגד ימות החמה שלשה מנין יתירין שמהן מכניס כהן גדול מלא חפניו ביום הכיפורים והשאר ניתנת לאומנין בשכרן,כדתניא מותר הקטרת מה היו עושין בה מפרישין (ממנה) שכר האומנין ומחללין אותה על מעות האומנין ונותנין אותן לאומנין בשכרן וחוזרין ולוקחין אותה מתרומת הלשכה 6a. bthe reflection [ ibavua /i] of a reflection ofhis breflection he shall know that he willreturn and bcome to his home.The Sages say about this: bAnd this is nothing,i.e., one should not practice these divinations, as bperhaps he will become despondentif he does not see the positive sign band his fortune will turn bad,and this itself will result in his failure., bAbaye said: Now that you have saidthat ba sign isa substantial bmatter, a person should be accustomed to eat, at the start of the year, gourd, fenugreek, leeks, beets, and dates,as each of these grow and multiply quickly, which is a good omen for the deeds of the upcoming year.,With regard to positive omens, bRav Mesharshiyya said to his sons: When you want to go to study in the presence of your teacher, initially study the imishnayotand then ascend before your teacher. And when you sit before your teacher, see your teacher’s mouth, as it is stated: “And your eyes shall see your teacher”(Isaiah 30:20). bAnd when you learn a ihalakha /i, learn neara source of flowing bwater, as just as the waterflow bcontinues,so too, byour learning should continue. /b,Rav Mesharshiyya gave his sons additional advice: It is better for you to dwell bon the garbage piles [ iakilkei /i] ofthe city bMata Meḥasya and notto dwell bin the palaces [ iapadnei /i] ofthe city bPumbedita.It is bbetter to eat rotten fish [ igildana /i] thanhigh-quality ikutḥa /i, whichuproots and btosses rocksfrom their places, i.e., it is a very spicy, powerful flavoring.,The Gemara further discusses the issue of anointing and good omens. Hannah said in her prayer after her son Samuel was born: b“And Hannah prayed and said: My heart exults in the Lord, my horn is exaltedin the Lord” (I Samuel 2:1). The Gemara notes that Hannah said: b“My horn is exalted,” andshe did bnotsay: bMy jug is exalted.With regard to bDavid and Solomon, who were anointed withoil from ba horn,this was a good omen for them, and btheir kingships lasted.But with regard to bSaul and Jehu, who were anointedwith oil bfrom a jug, their kingships did not last. /b,§ The mishna included in its list of those liable to receive ikaret /i: bOne who blends the incenseaccording to the specifications of the incense used in the Temple service, for purposes other than use in the Temple. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who blends the incensein order bto teachhimself how to prepare bit orin order bto transfer it to the community is exemptfrom liability. But if he prepares it in order bto smell ithe is bliableto receive ikaret /i, as it is stated: “He who prepares it in order to smell it shall be cut off from his people” (Exodus 30:38). bAnd one whoactually bsmellsthe incense mixture is bexemptfrom the punishment of ikaretand from bringing a sin offering; bbut he has misusedconsecrated property, and is therefore liable to bring a guilt offering if he acted unwittingly.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is therethe prohibition of bmisuseof consecrated property with regard to smell? bBut doesn’t Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says in the name of bar Kappara:With regard to exposure to the bsound, orto the bsight, orto the bsmellof consecrated items, including incense, these bare not subject tothe prohibition of bmisuseof consecrated property?,The Gemara answers: With regard to exposure to the bsmellof the incense, the following distinction applies: The smell of the incense that is emitted when the spices are placed on the coals on the altar is subject to the prohibition, since this is the manner in which the mitzva is performed. By contrast, the smell emitted bafterthe flame catches and bthe column of smoke rises is not subject tothe prohibition of bmisuseof consecrated property. The reason is that its mitzva has already been performed, and byou have nocase in which an bitemis at the stage bafter its mitzva hasalready bbeen performed andyet one is liable for bits misuse. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd why notsay that misuse of consecrated property applies to an item whose mitzva has been already performed? bBut there isthe case of bthedaily bremoval of the ashesof the offerings from the altar, bwhose mitzva has been performed,as the offerings have been burnt, bandyet one who uses the ashes is liable for bmisusingthe ashes, as derived from the verse: “And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh; and he shall take up the ashes of what the fire has consumed of the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar” (Leviticus 6:3).,The Gemara answers: This case does not disprove the principle, bsince the ihalakhotof bthe removal of the ashes and the priestly vestmentsof white linen worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur are btwo verses that come as one,i.e., to teach the same matter, bandthere is a principle that bany two verses that come as one do not teachtheir common aspect to apply to other cases. In other words, if a ihalakhais stated twice with regard to two separate cases, this ihalakhaapplies only to those cases. Had the Torah wanted to teach that this ihalakhaapplies to all other relevant cases as well, it would have mentioned it only once, and other cases would be derived from there. The fact that two cases are mentioned indicates they are exceptions.,The Gemara comments: The fact that the Torah mentions this ihalakhatwice bworks out well according tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who maintain that the priestly vestments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur require interment. bBut according tothe opinion of bRabbi Dosa, what can be said? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “And Aaron shall come into the Tent of Meeting, and shall take off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the sacred place, band he shall leave them there”(Leviticus 16:23). This phrase bteaches thathis vestments brequire interment.Although their use for the mitzva has been completed, it is prohibited to derive benefit from these garments. This is the opinion of the Rabbis., bRabbi Dosa says:These priestly vestments may no longer be used by the High Priest on Yom Kippur, bbut they are fit foruse by ban ordinary priest,as they are similar to those worn by ordinary priests on a daily basis. Rabbi Dosa adds: bAnd whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “And he shall leave them there”?This teaches bthatthe High Priest bmay not use them on another Yom Kippur.According to the opinion of Rabbi Dosa, only one verse teaches there is misuse of consecrated property with regard to an item that has already been used for performing its mitzva. Therefore, one should derive a principle from the verse discussing the removal of the ashes.,The Gemara answers: One cannot derive a general principle from this case, bbecause the removal of the ashes andthe ihalakhaof bthe heifer whose neck is broken,from which one may not derive benefit after that rite has been performed, are btwo verses that come as one, and any two verses that come as one do not teachtheir common aspect to apply to other cases. The Gemara elaborates: bWhat isthe case of bthe removal of the ashes? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall put them beside the altar”(Leviticus 6:3). This bteaches that they require interment. What isthe case of bthe heifer whose neck is broken? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And they shall break the heifer’s neck in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4). This bteaches thatsuch heifers brequire interment. /b,The Gemara adds: bAndeven baccording to the one who saysthat btwo verses that come as onedo bteachtheir common aspect to apply to other cases, bhere they certainly do not teachthat misuse of consecrated property applies to items whose mitzva has been performed. This is bdue tothe fact that bthere are twoterms indicating bexclusionswith regard to these ihalakhot /i, limiting this ihalakhato those cases. bWith regard to the removal of the ashes it is written: “And he shall put it.”The word “it” teaches that in bthisparticular case, byes,there is misuse of consecrated property, but with regard to any bother matterthis prohibition does bnotapply. bWith regard to the heifer whose neck is broken it is written: “Theheifer bthat had its neck broken”(Deuteronomy 21:6). The word “the” indicates that with regard to the heifer that bhad its neck broken, yes,but with regard to any bother matterthe prohibition of misuse of consecrated property does bnotapply.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: How is bthe blending of the incenseperformed? bBalm, and onycha, and galbanum, and frankincense, eachof these by ba weight of seventy imaneh /i,i.e., seventy units of one hundred dinars. bMyrrh, and cassia,and bspikenard, and saffron, eachof these by ba weight of sixteen imaneh /i. Costusby ba weight of twelve imaneh /i; bthree imanehof aromatic bbark; and nine imanehof bcinnamon. Kersannah lyeof the volume of bnine ikav /i; Cyprus wineof the volume of bthree ise’a /iand bthreemore ikav /i,a half- ise’a /i. bIf one does not have Cyprus wine he brings old white wine. Sodomite saltis brought by the volume of ba quarter-ikav /i. Lastly, ba minimalamount of bthe smoke raiser,a plant that causes the smoke of the incense to rise properly. bRabbi Natan says: Also a minimalamount bof Jordan amber. /b, bAnd if one placed honey inthe incense he has bdisqualified it,as it is stated: “For you shall make no leaven, nor any honey, smoke as an offering made by fire unto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:11). If he bomitted any one of its spiceshe is bliableto receive bdeathat the hand of Heaven. bRabbi Shimon says: The balmmentioned here bis nothing other than a resinexuded bfrom the balsam tree,not the bark of the tree itself. The bKersannah lyementioned is not part of the ingredients of the incense itself, but it is necessary bas one rubs the onycha in it so thatthe onycha bshould be pleasant.Likewise, the bCyprus wineis required bas one soaks the onycha in it so that it should be strong. And urine is good forthis purpose, bbut one does not bring urine into the Templebecause it is inappropriate.,The Gemara comments: This final ruling bsupportsthe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who sayswith regard to a verse that discusses the incense: bIt is sacred, it shall be sacred to you(see Exodus 30:36–37), that this teaches that ball of its actions should beperformed bonly in the sacredarea of the Temple.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a mishna ( iShekalim4:6): With regard to bone who consecratesall bhis possessionswithout specifying for what purpose, they are consecrated for Temple maintece. bAndif bamong them there were items suitable foruse as bcommunal offerings,which may not be used for the maintece of the Temple but only for sacrificial purposes, what is done with those items to remove their consecration for Temple maintece so that they can be properly consecrated for sacrificial use? bThey are given toTemple bartisans as their wages,and they are thereby desacralized. They can then be consecrated again for their proper purpose.,The Gemara analyzes the mishna: bThese itemsthat are bsuitablefor use as communal offerings, bwhat are they? Ifthey are bdomesticated animals and undomesticated animals,the itanna btaughtthe ihalakhawith regard to bthemlater in that same mishna. Likewise, bifthey are bwines, oils, and flours,the itanna btaught themin that mishna as well. bRather,is it bnotreferring to bincenseconsecrated by a private individual? If so, this would mean that one can prepare and consecrate incense outside the Temple., bRabbi Oshaya said:The mishna is referring bto thatincense bwhich is given to theTemple bartisans as their wages,i.e., the incense was prepared in the sacred place and was desacralized when it was given to the artisans, who subsequently consecrated it. bAs it is taughtin a mishna ( iShekalim4:5): bThe leftover incensefrom one year could not be used the following year, as it had been purchased with the shekels collected for the previous year. bWhat would they do with itin order to render it usable? The Temple treasurers bwould removean amount bof itequal to the value of bthe wages of the artisanswho worked in the Temple. bAnd theywould then bdesacralizethat incense by transferring its sanctity bto the moneyowed bthe artisans. Theywould then bgivethe incense bto the artisans as their wages. Andfinally, btheywould breturn and purchasethe incense from the artisans with funds bfrom the new collectionof shekels., bRav Yosef objects to thisexplanation: How can the mishna in iShekalim4:6 be interpreted as referring to artisans who consecrated leftover incense? bWith regard to all leftoversthe itanna bteaches: Theywould breturn and purchasethe incense from the artisans with funds bfrom the new collectionof shekels, as stated in the mishna earlier. bAndyet bhere,in tractate iShekalim /i, the itanna bdoes not teachthis clause, indicating that it is not speaking of incense paid to the artisans and repurchased from them., bRather, Rav Yosef says:The mishna is referring bto one of the ingredients of the incense,which an individual consecrated when it is not in the Temple. It is not speaking of incense that has already been blended, as this action may be performed only in the sacred area, as claimed by Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The bincense was preparedfrom ingredients amounting to the weight of b368 imaneh /i,i.e., 368 units of one hundred dinars. of these, b365of them bcorrespond to the days of the solar year.The badditional three imaneh /iare those bfrom which the High Priest would bring into the Sanctuary bhis handfulrequired bon Yom Kippur(see Leviticus 16:12), band the rest,i.e., the incense that was not used over the course of the year, bwas given to the artisans as their wages. /b,This is bas it is taughtin the aforementioned mishna ( iShekalim4:5): With regard to bthe leftover incense, what would they do with it?The Temple treasurers would bremovean amount bof itequal to the value of bthe wages of the artisanswho worked in the Temple. bAnd theywould then bdesacralizethat incense by transferring its sanctity bto the moneyowed to bthe artisans. Theywould then bgivethe incense bto the artisans as their wages. Andfinally, bthey would return and purchasethe incense from the artisans with funds bfrom the collection of theTemple treasury bchamber. /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. השתא [הא] אמרי לא צריכא לקדושי אלא מצאו את אלו ומנאום,ולא אלו בלבד אלא כל שתעלה לך מסורת בידך מאבותיך שמוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון כל המצות הללו נוהגין בה מפני שקדושה ראשונה קידשה לשעתה וקידשה לעתיד לבא קשיא דר' ישמעאל אדר' ישמעאל,תרי תנאי אליבא דר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ואיבעית אימא הא ר' אלעזר בר יוסי אמרה דתניא ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אמר אשר לוא חומה (ויקרא כה, ל) אע"פ שאין לו עכשיו והיה לו קודם לכן:,ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רבי לוי ואיתימא רבי יונתן דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאנשי כנסת הגדולה כל מקום שנאמר ויהי אינו אלא לשון צער,ויהי בימי אחשורוש (אסתר א, א) הוה המן ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים (רות א, א) הוה רעב ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב (בראשית ו, א) וירא ה' כי רבה רעת האדם (בראשית ו, ה),ויהי בנסעם מקדם (בראשית יא, ב) הבה נבנה לנו עיר (בראשית יא, ד) ויהי בימי אמרפל (בראשית יד, א) עשו מלחמה (בראשית יד, ב) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו (יהושע ה, יג) וחרבו שלופה בידו ויהי ה' את יהושע (יהושע ו, כז) וימעלו בני ישראל (יהושע ז, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים (שמואל א א, א) כי את חנה אהב וה' סגר רחמה (שמואל א א, ה),ויהי (כי) זקן שמואל ולא הלכו בניו בדרכיו (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל [וה' עמו] (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי שאול עוין את דוד (שמואל א יח, ט) ויהי כי ישב המלך בביתו (שמואל ב ז, א) רק אתה לא תבנה הבית (מלכים א ח יט),והכתיב (ויקרא ט, א) ויהי ביום השמיני ותניא אותו היום היתה שמחה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא כיום שנבראו בו שמים וארץ כתיב הכא ויהי ביום השמיני וכתיב התם (בראשית א, ה) ויהי (בקר) יום אחד,הא שכיב נדב ואביהוא,והכתיב (מלכים א ו, א) ויהי בשמונים שנה וארבע מאות שנה והכתיב (בראשית כט, י) ויהי כאשר ראה יעקב את רחל והכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד והאיכא שני והאיכא שלישי והאיכא טובא,אמר רב אשי כל ויהי איכא הכי ואיכא הכי ויהי בימי אינו אלא לשון צער,חמשה ויהי בימי הוו ויהי בימי אחשורוש ויהי בימי שפוט השופטים ויהי בימי אמרפל (ישעיהו ז, א) ויהי בימי אחז (ירמיהו א, ג) ויהי בימי יהויקים,(א"ר) לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו מאי קמ"ל,כי הא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים מנלן מתמר דכתיב (בראשית לח, טו) ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה משום דכסתה פניה ויחשבה לזונה,אלא משום דכסתה פניה בבית חמיה ולא הוה ידע לה זכתה ויצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים מלכים מדוד נביאים דא"ר לוי מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים היו וכתיב (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ,וא"ר לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מקום ארון אינו מן המדה,תניא נמי הכי ארון שעשה משה יש לו עשר אמות לכל רוח וכתיב (מלכים א ו, כ) ולפני הדביר עשרים אמה אורך וכתיב כנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות וכנף הכרוב האחד עשר אמות ארון גופיה היכא הוה קאי אלא לאו שמע מינה בנס היה עומד,ר' יונתן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו יד, כב) וקמתי עליהם וגו' והכרתי לבבל שם ושאר ונין ונכד נאם ה' שם זה הכתב שאר זה לשון נין זה מלכות ונכד זו ושתי,רבי שמואל בר נחמני פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ישעיהו נה, יג) תחת הנעצוץ יעלה ברוש ותחת הסרפד יעלה הדס,תחת הנעצוץ תחת המן הרשע שעשה עצמו ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו ז, יט) ובכל הנעצוצים ובכל הנהלולים,יעלה ברוש זה מרדכי שנקרא ראש לכל הבשמים שנאמר (שמות ל, כג) ואתה קח לך בשמים ראש מר דרור ומתרגמינן מרי דכי,תחת הסרפד תחת ושתי הרשעה בת בנו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ששרף רפידת בית ה' דכתיב (שיר השירים ג, י) רפידתו זהב,יעלה הדס זו אסתר הצדקת שנקראת הדסה שנאמר (אסתר ב, ז) ויהי אומן את הדסה והיה לה' לשם זו מקרא מגילה לאות עולם לא יכרת אלו ימי פורים,ר' יהושע בן לוי פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (דברים כח, סג) והיה כאשר שש ה' עליכם להיטיב אתכם כן ישיש להרע אתכם,ומי חדי הקב"ה במפלתן של רשעים והא כתיב (דברי הימים ב כ, כא) בצאת לפני החלוץ ואומרים הודו לה' כי לעולם חסדו וא"ר יוחנן מפני מה לא נאמר כי טוב בהודאה זו לפי שאין הקב"ה שמח במפלתן של רשעים,ואמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (שמות יד, כ) ולא קרב זה אל זה כל הלילה בקשו מלאכי השרת לומר שירה אמר הקב"ה מעשה ידי טובעין בים ואתם אומרים שירה,אמר רבי אלעזר הוא אינו שש אבל אחרים משיש ודיקא נמי דכתיב כן ישיש ולא כתיב ישוש ש"מ,רבי אבא בר כהנא פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (קהלת ב, כו) לאדם שטוב לפניו נתן חכמה ודעת ושמחה זה מרדכי הצדיק ולחוטא נתן ענין לאסוף ולכנוס זה המן לתת לטוב לפני האלהים זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב ותשם אסתר את מרדכי על בית המן,רבה בר עופרן פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא (ירמיהו מט, לח) ושמתי כסאי בעילם והאבדתי משם מלך ושרים מלך זו ושתי ושרים זה המן ועשרת בניו,רב דימי בר יצחק פתח לה פיתחא להאי פרשתא מהכא 10b. bNow, didn’t they saylater in the same ibaraitathat bit is not necessary to consecratethem? bRather,this is what the ibaraitameans to say: It is due to the fact that when the exiles ascended from Babylonia bthey discovered these and enumerated them. /b,The ibaraitacontinues. bAnd not only these, butin banycity with regard to bwhich you receive a tradition from your ancestors that it was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, all these mitzvot are observed in it, due tothe fact bthat the initial consecration sanctifiedEretz Yisrael bfor its time and sanctifiedEretz Yisrael bforever.This is bdifficult,as there is a contradiction between one statement bof Rabbi Yishmael andanother statement bof Rabbi Yishmael. /b,The Gemara answers: This is a dispute between btwolater itanna’im /i,who hold baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei.Each transmitted Rabbi Yishmael’s opinion in a different manner. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that one of the traditions is mistaken, as with regard to bthisstatement, bRabbi Elazar bar Yosei said it, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, saidthat the verse states: b“Which has [ ilo /i] a wall”(Leviticus 25:30). The word ilois written with an ialef /i, meaning no, that it does not have a wall, but its vocalization is in the sense of its homonym, ilowith a ivav /i, meaning that it has a wall. This indicates that beven though it does not presently havea wall, as it was destroyed, bbut it had a wall previously,it retains its status as a walled city. It is Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, who maintains that the first consecration sanctified Jerusalem forever.,§ The Gemara returns to the primary topic of this chapter, the book of Esther. The Gemara cites various aggadic interpretations of the verses of the Megilla. The opening verse of the Megilla states: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1). bRabbi Levi said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Yonatanwho said: bThis matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom the members of the Great Assembly. Anywhere thatthe word ivayhiis stated, it isan ominous btermindicating bnothing otherthan impending bgrief,as if the word were a contraction of the words ivaiand ihi /i, meaning woe and mourning.,The Gemara cites several proofs corroborating this interpretation. b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”led to grief, as there bwas Haman. “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days when the judges ruled”(Ruth 1:1) introduces a period when there bwas famine. “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i], when men began to multiply”(Genesis 6:1) is immediately followed by the verse: b“And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth”(Genesis 6:5)., b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] as they journeyed from the east”(Genesis 11:2) is followed by: b“Come, let us build us a city”(Genesis 11:4), which led to the sin of the Tower of Babel. The Gemara cites further examples: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1), about whom it is stated: b“These made war”(Genesis 14:2). Another verse states: b“And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho”(Joshua 5:13), it was there that he saw an angel b“with his sword drawn in his hand”as a warning. It is written: b“And the Lord was [ ivayhi /i] with Joshua”(Joshua 6:27), and immediately afterward: b“But the children of Israel committed a trespass”(Joshua 7:1). It states: b“And it came to pass that there was a certain man of Ramathaim”(I Samuel 1:1), and it mentions shortly afterward Hannah’s inability to conceive: b“For he loved Hannah, but the Lord had closed up her womb”(I Samuel 1:5).,Similarly, the verse states: b“And it came to pass, when Samuel was old”(I Samuel 8:1), and then it is written: b“And his sons did not walk in his ways”(I Samuel 8:3). Also, it states: b“And it came to pass that David was successful in all his ways, and the Lord was with him”(I Samuel 18:14), and only a few verses prior it is written: b“And Saul viewed David with suspicion”(I Samuel 18:9). In another instance, the verse states: b“And it came to pass, when the king dwelt in his house”(II Samuel 7:1). Here King David mentioned his desire to build a temple for God, but it is written elsewhere that he was told: b“Yet you shall not build the house”(II Chronicles 6:9).,After citing several verses where ivayhiportends grief, the Gemara mentions a number of verses that seem to indicate otherwise. bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] on the eighth day”(Leviticus 9:1), which was the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle? bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to that day: bOn that day there was joy before the Holy One, Blessed be He, similar tothe joy that existed on the bday on which the heavens and earth were created.The Gemara cites a verbal analogy in support of this statement. bIt is written here,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] on the eighth day,” and it is written there,in the Creation story: b“And it was [ ivayhi /i]evening, and it was bmorning, one day”(Genesis 1:5). This indicates that there was joy on the eighth day, when the Tabernacle was dedicated, similar to the joy that existed on the day the world was created. Apparently, the term ivayhiis not necessarily a portent of grief.,The Gemara answers: This verse does not contradict the principle. On the day of the dedication of the Tabernacle, a calamity also befell the people, bas Nadav and Avihu died. /b,The Gemara cites additional verses where ivayhiis not indicative of impending grief: bBut isn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the four hundred and eightieth year”(I Kings 6:1), which discusses the joyous occasion of the building of the Temple? bAndfurthermore, bisn’t it written: “And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] when Jacob saw Rachel”(Genesis 29:10), which was a momentous occasion? bAnd isn’t it written: “And it was [ ivayhi /i] evening, and it was [ ivayhi /i] morning, one day”(Genesis 1:5)? bAnd isn’t there the secondday of Creation, band isn’t there the thirdday, where the term ivayhiis used? bAnd aren’t there manyverses in the Bible in which the term ivayhiappears and no grief ensues? Apparently, the proposed principle is incorrect.,Rather, bRav Ashi said:With regard to beveryinstance of ivayhi /ialone, bthere aresome that mean bthis,grief, band there aresome that mean bthat,joy. However, wherever the phrase b“and it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i]”is used in the Bible, bit is nothing otherthan ba term ofimpending bgrief. /b,The Gemara states that bthere are fiveinstances of ivayhi bimei /iin the Bible. b“And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Ahasuerus”; “And it came to pass in the days [ ivayhi bimei /i] when the judges ruled”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Amraphel”; “And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Ahaz”(Isaiah 7:1); b“And it came to pass in the days of [ ivayhi bimei /i] Jehoiakim”(Jeremiah 1:3). In all those incidents, grief ensued.,§ Apropos the tradition cited by Rabbi Levi above, the Gemara cites additional traditions that he transmitted. bRabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers.The Gemara questions: bWhatnovel element bis thisstatement bteaching us? /b,The Gemara responds: It is bin accordance with that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Any bride who is modest in the house of her father-in-law merits that kings and prophetswill bemerge from her. From where do wederive this? bFrom Tamar, as it is written: “When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a prostitute; for she had covered her face”(Genesis 38:15). Can it be that bbecauseTamar bcovered her face he thought her to be a prostitute?On the contrary, a harlot tends to uncover her face., bRather, because she covered her face in the house of her father-in-law and he was not familiar with herappearance, Judah didn’t recognize Tamar, thought she was a harlot, and sought to have sexual relations with her. Ultimately, bshe merited that kings and prophets emerged from her. Kingsemerged from her bthrough David,who was a descendant of Tamar’s son, Peretz. However, there is no explicit mention that she was the forebear of bprophets.This is derived from that bwhich Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors. Amoz,father of Isaiah, band Amaziah,king of Judea, bwere brothers, and it is written: “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz”(Isaiah 1:1). Amoz was a member of the Davidic dynasty, and his son, the prophet Isaiah, was also a descendant of Tamar., bAnd Rabbi Levi said: This matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: The place of the Arkof the Covet bis notincluded bin the measurementof the Holy of Holies in which it rested.,The Gemara comments: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Ark crafted by Moses had ten cubitsof empty space bon each side. And it is writtenin the description of Solomon’s Temple: b“And before the Sanctuary, which was twenty cubits in length,and twenty cubits in breadth” (I Kings 6:20). The place “before the Sanctuary” is referring to the Holy of Holies. It was twenty by twenty cubits. If there were ten cubits of empty space on either side of the Ark, apparently the Ark itself occupied no space. bAnd it is written: And the wing of one of the cherubs was ten cubits and the wing of the other cherub was ten cubits;the wings of the cherubs occupied the entire area. If so, bwhere was the Ark itself standing? Rather,must one bnot conclude from itthat the Ark bstood by means of a miracleand occupied no space?,§ The Gemara cites prologues utilized by various Sages to introduce study of the Megilla: bRabbi Yonatan introduced this passage,the book of Esther, bwith an introduction from here: “For I will rise up against them,says the Lord of hosts, band cut off from Babylonia name, and remt, and offspring [ inin /i], and posterity, says the Lord”(Isaiah 14:22). This verse may be interpreted homiletically: b“Name,” this isthe bwritingof ancient Babylonia that will disappear from the world. b“Remt,” this isthe blanguageof ancient Babylonia. b“offspring,” this istheir bkingdom. And “posterity,” this is Vashti,who according to tradition was Nebuchadnezzar’s granddaughter, and the book of Esther relates how she too was removed from the throne., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Instead of the thorn shall the cypress come up, and instead of the nettle shall the myrtle come up;and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off” (Isaiah 55:13). Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interpreted the verse homiletically as referring to the righteous individuals who superseded the wicked ones in the book of Esther., b“Instead of the thorn”;this means binstead of the wicked Haman.He is referred to as a thorn bbecause he turned himself into an object of idol worship,as he decreed that all must prostrate themselves before him. The Gemara cites proof that the term thorn is used in connection with idol worship, bas it is written: “And upon all thorns, and upon all brambles”(Isaiah 7:19), which is understood to be a reference to idol worship.,The next section of the verse discusses what will replace the thorns, i.e., Haman: b“Shall the cypress [ iberosh /i] come up”; this is Mordecai.Why is he called a cypress [ iberosh /i]? bBecause he was called the chief[irosh/b] bof all the spices, as it is stated: “Take you also to yourself the chief spices, of pure myrrh [ imar deror /i]”(Exodus 30:23), band we translate“pure myrrh,” into Aramaic as imari dakhei /i.Mordecai was like imari dakhi /i, the chief [ irosh /i] of spices, and therefore he is called iberosh /i.,The verse continues: “And binstead of the nettle [ isirpad /i],”this means binstead of the wicked Vashti.Why is she called a nettle [ isirpad /i]? Because she was bthe daughter of the son of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who burned the ceiling [ isaraf refidat /i] of the House of God, as it is written: “Its top [ irefidato /i] of gold”(Song of Songs 3:10).,The next section of the verse states: b“Shall the myrtle [ ihadas /i] come up”; this is the righteous Esther, who was called Hadassahin the Megilla, bas it is stated: “And he had brought up Hadassah;that is, Esther” (Esther 2:7). The concluding section of the verse states: b“And it shall be to the Lord for a name”; this is the reading of the Megilla. “For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off”; these are the days of Purim. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And it shall come to pass, that as the Lord rejoiced over you to do you good,and to multiply you; so the Lord will rejoice over you to cause you to perish, and to destroy you” (Deuteronomy 28:63). The verse indicates that just as the Lord rejoiced in the good he did on behalf of Israel, so too, the Lord bwill rejoice to cause you harm. /b,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bDoes the Holy One, Blessed be He,in fact brejoice over the downfall of the wicked? But it is written: “As they went out before the army, and say: Give thanks to the Lord, for His kindness endures forever”(II Chronicles 20:21), band Rabbi Yoḥa said: For whatreason were the words: b“for He is good” not stated in thisstatement of bthanksgiving,as the classic formulation is: “Give thanks to the Lord; for He is good; for His kindness endures forever” (I Chronicles 16:34)? bBecause the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked.Since this song was sung in the aftermath of a military victory, which involved the downfall of the wicked, the name of God was not mentioned for the good., bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And the one came not near the other all the night”(Exodus 14:20)? bThe ministering angels wanted to singtheir bsong,for the angels would sing songs to each other, as it states: “And they called out to each other and said” (Isaiah 6:3), but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: The work of My hands,the Egyptians, are bdrowning at sea, and youwish to bsay songs?This indicates that God does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked., bRabbi Elazar saidthat this is how the matter is to be understood: Indeed, God Himself bdoes not rejoiceover the downfall of the wicked, bbut He causes others to rejoice.The Gemara comments: One can blearn fromthe language of the verse bas well, as it is written: “Sothe Lord bwill rejoice [ iken yasis /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:63). bAnd it is not written iyasus /i,the grammatical form of the verb meaning: He will rejoice. Rather, it is written iyasis /i. The grammatical form of this verb indicates that one causes another to rejoice. Consequently, these words are understood to mean that God will cause others to rejoice. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn fromit that this is the case., bRabbi Abba bar Kahana introduced this passage with an introduction from here.The verse states with regard to God’s reward to the righteous: b“He gives to a man that is good in His sight wisdom, and knowledge, and joy”(Ecclesiastes 2:26). The Gemara explains that bthisverse bisreferring to bthe righteous Mordecai.With regard to the next part of the verse: b“But to the sinner He gives the task of gathering and heaping up,” this isreferring to bHaman.The conclusion of the verse states: b“That he may give it to one who is good before God”(Ecclesiastes 2:26). bThis is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman”(Esther 8:2)., bRabba bar oferan introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “And I will set my throne in Elam, and destroy from there the king and the princes, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 49:38). b“The king”who was destroyed; bthis isreferring to bVashti. “And the princes”; this isreferring to bHaman and his ten sons. /b, bRav Dimi bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam, priest, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
ahasuerus Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
ahmet Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
al-ʿammānī, aaron ibn Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560
alexandria, judah ha-levis poetry and Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
altar Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
andalusi, andalusia, al-andalus, andalusian (spain, iberia) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540
anointing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
aromatic cane Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758, 760
balm Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
balsam Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
belshazzar Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
ben sira Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
benjamin of tudela Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 560
bible Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
body, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
cairo (fustat) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 560
cane Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
childbirth, purification after Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
cinnamon Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758, 760
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 382
communicability Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
contagion, sacred Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
court Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
daniel Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
day, forty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
death Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32, 33
degree Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
disease Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
egypt Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
endearment Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
exodus Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624, 758
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
frankincense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758, 760
galbanum Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
garden of eden Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 624
goliath Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
goliath tomb Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
greek Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
ha-levi, judah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560
haman Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
hebrew Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
high priest Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
holiness Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 624
honey Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
horses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
humans Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32, 33
iberia (andalus, spain) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 560
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758, 760
inscriptions Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 760
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
jerusalem, pilgrimage to Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 560
jerusalem Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 560
life Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32, 33
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
mari (city in ancient syria) Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
menorah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382
merchants, mercantile activity, traders Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 560
messiah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
mordecai Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
nazirites Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
nebuchadnezzar Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
nickname Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
objects Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32, 33
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 624, 760
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
persia Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382
pilgrimage Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560
poetry Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560
pomegranates Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382
priests Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
purification Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
purity, radiance Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 253
purity Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
regions, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 624
resurrection Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382
return to zion Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
sacrifice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758, 760
samuel bar naḥman Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
sanctification Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32, 33
sanctuary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
sheep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
silver Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
sinai, mount Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624
skin disease Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 32
spices, chief Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
spices, exotic Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758, 760
stacte Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
symbolism Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382
talpiyot' Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 229
temple, vessels Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 624
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 758
vashti Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 74
vestments Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 33
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 382, 624
wheat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
wine Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 760
zion Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 624; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 540, 560