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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 27.3


וְעָשִׂיתָ סִּירֹתָיו לְדַשְּׁנוֹ וְיָעָיו וּמִזְרְקֹתָיו וּמִזְלְגֹתָיו וּמַחְתֹּתָיו לְכָל־כֵּלָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה נְחֹשֶׁת׃And thou shalt make its pots to take away its ashes, and its shovels, and its basins, and its flesh-hooks, and its fire-pans; all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.4, 19.6, 19.12-19.13, 19.15, 19.22, 24.5-24.6, 24.8, 27.1-27.2, 27.8, 30.1-30.10, 30.34, 38.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.4. אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְמִצְרָיִם וָאֶשָּׂא אֶתְכֶם עַל־כַּנְפֵי נְשָׁרִים וָאָבִא אֶתְכֶם אֵלָי׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.22. וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 27.1. וְעַמֻּדָיו עֶשְׂרִים וְאַדְנֵיהֶם עֶשְׂרִים נְחֹשֶׁת וָוֵי הָעַמֻּדִים וַחֲשֻׁקֵיהֶם כָּסֶף׃ 27.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת אֹרֶךְ וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת רֹחַב רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת קֹמָתוֹ׃ 27.2. וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד׃ 27.2. וְעָשִׂיתָ קַרְנֹתָיו עַל אַרְבַּע פִּנֹּתָיו מִמֶּנּוּ תִּהְיֶיןָ קַרְנֹתָיו וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 27.8. נְבוּב לֻחֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֶרְאָה אֹתְךָ בָּהָר כֵּן יַעֲשׂוּ׃ 30.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 30.1. וְכִפֶּר אַהֲרֹן עַל־קַרְנֹתָיו אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה מִדַּם חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם קֹדֶשׁ־קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 30.2. בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יִרְחֲצוּ־מַיִם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת לְהַקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 30.2. אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ וְאַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה וְאַמָּתַיִם קֹמָתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ קַרְנֹתָיו׃ 30.3. וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ זָהָב טָהוֹר אֶת־גַּגּוֹ וְאֶת־קִירֹתָיו סָבִיב וְאֶת־קַרְנֹתָיו וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב׃ 30.3. וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תִּמְשָׁח וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי׃ 30.4. וּשְׁתֵּי טַבְּעֹת זָהָב תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ מִתַּחַת לְזֵרוֹ עַל שְׁתֵּי צַלְעֹתָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־שְׁנֵי צִדָּיו וְהָיָה לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֹתוֹ בָּהֵמָּה׃ 30.5. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 30.6. וְנָתַתָּה אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת לִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 30.9. לֹא־תַעֲלוּ עָלָיו קְטֹרֶת זָרָה וְעֹלָה וּמִנְחָה וְנֵסֶךְ לֹא תִסְּכוּ עָלָיו׃ 30.34. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ סַמִּים נָטָף וּשְׁחֵלֶת וְחֶלְבְּנָה סַמִּים וּלְבֹנָה זַכָּה בַּד בְּבַד יִהְיֶה׃ 38.3. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶת־הַסִּירֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקֹת אֶת־הַמִּזְלָגֹת וְאֶת־הַמַּחְתֹּת כָּל־כֵּלָיו עָשָׂה נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 38.3. וַיַּעַשׂ בָּהּ אֶת־אַדְנֵי פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וְאֶת־מִכְבַּר הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־כְּלֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 19.4. Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’wings, and brought you unto Myself." 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’" 19.22. And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’" 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 27.1. And thou shalt make the altar of acacia-wood, five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be four-square; and the height thereof shall be three cubits." 27.2. And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it; and thou shalt overlay it with brass." 27.8. Hollow with planks shalt thou make it; as it hath been shown thee in the mount, so shall they make it." 30.1. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon; of acacia-wood shalt thou make it." 30.2. A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be; and two cubits shall be the height thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it." 30.3. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about." 30.4. And two golden rings shalt thou make for it under the crown thereof, upon the two ribs thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make them; and they shall be for places for staves wherewith to bear it." 30.5. And thou shalt make the staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold." 30.6. And thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the ark-cover that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee." 30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations." 30.9. Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt-offering, nor meal-offering; and ye shall pour no drink-offering thereon." 30.10. And Aaron shall make atonement upon the horns of it once in the year; with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement once in the year shall he make atonement for it throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the LORD.’" 30.34. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense; of each shall there be a like weight." 38.3. And he made all the vessels of the altar, the pots, and the shovels, and the basins, the flesh-hooks, and the fire-pans; all the vessels thereof made he of brass."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.7, 4.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.7. וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַדָּם עַל־קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־דַּם הַפָּר יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.18. וּמִן־הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.7. And the priest shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.18. And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.11-3.13, 4.14, 5.15, 8.14-8.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 3.12. וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה לָקַחְתִּי אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִיִּם׃ 3.13. כִּי לִי כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּיוֹם הַכֹּתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה לִי יִהְיוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 4.14. וְנָתְנוּ עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ עָלָיו בָּהֶם אֶת־הַמַּחְתֹּת אֶת־הַמִּזְלָגֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקֹת כֹּל כְּלֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו כְּסוּי עוֹר תַּחַשׁ וְשָׂמוּ בַדָּיו׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 8.14. וְהִבְדַּלְתָּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִיִּם׃ 8.15. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יָבֹאוּ הַלְוִיִּם לַעֲבֹד אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְטִהַרְתָּ אֹתָם וְהֵנַפְתָּ אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה׃ 8.16. כִּי נְתֻנִים נְתֻנִים הֵמָּה לִי מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תַּחַת פִּטְרַת כָּל־רֶחֶם בְּכוֹר כֹּל מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָקַחְתִּי אֹתָם לִי׃ 8.17. כִּי לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם הַכֹּתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי אֹתָם לִי׃ 8.18. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.19. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם נְתֻנִים לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּלְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶף בְּגֶשֶׁת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 3.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 3.12. ’And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of every first-born that openeth the womb among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be Mine;" 3.13. for all the first-born are Mine: on the day that I smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto Me all the first-born in Israel, both man and beast, Mine they shall be: I am the LORD.’ ." 4.14. And they shall put upon it all the vessels thereof, wherewith they minister about it, the fire-pans, the flesh-hooks, and the shovels, and the basins, all the vessels of the altar; and they shall spread upon it a covering of sealskin, and set the staves thereof." 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 8.14. Thus shalt thou separate the Levites from among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be Mine." 8.15. And after that shall the Levites go in to do the service of the tent of meeting; and thou shalt cleanse them, and offer them for a wave-offering." 8.16. For they are wholly given unto Me from among the children of Israel; instead of all that openeth the womb, even the first-born of all the children of Israel, have I taken them unto Me." 8.17. For all the first-born among the children of Israel are Mine, both man and beast; on the day that I smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt I sanctified them for Myself." 8.18. And I have taken the Levites instead of all the first-born among the children of Israel." 8.19. And I have given the Levites— they are given to Aaron and to his sons from among the children of Israel, to do the service of the children of Israel in the tent of meeting, and to make atonement for the children of Israel, that there be no plague among the children of Israel, through the children of Israel coming nigh unto the sanctuary.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.11. וְשִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי בֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיַאֲזַנְיָהוּ בֶן־שָׁפָן עֹמֵד בְּתוֹכָם עֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם וְאִישׁ מִקְטַרְתּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וַעֲתַר עֲנַן־הַקְּטֹרֶת עֹלֶה׃ 8.11. And there stood before them seventy men of the elders of the house of Israel, and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan, every man with his censer in his hand; and a thick cloud of incense went up."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 26.19 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.19. וַיִּזְעַף עֻזִּיָּהוּ וּבְיָדוֹ מִקְטֶרֶת לְהַקְטִיר וּבְזַעְפּוֹ עִם־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַצָּרַעַת זָרְחָה בְמִצְחוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה מֵעַל לְמִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת׃ 26.19. Then Uzziah was wroth; and he had a censer in his hand to burn incense; and while he was wroth with the priests, the leprosy broke forth in his forehead before the priests in the house of the LORD, beside the altar of incense."
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.15. Like cassia and camels thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices,and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor,like galbanum, onycha, and stacte,and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.231 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.231. When, therefore, the calf has been sacrificed, the lawgiver commands the sacrificer to sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times in front of the veil which is before the holy of holies, within the former veil, in which place the sacred vessels are placed; and after that to smear and anoint the four horns of the altar, for it is square; and to pour out the rest of the blood at the foot of the altar, which is in the open air.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.94, 2.101, 2.105-2.108, 2.146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.94. and with this there were also many sacred vessels made, an ark, and a candlestick, and a table, and an altar of incense, and an altar of sacrifice. Now, the altar of sacrifice was placed in the open air, right opposite to the entrances of the tabernacle, being distant from it just so far as was necessary to give the ministering officers room to perform the sacrifices that were offered up every day. 2.101. And in the space between the five pillars and the four pillars, is that space which is, properly speaking, the space before the temple, being cut off by two curtains of woven work, the inner one of which is called the veil, and the outer one is called the covering: and the remaining three vessels, of those which I have enumerated, were placed as follows:--The altar of incense was placed in the middle, between earth and water, as a symbol of gratitude, which it was fitting should be offered up, on account of the things that had been done for the Hebrews on both these elements, for these elements have had the central situation of the world allotted to them. 2.105. for the symbols of heaven and earth are placed side by side, as the holy scripture shows, the candlestick being the symbol of heaven, and that which is truly called the altar of incense, on which all the fumigatory offerings are made, being the emblem of the things of earth. 2.106. But it became usual to call the altar which was in the open air the altar of sacrifice, as being that which preserved and took care of the sacrifices; intimating, figuratively, the consuming power of these things, and not the lambs and different parts of the victims which were offered, and which were naturally calculated to be destroyed by fire, but the intention of him who offered them; 2.107. for if the man who made the offerings was foolish and ignorant, the sacrifices were no sacrifices, the victims were not sacred or hallowed, the prayers were ill-omened, and liable to be answered by utter destruction, for even when they appear to be received, they produce no remission of sins but only a reminding of them. 2.108. But if the man who offers the sacrifice be bold and just, then the sacrifice remains firm, even if the flesh of the victim be consumed, or rather, I might say, even if no victim be offered up at all; for what can be a real and true sacrifice but the piety of a soul which loves God? The gratitude of which is blessed with immortality, and without being recorded in writing is engraved on a pillar in the mind of God, being made equally everlasting with the sun, and moon, and the universal world. 2.146. And when he had thus furnished them with proper vestments, he took very fragrant ointment, which had been made by the skill of the perfumer, and first of all he anointed the altar in the open air, and the laver, sprinkling it with the perfume seven times; after that he anointed the tabernacle and every one of the sacred vessels, the ark, and the candlestick, and the altar of incense, and the table, and the censers, and the vials, and all the other things which were either necessary or useful for the sacrifices; and last of all bringing the high priest close to himself, he anointed his head with abundant quantities of oil.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.147, 3.193, 3.198-3.199, 8.92 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.147. 8. Now between this candlestick and the table, which, as we said, were within the sanctuary, was the altar of incense, made of wood indeed, but of the same wood of which the foregoing vessels were made, such as was not liable to corruption; it was entirely crusted over with a golden plate. Its breadth on each side was a cubit, but the altitude double. 3.193. 2. Now Moses commanded them to make use of all the utensils which were more than were necessary to the structure of the tabernacle, for covering the tabernacle itself, the candlestick, and altar of incense, and the other vessels, that they might not be at all hurt when they journeyed, either by the rain, or by the rising of the dust. 3.198. and afterward to take it to anoint and to purify the priests themselves, and all the tabernacle, as also the sacrifices. There were also many, and those of various kinds, of sweet spices, that belonged to the tabernacle, and such as were of very great price, and were brought to the golden altar of incense; the nature of which I do not now describe, lest it should be troublesome to my readers; 3.199. but incense was to be offered twice a day, both before sun-rising and at sun-setting. They were also to keep oil already purified for the lamps; three of which were to give light all day long, upon the sacred candlestick, before God, and the rest were to be lighted at the evening. 8.92. of the measures like those which Moses called the Hin and the Assaron, [a tenth deal,] there were twenty thousand of gold, and twice as many of silver. The golden censers, in which they carried the incense to the altar, were twenty thousand; the other censers, in which they carried fire from the great altar to the little altar, within the temple, were fifty thousand.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.152, 5.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.152. 6. But there was nothing that affected the nation so much, in the calamities they were then under, as that their holy place, which had been hitherto seen by none, should be laid open to strangers; for Pompey, and those that were about him, went into the temple itself whither it was not lawful for any to enter but the high priest, and saw what was reposited therein, the candlestick with its lamps, and the table, and the pouring vessels, and the censers, all made entirely of gold, as also a great quantity of spices heaped together, with two thousand talents of sacred money. 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense.
11. Mishnah, Zevahim, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14.4. Before the Tabernacle was set up bamot (local altars) were permitted and the service was performed by the firstborn. After the Tabernacle was set up bamot were forbidden and the service was performed by priests. Most holy sacrifices were [then] eaten within the curtains, and lesser sacrifices [were eaten] anywhere in the camp of the Israelites."
12. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115b. כדרב הונא אמר רב דאמר רב הונא אמר רב אשם שניתק לרעיה ושחטו סתם כשר לעולה:,המעלה מבשר חטאת [וכו']: ת"ר מנין למעלה מבשר חטאת ומבשר אשם ומבשר קדשי קדשים ומבשר קדשים קלים וממותר העומר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים ושירי מנחות שפטור,ת"ל עולה מה עולה שהיא ראויה להעלאה אף כל שראויה להעלאה,מנין שאף היוצק והבולל והפותת והמולח והמניף והמגיש והמסדר השלחן והמטיב את הנרות והקומץ והמקבל בחוץ שפטור,ת"ל (ויקרא טז, ט) אשר יעלה עולה או זבח מה העלאה שהיא גמר עבודה אף כל שהוא גמר עבודה:,עד שלא הוקם המשכן [וכו']: יתיב רב הונא בר רב קטינא קמיה דרב חסדא וקא קרי (שמות כד, ה) וישלח את נערי בני ישראל א"ל הכי אמר ר' אסי (קרבו) ופסקו,סבר לאותוביה ממתניתין שמעיה דקאמר משמיה דרב אדא בר אהבה עולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר אינה טעונה הפשט וניתוח אותביה ברייתא דשויא בכולהו,דתני' עד שלא הוקם המשכן הבמות מותרות ועבודה בבכורות והכל כשירין להקריב בהמה חיה ועוף זכרים ונקבות תמימין ובעלי מומין טהורין אבל לא טמאין,והכל קרבו עולות ועולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר טעונה הפשט וניתוח ונכרים בזמן הזה רשאין לעשות כן,תנאי היא דתניא (שמות יט, כב) וגם הכהנים הנגשים אל ה' יתקדשו ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר זו פרישות בכורות רבי אומר זו פרישות נדב ואביהוא,בשלמא למ"ד זו פרישות נדב ואביהוא היינו דכתיב (ויקרא י, ג) הוא אשר דבר ה' לאמר בקרובי אקדש,אלא למ"ד זו פרישות בכורות היכא רמיזא דכתיב (שמות כט, מג) ונועדתי שמה לבני ישראל ונקדש בכבודי אל תקרי בכבודי אלא במכובדיי,דבר זה אמר הקב"ה למשה ולא ידעו עד שמתו בני אהרן כיון שמתו בני אהרן אמר לו אהרן אחי לא מתו בניך אלא להקדיש שמו של הקב"ה כיון שידע אהרן שבניו ידועי מקום הן שתק וקבל שכר שנאמר (ויקרא י, ג) וידום אהרן,וכן בדוד הוא אומר (תהלים לז, ז) דום לה' והתחולל לו אע"פ שמפיל לך חללים חללים את שתוק וכן בשלמה הוא אומר (קהלת ג, ז) עת לחשות ועת לדבר פעמים ששותק ומקבל שכר על השתיקה פעמים מדבר ומקבל שכר על הדבור,והיינו דא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, לו) נורא אלהים ממקדשך אל תיקרי ממקדשך אלא ממקודשיך בשעה שעושה הקב"ה דין בקדושיו מתיירא ומתעלה ומתהלל,אלא קשיא עולה תרי תנאי היא דתניא ר' ישמעאל אומר כללות נאמרו בסיני ופרטות באהל מועד,ר"ע אומר כללות ופרטות נאמרו בסיני ונשנו באהל מועד ונשתלשו בערבות מואב,אמר מר הכל כשירין להקריב מנא הני מילי אמר רב הונא דאמר קרא (בראשית ח, כ) ויבן נח מזבח לה' ויקח מכל הבהמה הטהורה ומכל עוף הטהור בהמה כמשמעו חיה בכלל בהמה 115b. This is bin accordance withthe statement that bRav Hunasays that bRav says. As Rav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to ba guilt offeringwhose owner died or achieved atonement through a different guilt offering and which bwas consigned to grazingin the field until it develops a blemish, bandprior to its being consigned one bslaughtered it without specificationof its purpose, it is bfit as a burnt offering. /b,§ The mishna teaches: bOne who offers upoutside the Temple courtyard a portion bof the meat of a sin offeringthat is eaten, or who offers up a portion of several other items, is exempt. With regard to the reasoning behind this ihalakha /i, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one who offers upoutside the Temple courtyard a portion bof the meat of a sin offering, ora portion bof the meat of a guilt offering, ora portion bof the meat of offerings of the most sacred order, ora portion bof the meat of offerings of lesser sanctity, ora portion bof the surplus of the iomeroffering, or the two loaves, or the shewbread, or the remainder of meal offeringsis bexempt,as all these are eaten by the priests and not sacrificed on the altar?, bThe verse stateswith regard to the prohibition against sacrificing outside the Temple courtyard: “Whatever man…that sacrifices ba burnt offeringor sacrifice, and brings it not to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to sacrifice it to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people” (Leviticus 17:8–9). The term “burnt offering” teaches: bJust as a burnt offering is fit for offering upupon the altar, bso too, anything that is fit for offering upis included in the prohibition. All of the offerings listed in the ibaraitaare not sacrificed upon the altar but given to the priests., bFrom whereis it derived bthat evenwith regard to bone who poursoil onto the meal offering, band one who mixesthe oil into the flour of the meal offering, band one who breaksthe loaves of the meal offering into pieces, band one who saltsthe meal offering or other offerings, band one who wavesthe meal offering, band one who bringsthe meal offering to the corner of an altar that he constructs outside the courtyard, band one who arrangesthe shewbread on bthe tableoutside the Sanctuary, band one who removes the ashesfrom bthe lampsof the Candelabrum, band one who removes a handfulfrom a meal offering, band one who collects the bloodof an offering in a vessel, if he did so boutsidethe Temple courtyard he is bexempt. /b, bThe verse states: “That sacrifices a burnt offering or sacrifice”(Leviticus 17:8). bJust as sacrificing is the conclusion ofthe sacri-ficial bservice, so too, anyrite bthat is the conclusion ofa sacrificial bserviceis included. All of these are excluded from the prohibition, as there are rites that follow them.,§ The mishna teaches: bUntil the Tabernacle was established,private altars were permitted and the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn. The Gemara relates that bRav Huna bar Rav Ketina was sitting before Rav Ḥisda and was readingthis verse with regard to the revelation at Sinai: b“And he sent the young men of the children of Israel,who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord” (Exodus 24:5). The young men referred to in the verse were the firstborn of the Jewish people. Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Thisis what bRabbi Asi said: They sacrificedthe offerings bandthen bceasedto serve; after that day, the firstborn no longer performed the sacrificial service.,Rav Huna bthought to raise a contradiction from the mishna,which states that the firstborn performed not only the sacrificial service on that day, but also did so until the Tabernacle was established the following year. In the meanwhile, bhe heardRav Ḥisda bsay in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahavathat the bburnt offering that thechildren of bIsrael sacrificed in the wildernessbefore the establishment of the Tabernacle bdid not require flayingof the skin band cuttinginto pieces; it was sacrificed as it was. He therefore braised the contradictionfrom ba ibaraitathat is equal with regard to both of them,i.e., from which Rav Huna could raise a contradiction to both of Rav Ḥisda’s statements., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil the Tabernacle was established,private baltarswere bpermitted, thesacrificial bservicewas performed bby the firstborn, and allanimals were bfit to be sacrificed: A domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, or a bird; males and females; unblemished and blemishedanimals. All animal sacrifices were brought from animals and birds that were bkosher, but notfrom bnon-kosherspecies., bAnd allofferings brought before the construction of the Tabernacle were bsacrificedas bburnt offerings. Andthe bburnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wildernessbefore the Tabernacle was established brequired flayingof the skin band cuttinginto pieces. bAnd today, gentiles are permitted tosacrifice offerings on private altars. The ibaraitastates explicitly that until the Tabernacle was constructed, the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn, and the burnt offering required flaying and cutting.,Rav Ḥisda replied that with regard to the firstborn, it bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: God said to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“And let the priests also that come near to the Lord sanctify themselves,lest the Lord break forth upon them” (Exodus 19:22). In other words, they should separate themselves and not approach the mountain. This command was given one day after the burnt offerings and peace offerings were sacrificed in anticipation of the revelation at Sinai. With regard to this command, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Thiscommand is a reference to bthe separation ofthe bfirstborn,as they functioned as priests. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Thiscommand is a reference to bthe separation of Nadav and Avihu,who were priests.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the command for the priests to sanctify themselves is referring to bthe separation of Nadav and Avihu, this isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenafter their death on the eighth day of the inauguration of the Tabernacle: “Then Moses said to Aaron: bThis is it that the Lord spoke, saying: Through them that are near to Me I will be sanctified… /band Aaron held his peace” (Leviticus 10:3). Nadav and Avihu had already been warned not to draw too close: “Lest the Lord break forth upon them.”, bBut according to the one who saysthat the command for the priests to sanctify themselves is referring to bthe separation ofthe bfirstborn, where is the allusionto the fact that God would be sanctified through Nadav and Avihu? The Gemara replies: bAs it is written: “And there I will meet with the children of Israel; and it shall be sanctified by My glory”(Exodus 29:43). bDo not readit as b“by My glory [ ibikhvodi /i]”; rather,read it as: bBy My honored ones [ ibimekhubadai /i].God will be sanctified by those considered honored by God when He reveals Himself in the Tabernacle., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said this statement to Moses, butMoses bdid not knowits meaning buntil the sons of Aaron died. Once the sons of Aaron died,Moses bsaid to him: Aaron, my brother, your sons died only to sanctify the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He. When Aaron knew that his sons were beloved by the Omnipresent, he was silent and received a reward, as it is stated: “And Aaron held his peace [ ivayidom /i].” /b, bAnd likewise ina verse written by bDavidit bstates: “Resign yourself [ idom /i] to the Lord, and wait patiently [ ivehitḥolel /i] for Him”(Psalms 37:7). bAlthough He strikes down many corpses [ iḥalalim /i]around byou, you be silentand do not complain. bAnd likewise ina verse written by bSolomonit bstates: “A time to keep silence, and a time to speak”(Ecclesiastes 3:7). There are btimes thatone bis silent and receives reward for the silence,and at btimesone bspeaks and receives reward for the speech. /b, bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Awesome is God out of your holy places”(Psalms 68:36)? bDo not readit as: b“From your holy places [ imimikdashekha /i]”; rather,read it as: bFrom your holy ones [ imimekudashekha /i]. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, carries out judgment upon His holy ones, He is feared, and exalted, and praisedby all. In any event, there is no contradiction from the ibaraitawhich teaches that the first-born performed the sacrificial service before the Tabernacle was established, as this matter is the subject of a dispute between itanna’im /i., bButthere is still ba difficultywith regard to the bburnt offering,as it was stated in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahava that the burnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wilderness did not require flaying of the skin or cutting into pieces, while the ibaraitastates that it did. The Gemara replies: This bisa dispute between the opinions of btwo itanna’im /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael says:The bgeneral statements,i.e., the principles of the Torah, bwere said at Sinai, andthe bdetailsof the mitzvot that are explicated in Leviticus were said to Moses bin the Tent of Meeting.This includes the ihalakhathat the burnt offering must be flayed and cut into pieces. Consequently, it could not have been in effect before the construction of the Tabernacle., bRabbi Akiva says:Both bgeneral statements andthe bdetailsof mitzvot bwere said at Sinai andlater btaught again in the Tent of Meeting, andtaught ba third timeby Moses to the Jewish people bin the plains of Moab,when he taught the Torah to the people (see Deuteronomy 1:1). According to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion, the ihalakhaof flaying and cutting into pieces was in effect when the Torah was given, even before the construction of the Tabernacle.,§ bThe Master saidin the ibaraita /i: Before the Tabernacle was established, ballanimals were bfit to be sacrificed:A domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, or a bird. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Huna said: As the verse stateswith regard to the offering that was sacrificed after the flood: b“And Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every pure animal, and of every pure fowl,and offered burnt offerings on the altar” (Genesis 8:20). The Gemara explains: b“Animal [ ibehema /i],”is understood bin accordance with its plain meaning,a domesticated animal, and the same is true of fowl; ban undomesticated animal [ iḥayya /i]is bincluded inthe term b“ ibehema /i”that is stated in the verse.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
altar, incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
altar Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
bowls, libation Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
bowls Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
calamus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
censers, golden Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
censers Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 383, 384
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
figures of speech, apostrophe Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
gold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
hands, angels, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
hekatombe Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
interpretation, targumic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
iris Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
israel Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
josephus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
plutarch Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
prayer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
priest Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
priesthood, priests, angelic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
priesthood, priests, service Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
priesthood, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
purification Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
revelation, law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
reverence Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
sacrifice' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
sacrifice Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
sacrificial service Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827
strabo Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 223
targum Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
temple Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
torah, giving of Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
torah, observance as sacrificial service Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
torah, teaching Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 271
vision, ezekiel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 827