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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14-3.15


וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’


וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

110 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 11.14 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels.
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 7.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4, 7.10, 12.5, 12.11, 12.31, 18.10, 18.15-18.18, 22.8, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 12.5. כִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִכָּל־שִׁבְטֵיכֶם לָשׂוּם אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שָׁם לְשִׁכְנוֹ תִדְרְשׁוּ וּבָאתָ שָׁמָּה׃ 12.11. וְהָיָה הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בּוֹ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם שָׁמָּה תָבִיאוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם עוֹלֹתֵיכֶם וְזִבְחֵיכֶם מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם וּתְרֻמַת יֶדְכֶם וְכֹל מִבְחַר נִדְרֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּדְּרוּ לַיהוָה׃ 12.31. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָּל־תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵא עָשׂוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.16. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַלְתָּ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל לֵאמֹר לֹא אֹסֵף לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת לֹא־אֶרְאֶה עוֹד וְלֹא אָמוּת׃ 18.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָי הֵיטִיבוּ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 22.8. כִּי תִבְנֶה בַּיִת חָדָשׁ וְעָשִׂיתָ מַעֲקֶה לְגַגֶּךָ וְלֹא־תָשִׂים דָּמִים בְּבֵיתֶךָ כִּי־יִפֹּל הַנֹּפֵל מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 7.10. and repayeth them that hate Him to their face, to destroy them; He will not be slack to him that hateth Him, He will repay him to his face." 12.5. But unto the place which the LORD your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there, even unto His habitation shall ye seek, and thither thou shalt come;" 12.11. then it shall come to pass that the place which the LORD your God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there, thither shall ye bring all that I command you: your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which ye vow unto the LORD." 12.31. Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God; for every abomination to the LORD, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods." 18.10. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer," 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.16. according to all that thou didst desire of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying: ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.’" 18.17. And the LORD said unto me: ‘They have well said that which they have spoken." 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 22.8. When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thy house, if any man fall from thence." 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, a b c d\n0 "20.21" "20.21" "20 21" \n1 "3.14" "3.14" "3 14" \n2 "33.23" "33.23" "33 23" \n3 11.2 11.2 11 2 \n4 11.3 11.3 11 3 \n5 12.27 12.27 12 27 \n6 12.3 12.3 12 3 \n7 12.35 12.35 12 35 \n8 12.36 12.36 12 36 \n9 14.19 14.19 14 19 \n10 14.20 14.20 14 20 \n11 14.21 14.21 14 21 \n12 15.17 15.17 15 17 \n13 15.18 15.18 15 18 \n14 15.20 15.20 15 20 \n15 16.23 16.23 16 23 \n16 19.6 19.6 19 6 \n17 2 2 2 None\n18 23.20 23.20 23 20 \n19 23.21 23.21 23 21 \n20 24.10 24.10 24 10 \n21 3 3 3 None\n22 3.1 3.1 3 1 \n23 3.10 3.10 3 10 \n24 3.11 3.11 3 11 \n25 3.12 3.12 3 12 \n26 3.13 3.13 3 13 \n27 3.15 3.15 3 15 \n28 3.16 3.16 3 16 \n29 3.17 3.17 3 17 \n30 3.18 3.18 3 18 \n31 3.2 3.2 3 2 \n32 3.21 3.21 3 21 \n33 3.22 3.22 3 22 \n34 3.3 3.3 3 3 \n35 3.4 3.4 3 4 \n36 3.5 3.5 3 5 \n37 3.6 3.6 3 6 \n38 3.7 3.7 3 7 \n39 3.8 3.8 3 8 \n40 3.9 3.9 3 9 \n41 31.16 31.16 31 16 \n42 33.13 33.13 33 13 \n43 33.14 33.14 33 14 \n44 33.15 33.15 33 15 \n45 33.16 33.16 33 16 \n46 33.17 33.17 33 17 \n47 33.18 33.18 33 18 \n48 33.19 33.19 33 19 \n49 33.20 33.20 33 20 \n50 33.21 33.21 33 21 \n51 33.22 33.22 33 22 \n52 33.23 33.23 33 23 \n53 34.6 34.6 34 6 \n54 4.24 4.24 4 24 \n55 5.3 5.3 5 3 \n56 7.16 7.16 7 16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.2, 1.27, 2.7, 9.20, 11.31, 12.1, 12.4-12.7, 12.9-12.20, 14.4-14.5, 14.8-14.16, 14.18-14.20, 14.22, 15.1, 15.6, 16.1-16.4, 16.15, 17.1, 17.5, 17.7, 17.13, 17.17, 17.19, 18.1-18.15, 18.23-18.32, 21.2, 22.16, 23.2-23.3, 23.6, 24.1, 26.5, 32.25-32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 11.31. וַיִּקַּח תֶּרַח אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־הָרָן בֶּן־בְּנוֹ וְאֵת שָׂרַי כַּלָּתוֹ אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם בְּנוֹ וַיֵּצְאוּ אִתָּם מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־חָרָן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 12.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו יְהוָה וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ לוֹט וְאַבְרָם בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵחָרָן׃ 12.5. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃ 12.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר אַבְרָם בָּאָרֶץ עַד מְקוֹם שְׁכֶם עַד אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי אָז בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 12.9. וַיִּסַּע אַבְרָם הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ הַנֶּגְבָּה׃ 12.11. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃ 12.12. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃ 12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃ 12.14. וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃ 12.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃ 12.16. וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃ 12.17. וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃ 12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃ 14.4. שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה עָבְדוּ אֶת־כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר וּשְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מָרָדוּ׃ 14.5. וּבְאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בָּא כְדָרְלָעֹמֶר וְהַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־רְפָאִים בְּעַשְׁתְּרֹת קַרְנַיִם וְאֶת־הַזּוּזִים בְּהָם וְאֵת הָאֵימִים בְּשָׁוֵה קִרְיָתָיִם׃ 14.8. וַיֵּצֵא מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם וּמֶלֶךְ עֲמֹרָה וּמֶלֶךְ אַדְמָה וּמֶלֶךְ צביים [צְבוֹיִם] וּמֶלֶךְ בֶּלַע הִוא־צֹעַר וַיַּעַרְכוּ אִתָּם מִלְחָמָה בְּעֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים׃ 14.9. אֵת כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם וְתִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם וְאַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ שִׁנְעָר וְאַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר אַרְבָּעָה מְלָכִים אֶת־הַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 14.11. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־כָּל־רְכֻשׁ סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה וְאֶת־כָּל־אָכְלָם וַיֵּלֵכוּ׃ 14.12. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־לוֹט וְאֶת־רְכֻשׁוֹ בֶּן־אֲחִי אַבְרָם וַיֵּלֵכוּ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בִּסְדֹם׃ 14.13. וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט וַיַּגֵּד לְאַבְרָם הָעִבְרִי וְהוּא שֹׁכֵן בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא הָאֱמֹרִי אֲחִי אֶשְׁכֹּל וַאֲחִי עָנֵר וְהֵם בַּעֲלֵי בְרִית־אַבְרָם׃ 14.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם כִּי נִשְׁבָּה אָחִיו וַיָּרֶק אֶת־חֲנִיכָיו יְלִידֵי בֵיתוֹ שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיִּרְדֹּף עַד־דָּן׃ 14.15. וַיֵּחָלֵק עֲלֵיהֶם לַיְלָה הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו וַיַּכֵּם וַיִּרְדְּפֵם עַד־חוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר מִשְּׂמֹאל לְדַמָּשֶׂק׃ 14.16. וַיָּשֶׁב אֵת כָּל־הָרְכֻשׁ וְגַם אֶת־לוֹט אָחִיו וּרְכֻשׁוֹ הֵשִׁיב וְגַם אֶת־הַנָּשִׁים וְאֶת־הָעָם׃ 14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.19. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 14.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם הֲרִימֹתִי יָדִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 15.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 15.1. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 16.1. וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר׃ 16.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֵךְ וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃ 16.2. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם הִנֵּה־נָא עֲצָרַנִי יְהוָה מִלֶּדֶת בֹּא־נָא אֶל־שִׁפְחָתִי אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם לְקוֹל שָׂרָי׃ 16.3. וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם אֶת־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית שִׁפְחָתָהּ מִקֵּץ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים לְשֶׁבֶת אַבְרָם בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַתִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָם אִישָׁהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 16.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָגָר וַתַּהַר וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וַתֵּקַל גְּבִרְתָּהּ בְּעֵינֶיהָ׃ 16.15. וַתֵּלֶד הָגָר לְאַבְרָם בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָם שֶׁם־בְּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָה הָגָר יִשְׁמָעֵאל׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 17.7. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.17. וַיִּפֹּל אַבְרָהָם עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּצְחָק וַיֹּאמֶר בְּלִבּוֹ הַלְּבֶן מֵאָה־שָׁנָה יִוָּלֵד וְאִם־שָׂרָה הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֵד׃ 17.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֲבָל שָׂרָה אִשְׁתְּךָ יֹלֶדֶת לְךָ בֵּן וְקָרָאתָ אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יִצְחָק וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתּוֹ לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.2. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 18.4. יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃ 18.5. וְאֶקְחָה פַת־לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־עַל־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 18.6. וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהָם הָאֹהֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת לוּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂי עֻגוֹת׃ 18.7. וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רָץ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח בֶּן־בָּקָר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ׃ 18.8. וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 18.9. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַיֵּה שָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בָאֹהֶל׃ 18.11. וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃ 18.12. וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃ 18.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם לָמָּה זֶּה צָחֲקָה שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר הַאַף אֻמְנָם אֵלֵד וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי׃ 18.14. הֲיִפָּלֵא מֵיְהוָה דָּבָר לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וּלְשָׂרָה בֵן׃ 18.15. וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ׃ 18.23. וַיִּגַּשׁ אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע׃ 18.24. אוּלַי יֵשׁ חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא לַמָּקוֹם לְמַעַן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבָּהּ׃ 18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃ 18.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אִם־אֶמְצָא בִסְדֹם חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וְנָשָׂאתִי לְכָל־הַמָּקוֹם בַּעֲבוּרָם׃ 18.27. וַיַּעַן אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי וְאָנֹכִי עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 18.28. אוּלַי יַחְסְרוּן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם חֲמִשָּׁה הֲתַשְׁחִית בַּחֲמִשָּׁה אֶת־כָּל־הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 18.29. וַיֹּסֶף עוֹד לְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה בַּעֲבוּר הָאַרְבָּעִים׃ 18.31. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם עֶשְׂרִים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית בַּעֲבוּר הָעֶשְׂרִים׃ 18.32. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אַךְ־הַפַּעַם אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם עֲשָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית בַּעֲבוּר הָעֲשָׂרָה׃ 21.2. וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַנַּעַר וַיִּגְדָּל וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת׃ 21.2. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד שָׂרָה לְאַבְרָהָם בֵּן לִזְקֻנָיו לַמּוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 22.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ׃ 23.2. וַיָּקָם הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־חֵת׃ 23.2. וַתָּמָת שָׂרָה בְּקִרְיַת אַרְבַּע הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיָּבֹא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפֹּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְכֹּתָהּ׃ 23.3. וַיָּקָם אַבְרָהָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי מֵתוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי־חֵת לֵאמֹר׃ 23.6. שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרֵינוּ קְבֹר אֶת־מֵתֶךָ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ מִקְּבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃ 24.1. וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל׃ 24.1. וַיִּקַּח הָעֶבֶד עֲשָׂרָה גְמַלִּים מִגְּמַלֵּי אֲדֹנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ וְכָל־טוּב אֲדֹנָיו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם אֶל־עִיר נָחוֹר׃ 26.5. עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֺתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי׃ 32.25. וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר׃ 32.26. וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם־בֵּרַכְתָּנִי׃ 32.28. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃ 32.31. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃ 32.32. וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ׃ 32.33. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 11.31. And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there." 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 12.4. So Abram went, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran." 12.5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came." 12.6. And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem, unto the terebinth of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 12.9. And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the South." 12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land." 12.11. And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon." 12.12. And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive." 12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’" 12.14. And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair." 12.15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house." 12.16. And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels." 12.17. And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife." 12.18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?" 12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’" 12.20. And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had." 14.4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled." 14.5. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim," 14.8. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela—the same is Zoar; and they set the battle in array against them in the vale of Siddim;" 14.9. against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings against the five." 14.10. Now the vale of Siddim was full of slime pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain." 14.11. And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went their way." 14.12. And they took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed." 14.13. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew—now he dwelt by the terebinths of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner; and these were confederate with Abram." 14.14. And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued as far as Dan." 14.15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus." 14.16. And he brought back all the goods, and also brought back his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people." 14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High." 14.19. And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;" 14.20. and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all." 14.22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom: ‘I have lifted up my hand unto the LORD, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth," 15.1. After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’" 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 16.1. Now Sarai Abram’s wife bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar." 16.2. And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be builded up through her.’ And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai." 16.3. And Sarai Abram’s wife took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram her husband to be his wife." 16.4. And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes." 16.15. And Hagar bore Abram a son; and Abram called the name of his son," 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee." 17.7. And I will establish My covet between Me and thee and thy seed after thee throughout their generations for an everlasting covet, to be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.17. Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart: ‘Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?’" 17.19. And God said: ‘‘Nay, but Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son; and thou shalt call his name Isaac; and I will establish My covet with him for an everlasting covet for his seed after him." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;" 18.2. and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth," 18.3. and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant." 18.4. Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree." 18.5. And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and stay ye your heart; after that ye shall pass on; forasmuch as ye are come to your servant.’ And they said: ‘So do, as thou hast said.’" 18.6. And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: ‘Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.’" 18.7. And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto the servant; and he hastened to dress it." 18.8. And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat." 18.9. And they said unto him: ‘Where is Sarah thy wife?’ And he said: ‘Behold, in the tent.’" 18.10. And He said: ‘I will certainly return unto thee when the season cometh round; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son.’ And Sarah heard in the tent door, which was behind him.—" 18.11. Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—" 18.12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’" 18.13. And the LORD said unto Abraham: ‘Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I of a surety bear a child, who am old?" 18.14. Is any thing too hard for the LORD. At the set time I will return unto thee, when the season cometh round, and Sarah shall have a son.’" 18.15. Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: ‘Nay; but thou didst laugh.’" 18.23. And Abraham drew near, and said: ‘Will You indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked?" 18.24. Peradventure there are fifty righteous within the city; wilt Thou indeed sweep away and not forgive the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?" 18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’" 18.26. And the LORD said: ‘If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will forgive all the place for their sake.’" 18.27. And Abraham answered and said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes." 18.28. Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt Thou destroy all the city for lack of five?’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it, if I find there forty and five.’" 18.29. And he spoke unto Him yet again, and said: ‘Peradventure there shall be forty found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not do it for the forty’s sake.’" 18.30. And he said: ‘Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak. Peradventure there shall thirty be found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not do it, if I find thirty there.’" 18.31. And he said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord. Peradventure there shall be twenty found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it for the twenty’s sake.’" 18.32. And he said: ‘Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once. Peradventure ten shall be found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it for the ten’s sake.’" 21.2. And Sarah conceived, and bore Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him." 22.16. and said: ‘By Myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son," 23.2. And Sarah died in Kiriatharba—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her." 23.3. And Abraham rose up from before his dead, and spoke unto the children of Heth, saying:" 23.6. ’Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.’" 24.1. And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things." 26.5. because that Abraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.’" 32.25. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day." 32.26. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him." 32.27. And he said: ‘Let me go, for the day breaketh.’ And he said: ‘I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.’" 32.28. And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’" 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’" 32.30. And Jacob asked him, and said: ‘Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.’ And he said: ‘Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?’ And he blessed him there." 32.31. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’" 32.32. And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh." 32.33. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein."
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. אִמְרוּ לַאֲחֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְלַאֲחוֹתֵיכֶם רֻחָמָה׃ 2.3. Say ye unto your brethren: ‘Ammi’; and to your sisters, ‘Ruhamah.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.21, 19.24, 20.3, 24.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 20.3. וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי׃ 24.16. וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם־יְהוָה מוֹת יוּמָת רָגוֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־בוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח בְּנָקְבוֹ־שֵׁם יוּמָת׃ 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 20.3. I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name." 24.16. And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him; as well the stranger, as the home-born, when he blasphemeth the Name, shall be put to death."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 7.89, 12.7-12.8, 22.9-22.11, 25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.89. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִדַּבֵּר אֵלָיו מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו׃ 12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 22.9. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה עִמָּךְ׃ 22.11. הִנֵּה הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיְכַס אֶת־עֵין הָאָרֶץ עַתָּה לְכָה קָבָה־לִּי אֹתוֹ אוּלַי אוּכַל לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּיו׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.89. And when Moses went into the tent of meeting that He might speak with him, then he heard the Voice speaking unto him from above the ark-cover that was upon the ark of the testimony, from between the two cherubim; and He spoke unto him." 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 22.9. And God came unto Balaam, and said: ‘What men are these with thee?’" 22.10. And Balaam said unto God: ‘Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab, hath sent unto me [saying]:" 22.11. Behold the people that is come out of Egypt, it covereth the face of the earth; now, come curse me them; peradventure I shall be able to fight against them, and shall drive them out.’" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.12, 8.3, 8.22-8.31, 9.1, 9.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃ 8.3. לְיַד־שְׁעָרִים לְפִי־קָרֶת מְבוֹא פְתָחִים תָּרֹנָּה׃ 8.3. וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשֻׁעִים יוֹם יוֹם מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 9.4. מִי־פֶתִי יָסֻר הֵנָּה חֲסַר־לֵב אָמְרָה לּוֹ׃ 3.12. For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth." 8.3. Beside the gates, at the entry of the city, At the coming in at the doors, she crieth aloud:" 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 9.4. ’Whoso is thoughtless, let him turn in hither’; as for him that lacketh understanding, she saith to him:"
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 68.6, 118.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

68.6. אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים וְדַיַּן אַלְמָנוֹת אֱלֹהִים בִּמְעוֹן קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 118.22. אֶבֶן מָאֲסוּ הַבּוֹנִים הָיְתָה לְרֹאשׁ פִּנָּה׃ 68.6. A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the widows, Is God in His holy habitation." 118.22. The stone which the builders rejected Is become the chief corner-stone."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.16, 8.20, 8.42-8.43 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.16. מִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא־בָחַרְתִּי בְעִיר מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִבְנוֹת בַּיִת לִהְיוֹת שְׁמִי שָׁם וָאֶבְחַר בְּדָוִד לִהְיוֹת עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.42. כִּי יִשְׁמְעוּן אֶת־שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־יָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָא וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.43. אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּן כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ לְיִרְאָה אֹתְךָ כְּעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלָדַעַת כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.16. Since the day that I brought forth My people Israel out of Egypt, I chose no city out of all the tribes of Israel to build a house, that My name might be there; but I chose David to be over My people Israel." 8.20. And the LORD hath established His word that He spoke; for I am risen up in the room of David my father, and sit on the throne of Israel, as the LORD promised, and have built the house for the name of the LORD, the God of Israel." 8.42. for they shall hear of Thy great name, and of Thy mighty hand, and of Thine outstretched arm—when he shall come and pray toward this house;" 8.43. hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to Thee for; that all the peoples of the earth may know Thy name, to fear Thee, as doth Thy people Israel, and that they may know that Thy name is called upon this house which I have built."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 2.1-2.2, 7.14, 12.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה אִישׁ־בֹּשֶׁת בֶּן־שָׁאוּל בְּמָלְכוֹ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנִים מָלָךְ אַךְ בֵּית יְהוּדָה הָיוּ אַחֲרֵי דָוִד׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר הַאֶעֱלֶה בְּאַחַת עָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו עֲלֵה וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אָנָה אֶעֱלֶה וַיֹּאמֶר חֶבְרֹנָה׃ 2.2. וַיַּעַל שָׁם דָּוִד וְגַם שְׁתֵּי נָשָׁיו אֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵלִית וַאֲבִיגַיִל אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִי׃ 2.2. וַיִּפֶן אַבְנֵר אַחֲרָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הַאַתָּה זֶה עֲשָׂהאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 12.22. וַיֹּאמֶר בְּעוֹד הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה כִּי אָמַרְתִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ יחנני [וְחַנַּנִי] יְהוָה וְחַי הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.1. And it came to pass after this, that David inquired of the Lord, saying, Shall I go up into any of the cities of Yehuda? And the Lord said to him, Go up. And David said, Where shall I go up? And he said, To Ĥevron." 2.2. So David went up there, and his two wives also, Aĥino῾am the Yizre῾elite, and Avigayil, Naval’s wife, the Karmelite." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 12.22. And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell? God may be gracious to me, and the child may live?"
13. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.13. טְהוֹר עֵינַיִם מֵרְאוֹת רָע וְהַבִּיט אֶל־עָמָל לֹא תוּכָל לָמָּה תַבִּיט בּוֹגְדִים תַּחֲרִישׁ בְּבַלַּע רָשָׁע צַדִּיק מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 1.13. Thou that art of eyes too pure to behold evil, And that canst not look on mischief, Wherefore lookest Thou, when they deal treacherously, And holdest Thy peace, when the wicked swalloweth up The man that is more righteous than he;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.1, 6.3, 11.2, 28.10, 44.6, 45.5-45.6, 48.16, 59.17, 63.16, 64.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 45.5. אֲנִי יְהוָה וְאֵין עוֹד זוּלָתִי אֵין אֱלֹהִים אֲאַזֶּרְךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתָּנִי׃ 45.6. לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וּמִמַּעֲרָבָהּ כִּי־אֶפֶס בִּלְעָדָי אֲנִי יְהוָה וְאֵין עוֹד׃ 48.16. קִרְבוּ אֵלַי שִׁמְעוּ־זֹאת לֹא מֵרֹאשׁ בַּסֵּתֶר דִּבַּרְתִּי מֵעֵת הֱיוֹתָהּ שָׁם אָנִי וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה שְׁלָחַנִי וְרוּחוֹ׃ 59.17. וַיִּלְבַּשׁ צְדָקָה כַּשִּׁרְיָן וְכוֹבַע יְשׁוּעָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי נָקָם תִּלְבֹּשֶׁת וַיַּעַט כַּמְעִיל קִנְאָה׃ 63.16. כִּי־אַתָּה אָבִינוּ כִּי אַבְרָהָם לֹא יְדָעָנוּ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יַכִּירָנוּ אַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ גֹּאֲלֵנוּ מֵעוֹלָם שְׁמֶךָ׃ 64.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃ 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 28.10. For it is precept by precept, precept by precept, Line by line, line by line; Here a little, there a little." 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God." 45.5. I am the LORD, and there is none else, beside Me there is no God; I have girded thee, though thou hast not known Me;" 45.6. That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside Me; I am the LORD; and there is none else;" 48.16. Come ye near unto Me, hear ye this: From the beginning I have not spoken in secret; From the time that it was, there am I; And now the Lord GOD hath sent me, and His spirit." 59.17. And He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, And a helmet of salvation upon His head, And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, And was clad with zeal as a cloak." 63.16. For Thou art our Father; for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; Thou, O LORD, art our Father, Our Redeemer from everlasting is Thy name." 64.7. But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.19, 7.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.19. וְאָנֹכִי אָמַרְתִּי אֵיךְ אֲשִׁיתֵךְ בַּבָּנִים וְאֶתֶּן־לָךְ אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה נַחֲלַת צְבִי צִבְאוֹת גּוֹיִם וָאֹמַר אָבִי תקראו־[תִּקְרְאִי־] לִי וּמֵאַחֲרַי לֹא תשובו [תָשׁוּבִי׃] 7.12. כִּי לְכוּ־נָא אֶל־מְקוֹמִי אֲשֶׁר בְּשִׁילוֹ אֲשֶׁר שִׁכַּנְתִּי שְׁמִי שָׁם בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּרְאוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ מִפְּנֵי רָעַת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 3.19. But I said: ‘How would I put thee among the sons, And give thee a pleasant land, The goodliest heritage of the nations! ’ And I said: ‘Thou shalt call Me, My father; And shalt not turn away from following Me.’" 7.12. For go ye now unto My place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My name to dwell at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of My people Israel."
16. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.9, 23.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.9. וְיִשְׁמְעוּ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְכֹל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ וְנָסַבּוּ עָלֵינוּ וְהִכְרִיתוּ אֶת־שְׁמֵנוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וּמַה־תַּעֲשֵׂה לְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל׃ 23.5. וַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא יֶהְדֳּפֵם מִפְּנֵיכֶם וְהוֹרִישׁ אֹתָם מִלִּפְנֵיכֶם וִירִשְׁתֶּם אֶת־אַרְצָם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לָכֶם׃ 7.9. For when the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land hear of it, they will compass us round, and cut off our name from the earth; and what wilt Thou do for Thy great name?’" 23.5. And the LORD your God, He shall thrust them out from before you, and drive them from out of your sight; and ye shall possess their land, as the LORD your God spoke unto you."
17. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.17-13.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִי שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־יָבֹא דבריך [דְבָרְךָ] וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ׃ 13.18. וַיֹּאמֶר לּוֹ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי וְהוּא־פֶלִאי׃ 13.17. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour?" 13.18. And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is hidden?"
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.10, 1.27-1.28, 17.21, 23.38 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 17.21. וְאֵת כָּל־מברחו [מִבְרָחָיו] בְּכָל־אֲגַפָּיו בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים לְכָל־רוּחַ יִפָּרֵשׂוּ וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃ 23.38. עוֹד זֹאת עָשׂוּ לִי טִמְּאוּ אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתַי חִלֵּלוּ׃ 1.10. As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke." 17.21. And all his mighty men in all his bands shall fall by the sword, and they that remain shall be scattered toward every wind; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken it." 23.38. Moreover this they have done unto Me: they have defiled My sanctuary in the same day, and have profaned My sabbaths."
19. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 17.13, 22.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.13. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָסִיר מֵעִמּוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִירוֹתִי מֵאֲשֶׁר הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ׃ 17.13. I will be to him for a father, and he shall be to Me for a son; and I will not take My mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee;" 22.10. He shall build a house for My name; and he shall be to Me for a son, and I will be to him for a father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever."
20. Herodotus, Histories, 8.55 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.55. I will tell why I have mentioned this. In that acropolis is a shrine of Erechtheus, called the “Earthborn,” and in the shrine are an olive tree and a pool of salt water. The story among the Athenians is that they were set there by Poseidon and Athena as tokens when they contended for the land. It happened that the olive tree was burnt by the barbarians with the rest of the sacred precinct, but on the day after its burning, when the Athenians ordered by the king to sacrifice went up to the sacred precinct, they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the stump, and they reported this.
21. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

400d. Hermogenes. I think, Socrates, enough has been said about these words; but might we not consider the names of the gods in the same way in which you were speaking about that of Zeus a few minutes ago, and see what kind of correctness there is in them? Socrates. By Zeus, Hermogenes, we, if we are sensible, must recognize that there is one most excellent kind, since of the gods we know nothing, neither of them nor of their names, whatever they may be, by which they call themselves, for it is clear that they use the true names. But there is a second kind of correctness
22. Plato, Parmenides, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

23. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

24. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

203a. and incantations, and all soothsaying and sorcery. God with man does not mingle: but the spiritual is the means of all society and converse of men with gods and of gods with men, whether waking or asleep. Whosoever has skill in these affairs is a spiritual man to have it in other matters, as in common arts and crafts, is for the mechanical. Many and multifarious are these spirits, and one of them is Love.
25. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

31b. Wherefore, in order that this Creature might resemble the all perfect Living Creature in respect of its uniqueness, for this reason its Maker made neither two Universes nor an infinite number, but there is and will continue to be this one generated Heaven, unique of its kind.
26. Septuagint, Tobit, 11.14 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels.
27. Ezekiel The Tragedian, Exagoge, 204, 223, 155 (3rd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

28. Anon., Jubilees, 23.21, 36.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

23.21. For calamity followeth on calamity, and wound on wound, and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments such as these, one with another 36.7. that He might multiply you and increase your seed as the stars of heaven in multitude, and establish you on the earth as the plant of righteousness which will not be rooted out unto all the generations for ever.
29. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 11.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.44-1.47, 2.12, 4.38, 4.45 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.44. And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 2.12. And behold, our holy place, our beauty,and our glory have been laid waste;the Gentiles have profaned it. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar
31. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.12, 24.19, 44.18, 45.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.12. He established with them an eternal covet,and showed them his judgments. 24.19. Come to me, you who desire me,and eat your fill of my produce. 44.18. Everlasting covets were made with him that all flesh should not be blotted out by a flood. 45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him.
32. Septuagint, Judith, 1.12, 2.7, 4.12, 8.14, 9.2, 9.9, 9.11, 9.13, 11.11, 16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.12. Then Nebuchadnezzar was very angry with this whole region, and swore by his throne and kingdom that he would surely take revenge on the whole territory of Cilicia and Damascus and Syria, that he would kill them by the sword, and also all the inhabitants of the land of Moab, and the people of Ammon, and all Judea, and every one in Egypt, as far as the coasts of the two seas. 2.7. Tell them to prepare earth and water, for I am coming against them in my anger, and will cover the whole face of the earth with the feet of my armies, and will hand them over to be plundered by my troops 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 8.14. You cannot plumb the depths of the human heart, nor find out what a man is thinking; how do you expect to search out God, who made all these things, and find out his mind or comprehend his thought? No, my brethren, do not provoke the Lord our God to anger. 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.11. For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope. 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 11.11. And now, in order that my lord may not be defeated and his purpose frustrated, death will fall upon them, for a sin has overtaken them by which they are about to provoke their God to anger when they do what is wrong. 16.1. Then Judith began this thanksgiving before all Israel, and all the people loudly sang this song of praise.
33. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 45.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

34. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. You, O King, when you had created the boundless and immeasurable earth, chose this city and sanctified this place for your name, though you have no need of anything; and when you had glorified it by your magnificent manifestation, you made it a firm foundation for the glory of your great and honored name.
35. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.16 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.16. The self-existent and invisible
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 120-122, 217, 52, 80, 119 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

119. This then is sufficient to say by way of a literal explanation of this account; we must now speak of that which may be given if the story be looked at as figurative and symbolical. The things which are expressed by the voice are the signs of those things which are conceived in the mind alone; when, therefore, the soul is shone upon by God as if at noonday, and when it is wholly and entirely filled with that light which is appreciable only by the intellect, and by being wholly surrounded with its brilliancy is free from all shade or darkness, it then perceives a threefold image of one subject, one image of the living God, and others of the other two, as if they were shadows irradiated by it. And some such thing as this happens to those who dwell in that light which is perceptible by the outward senses, for whether people are standing still or in motion, there is often a double shadow falling from them.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 2, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And Noah began to be a husbandman; and he planted a vineyard, and he drank of the wine, and he was drunk in his House." The generality of men not understanding the nature of things, do also of necessity err with respect to the composition of names; for those who consider affairs anatomically, as it were, are easily able to affix appropriate names to things, but those who look at them in a confused and irregular way are incapable of such accuracy.
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. At the same time, also, this doctrine of exceeding wisdom is introduced, that the Lord God is the only real citizen, and that every created being is but a stranger and a sojourner. But those who are called citizens are called so rather in consequence of a slight misapplication of the name than in strict truth. And it is a sufficient gift to wise men--if considered comparatively with the only true citizen, God--for them to have the rank of strangers and sojourners. With respect to foolish men, of them there is absolutely no one who is a stranger or sojourner in the city of God, but such an one is found to be utterly an exile. And this is implied in what he said besides as a most authoritative doctrine, "The land shall not be utterly sold away." Nor did God add "by whom," in order that from that point being passed over in silence, he who was not wholly uninitiated in natural philosophy, might be benefited in respect of knowledge. 121. Having then now philosophized in this manner about the honour to be paid to parents, he closes the one and more divine table of the first five commandments. And being about to promulgate the second which contains the prohibitions of those offences which are committed against men, he begins with adultery, looking upon this as the greatest of all violations of the law;
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 97, 33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. It is very appropriately said that the meeting took place on the bank of the river; but the banks are also called the lips, and the lips are the boundaries of the mouth, and are a sort of fence to the tongue, through which the stream of discourse is borne, when it begins to be uttered;
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. This, therefore, is the wife who is a citizen; but the concubine is she who sees one only of all existing things at a time, even though it may be the most worthless of all. It is given, therefore, to the most excellent race to see the most excellent of things, namely, the really living God; for the name Israel, being interpreted, means "seeing God." But to him who aims at the second prize, it is allowed to see that which is second best, namely, the heaven which is perceptible by the external senses, and the harmonious arrangement of the stars therein, and their truly musical and wellregulated motion.
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 53-81, 52 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

42. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 83 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

83. and what can be more perfect among all the virtues than the sight of the only living God? Accordingly he who hath seen this good things is confessed to be good by both his parents, having attained to strength in God and power both before the Lord and before men.
43. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 112, 110 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

110. and also because he is anointed with oil, by which I mean that the principal part of him is illuminated with a light like the beams of the sun, so as to be thought worthy to be clothed with garments. And the most ancient word of the living God is clothed with the word as with a garment, for it has put on earth, and water, and air, and fire, and the things which proceed from those elements. But the particular soul is clothed with the body, and the mind of the wise man is clothed with the virtues.
44. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 11-15, 27-29, 3-10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. And what wonder is there if the living God is beyond the reach of the comprehension of man, when even the mind that is in each of us is unintelligible and unknown to us? Who has ever beheld the essence of the soul? the obscure nature of which has given rise to an infinite number of contests among the sophists who have brought forward opposite opinions, some of which are inconsistent with any kind of nature.
45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 171-172, 21-23, 25, 5, 54, 69-71, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

170. Such is the life of those who originally were men of innocence and simplicity, and also of those who have come to prefer vice to virtue, from whom one ought to keep aloof. And in his before mentioned account of the creation of the world, Moses teaches us also many other things, and especially five most beautiful lessons which are superior to all others. In the first place, for the sake of convicting the atheists, he teaches us that the Deity has a real being and existence. Now, of the atheists, some have only doubted of the existence of God, stating it to be an uncertain thing; but others, who are more audacious, have taken courage, and asserted positively that there is no such thing; but this is affirmed only by men who have darkened the truth with fabulous inventions.
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 13-16, 168, 17, 175, 2, 28, 9, 122 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

122. on which account Moses bears witness, exhorting us to war against the contrary opinions, for he says, "The time has departed from them, and the Lord is among Us." So that those men by whom the life of the soul is honoured, have divine reason dwelling among them, and walking with them; but those who pursue a life of pleasure have only a brief and fictitious want of opportunities: these men, therefore, having swollen extravagantly, and become enormously distended by their profuse fatness and luxury, have burst asunder. But the others, being made fat by that wisdom which nourishes the souls that love virtue, have a firm and unshaken power, a specimen of which is the fat which is sacrificed as a whole burnt-offering from every victim:
47. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 101, 106-109, 112, 119, 123, 126, 17-19, 23, 27-48, 55-56, 95-97, 100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. And Jacob's brother, he says, was Jubal, and the interpretation of this latter name is "inclining," being symbolically speech according to utterance; for this is naturally the brother of intellect; and it is with extraordinary propriety that he called the conversation of that intellect which changes affairs, "inclining," for it agrees after a fashion and harmonizes with both, as the equivalent weight does in a scale, or as a vessel which is tossed by the sea inclines first to one side and then to the other, from the violence of the waves; for the foolish man has not learnt how to say anything firm or stable.
48. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 57, 53 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

53. we must do good works, hastening with all speed, and labouring to outstrip others, casting away all slowness and delay. And the best of all good works is the pleasing the first good without any postponement of energy, on which account it is also enjoined, "If thou vowest a vow, thou shalt not delay to perform It." A vow now is a request for good things addressed to God, and the injunction is, that when one has attained the object of one's hopes, one must offer offerings of gratitude to God, and not to one's self, and to offer them if possible without any loss of time, and without any delay;
49. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

50. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.30-1.32, 1.229 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. Now then is the fourth element which exists within us, the domit mind, comprehensible to us in the same manner as these other divisions? Certainly not; for what do we think it to be in its essence? Do we look upon it as spirit, or as blood, or, in short, as any bodily substance! But it is not a substance, but must be pronounced incorporeal. Is it then a limit, or a species, or a number, or a continued act, or a harmony, or any existing thing whatever? 1.31. Is it, the very first moment that we are born, infused into us from without, or is it some warm nature in us which is cooled by the air which is diffused around us, like a piece of iron which has been heated at a forge, and then being plunged into cold water, is by that process tempered and hardened? (And perhaps it is from the cooling process [psyxis] to which it is thus submitted that the soul [heµ psycheµ] derives its name.) What more shall we say? When we die, is it extinguished and destroyed together with our bodies? or does it continue to live a long time? or, thirdly, is it wholly incorruptible and immortal? 1.32. Again, where, in what part does this mind lie hid? Has it received any settled habitation? For some men have dedicated it to our head, as the principal citadel, around which all the outward senses have their lairs; thinking it natural that its body-guards should be stationed near it, as near the palace of a mighty king. Some again contend earnestly in favour of the position which they assign it, believing that it is enshrined like a statue in the heart. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
51. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.13-1.20, 1.32-1.50, 3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Some persons have conceived that the sun, and the moon, and the other stars are independent gods, to whom they have attributed the causes of all things that exist. But Moses was well aware that the world was created, and was like a very large city, having rulers and subjects in it; the rulers being all the bodies which are in heaven, such as planets and fixed stars; 1.14. and the subjects being all the natures beneath the moon, hovering in the air and adjacent to the earth. But that the rulers aforesaid are not independent and absolute, but are the viceroys of one supreme Being, the Father of all, in imitation of whom they administer with propriety and success the charge committed to their care, as he also presides over all created things in strict accordance with justice and with law. Others, on the contrary, who have not discovered the supreme Governor, who thus rules everything, have attributed the causes of the different things which exist in the world to the subordinate powers, as if they had brought them to pass by their own independent act. 1.15. But the most sacred lawgiver changes their ignorance into knowledge, speaking in the following manner: "Thou shalt not, when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and all the host of heaven, be led astray and fall down and worship Them."{3}{#de 4:19.} With great felicity and propriety has he here called the reception of these bodies as gods, an error; 1.16. for they who see that the different seasons of the year owe their existence to the advances and retreats of the sun, in which periods also the generation of animals, and plants, and fruits, are perfected according to well-defined times, and who see also that the moon is the servant and successor of the sun, taking that care and superintendence of the world by night which the sun takes by day; and also that the other stars, in accordance with their sympathy with things on earth, labour continually and do ten thousand things which contribute to the duration of the existing state of things, have been led into an inextricable error, imagining that these bodies are the only gods. 1.17. But if they had taken pains to travel along the straight and true road, they would soon have known that just as the outward sense is the subordinate minister of the mind, so in the same manner all the objects of the outward senses are servants of that which is appreciable only by intellect, being well contented if they can attain to the second place in honour. 1.18. But it is altogether ridiculous to imagine that the mind, which is the smallest thing in us, being in fact invisible, is the ruler of those organs which belong to the external senses, but that the greatest and most perfect ruler of the whole universe is not the King of kings; that the being who sees, is not the ruler of those who do not see. 1.19. We must, therefore, look on all those bodies in the heaven, which the outward sense regards as gods, not as independent rulers, since they are assigned the work of lieutets, being by their intrinsic nature responsible to a higher power, but by reason of their virtue not actually called to render in an account of their doings. 1.20. So that, transcending all visible essence by means of our reason, let us press forward to the honour of that everlasting and invisible Being who can be comprehended and appreciated by the mind alone; who is not only the God of all gods, whether appreciable only by the intellect or visible to the outward senses, but is also the creator of them all. And if any one gives up the service due to the everlasting and uncreated God, transferring it to any more modern and created being, let him be set down as mad and as liable to the charge of the greatest impiety.IV. 1.32. But the Father and Ruler of the universe is a being whose character it is difficult to arrive at by conjecture and hard to comprehend; but still we must not on that account shrink from an investigation of it. Now, in the investigations which are made into the nature of God, there are two things of the greatest importance, about which the intellect of the man who devotes himself to philosophy in a genuine spirit is perplexed. One is, whether there is any Deity at all? this question arises from the atheism (which is the greatest of all vice 1.33. It has invariably happened that the works which they have made have been, in some degree, the proofs of the character of the workmen; for who is there who, when he looks upon statues or pictures, does not at once form an idea of the statuary or painter himself? And who, when he beholds a garment, or a ship, or a house, does not in a moment conceive a notion of the weaver, or shipbuilder, or architect, who has made them? And if any one comes into a well-ordered city, in which all parts of the constitution are exceedingly well arranged and regulated, what other idea will he entertain but that this city is governed by wise and virtuous rulers? 1.34. He, therefore, who comes into that which is truly the greatest of cities, namely, this world, and who beholds all the land, both the mountain and the champaign district full of animals, and plants, and the streams of rivers, both overflowing and depending on the wintry floods, and the steady flow of the sea, and the admirable temperature of the air, and the varieties and regular revolutions of the seasons of the year; and then too the sun and moon, the rulers of day and night, and the revolutions and regular motions of all the other planets and fixed stars, and of the whole heaven; would he not naturally, or I should rather say, of necessity, conceive a notion of the Father, and creator, and governor of all this system; 1.35. for there is no artificial work whatever which exists of its own accord? And the world is the most artificial and skilfully made of all works, as if it had been put together by some one who was altogether accomplished and most perfect in knowledge. It is in this way that we have received an idea of the existence of God.VII. 1.36. Again, even if it is very difficult to ascertain and very hard properly to comprehend, we must still, as far as it is possible, investigate the nature of his essence; for there is no employment more excellent than that of searching out the nature of the true God, even though the discovery may transcend all human ability, since the very desire and endeavour to comprehend it is able by itself to furnish indescribable pleasures and delights. 1.37. And the witnesses of this fact are those who have not merely tasted philosophy with their outermost lips, but who have abundantly feasted on its reasonings and its doctrines; for the reasoning of these men, being raised on high far above the earth, roams in the air, and soaring aloft with the sun, and moon, and all the firmament of heaven, being eager to behold all the things that exist therein, finds its power of vision somewhat indistinct from a vast quantity of unalloyed light being poured over it, so that the eye of his soul becomes dazzled and confused by the splendour. 1.38. But he does not on that account faint and renounce the task which he has undertaken, but goes on with invincible determination towards the sight which he considers attainable, as if he were a competitor at the games, and were striving for the second prize, though he has missed the first. And guess and conjecture are inferior to true perception, as are all those notions which are classed under the description of reasonable and plausible opinions. 1.39. Though, therefore, we do not know and cannot accurately ascertain what each of the stars is as to its pure and real essence, still we are eager to investigate the subject, delighting in probable reasonings, because of the fondness for learning which is implanted in our nature. 1.40. And so in the same way, though we cannot attain to a distinct conception of the truly living God, we still ought not to renounce the task of investigating his character, because even if we fail to make the discovery, the very search itself is intrinsically useful and an object of deserved ambition; since no one ever blames the eyes of the body because they are unable to look upon the sun itself, and therefore shrink from the brilliancy which is poured upon them from its beams, and therefore look down upon the earth, shrinking from the extreme brilliancy of the rays of the sun.VIII. 1.41. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, "Show me thyself"--all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words--"that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. 1.42. On which account, I beg and entreat of thee to receive the supplication of a man who is thy suppliant and devoted to God's service, and desirous to serve thee alone; for as the light is not known by the agency of anything else, but is itself its own manifestation, so also thou must alone be able to manifest thyself. For which reason I hope to receive pardon, if, from want of any one to teach me, I am so bold as to flee to thee, desiring to receive instruction from thyself. 1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive. 1.44. But not only is the nature of mankind, but even the whole heaven and the whole world is unable to attain to an adequate comprehension of me. So know yourself, and be not carried away with impulses and desires beyond your power; and let not a desire of unattainable objects carry you away and keep you in suspense. For you shall not lack anything which may be possessed by you. 1.45. When Moses heard this he betook himself to a second supplication, and said, "I am persuaded by thy explanations that I should not have been able to receive the visible appearance of thy form. But I beseech thee that I may, at all events, behold the glory that is around thee. And I look upon thy glory to be the powers which attend thee as thy guards, the comprehension of which having escaped me up to the present time, worketh in me no slight desire of a thorough understanding of it. 1.46. But God replied and said, "The powers which you seek to behold are altogether invisible, and appreciable only by the intellect; since I myself am invisible and only appreciable by the intellect. And what I call appreciable only by the intellect are not those which are already comprehended by the mind, but those which, even if they could be so comprehended, are still such that the outward senses could not at all attain to them, but only the very purest intellect. 1.47. And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened. 1.48. And some of your race, speaking with sufficient correctness, call them ideas (ideai 1.49. Do not, then, ever expect to be able to comprehend me nor any one of my powers, in respect of our essence. But, as I have said, I willingly and cheerfully grant unto you such things as you may receive. And this gift is to call you to the beholding of the world and all the things that are in it, which must be comprehended, not indeed by the eyes of the body, but by the sleepless vision of the soul. 1.50. The desire of wisdom alone is continual and incessant, and it fills all its pupils and disciples with famous and most beautiful doctrines." When Moses heard this he did not cease from his desire, but he still burned with a longing for the understanding of invisible things. [...]{7}{mangey thinks that there is a considerable hiatus here. What follows relates to the regulations respecting proselytes, which as the text stands is in no way connected with what has gone before about the worship of God.}IX. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
52. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 185, 184 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

184. For when such as the words are, such also is the mind; and when such as the counsels are, such likewise are the actions; then life is praiseworthy and perfect. But when these things are all at variance with one another life is imperfect and blameable, unless some one who is at the same time a lover of God and beloved by God takes it in hand and produces this harmony. For which reason this oracular declaration was given with great propriety, and in perfect accordance with what has been said above,"Thou hast this day chosen the Lord to be thy God, and the Lord has this day chosen thee to be his people.
53. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 67, 78, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. but the deliberate intention of the philosopher is at once displayed from the appellation given to them; for with strict regard to etymology, they are called therapeutae and therapeutrides, either because they process an art of medicine more excellent than that in general use in cities (for that only heals bodies, but the other heals souls which are under the mastery of terrible and almost incurable diseases, which pleasures and appetites, fears and griefs, and covetousness, and follies, and injustice, and all the rest of the innumerable multitude of other passions and vices, have inflicted upon them), or else because they have been instructed by nature and the sacred laws to serve the living God, who is superior to the good, and more simple than the one, and more ancient than the unit;
54. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, a b c d\n0 "2.188" "2.188" "2 188"\n1 1 1 1 None\n2 1.66 1.66 1 66 \n3 1.75 1.75 1 75 \n4 1.76 1.76 1 76 \n5 2.132 2.132 2 132 \n6 2.14 2.14 2 14 \n7 2.67 2.67 2 67 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

55. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

56. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, a b c d\n0 "2.51" "2.51" "2 51" (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

57. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.16, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

58. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 82, 265 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

265. and this very frequently happens to the race of prophets; for the mind that is in us is removed from its place at the arrival of the divine Spirit, but is again restored to its previous habitation when that Spirit departs, for it is contrary to holy law for what is mortal to dwell with what is immortal. On this account the setting of our reason, and the darkness which surrounds it, causes a trance and a heaven-inflicted madness.
59. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 154, 160-162, 38-40, 75, 139 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

139. On which account Moses, after he had previously mentioned with respect to Enos that "he hoped to call upon the name of the Lord his God," adds in express words, "This is the book of the generation of Men;" speaking with perfect correctness: for it is written in the book of God that man is the only creature with a good hope. So that arguing by contraries, he who has no good hope is not a man. The definition, therefore, of our concrete being is that it is a living rational mortal being; but the definition of man, according to Moses, is a disposition of the soul hoping in the truly living God.
60. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 78-79, 11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. And yet she who is speaking is in reality only the mother of one son, namely, of Samuel. How then does she say that she has borne seven children, unless indeed any one thinks that the unit is in its strictest nature identical with the number seven, not only in number, but also in the harmony of the universe, and in the reasonings of the soul which is devoted to virtue? For he who was devoted to the one God, that is Samuel, and who had no connection whatever with any other being, is adorned according to that essence which is single and the real unit;
61. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. But the lawgiver of the Jews ventures upon a more bold assertion even than this, inasmuch as he was, as it is reported, a student and practiser of plain philosophy; and so he teaches that the man who is wholly possessed with the love of God and who serves the living God alone, is no longer man, but actually God, being indeed the God of men, but not of the parts of nature, in order to leave to the Father of the universe the attributes of being both and God.
62. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

86. Therefore the appellations already mentioned reveal the powers existing in the living God; for one title is that of Lord, according to which he governs; and the other is God, according to which he is beneficent. For which reason also, in the account of the creation of the world, according to the most holy Moses, the name of God is always assumed by him: for it was fitting that the power according to which the Creator, when he was bringing his creatures into the world, arranged and adorned them, should be invoked also by that creation.
63. Strabo, Geography, 7.7.11 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.7.11. In ancient times, then, Dodona was under the rule of the Thesprotians; and so was Mount Tomarus, or Tmarus (for it is called both ways), at the base of which the sanctuary is situated. And both the tragic poets and Pindar have called Dodona Thesprotian Dodona. But later on it came under the rule of the Molossi. And it is after the Tomarus, people say, that those whom the poet calls interpreters of Zeus — whom he also calls men with feet unwashen, men who sleep upon the ground — were called tomouroi; and in the Odyssey some so write the words of Amphinomus, when he counsels the wooers not to attack Telemachus until they inquire of Zeus: If the tomouroi of great Zeus approve, I myself shall slay, and I shall bid all the rest to aid, whereas if god averts it, I bid you stop. For it is better, they argue, to write tomouroi than themistes; at any rate, nowhere in the poet are the oracles called themistes, but it is the decrees, statutes, and laws that are so called; and the people have been called tomouroi because tomouroi is a contraction of tomarouroi, the equivalent of tomarophylakes. Now although the more recent critics say tomouroi, yet in Homer one should interpret themistes (and also boulai) in a simpler way, though in a way that is a misuse of the term, as meaning those orders and decrees that are oracular, just as one also interprets themistes as meaning those that are made by law. For example, such is the case in the following: to give ear to the decree of Zeus from the oak-tree of lofty foliage.
64. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.3. Ἄπελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου καὶ ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρός σου εἰς τὴν γῆν ἣν ἄν σοι δείξω: καὶ ποιήσω σε εἰς ἔθνος μέγα καὶ εὐλογήσω σε καὶ μεγαλυνῶ τὸ ὄνομά σου, καὶ ἔσῃ εὐλογημένος: καὶ εὐλογήσω τοὺς εὐλογοῦντάς σε καὶ καταράσομαι τοὺς καταρωμένους σε, καὶ εὐλογηθήσονται ἐν σοὶ πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς.
65. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.275-2.276, 3.13, 3.178, 3.310 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.275. 4. Moses having now seen and heard these wonders that assured him of the truth of these promises of God, had no room left him to disbelieve them: he entreated him to grant him that power when he should be in Egypt; and besought him to vouchsafe him the knowledge of his own name; and since he had heard and seen him, that he would also tell him his name, that when he offered sacrifice he might invoke him by such his name in his oblations. 2.276. Whereupon God declared to him his holy name, which had never been discovered to men before; concerning which it is not lawful for me to say any more Now these signs accompanied Moses, not then only, but always when he prayed for them: of all which signs he attributed the firmest assent to the fire in the bush; and believing that God would be a gracious supporter to him, he hoped he should be able to deliver his own nation, and bring calamities on the Egyptians. 3.13. 4. But as for Moses himself, while the multitude were irritated and bitterly set against him, he cheerfully relied upon God, and upon his consciousness of the care he had taken of these his own people; and he came into the midst of them, even while they clamored against him, and had stones in their hands in order to despatch him. Now he was of an agreeable presence, and very able to persuade the people by his speeches; 3.13. But the ten other curtains were four cubits in breadth, and twenty-eight in length; and had golden clasps, in order to join the one curtain to the other, which was done so exactly that they seemed to be one entire curtain. These were spread over the temple, and covered all the top and parts of the walls, on the sides and behind, so far as within one cubit of the ground. 3.178. of this was a crown made, as far from the hinder part of the head to each of the temples; but this Ephielis, for so this calyx may be called, did not cover the forehead, but it was covered with a golden plate, which had inscribed upon it the name of God in sacred characters. And such were the ornaments of the high priest.
66. Mishnah, Avot, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. With ten trials was Abraham, our father (may he rest in peace), tried, and he withstood them all; to make known how great was the love of Abraham, our father (peace be upon him)."
67. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
68. Mishnah, Taanit, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. For every trouble that should not come upon the community they sound a blast except on account of too much rain. It happened that they said to Honi the circle drawer: “Pray for rain to fall.” He replied: “Go and bring in the pesah ovens so that they do not dissolve.” He prayed and no rain fell. What did he do? He drew a circle and stood within it and exclaimed before Him: “Master of the universe, Your children have turned their faces to me because I am like one who was born in Your house. I swear by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children.” Rain then began to drip, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but rain [which can fill] cisterns, ditches and caves. The rain then began to come down with great force, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but pleasing rain of blessing and abudance.” Rain then fell in the normal way until the Jews in Jerusalem had to go up Temple Mount because of the rain. They came and said to him: “In the same way that you prayed for [the rain] to fall pray [now] for the rain to stop.” He replied: “Go and see if the stone of people claiming lost objects has washed away.” Rabbi Shimon ben Shetah sent to him: “Were you not Honi I would have excommunicated you, but what can I do to you, for you are spoiled before God and he does your will like a son that is spoiled before his father and his father does his request. Concerning you it is written, “Let your father and your mother rejoice, and let she that bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25)."
69. Mishnah, Tamid, 3.8, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
70. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.30, 15.3-15.4, 15.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.12. Now if Christ is preached, that he has been raised from thedead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of thedead?
71. New Testament, Acts, 4.1-4.2, 7.30-7.35, 23.6-23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. As they spoke to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came to them 4.2. being upset because they taught the people and proclaimed in Jesus the resurrection from the dead. 7.30. When forty years were fulfilled, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai , in a flame of fire in a bush. 7.31. When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight. As he came close to see, a voice of the Lord came to him 7.32. 'I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' Moses trembled, and dared not look. 7.33. The Lord said to him, 'Take your sandals off of your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground. 7.34. I have surely seen the affliction of my people that is in Egypt , and have heard their groaning. I have come down to deliver them. Now come, I will send you into Egypt.' 7.35. This Moses, whom they refused, saying, 'Who made you a ruler and a judge?' -- God has sent him as both a ruler and a deliverer with the hand of the angel who appeared to him in the bush. 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged! 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
72. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.4, 1.8, 4.2, 4.8-4.11, 5.1, 5.7, 5.9-5.10, 5.12-5.14, 6.16, 7.9-7.12, 7.15, 11.15-11.18, 15.3-15.4, 16.5-16.7, 19.1-19.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.8. I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.1. I saw, in the right hand of him who sat on the throne, a book written inside and outside, sealed shut with seven seals. 5.7. Then he came, and he took it out of the right hand of him who sat on the throne. 5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth. 5.12. saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb who has been killed to receive the power, riches, wisdom, might, honor, glory, and blessing! 5.13. I heard every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them, saying, "To him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb be the blessing, the honor, the glory, and the dominion, forever and ever! Amen. 5.14. The four living creatures said, "Amen!" The elders fell down and worshiped. 6.16. They told the mountains and the rocks, "Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb 7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb! 7.11. All the angels were standing around the throne, the elders, and the four living creatures; and they fell before his throne on their faces, and worshiped God 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen. 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 11.15. The seventh angel sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. He will reign forever and ever! 11.16. The twenty-four elders, who sit before God's throne on their thrones, fell on their faces and worshiped God 11.17. saying: "We give you thanks, Lord God, the Almighty, the one who is and who was; because you have taken your great power, and reigned. 11.18. The nations were angry, and your wrath came, as did the time for the dead to be judged, and to give your servants the prophets, their reward, as well as the saints, and those who fear your name, the small and the great; and to destroy those who destroy the earth. 15.3. They sang the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, "Great and marvelous are your works, Lord God, the Almighty; Righteous and true are your ways, you King of the nations. 15.4. Who wouldn't fear you, Lord, And glorify your name? For you only are holy. For all the nations will come and worship before you. For your righteous acts have been revealed. 16.5. I heard the angel of the waters saying, "You are righteous, who are and who were, you Holy One, because you judged this way. 16.6. For they poured out the blood of the saints and the prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. They deserve this. 16.7. I heard the altar saying, "Yes, Lord God, the Almighty, true and righteous are your judgments. 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 19.3. A second said, "Hallelujah! Her smoke goes up forever and ever. 19.4. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah! 19.5. A voice came forth from the throne, saying, "Give praise to our God, all you his servants, you who fear him, the small and the great! 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns! 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready. 19.8. It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.
73. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.1, 1.21, 4.23-4.24, 6.10-6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints who are at Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus: 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 4.23. and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 6.10. Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the strength of his might. 6.11. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 6.13. Therefore, put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and, having done all, to stand. 6.14. Stand therefore, having the utility belt of truth buckled around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness 6.15. and having fitted your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one. 6.17. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God;
74. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.1-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 3.4. For every house is built by someone; but he who built all things is God. 3.5. Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken 3.6. but Christ is faithful as a Son over his house; whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end.
75. New Testament, Romans, 16.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

76. New Testament, John, 1.18, 4.13-4.14, 4.34, 5.23-5.24, 5.30, 5.37, 6.20, 6.35, 6.38-6.39, 6.44, 6.51, 7.16, 7.24, 7.33, 8.12, 8.16, 8.18, 8.26, 8.29, 10.7, 10.9, 10.11, 10.14, 10.30-10.31, 10.34-10.35, 11.25, 12.44-12.45, 12.49, 13.16, 13.19-13.20, 14.6, 14.24, 15.1, 15.5, 15.21, 16.5, 18.5, 20.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 5.23. that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who doesn't honor the Son doesn't honor the Father who sent him. 5.24. Most assuredly I tell you, he who hears my word, and believes him who sent me, has eternal life, and doesn't come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. 5.30. I can of myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is righteous; because I don't seek my own will, but the will of my Father who sent me. 5.37. The Father himself, who sent me, has testified about me. You have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form. 6.20. But he said to them, "I AM. Don't be afraid. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6.38. For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me. 6.39. This is the will of my Father who sent me, that of all he has given to me I should lose nothing, but should raise him up at the last day. 6.44. No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. 7.16. Jesus therefore answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 7.24. Don't judge according to appearance, but judge righteous judgment. 7.33. Then Jesus said, "I will be with you a little while longer, then I go to him who sent me. 8.12. Again, therefore, Jesus spoke to them, saying, "I am the light of the world. He who follows me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the light of life. 8.16. Even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent me. 8.18. I am one who testifies about myself, and the Father who sent me testifies about me. 8.26. I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you. However he who sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, these I say to the world. 8.29. He who sent me is with me. The Father hasn't left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him. 10.7. Jesus therefore said to them again, "Most assuredly, I tell you, I am the sheep's door. 10.9. I am the door. If anyone enters in by me, he will be saved, and will go in and go out, and will find pasture. 10.11. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. 10.14. I am the good shepherd. I know my own, and I'm known by my own; 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.31. Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him. 10.34. Jesus answered them, "Isn't it written in your law, 'I said, you are gods?' 10.35. If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture can't be broken) 11.25. Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me, though he die, yet will he live. 12.44. Jesus cried out and said, "Whoever believes in me, believes not in me, but in him who sent me. 12.45. He who sees me sees him who sent me. 12.49. For I spoke not from myself, but the Father who sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. 13.16. Most assuredly I tell you, a servant is not greater than his lord, neither one who is sent greater than he who sent him. 13.19. From now on, I tell you before it happens, that when it happens, you may believe that I AM. 13.20. Most assuredly I tell you, he who receives whomever I send, receives me; and he who receives me, receives him who sent me. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.24. He who doesn't love me doesn't keep my words. The word which you hear isn't mine, but the Father's who sent me. 15.1. I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer. 15.5. I am the vine. You are the branches. He who remains in me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 15.21. But all these things will they do to you for my name's sake, because they don't know him who sent me. 16.5. But now I am going to him who sent me, and none of you asks me, 'Where are you going?' 18.5. They answered him, "Jesus of Nazareth."Jesus said to them, "I AM."Judas also, who betrayed him, was standing with them. 20.21. Jesus therefore said to them again, "Peace be to you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.
77. New Testament, Luke, 20.27, 22.7-22.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.27. Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection. 22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.8. He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat. 22.9. They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare? 22.10. He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 22.11. Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 22.12. He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there. 22.13. They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 22.21. But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. 22.22. The Son of Man indeed goes, as it has been determined, but woe to that man through whom he is betrayed! 22.23. They began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing. 22.24. There arose also a contention among them, which of them was considered to be greatest. 22.25. He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called 'benefactors.' 22.26. But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves. 22.27. For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn't it he who sits at the table? But I am in the midst of you as one who serves. 22.28. But you are those who have continued with me in my trials. 22.29. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me 22.30. that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 22.31. The Lord said, "Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat 22.32. but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn't fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers. 22.33. He said to him, "Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death! 22.34. He said, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster will by no means crow today until you deny that you know me three times. 22.35. He said to them, "When I sent you out without purse, and wallet, and shoes, did you lack anything?"They said, "Nothing. 22.36. Then he said to them, "But now, whoever has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword. 22.37. For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: 'He was counted with the lawless.' For that which concerns me has an end. 22.38. They said, "Lord, behold, here are two swords."He said to them, "That is enough.
78. New Testament, Mark, 10.2-10.9, 12.18, 12.35-12.37, 14.12-14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.35. Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? 12.36. For David himself said in the Holy Spirit, 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.' 12.37. Therefore David himself calls him Lord, so how can he be his son?"The common people heard him gladly. 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.16. His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover. 14.17. When it was evening he came with the twelve. 14.18. As they sat and were eating, Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, one of you will betray me -- he who eats with me. 14.19. They began to be sorrowful, and to ask him one by one, "Surely not I?" And another said, "Surely not I? 14.20. He answered them, "It is one of the twelve, he who dips with me in the dish. 14.21. For the Son of Man goes, even as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 14.26. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
79. New Testament, Matthew, 5.16, 5.45, 5.48, 6.4, 6.8-6.9, 6.14-6.15, 6.18, 6.26, 7.11, 7.21, 22.23, 26.26-26.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. Even so, let your light shine before men; that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 6.26. See the birds of the sky, that they don't sow, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren't you of much more value than they? 7.11. If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him! 7.21. Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 22.23. On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins.
80. Tosefta, Nedarim, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

81. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.8. The year in which Shimon the Righteous died [he said to them] \"in this year I will die\" \"how do you know this?\" they responded. He (Shimon the Righteous) responded: \"all of the Yom Kippur days there was an old man dressed in all white who would go with me into the holy of holies and leave with me, on this year he went in with me but did not come out with me.\" Seven days passed after the holiday and he died. From the time of the death of Rebbi Shimon the Righteous they ceased blessing in the name of Hashem."
82. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 10.3, 28.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

83. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 22.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

84. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.6.34 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

85. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.15.1-1.15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

86. Tertullian, On Baptism, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. They who are about to enter baptism ought to pray with repeated prayers, fasts, and bendings of the knee, and vigils all the night through, and with the confession of all by- gone sins, that they may express the meaning even of the baptism of John: They were baptized, says (the Scripture), confessing their own sins. To us it is matter for thankfulness if we do now publicly confess our iniquities or our turpitudes: for we do at the same time both make satisfaction for our former sins, by mortification of our flesh and spirit, and lay beforehand the foundation of defences against the temptations which will closely follow. Watch and pray, says (the Lord), lest you fall into temptation. Matthew 26:41 And the reason, I believe, why they were tempted was, that they fell asleep; so that they deserted the Lord when apprehended, and he who continued to stand by Him, and used the sword, even denied Him thrice: for withal the word had gone before, that no one untempted should attain the celestial kingdoms. The Lord Himself immediately after baptism temptations surrounded, when in forty days He had kept fast. Then, some one will say, it becomes us, too, rather to fast after baptism. Well, and who forbids you, unless it be the necessity for joy, and the thanksgiving for salvation? But so far as I, with my poor powers, understand, the Lord figuratively retorted upon Israel the reproach they had cast on the Lord. For the people, after crossing the sea, and being carried about in the desert during forty years, although they were there nourished with divine supplies, nevertheless were more mindful of their belly and their gullet than of God. Thereupon the Lord, driven apart into desert places after baptism, showed, by maintaining a fast of forty days, that the man of God lives not by bread alone, but by the word of God; Matthew 4:1-4 and that temptations incident to fullness or immoderation of appetite are shattered by abstinence. Therefore, blessed ones, whom the grace of God awaits, when you ascend from that most sacred font of your new birth, and spread your hands for the first time in the house of your mother, together with your brethren, ask from the Father, ask from the Lord, that His own specialties of grace and distributions of gifts 1 Corinthians 12:4-12 may be supplied you. Ask, says He, and you shall receive. Well, you have asked, and have received; you have knocked, and it has been opened to you. Only, I pray that, when you are asking, you be mindful likewise of Tertullian the sinner.
87. Tertullian, On Prayer, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3. The name of God the Father had been published to none. Even Moses, who had interrogated Him on that very point, had heard a different name. Exodus 3:13-16 To us it has been revealed in the Son, for the Son is now the Father's new name. I have come, says He, in the Father's name; John 5:43 and again, Father, glorify Your name; John 12:28 and more openly, I have manifested Your name to men. John 17:6 That name, therefore, we pray may be hallowed. Not that it is becoming for men to wish God well, as if there were any other by whom He may be wished well, or as if He would suffer unless we do so wish. Plainly, it is universally becoming for God to be blessed in every place and time, on account of the memory of His benefits ever due from every man. But this petition also serves the turn of a blessing. Otherwise, when is the name of God not holy, and hallowed through Himself, seeing that of Himself He sanctifies all others - He to whom that surrounding circle of angels cease not to say, Holy, holy, holy? In like wise, therefore, we too, candidates for angelhood, if we succeed in deserving it, begin even here on earth to learn by heart that strain hereafter to be raised unto God, and the function of future glory. So far, for the glory of God. On the other hand, for our own petition, when we say, Hallowed be Your name, we pray this; that it may be hallowed in us who are in Him, as well in all others for whom the grace of God is still waiting; Isaiah 30:18 that we may obey this precept, too, in praying for all, 1 Timothy 2:1 even for our personal enemies. Matthew 5:44 And therefore with suspended utterance, not saying, Hallowed be it in us, we say - in all.
88. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. אם תלמיד חכם הוא אין צריך אמר אביי אף תלמיד חכם מיבעי ליה למימר חד פסוקא דרחמי כגון (תהלים לא, ו) בידך אפקיד רוחי פדיתה אותי ה' אל אמת:,א"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר"ש בן לקיש לעולם ירגיז אדם יצר טוב על יצר הרע שנא' (תהלים ד, ה) רגזו ואל תחטאו. אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר אמרו בלבבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יקרא קריאת שמע שנאמר על משכבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יזכור לו יום המיתה שנאמר ודומו סלה.,וא"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (שמות כד, יב) ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורותם לוחות אלו עשרת הדברות תורה זה מקרא והמצוה זו משנה אשר כתבתי אלו נביאים וכתובים להורותם זה גמרא מלמד שכולם נתנו למשה מסיני:,א"ר יצחק כל הקורא ק"ש על מטתו כאלו אוחז חרב של שתי פיות בידו שנאמר (תהלים קמט, ו) רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם מאי משמע אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי מרישא דענינא דכתיב (תהלים קמט, ה) יעלזו חסידים בכבוד ירננו על משכבותם וכתיב בתריה רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם.,ואמר רבי יצחק כל הקורא קריאת שמע על מטתו מזיקין בדילין הימנו שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא מזיקין שנאמר (דברים לב, כד) מזי רעב ולחומי רשף וקטב מרירי.,אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל העוסק בתורה יסורין בדילין הימנו שנאמר ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא יסורין שנאמר מזי רעב ולחומי רשף,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן הא אפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו שנאמר (שמות טו, כו) ויאמר אם שמוע תשמע לקול ה' אלהיך והישר בעיניו תעשה והאזנת למצותיו ושמרת כל חקיו כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך כי אני ה' רופאך אלא כל שאפשר לו לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק הקב"ה מביא עליו יסורין מכוערין ועוכרין אותו שנא' (תהלים לט, ג) נאלמתי דומיה החשיתי מטוב וכאבי נעכר ואין טוב אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם מוכר חפץ לחבירו מוכר עצב ולוקח שמח אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן להם תורה לישראל ושמח שנא' כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב חסדא אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו יפשפש במעשיו שנא' (איכה ג, מ) נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ה' פשפש ולא מצא יתלה בבטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ואם תלה ולא מצא בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם שנאמר (משלי ג, יב) כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח.,אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא כל שהקב"ה חפץ בו מדכאו ביסורין שנאמר (ישעיהו נג, י) וה' חפץ דכאו החלי,יכול אפילו לא קבלם מאהבה תלמוד לומר (ישעיהו נג, י) אם תשים אשם נפשו מה אשם לדעת אף יסורין לדעת,ואם קבלם מה שכרו (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים ולא עוד אלא שתלמודו מתקיים בידו שנא' (ישעיהו נג, י) וחפץ ה' בידו יצלח,פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי אחא בר חנינא חד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,וחד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תפלה שנאמר (תהלים סו, כ) ברוך אלהים אשר לא הסיר תפלתי וחסדו מאתי,אמר להו רבי אבא בריה דר' חייא בר אבא הכי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אלו ואלו יסורין של אהבה הן שנאמר כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח,אלא מה ת"ל (תהלים צד, יב) ומתורתך תלמדנו אל תקרי תלמדנו אלא תלמדנו דבר זה מתורתך תלמדנו,ק"ו משן ועין מה שן ועין שהן אחד מאבריו של אדם עבד יוצא בהן לחרות יסורין שממרקין כל גופו של אדם על אחת כמה וכמה,והיינו דרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רשב"ל נאמר ברית במלח ונאמר ברית ביסורין נאמר ברית במלח דכתיב (ויקרא ב, יג) ולא תשבית מלח ברית ונאמר ברית ביסורין דכתיב (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית מה ברית האמור במלח מלח ממתקת את הבשר אף ברית האמור ביסורין יסורין ממרקין כל עונותיו של אדם:,תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר שלש מתנות טובות נתן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל וכולן לא נתנן אלא ע"י יסורין אלו הן תורה וארץ ישראל והעולם הבא,תורה מנין שנאמר אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ארץ ישראל דכתיב (דברים ח, ה) כי כאשר ייסר איש את בנו ה' אלהיך מיסרך וכתיב בתריה כי ה' אלהיך מביאך אל ארץ טובה,העולם הבא דכתיב (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ודרך חיים תוכחות מוסר.,תני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן כל העוסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים 5a. bIf one is a Torah scholar, he need notrecite iShemaon his bed since he is always engaged in the study of Torah and will likely fall asleep engrossed in matters of Torah. bAbaye said: Even a Torah scholar must recite at least one verse of prayer, such as: “Into Your hand I trust my spirit; You have redeemed me, Lord, God of truth”(Psalms 31:6).,Incidental to the verse, “Tremble, and do not sin,” the Gemara mentions that bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One should always incite his good inclination against his evil inclination,i.e., that one must constantly struggle so that his evil inclination does not lead him to transgression, bas it is stated: "Tremble, and do not sin."br bIfone succeeds and bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent,but bifhe does bnotsucceed in subduing it, he should bstudy Torah,as alluded to in bthe verse: “Say to your heart.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should recite iShema /i,which contains the acceptance of the yoke of God, and the concept of reward and punishment, bas it is statedin the verse: b“Upon your bed,”which alludes to iShema /i, where it says: “When you lie down.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should remind himself of the day of death,whose silence is alluded to in the continuation of bthe verse: “And be still, Selah.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:God said to Moses, “Ascend to me on the mountain and be there, band I will give you the stone tablets and the Torah and the mitzva that I have written that you may teach them”(Exodus 24:12), meaning that God revealed to Moses not only the Written Torah, but all of Torah, as it would be transmitted through the generations. br bThe “tablets” are the ten commandmentsthat were written on the tablets of the Covet, br bthe “Torah” is the five books of Moses. br bThe “mitzva” is the Mishna,which includes explanations for the mitzvot and how they are to be performed. br b“That I have written” refers to the Prophets and Writings,written with divine inspiration. br b“That you may teach them” refers to the Talmud,which explains the Mishna. brThese explanations are the foundation for the rulings of practical ihalakha /i. This verse bteachesthat ballaspects of Torah bwere given toMoses bfrom Sinai. /b,The Gemara continues its treatment of the recitation of iShemaupon one’s bed. bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaon his bed, it is as if he holds a double-edged sword,guarding him from all evil, bas it is stated: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands”(Psalms 149:6). The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat this verse from Psalms refers to the recitation of iShema /i? bMar Zutra, and some say Rav Ashi, said:We derive it bfrom the precedingverse, bas it is written: “Let the pious exult in glory; let them joyously sing upon their beds.”The praise of God from one’s bed is the recitation of iShema /i. bAnd it is written thereafter: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaupon his bed, demons stay away from him.This is alluded to, bas it is stated:“But man is born into trouble, band the sparks [ ireshef] fly [ iuf] upward”(Job 5:7). The verse is explained: The word bfly [ iuf]means bnothing other than Torah,as Torah is difficult to grasp and easy to lose, like something that floats away, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;for riches certainly make themselves wings, like an eagle that flies into the heavens” (Proverbs 23:5). The word b“sparks”means bnothing other than demons, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks [ ireshef /i] and bitter destruction [ iketev meriri /i],and the teeth of beasts I will send upon them, with the venom of crawling things of the dust” (Deuteronomy 32:24). Here we see iresheflisted along with iketev meriri /i, both of which are understood by the Sages to be names of demons.,Regarding this unclear verse, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: If one engages in Torahstudy, bsuffering stays away from him, as it is stated: “And the sparks fly upward.”And bflymeans bnothing other than Torah, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;and sparksmeans bnothing other than suffering, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks,”equating devouring sparks with wasting hunger, as both are types of suffering. From here, we derive that through Torah, fly, one is able to distance himself, upward, from suffering, sparks., bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Even schoolchildren,who learn only the Written Torah, bknow thisconcept bas it is stated: “And He said you shall surely hear the voice of the Lord your God, and what is upright in His eyes you shall do and you shall listen to His mitzvot and guard His statutes; any disease that I have placed upon Egypt I will not place upon you for I am the Lord your healer”(Exodus 15:26). bRather,one must interpret the verse: bAnyone who is able to engage in Torahstudy byet does not engagein that study, not only does bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,fail to protect him, but He bbrings upon him hideous afflictions,that embarrass him band trouble him, as it is stated: “I was mute with silence; I was silent from good, and my pain was strong”(Psalms 39:3). The word bgoodmeans bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it”(Proverbs 4:2). The verse should be understood: “I have been silent from the study of Torah, and my pain was strong.”,With regard to the verse: “For I have given you a good portion,” bRabbi Zeira, and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa, said: Come and see how the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, are unlike the characteristics of flesh and blood. It is characteristic of flesh and blood that when one sells an object to anotherperson, bthe seller grievesthe loss of his possession band the buyer rejoices. With regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He,however, bthis is not so. He gave the Torah to Israel and rejoiced, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it.”A good portion is understood as a good purchase; although God sold Torah to Israel, He rejoices in the sale and praises the object before its new owner (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).,Previously, the Gemara discussed suffering that results from one’s transgressions. The Gemara shifts the focus and discusses suffering that does not result from one’s transgressions and the suffering of the righteous. bRava, and some say Rav Ḥisda, said: If a person sees that suffering has befallen him, he should examine his actions.Generally, suffering comes about as punishment for one’s transgressions, bas it is stated: “We will search and examine our ways, and return to God”(Lamentations 3:40). bIf he examinedhis ways and bfound notransgression for which that suffering is appropriate, bhe may attributehis suffering bto derelictionin the study bof Torah.God punishes an individual for dereliction in the study of Torah in order to emphasize the gravity of the issue, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You punish, Lord, and teach out of Your law”(Psalms 94:12). This verse teaches us that his suffering will cause him to return to Your law., bAnd if he did attributehis suffering to dereliction in the study of Torah, band did not findthis to be so, bhe may be confident that these are afflictions of love, as it is stated: “For whom the Lord loves, He rebukes,as does a father the son in whom he delights” (Proverbs 3:12).,So too, bRava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: Anyone in whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, delights, He oppresses him with suffering, as it is stated: “Yet in whom the Lord delights, He oppresses him with disease;to see if his soul would offer itself in guilt, that he might see his children, lengthen his days, and that the desire of the Lord might prosper by his hand” (Isaiah 53:10). This verse illustrates that in whomever God delights, he afflicts with illness.,I bmighthave thought that God delights in him even bif he does not accepthis suffering bwith love. Therefore the verse teaches: “If his soul would offer itself in guilt.” Just as a guilt-offering is brought knowingly,as it is one of the sacrifices offered willingly, without coercion, bso toohis bsufferingmust be accepted bknowingly. /b, bAnd if one acceptsthat suffering with love, bwhat is his reward?As the second part of the verse states: b“That he might see his children, lengthen his days.” Moreover,in addition to these earthly rewards, bhisTorah bstudy will endureand his Torah study will be successful, bas it is stated: “The purpose of the Lord,”the Torah, the revelation of God’s will, b“might prosper by his hand.” /b,With regard to the acceptance of affliction with love and what exactly this entails, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina disagree. Oneof them bsaid: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the study bof Torah,i.e., any which do not afflict his body to the extent that he is unable to study Torah, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord, and teach from Your Torah.”Afflictions of love are when You “teach from Your Torah.”, bAnd one said: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the recitation bof prayer, as it is stated: “Blessed is God Who did not turn away my prayer”(Psalms 66:20). Despite his suffering, the afflicted is still capable of praying to God., bRabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said:My father, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: Both,even afflictions that cause dereliction in the study of Torah and those that cause dereliction in the recitation of prayer, bare afflictions of love,as with regard to one who suffers without transgression bit is stated: “For whom He loves, He rebukes,”and inability to study Torah and to pray are among his afflictions., bWhat then,is the meaning when bthe verse states: “And teach him from Your Torah”? Do not read and teachto mean and bteach him /b, brather, and teach us /b. bYou teach usthe value of bthisaffliction bfrom Your Torah. /b,This is taught through ban ia fortioriinference fromthe law concerning bthe tooth and eyeof a slave: bThe tooth and eye areeach ba single limb of a personand if his master damages either, bthe slave thereby obtains his freedom; suffering that cleanses a person’s entire body all the more sothat one attains freedom, atonement, from his sins., bAnd that isthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, andthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions.The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, as it is written: “The salt of the covetwith your God bshould not be excludedfrom your meal-offering; with all your sacrifices you must offer salt” (Leviticus 2:13). bAndthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions, as it is written: “These are the words of the covet”(Deuteronomy 28:69). bJust as,in bthe covet mentioned with regard to salt, the salt sweetensthe taste of bthe meatand renders it edible, bso tooin bthe covet mentioned with regard to suffering, the suffering cleanses a person’s transgressions,purifying him for a more sublime existence.,Additionally, bit was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to affliction: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Israel three precious gifts, all of which were given only by means of suffering,which purified Israel so that they may merit to receive them. These gifts are: bTorah, Eretz Yisrael, and the World-to-Come. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bTorahis only acquired by means of suffering? bAs it is said: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord,”after which it is said: b“And teach from Your Torah.” /b, bEretz Yisrael, as it is written: “As a man rebukes his son, so the Lord your God rebukes you”(Deuteronomy 8:5), band it is written thereafter: “For the Lord your God will bring you to a good land.” /b, bThe World-to-Come, as it is written: “For the mitzva is a lamp, the Torah is light, and the reproofs of instruction are the way of life”(Proverbs 6:23). One may arrive at the lamp of mitzva and the light of Torah that exists in the World-to-Come only by means of the reproofs of instruction in this world., bA itannataughtthe following ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa: If one engages in Torah and acts of charity /b
89. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107b. בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב (שמואל ב ה, ה) בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו' והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב ש"מ נצטרע,אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך (תהלים פו, יז) עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שונאי ויבושו כי אתה ה' עזרתני ונחמתני א"ל בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך,בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר (תהלים כד, ז) שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה' עזוז וגבור ה' גבור מלחמה ונאמר (תהלים כד, ט) שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד וגו' ולא נענה,כיון שאמר (דברי הימים ב ו, מב) ה' אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקב"ה על אותו העון,גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל א"ר יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,וא"ד רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה [נא] המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) [צר],תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים [ולא כרבי יהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו ליש"ו בשתי ידים],גחזי דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) [ויפרץ] בו ויצר ככרים כסף וגו' ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל,אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא א"ל זיל טבול בירדן א"ל אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד,כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחא עילויה רישיה א"ל רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך עד עולם ויצא מלפניו מצורע כשלג: (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים פתח השער אמר ר' יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו,[הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי יהושע בן פרחיה מאי הוא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל רבי יהושע בן פרחיה ויש"ו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח לי' שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש ליכי אלכסנדרי' של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה,קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה,אתא לקמיה כמה זמנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר יש"ו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל:],תניא א"ר שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת,ת"ר ג' חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו [שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו וגו'],עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דור המבול אין להם חלק לעוה"ב ואין עומדין בדין שנא' (בראשית ו, ג) לא ידון רוחי באדם לעולם לא דין ולא רוח דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (בראשית יא, ח) ויפץ ה' אותם משם על פני כל הארץ (וכתיב ומשם הפיצם) ויפץ ה' אותם בעוה"ז ומשם הפיצם ה' לעולם הבא אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנא' (בראשית יג, יג) ואנשי סדום רעים וחטאים לה' מאד רעים בעולם הזה וחטאים לעולם הבא אבל עומדין בדין,ר' נחמיה אומר אלו ואלו אין עומדין בדין שנאמר (תהלים א, ה) על כן לא יקומו 107b. bin Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years”(I Kings 2:11). bAnd it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six monthsand in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II Samuel 5:5). bAnd those six months,the prophet bdid not tallythem as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. bConclude from itthat there were six months that he was not considered king because he bwas afflicted with leprosy. /b,David bsaid before Himafter this: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for this sin.God said to him: bIt is forgiven for you.David requested: b“Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame”(Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God bsaid to him: In your lifetime I will not makeit bknownthat you were forgiven, bbut I will makeit bknown in the lifetime of your son, Solomon. /b,The Gemara explains: bWhen Solomon built the Templeand bsought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies,the bgates clung togetherand could not be opened. Solomon buttered twenty-four songsof praise, bandhis prayer bwas not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle”(Psalms 24:7–8). bAnd it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in.Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), band he was not answered. /b, bOnce he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant”(II Chronicles 6:42), bhe was immediately answered,and the gates opened (II Chronicles 7:1). bAt that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turneddark blike thecharred bbottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin,as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.,§ The mishna states that bGehazi,the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is bas it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus(see II Kings 8:7). bWhere did he go,and for what purpose? bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent.Elisha bsaid to him: Repent.Gehazi bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b, bWhat did he dothat caused the masses to sin? bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin,i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that bhe suspended it between heaven and earth,i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. bAnd there arethose bwho say: He engravedthe sacred bnameof God bon its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I amthe Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), band: “You shall not haveother gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before., bAnd there arethose bwho say:Gehazi bpushed the Sagesaway bfromcoming bbefore him,i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, bas it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us”(II Kings 6:1). It may be derived bby inference that until now they were not numerousand the place was not bcrampedfor them, as Gehazi would turn people away., bThe Sages taught: Always have the lefthand bdrivesinners baway and the right drawthem bnear,so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is bunlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two handsand caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, band unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands. /b,Elisha drove bGehaziaway, bas it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silverin two bags, with two changes of garments” (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: b“And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?”(II Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: bAnd didGehazi btake all that? It ismerely bsilver and garments that he took. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This was the incident involving Gehazi: bAt that moment, Elisha was sitting and teachingthe ihalakhotof the beightimpure bcreeping animals.Now bNaaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. WhenNaaman bcameto him, Elisha bsaid to him: Go immerse in the Jordan.Naaman bsaid to him: Are you mocking meby suggesting that this will cure me? bThosecompanions bwho were withNaaman bsaid to him: What is the difference to you? Go, tryit. Naaman bwent and immersed in the Jordan and was healed.Naaman bcameand bbrought toElisha ball thoseitems bthat he hadtaken with him from Aram, and Elisha bdid not agree to receivethem bfrom him. Gehazi took leave from before Elishaand bwentand btookfrom Naaman bwhat he took, andhe bdepositedthem., bWhenGehazi bcame, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown onGehazi’s bhead.Elisha bsaid to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to takeyour breward forstudying the matter of bthe eight creeping animals.Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: b“The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow”(II Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: b“And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate”(II Kings 7:3), bRabbi Yoḥa says:These were bGehazi and his three sons,as he and his descendants were cursed.,§ bWhat isthe incident involving bYehoshua ben Peraḥya?The Gemara relates: bWhen King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus,his student, bwent to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peacebetween King Yannai and the Sages, bShimon ben Shataḥ senta message btoYehoshua ben Peraḥya: bFrom me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate.The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.,Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, barose, came, and happenedto arrive at ba certain innon the way to Jerusalem. bThey treated him with great honor.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid: How beautiful is this inn.Jesus, his student, bsaid to him:But bmy teacher, the eyes ofthe innkeeper’s wife bare narrow [ iterutot /i].Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid to him: Wicked one!Do byou involve yourself with regard to thatmatter, the appearance of a married woman? bHe produced four hundred ishofarotand ostracized him. /b,Jesus bcame beforeYehoshua ben Peraḥya bseveral timesand bsaid to him: Accept our,i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya btook no notice of him. One dayYehoshua ben Peraḥya bwas reciting iShema /iand Jesus bcame before himwith the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bintended to accept hisrequest, and bsignaled him with his handto wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and bthought: He is driving me away. He wentand bstood a brickupright to serve as an idol band he bowed to it.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then bsaid toJesus: bRepent.Jesus bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incitedJews to engage in idolatry, band led Israel astray.Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to the evil binclination,to ba child, andto ba woman, have the lefthand bdrivethem baway and the right drawthem bnear.Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness., bThe Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: Oneillness was due to the fact bthat he incited bears toattack and eat bchildren(see II Kings 2:24–25); band onewas due to the fact bthat he pushed Gehazi away with two handsand caused him to despair of atonement; band onewas the illness bfrom which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illnessfrom which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.,Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: bUntilthe time of bAbraham there was no aging,and the old and the young looked the same. bAnyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac,and banyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age”(Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. bUntilthe time of bJacob there was no weakness,i.e., illness. Jacob bprayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill”(Genesis 48:1). bUntilthe time of bElisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die”(II Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.,mishna The members of bthe generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgmentat the end of days, bas it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [ iyadon /i] in man forever”(Genesis 6:3); bneitherwill they stand in bjudgment [ idin /i] norshall their bsoulsbe restored to them. The members of bthe generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth”(Genesis 11:8), band it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter themupon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). b“And the Lord scattered them”indicates bin this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly”(Genesis 13:13). b“Wicked”indicates bin this world; “and sinners”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgmentand they will be sentenced to eternal contempt., bRabbi Neḥemya says:Both bthese,the people of Sodom, band those,the members of the generation of the flood, bwill not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand /b
90. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 9.9.4-9.9.9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

9.9.4. Then, that he might not be compelled to wage war with the Romans for the sake of the tyrant, God himself drew the latter, as if bound in chains, some distance without the gates, and confirmed those threats against the impious which had been anciently inscribed in sacred books — disbelieved, indeed, by most as a myth, but believed by the faithful, — confirmed them, in a word, by the deed itself to all, both believers and unbelievers, that saw the wonder with their eyes. 9.9.5. Thus, as in the time of Moses himself and of the ancient God-beloved race of Hebrews, he cast Pharaoh's chariots and host into the sea, and overwhelmed his chosen charioteers in the Red Sea, and covered them with the flood, in the same way Maxentius also with his soldiers and body-guards went down into the depths like a stone, when he fled before the power of God which was with Constantine, and passed through the river which lay in his way, over which he had formed a bridge with boats, and thus prepared the means of his own destruction. 9.9.6. In regard to him one might say, he dug a pit and opened it and fell into the hole which he had made; his labor shall turn upon his own head, and his unrighteousness shall fall upon his own crown. 9.9.7. Thus, then, the bridge over the river being broken, the passageway settled down, and immediately the boats with the men disappeared in the depths, and that most impious one himself first of all, then the shield-bearers who were with him, as the divine oracles foretold, sank like lead in the mighty waters; so that those who obtained the victory from God, if not in words, at least in deeds, like Moses, the great servant of God, and those who were with him, fittingly sang as they had sung against the impious tyrant of old, saying, Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has gloriously glorified himself; horse and rider has he thrown into the sea; a helper and a protector has he become for my salvation; and Who is like you, O Lord; among the gods, who is like you glorious in holiness, marvelous in glory, doing wonders. 9.9.8. These and the like praises Constantine, by his very deeds, sang to God, the universal Ruler, and Author of his victory, as he entered Rome in triumph. 9.9.9. Immediately all the members of the senate and the other most celebrated men, with the whole Roman people, together with children and women, received him as their deliverer, their saviour, and their benefactor, with shining eyes and with their whole souls, with shouts of gladness and unbounded joy.
91. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 13.12.4-13.12.5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

92. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine, 1.27-1.29 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.27. Being convinced, however, that he needed some more powerful aid than his military forces could afford him, on account of the wicked and magical enchantments which were so diligently practiced by the tyrant, he sought Divine assistance, deeming the possession of arms and a numerous soldiery of secondary importance, but believing the co-operating power of Deity invincible and not to be shaken. He considered, therefore, on what God he might rely for protection and assistance. While engaged in this enquiry, the thought occurred to him, that, of the many emperors who had preceded him, those who had rested their hopes in a multitude of gods, and served them with sacrifices and offerings, had in the first place been deceived by flattering predictions, and oracles which promised them all prosperity, and at last had met with an unhappy end, while not one of their gods had stood by to warn them of the impending wrath of heaven; while one alone who had pursued an entirely opposite course, who had condemned their error, and honored the one Supreme God during his whole life, had found him to be the Saviour and Protector of his empire, and the Giver of every good thing. Reflecting on this, and well weighing the fact that they who had trusted in many gods had also fallen by manifold forms of death, without leaving behind them either family or offspring, stock, name, or memorial among men: while the God of his father had given to him, on the other hand, manifestations of his power and very many tokens: and considering farther that those who had already taken arms against the tyrant, and had marched to the battlefield under the protection of a multitude of gods, had met with a dishonorable end (for one of them had shamefully retreated from the contest without a blow, and the other, being slain in the midst of his own troops, became, as it were, the mere sport of death ); reviewing, I say, all these considerations, he judged it to be folly indeed to join in the idle worship of those who were no gods, and, after such convincing evidence, to err from the truth; and therefore felt it incumbent on him to honor his father's God alone. 1.28. Accordingly he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him who he was, and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history, when he was honored with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed his statement by an oath, who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription, Conquer by this . At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also, which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle. intensest reality the vision of the words, so that for the moment he was living in the intensest reality of such a vision. His mind had just that intense activity to which such a thing is possible or actual. It is like Goethe's famous meeting of his own self. It is that genius power for the realistic representation of ideal things. This is not the same exactly as "hallucination," or even "imagination." The hallucination probably came later when Constantine gradually represented to himself and finally to Eusebius the vivid idea with its slight ground, as an objective reality,—a common phenomenon. When the emperor went to sleep, his brain molecules vibrating to the forms of his late intense thought, he inevitably dreamed, and dreaming naturally confirmed his thought. This does not say that the suggestive form seen, or the idea itself, and the direction of the dream itself, were not providential and the work of the Holy Spirit, for they were, and were special in character, and so miraculous (or why do ideas come?); but it is to be feared that Constantine's own spirit or something else furnished some of the later details. There is a slight difference of authority as to when and where the vision took place. The panegyrist seems to make it before leaving Gaul, and Malalas is inaccurate as usual in having it happen in a war against the barbarians. For farther discussion of the subject see monographs under Literature in the Prolegomena, especially under the names: Baring, Du Voisin, Fabricius, Girault, Heumann, Jacutius Mamachi, Molinet, St. Victor, Suhr, Toderini, Weidener, Wernsdorf, Woltereck. The most concise, clear, and admirable supporter of the account of Eusebius, or rather Constantine, as it stands, is Newman, Miracles (Lond. 1875), 271-286.}-- 1.29. He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import of this apparition could be. And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night suddenly came on; then in his sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.
93. Nag Hammadi, Apocalypse of James, 11.14-11.15, 24.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

94. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 66.8-66.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

95. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 14, 43, 53, 6, 13 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

96. Origen, Commentary On John, 19.77 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

97. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

98. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.24-1.25, 5.45-5.46 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.24. After this he continues: These herdsmen and shepherds concluded that there was but one God, named either the Highest, or Adonai, or the Heavenly, or Sabaoth, or called by some other of those names which they delight to give this world; and they knew nothing beyond that. And in a subsequent part of his work he says, that It makes no difference whether the God who is over all things be called by the name of Zeus, which is current among the Greeks, or by that, e.g., which is in use among the Indians or Egyptians. Now, in answer to this, we have to remark that this involves a deep and mysterious subject - that, viz., respecting the nature of names: it being a question whether, as Aristotle thinks, names were bestowed by arrangement, or, as the Stoics hold, by nature; the first words being imitations of things, agreeably to which the names were formed, and in conformity with which they introduce certain principles of etymology; or whether, as Epicurus teaches (differing in this from the Stoics), names were given by nature, - the first men having uttered certain words varying with the circumstances in which they found themselves. If, then, we shall be able to establish, in reference to the preceding statement, the nature of powerful names, some of which are used by the learned among the Egyptians, or by the Magi among the Persians, and by the Indian philosophers called Brahmans, or by the Saman ans, and others in different countries; and shall be able to make out that the so-called magic is not, as the followers of Epicurus and Aristotle suppose, an altogether uncertain thing, but is, as those skilled in it prove, a consistent system, having words which are known to exceedingly few; then we say that the name Sabaoth, and Adonai, and the other names treated with so much reverence among the Hebrews, are not applicable to any ordinary created things, but belong to a secret theology which refers to the Framer of all things. These names, accordingly, when pronounced with that attendant train of circumstances which is appropriate to their nature, are possessed of great power; and other names, again, current in the Egyptian tongue, are efficacious against certain demons who can only do certain things; and other names in the Persian language have corresponding power over other spirits; and so on in every individual nation, for different purposes. And thus it will be found that, of the various demons upon the earth, to whom different localities have been assigned, each one bears a name appropriate to the several dialects of place and country. He, therefore, who has a nobler idea, however small, of these matters, will be careful not to apply differing names to different things; lest he should resemble those who mistakenly apply the name of God to lifeless matter, or who drag down the title of the Good from the First Cause, or from virtue and excellence, and apply it to blind Plutus, and to a healthy and well-proportioned mixture of flesh and blood and bones, or to what is considered to be noble birth. 1.25. And perhaps there is a danger as great as that which degrades the name of God, or of the Good, to improper objects, in changing the name of God according to a secret system, and applying those which belong to inferior beings to greater, and vice versa. And I do not dwell on this, that when the name of Zeus is uttered, there is heard at the same time that of the son of Kronos and Rhea, and the husband of Hera, and brother of Poseidon, and father of Athene, and Artemis, who was guilty of incest with his own daughter Persephone; or that Apollo immediately suggests the son of Leto and Zeus, and the brother of Artemis, and half-brother of Hermes; and so with all the other names invented by these wise men of Celsus, who are the parents of these opinions, and the ancient theologians of the Greeks. For what are the grounds for deciding that he should on the one hand be properly called Zeus, and yet on the other should not have Kronos for his father and Rhea for his mother? And the same argument applies to all the others that are called gods. But this charge does not at all apply to those who, for some mysterious reason, refer the word Sabaoth, or Adonai, or any of the other names to the (true) God. And when one is able to philosophize about the mystery of names, he will find much to say respecting the titles of the angels of God, of whom one is called Michael, and another Gabriel, and another Raphael, appropriately to the duties which they discharge in the world, according to the will of the God of all things. And a similar philosophy of names applies also to our Jesus, whose name has already been seen, in an unmistakeable manner, to have expelled myriads of evil spirits from the souls and bodies (of men), so great was the power which it exerted upon those from whom the spirits were driven out. And while still upon the subject of names, we have to mention that those who are skilled in the use of incantations, relate that the utterance of the same incantation in its proper language can accomplish what the spell professes to do; but when translated into any other tongue, it is observed to become inefficacious and feeble. And thus it is not the things signified, but the qualities and peculiarities of words, which possess a certain power for this or that purpose. And so on such grounds as these we defend the conduct of the Christians, when they struggle even to death to avoid calling God by the name of Zeus, or to give Him a name from any other language. For they either use the common name - God - indefinitely, or with some such addition as that of the Maker of all things, the Creator of heaven and earth - He who sent down to the human race those good men, to whose names that of God being added, certain mighty works are wrought among men. And much more besides might be said on the subject of names, against those who think that we ought to be indifferent as to our use of them. And if the remark of Plato in the Philebus should surprise us, when he says, My fear, O Protagoras, about the names of the gods is no small one, seeing Philebus in his discussion with Socrates had called pleasure a god, how shall we not rather approve the piety of the Christians, who apply none of the names used in the mythologies to the Creator of the world? And now enough on this subject for the present. 5.45. As Celsus, however, is of opinion that it matters nothing whether the highest being be called Jupiter, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth, or Ammoun (as the Egyptians term him), or Papp us (as the Scythians entitle him), let us discuss the point for a little, reminding the reader at the same time of what has been said above upon this question, when the language of Celsus led us to consider the subject. And now we maintain that the nature of names is not, as Aristotle supposes, an enactment of those who impose them. For the languages which are prevalent among men do not derive their origin from men, as is evident to those who are able to ascertain the nature of the charms which are appropriated by the inventors of the languages differently, according to the various tongues, and to the varying pronunciations of the names, on which we have spoken briefly in the preceding pages, remarking that when those names which in a certain language were possessed of a natural power were translated into another, they were no longer able to accomplish what they did before when uttered in their native tongues. And the same peculiarity is found to apply to men; for if we were to translate the name of one who was called from his birth by a certain appellation in the Greek language into the Egyptian or Roman, or any other tongue, we could not make him do or suffer the same things which he would have done or suffered under the appellation first bestowed upon him. Nay, even if we translated into the Greek language the name of an individual who had been originally invoked in the Roman tongue, we could not produce the result which the incantation professed itself capable of accomplishing had it preserved the name first conferred upon him. And if these statements are true when spoken of the names of men, what are we to think of those which are transferred, for any cause whatever, to the Deity? For example, something is transferred from the name Abraham when translated into Greek, and something is signified by that of Isaac, and also by that of Jacob; and accordingly, if any one, either in an invocation or in swearing an oath, were to use the expression, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, he would produce certain effects, either owing to the nature of these names or to their powers, since even demons are vanquished and become submissive to him who pronounces these names; whereas if we say, the god of the chosen father of the echo, and the god of laughter, and the god of him who strikes with the heel, the mention of the name is attended with no result, as is the case with other names possessed of no power. And in the same way, if we translate the word Israel into Greek or any other language, we shall produce no result; but if we retain it as it is, and join it to those expressions to which such as are skilled in these matters think it ought to be united, there would then follow some result from the pronunciation of the word which would accord with the professions of those who employ such invocations. And we may say the same also of the pronunciation of Sabaoth, a word which is frequently employed in incantations; for if we translate the term into Lord of hosts, or Lord of armies, or Almighty (different acceptation of it having been proposed by the interpreters), we shall accomplish nothing; whereas if we retain the original pronunciation, we shall, as those who are skilled in such matters maintain, produce some effect. And the same observation holds good of Adonai. If, then, neither Sabaoth nor Adonai, when rendered into what appears to be their meaning in the Greek tongue, can accomplish anything, how much less would be the result among those who regard it as a matter of indifference whether the highest being be called Jupiter, or Zen, or Adonai, or Sabaoth! 5.46. It was for these and similar mysterious reasons, with which Moses and the prophets were acquainted, that they forbade the name of other gods to be pronounced by him who bethought himself of praying to the one Supreme God alone, or to be remembered by a heart which had been taught to be pure from all foolish thoughts and words. And for these reasons we should prefer to endure all manner of suffering rather than acknowledge Jupiter to be God. For we do not consider Jupiter and Sabaoth to be the same, nor Jupiter to be at all divine, but that some demon, unfriendly to men and to the true God, rejoices under this title. And although the Egyptians were to hold Ammon before us under threat of death, we would rather die than address him as God, it being a name used in all probability in certain Egyptian incantations in which this demon is invoked. And although the Scythians may call Papp us the supreme God, yet we will not yield our assent to this; granting, indeed, that there is a Supreme Deity, although we do not give the name Papp us to Him as His proper title, but regard it as one which is agreeable to the demon to whom was allotted the desert of Scythia, with its people and its language. He, however, who gives God His title in the Scythian tongue, or in the Egyptian or in any language in which he has been brought up, will not be guilty of sin.
99. Origen, On Prayer, 24.2, 25.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

100. Origen, Exhortation To Martyrdom, 46 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

101. Origen, Homilies On Joshua, 13.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

102. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 13.138-13.139 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

103. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 17 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

104. Augustine, The City of God, 8.11, 12.1-12.2, 12.5-12.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.11. Certain partakers with us in the grace of Christ, wonder when they hear and read that Plato had conceptions concerning God, in which they recognize considerable agreement with the truth of our religion. Some have concluded from this, that when he went to Egypt he had heard the prophet Jeremiah, or, while travelling in the same country, had read the prophetic scriptures, which opinion I myself have expressed in certain of my writings. But a careful calculation of dates, contained in chronological history, shows that Plato was born about a hundred years after the time in which Jeremiah prophesied, and, as he lived eighty-one years, there are found to have been about seventy years from his death to that time when Ptolemy, king of Egypt, requested the prophetic scriptures of the Hebrew people to be sent to him from Judea, and committed them to seventy Hebrews, who also knew the Greek tongue, to be translated and kept. Therefore, on that voyage of his, Plato could neither have seen Jeremiah, who was dead so long before, nor have read those same scriptures which had not yet been translated into the Greek language, of which he was a master, unless, indeed, we say that, as he was most earnest in the pursuit of knowledge, he also studied those writings through an interpreter, as he did those of the Egyptians, - not, indeed, writing a translation of them (the facilities for doing which were only gained even by Ptolemy in return for munificent acts of kindness, though fear of his kingly authority might have seemed a sufficient motive), but learning as much as he possibly could concerning their contents by means of conversation. What warrants this supposition are the opening verses of Genesis: In the beginning God made the heaven and earth. And the earth was invisible, and without order; and darkness was over the abyss: and the Spirit of God moved over the waters. Genesis 1:1-2 For in the Tim us, when writing on the formation of the world, he says that God first united earth and fire; from which it is evident that he assigns to fire a place in heaven. This opinion bears a certain resemblance to the statement, In the beginning God made heaven and earth. Plato next speaks of those two intermediary elements, water and air, by which the other two extremes, namely, earth and fire, were mutually united; from which circumstance he is thought to have so understood the words, The Spirit of God moved over the waters. For, not paying sufficient attention to the designations given by those scriptures to the Spirit of God, he may have thought that the four elements are spoken of in that place, because the air also is called spirit. Then, as to Plato's saying that the philosopher is a lover of God, nothing shines forth more conspicuously in those sacred writings. But the most striking thing in this connection, and that which most of all inclines me almost to assent to the opinion that Plato was not ignorant of those writings, is the answer which was given to the question elicited from the holy Moses when the words of God were conveyed to him by the angel; for, when he asked what was the name of that God who was commanding him to go and deliver the Hebrew people out of Egypt, this answer was given: I am who am; and you shall say to the children of Israel, He who is sent me unto you; Exodus 3:14 as though compared with Him that truly is, because He is unchangeable, those things which have been created mutable are not - a truth which Plato zealously held, and most diligently commended. And I know not whether this sentiment is anywhere to be found in the books of those who were before Plato, unless in that book where it is said, I am who am; and you shall say to the children of Israel, who is sent me unto you. 12.1. It has already, in the preceding book, been shown how the two cities originated among the angels. Before I speak of the creation of man, and show how the cities took their rise so far as regards the race of rational mortals I see that I must first, so far as I can, adduce what may demonstrate that it is not incongruous and unsuitable to speak of a society composed of angels and men together; so that there are not four cities or societies - two, namely, of angels, and as many of men - but rather two in all, one composed of the good, the other of the wicked, angels or men indifferently. That the contrary propensities in good and bad angels have arisen, not from a difference in their nature and origin, since God, the good Author and Creator of all essences, created them both, but from a difference in their wills and desires, it is impossible to doubt. While some steadfastly continued in that which was the common good of all, namely, in God Himself, and in His eternity, truth, and love; others, being enamored rather of their own power, as if they could be their own good, lapsed to this private good of their own, from that higher and beatific good which was common to all, and, bartering the lofty dignity of eternity for the inflation of pride, the most assured verity for the slyness of vanity, uniting love for factious partisanship, they became proud, deceived, envious. The cause, therefore, of the blessedness of the good is adherence to God. And so the cause of the others' misery will be found in the contrary, that is, in their not adhering to God. Wherefore, if when the question is asked, why are the former blessed, it is rightly answered, because they adhere to God; and when it is asked, why are the latter miserable, it is rightly answered, because they do not adhere to God - then there is no other good for the rational or intellectual creature save God only. Thus, though it is not every creature that can be blessed (for beasts, trees, stones, and things of that kind have not this capacity), yet that creature which has the capacity cannot be blessed of itself, since it is created out of nothing, but only by Him by whom it has been created. For it is blessed by the possession of that whose loss makes it miserable. He, then, who is blessed not in another, but in himself, cannot be miserable, because he cannot lose himself. Accordingly we say that there is no unchangeable good but the one, true, blessed God; that the things which He made are indeed good because from Him, yet mutable because made not out of Him, but out of nothing. Although, therefore, they are not the supreme good, for God is a greater good, yet those mutable things which can adhere to the immutable good, and so be blessed, are very good; for so completely is He their good, that without Him they cannot but be wretched. And the other created things in the universe are not better on this account, that they cannot be miserable. For no one would say that the other members of the body are superior to the eyes, because they cannot be blind. But as the sentient nature, even when it feels pain, is superior to the stony, which can feel none, so the rational nature, even when wretched, is more excellent than that which lacks reason or feeling, and can therefore experience no misery. And since this is so, then in this nature which has been created so excellent, that though it be mutable itself, it can yet secure its blessedness by adhering to the immutable good, the supreme God; and since it is not satisfied unless it be perfectly blessed, and cannot be thus blessed save in God - in this nature, I say, not to adhere to God, is manifestly a fault. Now every fault injures the nature, and is consequently contrary to the nature. The creature, therefore, which cleaves to God, differs from those who do not, not by nature, but by fault; and yet by this very fault the nature itself is proved to be very noble and admirable. For that nature is certainly praised, the fault of which is justly blamed. For we justly blame the fault because it mars the praiseworthy nature. As, then, when we say that blindness is a defect of the eyes, we prove that sight belongs to the nature of the eyes; and when we say that deafness is a defect of the ears, hearing is thereby proved to belong to their nature;- so, when we say that it is a fault of the angelic creature that it does not cleave to God, we hereby most plainly declare that it pertained to its nature to cleave to God. And who can worthily conceive or express how great a glory that is, to cleave to God, so as to live to Him, to draw wisdom from Him, to delight in Him, and to enjoy this so great good, without death, error, or grief? And thus, since every vice is an injury of the nature, that very vice of the wicked angels, their departure from God, is sufficient proof that God created their nature so good, that it is an injury to it not to be with God. 12.2. This may be enough to prevent any one from supposing, when we speak of the apostate angels, that they could have another nature, derived, as it were, from some different origin, and not from God. From the great impiety of this error we shall disentangle ourselves the more readily and easily, the more distinctly we understand that which God spoke by the angel when He sent Moses to the children of Israel: I am that I am. Exodus 3:14 For since God is the supreme existence, that is to say, supremely is, and is therefore unchangeable, the things that He made He empowered to be, but not to be supremely like Himself. To some He communicated a more ample, to others a more limited existence, and thus arranged the natures of beings in ranks. For as from sapere comes sapientia, so from esse comes essentia - a new word indeed, which the old Latin writers did not use, but which is naturalized in our day, that our language may not want an equivalent for the Greek οὐσία . For this is expressed word for word by essentia. Consequently, to that nature which supremely is, and which created all else that exists, no nature is contrary save that which does not exist. For nonentity is the contrary of that which is. And thus there is no being contrary to God, the Supreme Being, and Author of all beings whatsoever. 12.6. Thus the true cause of the blessedness of the good angels is found to be this, that they cleave to Him who supremely is. And if we ask the cause of the misery of the bad, it occurs to us, and not unreasonably, that they are miserable because they have forsaken Him who supremely is, and have turned to themselves who have no such essence. And this vice, what else is it called than pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Ecclesiastes 10:13 They were unwilling, then, to preserve their strength for God; and as adherence to God was the condition of their enjoying an ampler being, they diminished it by preferring themselves to Him. This was the first defect, and the first impoverishment, and the first flaw of their nature, which was created, not indeed supremely existent, but finding its blessedness in the enjoyment of the Supreme Being; while by abandoning Him it should become, not indeed no nature at all, but a nature with a less ample existence, and therefore wretched. If the further question be asked, What was the efficient cause of their evil will? There is none. For what is it which makes the will bad, when it is the will itself which makes the action bad? And consequently the bad will is the cause of the bad action, but nothing is the efficient cause of the bad will. For if anything is the cause, this thing either has or has not a will. If it has, the will is either good or bad. If good, who is so left to himself as to say that a good will makes a will bad? For in this case a good will would be the cause of sin; a most absurd supposition. On the other hand, if this hypothetical thing has a bad will, I wish to know what made it so; and that we may not go on forever, I ask at once, what made the first evil will bad? For that is not the first which was itself corrupted by an evil will, but that is the first which was made evil by no other will. For if it were preceded by that which made it evil, that will was first which made the other evil. But if it is replied, Nothing made it evil; it always was evil, I ask if it has been existing in some nature. For if not, then it did not exist at all; and if it did exist in some nature, then it vitiated and corrupted it, and injured it, and consequently deprived it of good. And therefore the evil will could not exist in an evil nature, but in a nature at once good and mutable, which this vice could injure. For if it did no injury, it was no vice; and consequently the will in which it was, could not be called evil. But if it did injury, it did it by taking away or diminishing good. And therefore there could not be from eternity, as was suggested, an evil will in that thing in which there had been previously a natural good, which the evil will was able to diminish by corrupting it. If, then, it was not from eternity, who, I ask, made it? The only thing that can be suggested in reply is, that something which itself had no will, made the will evil. I ask, then, whether this thing was superior, inferior, or equal to it? If superior, then it is better. How, then, has it no will, and not rather a good will? The same reasoning applies if it was equal; for so long as two things have equally a good will, the one cannot produce in the other an evil will. Then remains the supposition that that which corrupted the will of the angelic nature which first sinned, was itself an inferior thing without a will. But that thing, be it of the lowest and most earthly kind, is certainly itself good, since it is a nature and being, with a form and rank of its own in its own kind and order. How, then, can a good thing be the efficient cause of an evil will? How, I say, can good be the cause of evil? For when the will abandons what is above itself, and turns to what is lower, it becomes evil- not because that is evil to which it turns, but because the turning itself is wicked. Therefore it is not an inferior thing which has made the will evil, but it is itself which has become so by wickedly and inordinately desiring an inferior thing. For if two men, alike in physical and moral constitution, see the same corporal beauty, and one of them is excited by the sight to desire an illicit enjoyment while the other steadfastly maintains a modest restraint of his will, what do we suppose brings it about, that there is an evil will in the one and not in the other? What produces it in the man in whom it exists? Not the bodily beauty, for that was presented equally to the gaze of both, and yet did not produce in both an evil will. Did the flesh of the one cause the desire as he looked? But why did not the flesh of the other? Or was it the disposition? But why not the disposition of both? For we are supposing that both were of a like temperament of body and soul. Must we, then, say that the one was tempted by a secret suggestion of the evil spirit? As if it was not by his own will that he consented to this suggestion and to any inducement whatever! This consent, then, this evil will which he presented to the evil suasive influence - what was the cause of it, we ask? For, not to delay on such a difficulty as this, if both are tempted equally and one yields and consents to the temptation while the other remains unmoved by it, what other account can we give of the matter than this, that the one is willing, the other unwilling, to fall away from chastity? And what causes this but their own wills, in cases at least such as we are supposing, where the temperament is identical? The same beauty was equally obvious to the eyes of both; the same secret temptation pressed on both with equal violence. However minutely we examine the case, therefore, we can discern nothing which caused the will of the one to be evil. For if we say that the man himself made his will evil, what was the man himself before his will was evil but a good nature created by God, the unchangeable good? Here are two men who, before the temptation, were alike in body and soul, and of whom one yielded to the tempter who persuaded him, while the other could not be persuaded to desire that lovely body which was equally before the eyes of both. Shall we say of the successfully tempted man that he corrupted his own will, since he was certainly good before his will became bad? Then, why did he do so? Was it because his will was a nature, or because it was made of nothing? We shall find that the latter is the case. For if a nature is the cause of an evil will, what else can we say than that evil arises from good or that good is the cause of evil? And how can it come to pass that a nature, good though mutable, should produce any evil- that is to say, should make the will itself wicked? 12.7. Let no one, therefore, look for an efficient cause of the evil will; for it is not efficient, but deficient, as the will itself is not an effecting of something, but a defect. For defection from that which supremely is, to that which has less of being - this is to begin to have an evil will. Now, to seek to discover the causes of these defections - causes, as I have said, not efficient, but deficient - is as if some one sought to see darkness, or hear silence. Yet both of these are known by us, and the former by means only of the eye, the latter only by the ear; but not by their positive actuality, but by their want of it. Let no one, then seek to know from me what I know that I do not know; unless he perhaps wishes to learn to be ignorant of that of which all we know is, that it cannot be known. For those things which are known not by their actuality, but by their want of it, are known, if our expression may be allowed and understood, by not knowing them, that by knowing them they may be not known. For when the eyesight surveys objects that strike the sense, it nowhere sees darkness but where it begins not to see. And so no other sense but the ear can perceive silence, and yet it is only perceived by not hearing. Thus, too, our mind perceives intelligible forms by understanding them; but when they are deficient, it knows them by not knowing them; for who can understand defects? 12.8. This I do know, that the nature of God can never, nowhere, nowise be defective, and that natures made of nothing can. These latter, however, the more being they have, and the more good they do (for then they do something positive), the more they have efficient causes; but in so far as they are defective in being, and consequently do evil (for then what is their work but vanity?), they have deficient causes. And I know likewise, that the will could not become evil, were it unwilling to become so; and therefore its failings are justly punished, being not necessary, but voluntary. For its defections are not to evil things, but are themselves evil; that is to say, are not towards things that are naturally and in themselves evil, but the defection of the will is evil, because it is contrary to the order of nature, and an abandonment of that which has supreme being for that which has less. For avarice is not a fault inherent in gold, but in the man who inordinately loves gold, to the detriment of justice, which ought to be held in incomparably higher regard than gold. Neither is luxury the fault of lovely and charming objects, but of the heart that inordinately loves sensual pleasures, to the neglect of temperance, which attaches us to objects more lovely in their spirituality, and more delectable by their incorruptibility. Nor yet is boasting the fault of human praise, but of the soul that is inordinately fond of the applause of men, and that makes light of the voice of conscience. Pride, too, is not the fault of him who delegates power, nor of power itself, but of the soul that is inordinately enamored of its own power, and despises the more just dominion of a higher authority. Consequently he who inordinately loves the good which any nature possesses, even though he obtain it, himself becomes evil in the good, and wretched because deprived of a greater good.
105. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 2.302 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

106. Proclus, In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii, 2.302 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

107. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 14, 53, 13

108. Anon., Prayer of Manasseh, 3, 2

109. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 341

110. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.136



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 86
abraham, as an elder Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
abraham, encomia on Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
abraham, faith of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
abraham, praise of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40, 403
abraham Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 86; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 334
abram/abraham, learner Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 153, 154
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 142
absolute vs. relative Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 192
acceptance of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
adam Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196
afterlife Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 89
age and youth Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
aggadah, belief challenged in Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
aggadah, in biblical interpretation Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
alexandria Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 270
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154, 162
allegorical interpretation Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
allegory, timaeuss, ontological/epistemological Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154
allusions, biblical Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 36, 40
ammi, r./ammi b. abba, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
ammonius Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
amulets, genizah Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 53
angel Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151
angels Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 89; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
anthropomorphism Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 188
antiochus iv epiphanes Gera, Judith (2014) 316
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 249
apollo Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
apollonius rhodius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 255
aporiae Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 162
appellative (προσηγορία) James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 51
aquila Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 20
aristoboulos Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 74
aristotle Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
assyrians, court talesnan Gera, Judith (2014) 316
athletics imagery Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
attributes, divine, eternal Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154
attributes, divine, ineffable Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 152
augustine, and ciceros translation of timaeus Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 234, 235, 279
augustine, parallels of with calcidius Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279
balaam Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 86
banquet, last supper and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 177
baptismal ritual Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 125
barthélemy, d. Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 20
beatitudes, four cardinal virtues Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 454
beatitudes, gregory of nyssa Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 454
beatitudes, reception history Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 454
beatitudes, spiritual perfection steps Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 454
beatitudes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 454
beautiful Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
being/becoming McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 140
being (ὁ ὤν / τὸ ὄν) Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 12
beneficent power, quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 36, 38, 40
beneficent power, the bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 36, 38, 40
bible Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63
biblical texts, aggadah and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
birth Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 139; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
blend, blends Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 139
blessing/blessings Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
blessings, automatic quality of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 20
blessings, efficacy of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 20
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
bodies and realities Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 151
body Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 162
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
bridal chamber Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 89
calcidius, parallels with augustine Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279
chaldeans, abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
christ Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 258
christian exegesis Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 20
christianity; christians Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 600
circumcision Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 379
clothing, metaphors Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 600
cognitive aspect Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 128
commentary, on psalms Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
community/communities Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
community Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 258
conceptual blending Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 139
constantine, emperor Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 74
contact Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 72
cosmic deity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 270
cosmos/cosmic Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 112
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63, 270
creator, immutability and eternity of Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 234
creator Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
crush/ shatter enemy Gera, Judith (2014) 316
cultural memory Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 139
david Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 86
delphi Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
demiurge Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 270
democracy Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24
demonology, and augustine Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279
descent/ascent Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 125
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 316
diogenes laertius James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 51
diogenes of babylon James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 51
dispute between abraham and lot, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 128
divine identity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63
divine name Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 20, 21; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63
doxography Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 162
dyad and monad, the earthborn Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196
dyad and monad Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 112
ecstasy Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 72
education Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154
ego sum qui sum Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 38
elder, abraham as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
eliezer, r., on fulfillment gods promises Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
encomia, on abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
enjoyment and use O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 137
enoch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154
ephesians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 600
epicureanism, theory of names James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 54
epithet/epithets Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
eschatology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 258
eternal vs. mortal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196, 220
eternity, gods immutable Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 234
eternity Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154
ether Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
ethics Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24
etymologies, of israel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196, 203
etymologies, of noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
etymology Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 153
eudorus Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 112
euphemisms Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
eusebius of caesarea Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 74
eve, excellence, patriarchs as types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
evil Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 270
exegesis Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 72
exposition of the law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 154, 162
external goods, faith vs. Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
ezekiel, tragedian, ethnic identity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 169
ezekiel, tragedian, general profile Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 169
ezekiel, tragedian, hebraios, use of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 169
ezekiel, tragedian, passover origin Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 169
ezekiel, tragedian, septuagint usage Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 169
ezekiel, tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 169
faith, as queen of the virtues Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
faith, external goods contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
faith Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
famine, father, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 264
father, in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 65
father Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 65; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 270
father and maker Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 334
female Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 139
figures of speech, synonyms Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 255
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
gematria Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
genesis, two accounts of creation in Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 235
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63
gnostic, gnosticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 270
god, (great) king Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god, anger of Gera, Judith (2014) 316
god, as father Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 264
god, being Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24
god, cosmos as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
god, fulfillment of promises by Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
god, glory Gera, Judith (2014) 316
god, goodness of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24
god, help of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24
god, holiness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 258
god, honour of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 255
god, invisible Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god, kingdom of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 258
god, maker Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god, moses relationship with Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
god, name of Gera, Judith (2014) 316
god, of abraham, isaac, and jacob Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 192, 196, 203
god, patriarchs as beloved by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 192
god, primal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
god, punishment Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
god, supervision of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 255
god, who is Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151, 255; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
god; gods Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397; Gera, Judith (2014) 316
gods, immutable eternity of Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 234
gods wrath Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 86
gomorrah, faith in god and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 403
gomorrah, the graces Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196
good, the Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397
good Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63, 270
gregory of nyssa Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 454
happiness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151; Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 270
harran Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
heaven, as substitution for the name of god Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 65
heaven Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63, 270
hebrew, as original language James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 54
hebrew Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 153
hebrew language Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 21
hebrew scriptures Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 21
high priest Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 63
hippolytus of rome Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 48
hisda, r., contradictions of accepted jewish beliefs Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
hiyya b. abin Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
holophernes, angry and tyrannical Gera, Judith (2014) 316
homer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 255
homonymy Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 152
humanity, three eras of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196
huna, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
hymns Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 185
i am Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397
ideas (platonic) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 271
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 185
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 600
imperishable vs. mortal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196
intellect, triad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397
intellect Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
irenaeus Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 89
irenaeus of lyons Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 48
irénée de lyon/irenaeus of lyon Bull, Lied and Turner, Mystery and Secrecy in the Nag Hammadi Collection and Other Ancient Literature: Ideas and Practices: Studies for Einar Thomassen at Sixty (2011) 128
isaac, nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196, 201, 203
isaac Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 153, 154
ishmael, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
isis Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148
israel, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196, 203
israel, nation/people Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 151, 152
israel, people of, euphemisms Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
israel, people of, torah accepted by Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
israel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196
jacob, as an athlete Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
jacob, at the jabbok ford Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
jacob, practice and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 201
jacob Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 142, 152, 153, 154, 162
james, (first) apocalypse of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 89
jeremiah Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 235
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 316; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 72
jesus, last supper of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 177
jesus christ Geljon and Vos, Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators (2014) 74
jews Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 21
josephus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151
joshua, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
joshua b. korha, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
joshua b. levi, r., contradictions of accepted jewish beliefs Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 73
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 316
julian of eclanum Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 270
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
katz, peter Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 151
kingdom of god Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 177
kingly power, the kings, victory over Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 40
language, conventional James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 54
language, natural James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 54
language, original James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 54
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 316
last supper Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 177
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
law divine/mosaic/jewish Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 128
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196, 201
learning and teaching Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 192, 196
lemma Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 24
leviticus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 20
life, eternal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397
life, johannine concept Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397
light, and shadow Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 112, 264
light, sight and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 264
light Robbins et al., The Art of Visual Exegesis (2017) 139
literal interpretation, narrative retelling as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 36
liturgy Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
logic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24
logos, in philo McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 140
logos, lord god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 192
logos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 152, 153; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 24, 151
logos (lògow) (christian) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 271
maase merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
maker Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 334
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 153
malkhut Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
manichaeans, manichaeism Karfíková, Grace and the Will According to Augustine (2012) 270
many-named, prophet Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 151
martyrdom Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 89
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 19
matthew Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 11
mediation McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 140
memra-logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 86
metalinguistics Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 20
metaphor Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 177
metaphysics, trinitarian Hoenig, Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition (2018) 279
metatron Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
midian Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 142
midrash/midrashim/midrashic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 251
migrations of abraham, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
migrations of abraham, second Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 220
mind, flight of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 125
mind, triad, nous Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 397
mind Brenk and Lanzillotta, Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians (2023) 148; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 72
mind (noëw and similar terms) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 271
monad and dyad Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 112
monotheism Hirsch-Luipold, Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts (2022) 112
mortal vs. eternal Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 196, 220