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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.4-24.11


nanand they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness.


וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink.


וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.


וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD.


וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar.


וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’


וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’


וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

79 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.11-12.22 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.11. I will not conceal anything from you. I have said, `It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 12.14. So now God sent me to heal you and your daughter-in-law Sarah. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 12.16. They were both alarmed; and they fell upon their faces, for they were afraid. 12.17. But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; you will be safe. But praise God for ever. 12.18. For I did not come as a favor on my part, but by the will of our God. Therefore praise him for ever. 12.19. All these days I merely appeared to you and did not eat or drink, but you were seeing a vision. 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened. 12.21. Then they stood up; but they saw him no more. 12.22. So they confessed the great and wonderful works of God, and acknowledged that the angel of the Lord had appeared to them.
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 2.3, 2.9, 4.8, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. כְּתַפּוּחַ בַּעֲצֵי הַיַּעַר כֵּן דּוֹדִי בֵּין הַבָּנִים בְּצִלּוֹ חִמַּדְתִּי וְיָשַׁבְתִּי וּפִרְיוֹ מָתוֹק לְחִכִּי׃ 2.9. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים הִנֵּה־זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחֲלֹּנוֹת מֵצִיץ מִן־הַחֲרַכִּים׃ 4.8. אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃ 7.8. זֹאת קוֹמָתֵךְ דָּמְתָה לְתָמָר וְשָׁדַיִךְ לְאַשְׁכֹּלוֹת׃ 2.3. As an apple-tree among the trees of the wood, So is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit, And its fruit was sweet to my taste. 2.9. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he standeth behind our wall, He looketh in through the windows, He peereth through the lattice. 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards. 7.8. This thy stature is like to a palm-tree, and thy breasts to clusters of grapes.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.5, 5.1-5.2, 5.4, 5.19, 5.22-5.23, 5.25-5.26, 5.28, 6.1, 8.7, 8.16-8.17, 10.4, 10.6, 11.29-11.30, 16.16, 17.3, 18.10, 26.16-26.19, 27.1-27.26, 28.69, 30.3, 33.2-33.3, 33.26, 34.1-34.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב הוֹאִיל מֹשֶׁה בֵּאֵר אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת לֵאמֹר׃ 5.1. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 5.1. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָי׃] 5.2. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם׃ 5.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.19. אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָנָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי׃ 5.22. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ׃ 5.23. כִּי מִי כָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע קוֹל אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים מְדַבֵּר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵשׁ כָּמֹנוּ וַיֶּחִי׃ 5.25. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶם אֵלָי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ אֵלֶיךָ הֵיטִיבוּ כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 5.26. מִי־יִתֵּן וְהָיָה לְבָבָם זֶה לָהֶם לְיִרְאָה אֹתִי וְלִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם לְעֹלָם׃ 5.28. וְאַתָּה פֹּה עֲמֹד עִמָּדִי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אֵלֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה וְהַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תְּלַמְּדֵם וְעָשׂוּ בָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לָהֶם לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 6.1. וְזֹאת הַמִּצְוָה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 6.1. וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֶת לָךְ עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וְטֹבֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־בָנִיתָ׃ 8.7. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְבִיאֲךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה אֶרֶץ נַחֲלֵי מָיִם עֲיָנֹת וּתְהֹמֹת יֹצְאִים בַּבִּקְעָה וּבָהָר׃ 8.16. הַמַּאֲכִלְךָ מָן בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ וּלְמַעַן נַסֹּתֶךָ לְהֵיטִבְךָ בְּאַחֲרִיתֶךָ׃ 8.17. וְאָמַרְתָּ בִּלְבָבֶךָ כֹּחִי וְעֹצֶם יָדִי עָשָׂה לִי אֶת־הַחַיִל הַזֶּה׃ 10.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת כַּמִּכְתָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוָה אֵלָי׃ 10.6. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נָסְעוּ מִבְּאֵרֹת בְּנֵי־יַעֲקָן מוֹסֵרָה שָׁם מֵת אַהֲרֹן וַיִּקָּבֵר שָׁם וַיְכַהֵן אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃ 11.29. וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־הַבְּרָכָה עַל־הַר גְּרִזִים וְאֶת־הַקְּלָלָה עַל־הַר עֵיבָל׃ 16.16. שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר בְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת וּבְחַג הַשָּׁבֻעוֹת וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה רֵיקָם׃ 17.3. וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לָהֶם וְלַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ לַיָּרֵחַ אוֹ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִי׃ 26.16. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְשָׁמַרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ אוֹתָם בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 26.17. אֶת־יְהוָה הֶאֱמַרְתָּ הַיּוֹם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וְלָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וְלִשְׁמֹר חֻקָּיו וּמִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְלִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקֹלוֹ׃ 26.18. וַיהוָה הֶאֱמִירְךָ הַיּוֹם לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לָךְ וְלִשְׁמֹר כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 26.19. וּלְתִתְּךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִתְהִלָּה וּלְשֵׁם וּלְתִפְאָרֶת וְלִהְיֹתְךָ עַם־קָדֹשׁ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר׃ 27.1. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־מִצְוֺתָו וְאֶת־חֻקָּיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 27.1. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הָעָם לֵאמֹר שָׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם׃ 27.2. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו כִּי גִלָּה כְּנַף אָבִיו וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.2. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר תַּעַבְרוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וַהֲקֵמֹתָ לְךָ אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת וְשַׂדְתָּ אֹתָם בַּשִּׂיד׃ 27.3. וְכָתַבְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בְּעָבְרֶךָ לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר תָּבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲ‍שֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ׃ 27.4. וְהָיָה בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן תָּקִימוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּהַר עֵיבָל וְשַׂדְתָּ אוֹתָם בַּשִּׂיד׃ 27.5. וּבָנִיתָ שָּׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים לֹא־תָנִיף עֲלֵיהֶם בַּרְזֶל׃ 27.6. אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת תִּבְנֶה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַעֲלִיתָ עָלָיו עוֹלֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.7. וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.8. וְכָתַבְתָּ עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בַּאֵר הֵיטֵב׃ 27.9. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם אֶל כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הַסְכֵּת וּשְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִהְיֵיתָ לְעָם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.11. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר׃ 27.12. אֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הָעָם עַל־הַר גְּרִזִים בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי וִיהוּדָה וְיִשָּׂשכָר וְיוֹסֵף וּבִנְיָמִן׃ 27.13. וְאֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ עַל־הַקְּלָלָה בְּהַר עֵיבָל רְאוּבֵן גָּד וְאָשֵׁר וּזְבוּלֻן דָּן וְנַפְתָּלִי׃ 27.14. וְעָנוּ הַלְוִיִּם וְאָמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל קוֹל רָם׃ 27.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ 27.16. אָרוּר מַקְלֶה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.17. אָרוּר מַסִּיג גְּבוּל רֵעֵהוּ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.18. אָרוּר מַשְׁגֶּה עִוֵּר בַּדָּרֶךְ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.19. אָרוּר מַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר־יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.21. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.22. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.23. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־חֹתַנְתּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.24. אָרוּר מַכֵּה רֵעֵהוּ בַּסָּתֶר וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.25. אָרוּר לֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד לְהַכּוֹת נֶפֶשׁ דָּם נָקִי וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.26. אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 28.69. אֵלֶּה דִבְרֵי הַבְּרִית אֲ‍שֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה לִכְרֹת אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מִלְּבַד הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַת אִתָּם בְּחֹרֵב׃ 30.3. וְשָׁב יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־שְׁבוּתְךָ וְרִחֲמֶךָ וְשָׁב וְקִבֶּצְךָ מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר הֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 33.2. וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת [אֵשׁ] [דָּת] לָמוֹ׃ 33.2. וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃ 33.3. אַף חֹבֵב עַמִּים כָּל־קְדֹשָׁיו בְּיָדֶךָ וְהֵם תֻּכּוּ לְרַגְלֶךָ יִשָּׂא מִדַּבְּרֹתֶיךָ׃ 33.26. אֵין כָּאֵל יְשֻׁרוּן רֹכֵב שָׁמַיִם בְעֶזְרֶךָ וּבְגַאֲוָתוֹ שְׁחָקִים׃ 34.1. וְלֹא־קָם נָבִיא עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים׃ 34.1. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה מֵעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב אֶל־הַר נְבוֹ רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וַיַּרְאֵהוּ יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָד עַד־דָּן׃ 34.2. וְאֵת כָּל־נַפְתָּלִי וְאֶת־אֶרֶץ אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה עַד הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן׃ 34.3. וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃ 34.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו זֹאת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה הֶרְאִיתִיךָ בְעֵינֶיךָ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲבֹר׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 1.5. beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, took Moses upon him to expound this law, saying:" 5.1. And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them." 5.2. The LORD our God made a covet with us in Horeb." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 5.19. These words the LORD spoke unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice, and it went on no more. And He wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them unto me." 5.22. Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die." 5.23. For who is there of all flesh, that hath heard the voice of the living God speaking out of the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived?" 5.25. And the LORD heard the voice of your words, when ye spoke unto me; and the LORD said unto me: ‘I have heard the voice of the words of this people, which they have spoken unto thee; they have well said all that they have spoken." 5.26. Oh that they had such a heart as this alway, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be well with them, and with their children for ever!" 5.28. But as for thee, stand thou here by Me, and I will speak unto thee all the commandment, and the statutes, and the ordices, which thou shalt teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess it.’" 6.1. Now this is the commandment, the statutes, and the ordices, which the LORD your God commanded to teach you, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it—" 8.7. For the LORD thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, springing forth in valleys and hills;" 8.16. who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end;" 8.17. and thou say in thy heart: ‘My power and the might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth.’" 10.4. And He wrote on the tables according to the first writing, the ten words, which the LORD spoke unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly; and the LORD gave them unto me." 10.6. And the children of Israel journeyed from Beeroth-benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died, and there he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered in the priest’s office in his stead." 11.29. And it shall come to pass, when the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, that thou shalt set the blessing upon mount Gerizim, and the curse upon mount Ebal." 11.30. Are they not beyond the Jordan, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah, over against Gilgal, beside the terebinths of Moreh?" 16.16. Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the LORD empty;" 17.3. and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have commanded not;" 18.10. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer," 26.16. This day the LORD thy God commandeth thee to do these statutes and ordices; thou shalt therefore observe and do them with all thy heart, and with all thy soul." 26.17. Thou hast avouched the LORD this day to be thy God, and that thou wouldest walk in His ways, and keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His ordices, and hearken unto His voice." 26.18. And the LORD hath avouched thee this day to be His own treasure, as He hath promised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all His commandments;" 26.19. and to make thee high above all nations that He hath made, in praise, and in name, and in glory; and that thou mayest be a holy people unto the LORD thy God, as He hath spoken." 27.1. And Moses and the elders of Israel commanded the people, saying: ‘Keep all the commandment which I command you this day." 27.2. And it shall be on the day when ye shall pass over the Jordan unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaster them with plaster." 27.3. And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over; that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath promised thee." 27.4. And it shall be when ye are passed over the Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaster them with plaster." 27.5. And there shalt thou build an altar unto the LORD thy God, an altar of stones; thou shalt lift up no iron tool upon them." 27.6. Thou shalt build the altar of the LORD thy God of unhewn stones; and thou shalt offer burnt-offerings thereon unto the LORD thy God." 27.7. And thou shalt sacrifice peace-offerings, and shalt eat there; and thou shalt rejoice before the LORD thy God." 27.8. And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law very plainly.’" 27.9. And Moses and the priests the Levites spoke unto all Israel, saying: ‘Keep silence, and hear, O Israel; this day thou art become a people unto the LORD thy God." 27.10. Thou shalt therefore hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and do His commandments and His statutes, which I command thee this day.’" 27.11. And Moses charged the people the same day, saying:" 27.12. ’These shall stand upon mount Gerizim to bless the people, when ye are passed over the Jordan: Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin;" 27.13. and these shall stand upon mount Ebal for the curse: Reuben, Gad, and Asher, and Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali." 27.14. And the Levites shall speak, and say unto all the men of Israel with a loud voice:" 27.15. Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen." 27.16. Cursed be he that dishonoureth his father or his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour’s landmark. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to go astray in the way. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.19. Cursed be he that perverteth the justice due to the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ." 27.21. Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.22. Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-in-law. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.24. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour in secret. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.25. Cursed be he that taketh a bribe to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’" 28.69. These are the words of the covet which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covet which He made with them in Horeb." 30.3. that then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the peoples, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee." 33.2. And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them." 33.3. Yea, He loveth the peoples, All His holy ones—they are in Thy hand; And they sit down at Thy feet, Receiving of Thy words." 33.26. There is none like unto God, O Jeshurun, Who rideth upon the heaven as thy help, And in His excellency on the skies." 34.1. And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land, even Gilead as far as Dan;" 34.2. and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah as far as the hinder sea;" 34.3. and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar." 34.4. And the LORD said unto him: ‘This is the land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying: I will give it unto thy seed; I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.’" 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.14, 3.6, 3.8, 3.14, 3.17, 5.7-5.8, 5.16, 5.18-5.19, 11.1, 12.40-12.41, 12.43-12.51, 13.21-13.22, 14.19, 14.24, 15.2-15.3, 15.25-15.26, 19.1-19.3, 19.5-19.6, 19.9-19.13, 19.16, 19.18-19.24, 20.6, 20.15, 20.18, 23.17, 23.20, 24.1-24.9, 24.11-24.18, 29.38-29.42, 33.9, 33.11-33.23, 34.5-34.35, 35.1, 35.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת־חַיֵּיהֶם בַּעֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים וּבְכָל־עֲבֹדָה בַּשָּׂדֶה אֵת כָּל־עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ בָהֶם בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 3.8. וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 3.17. וָאֹמַר אַעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵעֳנִי מִצְרַיִם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 5.7. לֹא תֹאסִפוּן לָתֵת תֶּבֶן לָעָם לִלְבֹּן הַלְּבֵנִים כִּתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם הֵם יֵלְכוּ וְקֹשְׁשׁוּ לָהֶם תֶּבֶן׃ 5.8. וְאֶת־מַתְכֹּנֶת הַלְּבֵנִים אֲשֶׁר הֵם עֹשִׂים תְּמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם תָּשִׂימוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לֹא תִגְרְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי־נִרְפִּים הֵם עַל־כֵּן הֵם צֹעֲקִים לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה נִזְבְּחָה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 5.16. תֶּבֶן אֵין נִתָּן לַעֲבָדֶיךָ וּלְבֵנִים אֹמְרִים לָנוּ עֲשׂוּ וְהִנֵּה עֲבָדֶיךָ מֻכִּים וְחָטָאת עַמֶּךָ׃ 5.18. וְעַתָּה לְכוּ עִבְדוּ וְתֶבֶן לֹא־יִנָּתֵן לָכֶם וְתֹכֶן לְבֵנִים תִּתֵּנּוּ׃ 5.19. וַיִּרְאוּ שֹׁטְרֵי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֹתָם בְּרָע לֵאמֹר לֹא־תִגְרְעוּ מִלִּבְנֵיכֶם דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃ 11.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עוֹד נֶגַע אֶחָד אָבִיא עַל־פַּרְעֹה וְעַל־מִצְרַיִם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה כְּשַׁלְּחוֹ כָּלָה גָּרֵשׁ יְגָרֵשׁ אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה׃ 11.1. וּמֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן עָשׂוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמֹּפְתִים הָאֵלֶּה לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְחַזֵּק יְהוָה אֶת־לֵב פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא־שִׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאַרְצוֹ׃ 12.41. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיְהִי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יָצְאוּ כָּל־צִבְאוֹת יְהוָה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.43. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.44. וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.45. תּוֹשָׁב וְשָׂכִיר לֹא־יֹאכַל־בּוֹ׃ 12.46. בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ׃ 12.47. כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 12.51. וַיְהִי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַל־צִבְאֹתָם׃ 13.21. וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 14.24. וַיְהִי בְּאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַבֹּקֶר וַיַּשְׁקֵף יְהוָה אֶל־מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ וְעָנָן וַיָּהָם אֵת מַחֲנֵה מִצְרָיִם׃ 15.2. עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ וַיְהִי־לִי לִישׁוּעָה זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי וַאֲרֹמְמֶנְהוּ׃ 15.2. וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַתֹּף בְּיָדָהּ וַתֵּצֶאןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים אַחֲרֶיהָ בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹת׃ 15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃ 15.25. וַיִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיּוֹרֵהוּ יְהוָה עֵץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל־הַמַּיִם וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ׃ 15.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָיו וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל־חֻקָּיו כָּל־הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה רֹפְאֶךָ׃ 19.1. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי׃ 19.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ אֶל־הָעָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 19.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵרְפִידִים וַיָּבֹאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינַי וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיִּחַן־שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶד הָהָר׃ 19.2. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה לְמֹשֶׁה אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה׃ 19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 19.11. וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֵרֵד יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם עַל־הַר סִינָי׃ 19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.16. וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר וַיְהִי קֹלֹת וּבְרָקִים וְעָנָן כָּבֵד עַל־הָהָר וְקֹל שֹׁפָר חָזָק מְאֹד וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 19.18. וְהַר סִינַי עָשַׁן כֻּלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר יָרַד עָלָיו יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ וַיַּעַל עֲשָׁנוֹ כְּעֶשֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָהָר מְאֹד׃ 19.19. וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃ 19.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רֵד הָעֵד בָּעָם פֶּן־יֶהֶרְסוּ אֶל־יְהוָה לִרְאוֹת וְנָפַל מִמֶּנּוּ רָב׃ 19.22. וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 19.23. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֹא־יוּכַל הָעָם לַעֲלֹת אֶל־הַר סִינָי כִּי־אַתָּה הַעֵדֹתָה בָּנוּ לֵאמֹר הַגְבֵּל אֶת־הָהָר וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ׃ 19.24. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה לֶךְ־רֵד וְעָלִיתָ אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן עִמָּךְ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם אַל־יֶהֶרְסוּ לַעֲלֹת אֶל־יְהוָה פֶּן־יִפְרָץ־בָּם׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.18. וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 23.17. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶל־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה׃ 24.1. וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר׃ 24.1. וְאֶל־מֹשֶׁה אָמַר עֲלֵה אֶל־יְהוָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק׃ 24.2. וְנִגַּשׁ מֹשֶׁה לְבַדּוֹ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהֵם לֹא יִגָּשׁוּ וְהָעָם לֹא יַעֲלוּ עִמּוֹ׃ 24.3. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְסַפֵּר לָעָם אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וְאֵת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וַיַּעַן כָּל־הָעָם קוֹל אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 24.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וֶהְיֵה־שָׁם וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־לֻחֹת הָאֶבֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם׃ 24.13. וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ מְשָׁרְתוֹ וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.14. וְאֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אָמַר שְׁבוּ־לָנוּ בָזֶה עַד אֲשֶׁר־נָשׁוּב אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִנֵּה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עִמָּכֶם מִי־בַעַל דְּבָרִים יִגַּשׁ אֲלֵהֶם׃ 24.15. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָהָר וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־הָהָר׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 29.38. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם תָּמִיד׃ 29.39. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 29.41. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 29.42. עֹלַת תָּמִיד לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם שָׁמָּה לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ שָׁם׃ 33.9. וְהָיָה כְּבֹא מֹשֶׁה הָאֹהֱלָה יֵרֵד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן וְעָמַד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְדִבֶּר עִם־מֹשֶׁה׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 33.12. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה רְאֵה אַתָּה אֹמֵר אֵלַי הַעַל אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הוֹדַעְתַּנִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַח עִמִּי וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ יְדַעְתִּיךָ בְשֵׁם וְגַם־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינָי׃ 33.13. וְעַתָּה אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הוֹדִעֵנִי נָא אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאֵדָעֲךָ לְמַעַן אֶמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה כִּי עַמְּךָ הַגּוֹי הַזֶּה׃ 33.14. וַיֹּאמַר פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ וַהֲנִחֹתִי לָךְ׃ 33.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אִם־אֵין פָּנֶיךָ הֹלְכִים אַל־תַּעֲלֵנוּ מִזֶּה׃ 33.16. וּבַמֶּה יִוָּדַע אֵפוֹא כִּי־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲנִי וְעַמֶּךָ הֲלוֹא בְּלֶכְתְּךָ עִמָּנוּ וְנִפְלֵינוּ אֲנִי וְעַמְּךָ מִכָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 33.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה גַּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶעֱשֶׂה כִּי־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינַי וָאֵדָעֲךָ בְּשֵׁם׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל־הַצּוּר׃ 33.22. וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת 34.7. נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפֶשַׁע וְחַטָּאָה וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־בְּנֵי בָנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 34.8. וַיְמַהֵר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּקֹּד אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 34.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲדֹנָי יֵלֶךְ־נָא אֲדֹנָי בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְחַטָּאתֵנוּ וּנְחַלְתָּנוּ׃ 34.11. שְׁמָר־לְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם הִנְנִי גֹרֵשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 34.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּא עָלֶיהָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה לְמוֹקֵשׁ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 34.13. כִּי אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם תִּתֹּצוּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָיו תִּכְרֹתוּן׃ 34.14. כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר כִּי יְהוָה קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ אֵל קַנָּא הוּא׃ 34.15. פֶּן־תִּכְרֹת בְּרִית לְיוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וְזָנוּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְזָבְחוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם וְקָרָא לְךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ מִזִּבְחוֹ׃ 34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.17. אֱלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 34.18. אֶת־חַג הַמַּצּוֹת תִּשְׁמֹר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ לְמוֹעֵד חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב כִּי בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב יָצָאתָ מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 34.19. כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לִי וְכָל־מִקְנְךָ תִּזָּכָר פֶּטֶר שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה׃ 34.21. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת בֶּחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר תִּשְׁבֹּת׃ 34.22. וְחַג שָׁבֻעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים וְחַג הָאָסִיף תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה׃ 34.23. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.24. כִּי־אוֹרִישׁ גּוֹיִם מִפָּנֶיךָ וְהִרְחַבְתִּי אֶת־גְּבוּלֶךָ וְלֹא־יַחְמֹד אִישׁ אֶת־אַרְצְךָ בַּעֲלֹתְךָ לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה׃ 34.25. לֹא־תִשְׁחַט עַל־חָמֵץ דַּם־זִבְחִי וְלֹא־יָלִין לַבֹּקֶר זֶבַח חַג הַפָּסַח׃ 34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 34.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.28. וַיְהִי־שָׁם עִם־יְהוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 35.1. וְכָל־חֲכַם־לֵב בָּכֶם יָבֹאוּ וְיַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 35.1. וַיַּקְהֵל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָם׃ 35.4. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 1.14. And they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field; in all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigour." 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 3.8. and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite." 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 3.17. And I have said: I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, unto a land flowing with milk and honey." 5.7. ’Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore. Let them go and gather straw for themselves." 5.8. And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish aught thereof; for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying: Let us go and sacrifice to our God." 5.16. There is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us: Make brick; and, behold, thy servants are beaten, but the fault is in thine own people.’" 5.18. Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks.’" 5.19. And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were set on mischief, when they said: ‘Ye shall not diminish aught from your bricks, your daily task.’" 11.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Yet one plague more will I bring upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence; when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether." 12.40. Now the time that the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." 12.41. And it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the host of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt." 12.43. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘This is the ordice of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof;" 12.44. but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof." 12.45. A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof." 12.46. In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof." 12.47. All the congregation of Israel shall keep it." 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof." 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’" 12.50. Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they." 12.51. And it came to pass the selfsame day that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts. 13.21. And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:" 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 14.24. And it came to pass in the morning watch, that the LORD looked forth upon the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloud, and discomfited the host of the Egyptians." 15.2. The LORD is my strength and song, And He is become my salvation; This is my God, and I will glorify Him; My father’s God, and I will exalt Him." 15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name." 15.25. And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree, and he cast it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He made for them a statute and an ordice, and there He proved them;" 15.26. and He said: ‘If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD that healeth thee.’" 19.1. In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai." 19.2. And when they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mount." 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:" 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;" 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 19.10. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go unto the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments," 19.11. and be ready against the third day; for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai." 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.16. And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a horn exceeding loud; and all the people that were in the camp trembled." 19.18. Now mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly." 19.19. And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice." 19.20. And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, to the top of the mount; and the LORD called Moses to the top of the mount; and Moses went up." 19.21. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish." 19.22. And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’" 19.23. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘The people cannot come up to mount Sinai; for thou didst charge us, saying: Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it.’" 19.24. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Go, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee; but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest He break forth upon them.’" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.18. And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was." 23.17. Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD." 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 24.1. And unto Moses He said: ‘Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off;" 24.2. and Moses alone shall come near unto the LORD; but they shall not come near; neither shall the people go up with him.’" 24.3. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the ordices; and all the people answered with one voice, and said: ‘All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;" 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink." 24.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Come up to Me into the mount and be there; and I will give thee the tables of stone, and the law and the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayest teach them.’" 24.13. And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister; and Moses went up into the mount of God." 24.14. And unto the elders he said: ‘Tarry ye here for us, until we come back unto you; and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whosoever hath a cause, let him come near unto them.’" 24.15. And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights." 29.38. Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar: two lambs of the first year day by day continually." 29.39. The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk." 29.40. And with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink-offering." 29.41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk, and shalt do thereto according to the meal-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.42. It shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations at the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD, where I will meet with you, to speak there unto thee." 33.9. And it came to pass, when Moses entered into the Tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the Tent; and [the LORD] spoke with Moses." 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent." 33.12. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘See, Thou sayest unto me: Bring up this people; and Thou hast not let me know whom Thou wilt send with me. Yet Thou hast said: I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in My sight." 33.13. Now therefore, I pray Thee, if I have found grace in Thy sight, show me now Thy ways, that I may know Thee, to the end that I may find grace in Thy sight; and consider that this nation is Thy people.’" 33.14. And He said: ‘My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest.’" 33.15. And he said unto Him: ‘If Thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence." 33.16. For wherein now shall it be known that I have found grace in Thy sight, I and Thy people? is it not in that Thou goest with us, so that we are distinguished, I and Thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth?’" 33.17. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken, for thou hast found grace in My sight, and I know thee by name.’" 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 33.21. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock." 33.22. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by." 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’" 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD." 34.6. And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;" 34.7. keeping mercy unto the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and unto the fourth generation.’" 34.8. And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped." 34.9. And he said: ‘If now I have found grace in Thy sight, O Lord, let the Lord, I pray Thee, go in the midst of us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for Thine inheritance.’" 34.10. And He said: ‘Behold, I make a covet; before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been wrought in all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD that I am about to do with thee, that it is tremendous." 34.11. Observe thou that which I am commanding thee this day; behold, I am driving out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite." 34.12. Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest they be for a snare in the midst of thee." 34.13. But ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and ye shall cut down their Asherim." 34.14. For thou shalt bow down to no other god; for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God;" 34.15. lest thou make a covet with the inhabitants of the land, and they go astray after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and they call thee, and thou eat of their sacrifice;" 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods." 34.17. Thou shalt make thee no molten gods." 34.18. The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib, for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt." 34.19. All that openeth the womb is Mine; and of all thy cattle thou shalt sanctify the males, the firstlings of ox and sheep." 34.20. And the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck. All the first-born of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before Me empty." 34.21. Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest; in plowing time and in harvest thou shalt rest." 34.22. And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, even of the first-fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the turn of the year." 34.23. Three times in the year shall all thy males appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel." 34.24. For I will cast out nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders; neither shall any man covet thy land, when thou goest up to appear before the LORD thy God three times in the year." 34.25. Thou shalt not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto the morning." 34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’" 34.27. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covet with thee and with Israel.’" 34.28. And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covet, the ten words." 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him." 35.1. And Moses assembled all the congregation of the children of Israel, and said unto them: ‘These are the words which the LORD hath commanded, that ye should do them." 35.4. And Moses spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying: ‘This is the thing which the LORD commanded, saying:"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.3-1.8, 1.14-1.17, 1.20, 1.26-1.28, 2.2-2.3, 5.24, 28.12, 28.17, 29.17, 39.6, 39.20-39.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.8. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.15. וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.17. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.2. וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 2.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁמוֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָדָם לֹא־מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.3. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 29.17. וְעֵינֵי לֵאָה רַכּוֹת וְרָחֵל הָיְתָה יְפַת־תֹּאַר וִיפַת מַרְאֶה׃ 39.6. וַיַּעֲזֹב כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בְּיַד־יוֹסֵף וְלֹא־יָדַע אִתּוֹ מְאוּמָה כִּי אִם־הַלֶּחֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוּא אוֹכֵל וַיְהִי יוֹסֵף יְפֵה־תֹאַר וִיפֵה מַרְאֶה׃ 39.21. וַיְהִי יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹסֵף וַיֵּט אֵלָיו חָסֶד וַיִּתֵּן חִנּוֹ בְּעֵינֵי שַׂר בֵּית־הַסֹּהַר׃ 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.15. and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars." 1.17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth," 1.20. And God said: ‘Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.’" 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.2. And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made." 2.3. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it." 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’" 29.17. And Leah’s eyes were weak; but Rachel was of beautiful form and fair to look upon." 39.6. And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand; and, having him, he knew not aught save the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was of beautiful form, and fair to look upon." 39.20. And Joseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were bound; and he was there in the prison." 39.21. But the LORD was with Joseph, and showed kindness unto him, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 2.1, 37.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ 37.6. כִּי לַשֶּׁלַג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ וְגֶשֶׁם מָטָר וְגֶשֶׁם מִטְרוֹת עֻזּוֹ׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 2.1. Again it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD." 37.6. For He saith to the snow: ‘Fall thou on the earth’; Likewise to the shower of rain, and to the showers of His mighty rain."
7. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 1.13, 2.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. חִגְרוּ וְסִפְדוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים הֵילִילוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי מִזְבֵּחַ בֹּאוּ לִינוּ בַשַּׂקִּים מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהָי כִּי נִמְנַע מִבֵּית אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִנְחָה וָנָסֶךְ׃ 2.17. בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ יִבְכּוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְשָׁרְתֵי יְהוָה וְיֹאמְרוּ חוּסָה יְהוָה עַל־עַמֶּךָ וְאַל־תִּתֵּן נַחֲלָתְךָ לְחֶרְפָּה לִמְשָׁל־בָּם גּוֹיִם לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ בָעַמִּים אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 1.13. Gird yourselves, and lament, ye priests, Wail, ye ministers of the altar; Come, lie all night in sackcloth, Ye ministers of my God; For the meal-offering and the drink-offering is withholden From the house of your God." 2.17. Let the priests, the ministers of the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar, And let them say: ‘Spare thy people, O LORD, And give not Thy heritage to reproach, That the nations should make them a byword: Wherefore should they say among the peoples: Where is their God?’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 2.2, 4.8, 7.38, 10.10, 18.5, 18.21, 25.1, 26.46, 27.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים וְקָמַץ מִשָּׁם מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ מִסָּלְתָּהּ וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ עַל כָּל־לְבֹנָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 4.8. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵלֶב פַּר הַחַטָּאת יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה עַל־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַקֶּרֶב׃ 7.38. אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינָי בְּיוֹם צַוֺּתוֹ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־קָרְבְּנֵיהֶם לַיהוָה בְּמִדְבַּר סִינָי׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 25.1. וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ יוֹבֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר׃ 26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 27.34. אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְוֺת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 2.2. And he shall bring it to Aaron’s sons the priests; and he shall take thereout his handful of the fine flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, together with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall make the memorial-part thereof smoke upon the altar, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 4.8. And all the fat of the bullock of the sin-offering he shall take off from it; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards," 7.38. which the LORD commanded Moses in mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to present their offerings unto the LORD, in the wilderness of Sinai." 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 25.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying:" 26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses." 27.34. These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai."
9. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.7, 1.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. מַגִּישִׁים עַל־מִזְבְּחִי לֶחֶם מְגֹאָל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה גֵאַלְנוּךָ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן יְהוָה נִבְזֶה הוּא׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.7. Ye offer polluted bread upon Mine altar. And ye say: ‘Wherein have we polluted thee?’ In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is contemptible.’" 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.16, 12.1, 19.1-19.13, 20.23-20.29, 28.1-28.8, 33.37-33.38, 36.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.16. כֵּן יִהְיֶה תָמִיד הֶעָנָן יְכַסֶּנּוּ וּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ לָיְלָה׃ 12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 19.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 19.1. וְכִבֶּס הָאֹסֵף אֶת־אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 19.2. זֹאת חֻקַּת הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה תְּמִימָה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהּ מוּם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָלָה עָלֶיהָ עֹל׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִטְמָא וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל כִּי אֶת־מִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה טִמֵּא מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.3. וּנְתַתֶּם אֹתָהּ אֶל־אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְהוֹצִיא אֹתָהּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְפָנָיו׃ 19.4. וְלָקַח אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְהִזָּה אֶל־נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִדָּמָהּ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים׃ 19.5. וְשָׂרַף אֶת־הַפָּרָה לְעֵינָיו אֶת־עֹרָהּ וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָהּ וְאֶת־דָּמָהּ עַל־פִּרְשָׁהּ יִשְׂרֹף׃ 19.6. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן עֵץ אֶרֶז וְאֵזוֹב וּשְׁנִי תוֹלָעַת וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֶל־תּוֹךְ שְׂרֵפַת הַפָּרָה׃ 19.7. וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְטָמֵא הַכֹּהֵן עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.8. וְהַשֹּׂרֵף אֹתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו בַּמַּיִם וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.9. וְאָסַף אִישׁ טָהוֹר אֵת אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה וְהִנִּיחַ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר וְהָיְתָה לַעֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְמֵי נִדָּה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.12. הוּא יִתְחַטָּא־בוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִטְהָר וְאִם־לֹא יִתְחַטָּא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לֹא יִטְהָר׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 20.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּהֹר הָהָר עַל־גְּבוּל אֶרֶץ־אֱדוֹם לֵאמֹר׃ 20.24. יֵאָסֵף אַהֲרֹן אֶל־עַמָּיו כִּי לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל אֲשֶׁר־מְרִיתֶם אֶת־פִּי לְמֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 20.25. קַח אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ וְהַעַל אֹתָם הֹר הָהָר׃ 20.26. וְהַפְשֵׁט אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּם אֶת־אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ וְאַהֲרֹן יֵאָסֵף וּמֵת שָׁם׃ 20.27. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶל־הֹר הָהָר לְעֵינֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 20.28. וַיַּפְשֵׁט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתָם אֶת־אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ וַיָּמָת אַהֲרֹן שָׁם בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה וְאֶלְעָזָר מִן־הָהָר׃ 20.29. וַיִּרְאוּ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כִּי גָוַע אַהֲרֹן וַיִּבְכּוּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם כֹּל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 28.1. עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 28.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד׃ 28.3. שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 28.4. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 28.5. וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 28.6. עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 28.7. וְנִסְכּוֹ רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַיהוָה׃ 28.8. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 33.37. וַיִּסְעוּ מִקָּדֵשׁ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּהֹר הָהָר בִּקְצֵה אֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם׃ 33.38. וַיַּעַל אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־הֹר הָהָר עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וַיָּמָת שָׁם בִּשְׁנַת הָאַרְבָּעִים לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ׃ 36.13. אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְוֺת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב עַל יַרְדֵּן יְרֵחוֹ׃ 9.16. So it was alway: the cloud covered it, and the appearance of fire by night." 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 19.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 19.2. This is the statute of the law which the LORD hath commanded, saying: Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring thee a red heifer, faultless, wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke." 19.3. And ye shall give her unto Eleazar the priest, and she shall be brought forth without the camp, and she shall be slain before his face." 19.4. And Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle of her blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times." 19.5. And the heifer shall be burnt in his sight; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall be burnt." 19.6. And the priest shall take cedar-wood, and hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the heifer." 19.7. Then the priest shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, and the priest shall be unclean until the even." 19.8. And he that burneth her shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water, and shall be unclean until the even." 19.9. And a man that is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay them up without the camp in a clean place, and it shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of sprinkling; it is a purification from sin." 19.10. And he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; and it shall be unto the children of Israel, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among them, for a statute for ever." 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;" 19.12. the same shall purify himself therewith on the third day and on the seventh day, and he shall be clean; but if he purify not himself the third day and the seventh day, he shall not be clean." 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 20.23. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in mount Hor, by the border of the land of Edom, saying:" 20.24. ’Aaron shall be gathered unto his people; for he shall not enter into the land which I have given unto the children of Israel, because ye rebelled against My word at the waters of Meribah." 20.25. Take Aaron and Eleazar his son, and bring them up unto mount Hor." 20.26. And strip Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron shall be gathered unto his people, and shall die there.’" 20.27. And Moses did as the LORD commanded; and they went up into mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation." 20.28. And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron died there in the top of the mount; and Moses and Eleazar came down from the mount." 20.29. And when all the congregation saw that Aaron was dead, they wept for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel." 28.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season." 28.3. And thou shalt say unto them: This is the offering made by fire which ye shall bring unto the LORD: he-lambs of the first year without blemish, two day by day, for a continual burnt-offering." 28.4. The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at dusk;" 28.5. and the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil." 28.6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was offered in mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 28.7. And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of a hin for the one lamb; in the holy place shalt thou pour out a drink-offering of strong drink unto the LORD." 28.8. And the other lamb shalt thou present at dusk; as the meal-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt present it, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 33.37. And they journeyed from Kadesh, and pitched in mount Hor, in the edge of the land of Edom.—" 33.38. And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the commandment of the LORD, and died there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first day of the month." 36.13. These are the commandments and the ordices, which the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho."
11. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.15. בְּאוֹר־פְּנֵי־מֶלֶךְ חַיִּים וּרְצוֹנוֹ כְּעָב מַלְקוֹשׁ׃ 16.15. In the light of the king’s countece is life; And his favour is as a cloud of the latter rain."
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 16.11, 17.15, 18.2, 18.18, 27.4, 42.3, 50.2, 63.3, 68.19, 91.15, 98.2, 99.6-99.7, 110.4, 116.9, 132.5, 132.7, 141.2, 147.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.11. תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שֹׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת־פָּנֶיךָ נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח׃ 17.15. אֲנִי בְּצֶדֶק אֶחֱזֶה פָנֶיךָ אֶשְׂבְּעָה בְהָקִיץ תְּמוּנָתֶךָ׃ 18.2. וַיּוֹצִיאֵנִי לַמֶּרְחָב יְחַלְּצֵנִי כִּי חָפֵץ בִּי׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמַר אֶרְחָמְךָ יְהוָה חִזְקִי׃ 18.18. יַצִּילֵנִי מֵאֹיְבִי עָז וּמִשֹּׂנְאַי כִּי־אָמְצוּ מִמֶּנִּי׃ 27.4. אַחַת שָׁאַלְתִּי מֵאֵת־יְהוָה אוֹתָהּ אֲבַקֵּשׁ שִׁבְתִּי בְּבֵית־יְהוָה כָּל־יְמֵי חַיַּי לַחֲזוֹת בְּנֹעַם־יְהוָה וּלְבַקֵּר בְּהֵיכָלוֹ׃ 42.3. צָמְאָה נַפְשִׁי לֵאלֹהִים לְאֵל חָי מָתַי אָבוֹא וְאֵרָאֶה פְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 50.2. תֵּשֵׁב בְּאָחִיךָ תְדַבֵּר בְּבֶן־אִמְּךָ תִּתֶּן־דֹּפִי׃ 50.2. מִצִּיּוֹן מִכְלַל־יֹפִי אֱלֹהִים הוֹפִיעַ׃ 63.3. כֵּן בַּקֹּדֶשׁ חֲזִיתִיךָ לִרְאוֹת עֻזְּךָ וּכְבוֹדֶךָ׃ 68.19. עָלִיתָ לַמָּרוֹם שָׁבִיתָ שֶּׁבִי לָקַחְתָּ מַתָּנוֹת בָּאָדָם וְאַף סוֹרְרִים לִשְׁכֹּן יָהּ אֱלֹהִים׃ 91.15. יִקְרָאֵנִי וְאֶעֱנֵהוּ עִמּוֹ־אָנֹכִי בְצָרָה אֲחַלְּצֵהוּ וַאֲכַבְּדֵהוּ׃ 98.2. הוֹדִיעַ יְהוָה יְשׁוּעָתוֹ לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם גִּלָּה צִדְקָתוֹ׃ 99.6. מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן בְּכֹהֲנָיו וּשְׁמוּאֵל בְּקֹרְאֵי שְׁמוֹ קֹרִאים אֶל־יְהוָה וְהוּא יַעֲנֵם׃ 99.7. בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן יְדַבֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם שָׁמְרוּ עֵדֹתָיו וְחֹק נָתַן־לָמוֹ׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 116.9. אֶתְהַלֵּךְ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּאַרְצוֹת הַחַיִּים׃ 132.5. עַד־אֶמְצָא מָקוֹם לַיהוָה מִשְׁכָּנוֹת לַאֲבִיר יַעֲקֹב׃ 132.7. נָבוֹאָה לְמִשְׁכְּנוֹתָיו נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַהֲדֹם רַגְלָיו׃ 141.2. תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 147.17. מַשְׁלִיךְ קַרְחוֹ כְפִתִּים לִפְנֵי קָרָתוֹ מִי יַעֲמֹד׃ 16.11. Thou makest me to know the path of life; In Thy presence is fulness of joy, In Thy right hand bliss for evermore." 17.15. As for me, I shall behold Thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with Thy likeness." 18.2. And he said: I love thee, O LORD, my strength." 18.18. He delivered me from mine enemy most strong, and from them that hated me, for they were too mighty for me." 27.4. One thing have I asked of the LORD, that will I seek after: That I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days of my life, To behold the graciousness of the LORD, and to visit early in His temple." 42.3. My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God: 'When shall I come and appear before God?'" 50.2. Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined forth." 63.3. So have I looked for Thee in the sanctuary, To see Thy power and Thy glory. ." 68.19. Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive; Thou hast received gifts among men, Yea, among the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell there." 91.15. He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble; I will rescue him, and bring him to honour." 98.2. The LORD hath made known His salvation; His righteousness hath He revealed in the sight of the nations." 99.6. Moses and Aaron among His priests, And Samuel among them that call upon His name, Did call upon the LORD, and He answered them." 99.7. He spoke unto them in the pillar of cloud; They kept His testimonies, and the statute that He gave them." 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'" 116.9. I shall walk before the LORD In the lands of the living." 132.5. Until I find out a place for the LORD, A dwelling-place for the Mighty One of Jacob.'" 132.7. Let us go into His dwelling-place; Let us worship at His footstool. ." 141.2. Let my prayer be set forth as incense before Thee, The lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice." 147.17. He casteth forth His ice like crumbs; Who can stand before His cold?"
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.13, 22.19-22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.13. וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא אֶעֱזֹב אֶת־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 22.19. וַיֹּאמֶר לָכֵן שְׁמַע דְּבַר־יְהוָה רָאִיתִי אֶת־יְהוָה יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ וְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם עֹמֵד עָלָיו מִימִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ׃ 22.21. וַיֵּצֵא הָרוּחַ וַיַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אֲפַתֶּנּוּ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו בַּמָּה׃ 22.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵצֵא וְהָיִיתִי רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאָיו וַיֹּאמֶר תְּפַתֶּה וְגַם־תּוּכָל צֵא וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן׃ 22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 6.13. in that I will dwell therein among the children of Israel, and will not forsake My people Israel.’" 22.19. And he said: ‘Therefore hear thou the word of the LORD. I saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on his left." 22.20. And the LORD said: Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead. And one said: On this manner; and another said: On that manner." 22.21. And there came forth the spirit, and stood before the LORD, and said: I will entice him." 22.22. And the LORD said unto him: Wherewith? And he said: I will go forth, and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said: Thou shalt entice him, and shalt prevail also; go forth, and do so." 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.6, 2.27, 25.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.6. וְכִעֲסַתָּה צָרָתָהּ גַּם־כַּעַס בַּעֲבוּר הַרְּעִמָהּ כִּי־סָגַר יְהוָה בְּעַד רַחְמָהּ׃ 2.27. וַיָּבֹא אִישׁ־אֱלֹהִים אֶל־עֵלִי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הֲנִגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיךָ בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּמִצְרַיִם לְבֵית פַּרְעֹה׃ 25.22. כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים לְאֹיְבֵי דָוִד וְכֹה יֹסִיף אִם־אַשְׁאִיר מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר׃ 1.6. And her rival also provoked her sore, to make her fret, because the Lord had shut up her womb." 2.27. And there came a man of God to ῾Eli and said to him, Thus says the Lord, Did I not appear to the house of thy father, when they were in Miżrayim in the house of Par῾o?" 25.22. So and more also do God to the enemies of David, if I leave alive of all his people by the morning light so much as a single man."
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.23. וּמִי כְעַמְּךָ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ־אֱלֹהִים לִפְדּוֹת־לוֹ לְעָם וְלָשׂוּם לוֹ שֵׁם וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם הַגְּדוּלָּה וְנֹרָאוֹת לְאַרְצֶךָ מִפְּנֵי עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ לְּךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם גּוֹיִם וֵאלֹהָיו׃ 7.23. And what one nation in the earth is like Thy people, like Yisra᾽el, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make himself a name, and to do like the great things and terrible which Thou didst for Thy land, by driving out from before Thy people, whom Thou didst redeem to Thee from Miżrayim, the nations and their gods?"
17. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 9.1 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

9.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיֹּאמֶר הַךְ הַכַּפְתּוֹר וְיִרְעֲשׁוּ הַסִּפִּים וּבְצַעַם בְּרֹאשׁ כֻּלָּם וְאַחֲרִיתָם בַּחֶרֶב אֶהֱרֹג לֹא־יָנוּס לָהֶם נָס וְלֹא־יִמָּלֵט לָהֶם פָּלִיט׃ 9.1. בַּחֶרֶב יָמוּתוּ כֹּל חַטָּאֵי עַמִּי הָאֹמְרִים לֹא־תַגִּישׁ וְתַקְדִּים בַּעֲדֵינוּ הָרָעָה׃ 9.1. I saw the Lord standing beside the altar; and He said: Smite the capitals, that the posts may shake; And break them in pieces on the head of all of them; And I will slay the residue of them with the sword; There shall not one of them flee away, And there shall not one of them escape."
18. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.1-6.5, 41.25, 43.14, 63.1, 63.9, 63.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4. וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 6.5. וָאֹמַר אוֹי־לִי כִי־נִדְמֵיתִי כִּי אִישׁ טְמֵא־שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי וּבְתוֹךְ עַם־טְמֵא שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב כִּי אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת רָאוּ עֵינָי׃ 41.25. הַעִירוֹתִי מִצָּפוֹן וַיַּאת מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וְיָבֹא סְגָנִים כְּמוֹ־חֹמֶר וּכְמוֹ יוֹצֵר יִרְמָס־טִיט׃ 43.14. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה גֹּאַלְכֶם קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַעַנְכֶם שִׁלַּחְתִּי בָבֶלָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי בָרִיחִים כֻּלָּם וְכַשְׂדִּים בָּאֳנִיּוֹת רִנָּתָם׃ 63.1. וְהֵמָּה מָרוּ וְעִצְּבוּ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ וַיֵּהָפֵךְ לָהֶם לְאוֹיֵב הוּא נִלְחַם־בָּם׃ 63.1. מִי־זֶה בָּא מֵאֱדוֹם חֲמוּץ בְּגָדִים מִבָּצְרָה זֶה הָדוּר בִּלְבוּשׁוֹ צֹעֶה בְּרֹב כֹּחוֹ אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בִּצְדָקָה רַב לְהוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא [לוֹ] צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃ 63.12. מוֹלִיךְ לִימִין מֹשֶׁה זְרוֹעַ תִּפְאַרְתּוֹ בּוֹקֵעַ מַיִם מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֵׁם עוֹלָם׃ 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly." 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 6.4. And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke." 6.5. Then said I: Woe is me! for I am undone; Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For mine eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts." 41.25. I have roused up one from the north, and he is come, From the rising of the sun one that calleth upon My name; And he shall come upon rulers as upon mortar, And as the potter treadeth clay." 43.14. Thus saith the LORD, your Redeemer, The Holy One of Israel: For your sake I have sent to Babylon, And I will bring down all of them as fugitives, even the Chaldeans, in the ships of their shouting." 63.1. ’Who is this that cometh from Edom, with crimsoned garments from Bozrah? This that is glorious in his apparel, stately in the greatness of his strength?’— ’I that speak in victory, mighty to save.’—" 63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. ." 63.12. That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses? That divided the water before them, To make Himself an everlasting name?"
19. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 49.38 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

49.38. וְשַׂמְתִּי כִסְאִי בְּעֵילָם וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי מִשָּׁם מֶלֶךְ וְשָׂרִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 49.38. And I will set My throne in Elam, And will destroy from thence king and princes, saith the LORD."
20. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.20. They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera."
21. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. גָּדַע בָּחֳרִי אַף כֹּל קֶרֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵשִׁיב אָחוֹר יְמִינוֹ מִפְּנֵי אוֹיֵב וַיִּבְעַר בְּיַעֲקֹב כְּאֵשׁ לֶהָבָה אָכְלָה סָבִיב׃ 2.3. He hath cut off in fierce anger All the horn of Israel; He hath drawn back His right hand From before the enemy; And He hath burned in Jacob like a flaming fire, Which devoureth round about."
22. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.1, 1.4-1.5, 1.10, 1.13, 1.16-1.17, 1.22-1.28, 9.2, 10.1-10.2, 10.10, 10.20-10.21, 38.22, 41.22, 47.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. וּדְמוּת פְּנֵיהֶם פְּנֵי אָדָם וּפְנֵי אַרְיֵה אֶל־הַיָּמִין לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם וּפְנֵי־שׁוֹר מֵהַשְּׂמֹאול לְאַרְבַּעְתָּן וּפְנֵי־נֶשֶׁר לְאַרְבַּעְתָּן׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה בָּרְבִיעִי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ וַאֲנִי בְתוֹךְ־הַגּוֹלָה עַל־נְהַר־כְּבָר נִפְתְּחוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וָאֶרְאֶה מַרְאוֹת אֱלֹהִים׃ 1.4. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ סְעָרָה בָּאָה מִן־הַצָּפוֹן עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב וּמִתּוֹכָהּ כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַל מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 1.5. וּמִתּוֹכָהּ דְּמוּת אַרְבַּע חַיּוֹת וְזֶה מַרְאֵיהֶן דְּמוּת אָדָם לָהֵנָּה׃ 1.13. וּדְמוּת הַחַיּוֹת מַרְאֵיהֶם כְּגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ בֹּעֲרוֹת כְּמַרְאֵה הַלַּפִּדִים הִיא מִתְהַלֶּכֶת בֵּין הַחַיּוֹת וְנֹגַהּ לָאֵשׁ וּמִן־הָאֵשׁ יוֹצֵא בָרָק׃ 1.16. מַרְאֵה הָאוֹפַנִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כְּעֵין תַּרְשִׁישׁ וּדְמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּן וּמַרְאֵיהֶם וּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃ 1.17. עַל־אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶן בְּלֶכְתָּם יֵלֵכוּ לֹא יִסַּבּוּ בְּלֶכְתָּן׃ 1.22. וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.23. וְתַחַת הָרָקִיעַ כַּנְפֵיהֶם יְשָׁרוֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ לְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת לָהֵנָּה וּלְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת לָהֵנָּה אֵת גְּוִיֹּתֵיהֶם׃ 1.24. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל כַּנְפֵיהֶם כְּקוֹל מַיִם רַבִּים כְּקוֹל־שַׁדַּי בְּלֶכְתָּם קוֹל הֲמֻלָּה כְּקוֹל מַחֲנֶה בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.25. וַיְהִי־קוֹל מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 9.2. וְהִנֵּה שִׁשָּׁה אֲנָשִׁים בָּאִים מִדֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן אֲשֶׁר מָפְנֶה צָפוֹנָה וְאִישׁ כְּלִי מַפָּצוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְאִישׁ־אֶחָד בְּתוֹכָם לָבֻשׁ בַּדִּים וְקֶסֶת הַסֹּפֵר בְּמָתְנָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ אֵצֶל מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת׃ 10.1. וּמַרְאֵיהֶם דְּמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.1. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הַכְּרֻבִים כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא נִרְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּא אֶל־בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל אֶל־תַּחַת לַכְּרוּב וּמַלֵּא חָפְנֶיךָ גַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרֻבִים וּזְרֹק עַל־הָעִיר וַיָּבֹא לְעֵינָי׃ 10.2. הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי תַּחַת אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר וָאֵדַע כִּי כְרוּבִים הֵמָּה׃ 10.21. אַרְבָּעָה אַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד וּדְמוּת יְדֵי אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃ 38.22. וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי אִתּוֹ בְּדֶבֶר וּבְדָם וְגֶשֶׁם שׁוֹטֵף וְאַבְנֵי אֶלְגָּבִישׁ אֵשׁ וְגָפְרִית אַמְטִיר עָלָיו וְעַל־אֲגַפָּיו וְעַל־עַמִּים רַבִּים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 41.22. הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עֵץ שָׁלוֹשׁ אַמּוֹת גָּבֹהַּ וְאָרְכּוֹ שְׁתַּיִם־אַמּוֹת וּמִקְצֹעוֹתָיו לוֹ וְאָרְכּוֹ וְקִירֹתָיו עֵץ וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלַי זֶה הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 47.1. וְהָיָה יעמדו [עָמְדוּ] עָלָיו דַּוָּגִים מֵעֵין גֶּדִי וְעַד־עֵין עֶגְלַיִם מִשְׁטוֹחַ לַחֲרָמִים יִהְיוּ לְמִינָה תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם כִּדְגַת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל רַבָּה מְאֹד׃ 47.1. וַיְשִׁבֵנִי אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם יֹצְאִים מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת קָדִימָה כִּי־פְנֵי הַבַּיִת קָדִים וְהַמַּיִם יֹרְדִים מִתַּחַת מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית מִנֶּגֶב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 1.1. Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river Chebar that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God." 1.4. And I looked, and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst thereof as the colour of electrum, out of the midst of the fire." 1.5. And out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the likeness of a man." 1.10. As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle." 1.13. As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like coals of fire, burning like the appearance of torches; it flashed up and down among the living creatures; and there was brightness to the fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning." 1.16. The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl; and they four had one likeness; and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel within a wheel." 1.17. When they went, they went toward their four sides; they turned not when they went." 1.22. And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above." 1.23. And under the firmament were their wings conformable the one to the other; this one of them had two which covered, and that one of them had two which covered, their bodies." 1.24. And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, a noise of tumult like the noise of a host; when they stood, they let down their wings." 1.25. For, when there was a voice above the firmament that was over their heads, as they stood, they let down their wings." 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke." 9.2. And, behold, six men came from the way of the upper gate, which lieth toward the north, every man with his weapon of destruction in his hand; and one man in the midst of them clothed in linen, with a writer’s inkhorn on his side. And they went in, and stood beside the brazen altar." 10.1. Then I looked, and, behold, upon the firmament that was over the head of the cherubim, there appeared above them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne." 10.2. And He spoke unto the man clothed in linen, and said: ‘Go in between the wheelwork, even under the cherub, and fill both thy hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim, and dash them against the city.’ And he went in in my sight." 10.10. And as for their appearance, they four had one likeness, as if a wheel had been within a wheel." 10.20. This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar; and I knew that they were cherubim." 10.21. Every one had four faces apiece, and every one four wings; and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings." 38.22. And I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood; and I will cause to rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many peoples that are with him, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone." 41.22. The altar, three cubits high, and the length thereof two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood; and he said unto me: ‘This is the table that is before the LORD.’" 47.1. And he brought me back unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house looked toward the east; and the waters came down from under, from the right side of the house, on the south of the altar.
23. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.2. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ חֲזַק וֶאֱמַץ וַעֲשֵׂה אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהַי עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ עַד־לִכְלוֹת כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃ 28.2. וַיָּקָם דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־רַגְלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמָעוּנִי אַחַי וְעַמִּי אֲנִי עִם־לְבָבִי לִבְנוֹת בֵּית מְנוּחָה לַאֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה וְלַהֲדֹם רַגְלֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַהֲכִינוֹתִי לִבְנוֹת׃ 28.2. Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said: ‘Hear me, my brethren, and my people; as for me, it was in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covet of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God; and I had made ready for the building."
24. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 18.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.18. וַיֹּאמֶר לָכֵן שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה רָאִיתִי אֶת־יְהוָה יוֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ וְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם עֹמְדִים עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ׃ 18.18. And he said: ‘Therefore hear ye the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting upon His throne, and all the host of heaven standing on His right hand and on His left."
25. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.6. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃ 9.6. Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee."
26. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 10.11, 14.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.11. וְעָבַר בַּיָּם צָרָה וְהִכָּה בַיָּם גַּלִּים וְהֹבִישׁוּ כֹּל מְצוּלוֹת יְאֹר וְהוּרַד גְּאוֹן אַשּׁוּר וְשֵׁבֶט מִצְרַיִם יָסוּר׃ 14.8. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם־חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבָחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה׃ 10.11. And over the sea affliction shall pass, And the waves shall be smitten in the sea, And all the depths of the Nile shall dry up; And the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, And the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away. ." 14.8. And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be."
27. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.11-12.22 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.11. I will not conceal anything from you. I have said, `It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 12.14. So now God sent me to heal you and your daughter-in-law Sarah. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 12.16. They were both alarmed; and they fell upon their faces, for they were afraid. 12.17. But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; you will be safe. But praise God for ever. 12.18. For I did not come as a favor on my part, but by the will of our God. Therefore praise him for ever. 12.19. All these days I merely appeared to you and did not eat or drink, but you were seeing a vision. 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened. 12.21. Then they stood up; but they saw him no more. 12.22. So they confessed the great and wonderful works of God, and acknowledged that the angel of the Lord had appeared to them.
28. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.9, 14.8-14.25, 18.13, 18.15, 21.3, 71.1, 71.7, 89.28-89.35, 93.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him. 14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright 14.11. of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were 14.12. fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and it 14.13. portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there 14.14. were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked 14.15. and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater 14.16. than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to 14.17. you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path 14.18. of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 14.19. cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look 14.21. was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason 14.22. of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand time 14.23. ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were 14.24. nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: ' Come hither 14.25. Enoch, and hear my word.' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards. 18.13. birds, but it was a waste and horrible place. I saw there seven stars like great burning mountains 21.3. a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw 71.1. And it came to pass after this that my spirit was translated And it ascended into the heavens: And I saw the holy sons of God. They were stepping on flames of fire: Their garments were white [and their raiment], And their faces shone like snow. 71.1. And with them the Head of Days, His head white and pure as wool, And His raiment indescribable. 71.7. And round about were Seraphin, Cherubic, and Ophannin: And these are they who sleep not And guard the throne of His glory. 89.28. But the sheep escaped from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there was no water and no grass; and they began to open their eyes and to see; and I saw the Lord of the sheep 89.29. pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going and leading them. And that 89.31. terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were afraid before His face. And they all feared and trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep with them [which was amongst 89.32. them]: ' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander 89.33. from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen 89.34. away. And when they saw it they feared and trembled at its presence, and desired to return to their 89.35. folds. And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those sheep which had fallen away, and began to slay them; and the sheep feared its presence, and thus that sheep brought back those 93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them.
29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 3.21-3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Songs of The Sabbath Sacrificef, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9-7.13, 8.17, 10.5-10.6, 12.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 7.11. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בֵּאדַיִן מִן־קָל מִלַּיָּא רַבְרְבָתָא דִּי קַרְנָא מְמַלֱּלָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי קְטִילַת חֵיוְתָא וְהוּבַד גִּשְׁמַהּ וִיהִיבַת לִיקֵדַת אֶשָּׁא׃ 7.12. וּשְׁאָר חֵיוָתָא הֶעְדִּיו שָׁלְטָנְהוֹן וְאַרְכָה בְחַיִּין יְהִיבַת לְהוֹן עַד־זְמַן וְעִדָּן׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 8.17. וַיָּבֹא אֵצֶל עָמְדִי וּבְבֹאוֹ נִבְעַתִּי וָאֶפְּלָה עַל־פָּנָי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הָבֵן בֶּן־אָדָם כִּי לְעֶת־קֵץ הֶחָזוֹן׃ 10.5. וָאֶשָּׂא אֶת־עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ־אֶחָד לָבוּשׁ בַּדִּים וּמָתְנָיו חֲגֻרִים בְּכֶתֶם אוּפָז׃ 10.6. וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל וְקוֹל דְּבָרָיו כְּקוֹל הָמוֹן׃ 12.12. אַשְׁרֵי הַמְחַכֶּה וְיַגִּיעַ לְיָמִים אֶלֶף שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁלֹשִׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 7.11. I beheld at that time because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke, I beheld even till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given to be burned with fire." 7.12. And as for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away; yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time." 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 8.17. So he came near where I stood; and when he came, I was terrified, and fell upon my face; but he said unto me: ‘Understand, O son of man; for the vision belongeth to the time of the end.’" 10.5. I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz;" 10.6. his body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as torches of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to burnished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude." 12.12. Happy is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days."
32. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.21-3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.21. Seek not what is too difficult for you,nor investigate what is beyond your power. 3.22. Reflect upon what has been assigned to you,for you do not need what is hidden.
33. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews.
34. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 29.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Anon., Testament of Abraham A, 12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.216, 5.223 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.223. But this temple appeared to strangers, when they were coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow; for as to those parts of it that were not gilt, they were exceeding white.
37. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
38. Mishnah, Kelim, 24.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

24.7. There are three different types of writing tablets:That of papyrus is susceptible to midras uncleanness; That which had a receptacle for wax is susceptible to corpse uncleanness; And that which is smooth is free from all uncleanness."
39. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.7, 11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me.
40. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, Acts, 9.18, 10.11, 11.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.18. Immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he received his sight. He arose and was baptized. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth 11.5. I was in the city of Joppa praying, and in a trance I saw a vision: a certain container descending, like it was a great sheet let down from heaven by four corners. It came as far as me
42. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.13-1.14, 1.16, 4.4-4.6, 4.8, 5.8, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 5.8. Now when he had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 8.8. The second angel sounded, and something like a great burning mountain was thrown into the sea. One third of the sea became blood
43. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.27, 8.1-8.5, 9.7, 9.11-9.14, 9.18-9.21, 9.24-9.26, 10.11-10.12, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.27. who doesn't need, like those high priests, to daily offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. For this he did once for all, when he offered up himself. 8.1. Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens 8.2. a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man. 8.3. For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. Therefore it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer. 8.4. For if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are priests who offer the gifts according to the law; 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain. 9.7. but into the second the high priest alone, once in the year, not without blood, which he offers for himself, and for the errors of the people. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation 9.12. nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption. 9.13. For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify to the cleanness of the flesh: 9.14. how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? 9.18. Therefore even the first covet has not been dedicated without blood. 9.19. For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people 9.20. saying, "This is the blood of the covet which God has commanded you. 9.21. Moreover he sprinkled the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry in like manner with the blood. 9.24. For Christ hasn't entered into holy places made with hands, which are representations of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; 9.25. nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest enters into the holy place year by year with blood not his own 9.26. or else he must have suffered often since the foundation of the world. But now once at the end of the ages, he has been revealed to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. 10.11. Every priest indeed stands day by day ministering and often offering the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins 10.12. but he, when he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; 13.10. We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.
44. New Testament, Luke, 22.19-22.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you.
45. New Testament, Mark, 14.24, 14.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.'
46. New Testament, Matthew, 26.28, 26.61, 28.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 28.3. His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow.
47. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.3, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.5-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 11.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11.3. וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (משלי לא, כט): רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה, מַהוּ וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה, מְדַבֵּר בְּמשֶׁה, עַל שֶׁנִּתְעַלָּה יוֹתֵר מִן הַכֹּל. כֵּיצַד, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצַלְּמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כז): וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, אוֹמֵר לוֹ משֶׁה, אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה כָּבוֹד שֶׁנִּתַּן לְךָ נִטַּל מִמְּךָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מט, יג): וְאָדָם בִּיקָר בַּל יָלִין, אֲבָל אֲנִי זִיו הַפָּנִים שֶׁנָּתַן לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, עִמִּי הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לד, ז): לֹא כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא נָס לֵחֹה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, נֹחַ אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּצַּלְתִּי מִדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה הִצַּלְתָּ אֶת עַצְמְךָ וְלֹא הָיָה בְךָ כֹּחַ לְהַצִּיל אֶת דּוֹרְךָ, אֲבָל אֲנִי הִצַּלְתִּי אֶת עַצְמִי וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶת דּוֹרִי כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַיְּבוּ כְּלָיָה בָּעֵגֶל, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, יד): וַיִּנָּחֶם ה' עַל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁתֵּי סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַּיָּם וְהָיוּ בְּתוֹכָן שְׁנֵי קַבַּרְנִיטִים, אֶחָד הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא הִצִּיל אֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, וְאֶחָד הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, לְמִי מְקַלְּסִין לֹא לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, כָּךְ נֹחַ לֹא הִצִּיל אֶלָּא אֶת עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל משֶׁה הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת דּוֹרוֹ, הֱוֵי וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אַבְרָהָם אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁהָיִיתִי זָן לָעוֹבְרִים וְשָׁבִים, אוֹמֵר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה הָיִיתָ זָן בְּנֵי אָדָם עֲרֵלִים, וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי זָן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּלִים, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא אַתְּ הָיִיתָ זָן בַּיִּשּׁוּב, וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי זָן בַּמִּדְבָּר. יִצְחָק אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁפָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת צַוָּארִי עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְרָאִיתִי אֶת פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה רָאִיתָ פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וְכָהוּ עֵינֶיךָ, מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כז, א): וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וַתִּכְהֶיןָ עֵינָיו מֵרְאֹת, מַהוּ מֵרְאֹת, מֵרְאוֹת בַּשְּׁכִינָה, אֲבָל אֲנִי הָיִיתִי מְדַבֵּר עִם הַשְּׁכִינָה פָּנִים בְּפָנִים וְלֹא כָהוּ עֵינָי, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כט): וּמשֶׁה לֹא יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו. יַעֲקֹב אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּפְגַּשְׁתִּי עִם הַמַּלְאָךְ וְנִצַּחְתִּי אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אַתָּה נִפְגַּשְׁתָּ עִם הַמַּלְאָךְ בַּפִּירְבּוֹרִין שֶׁלָּךְ, וַאֲנִי עוֹלֶה אֶצְלָן בַּפִּירְבּוֹרִין שֶׁלָּהֶן וְהֵן מִתְיָרְאִין מִמֶּנִּי, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים סח, יג): מַלְכֵי צְבָאוֹת יִדֹּדוּן יִדֹּדוּן וגו', לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה: רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וגו', אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְנִתְעַלָּה מִן הַכֹּל הוּא יְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה.
51. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 68.12, 78.3, 82.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

68.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם (בראשית כח, יב), אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ דִּבְרֵי חֲלוֹמוֹת לֹא מַעֲלִין וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין, חַד בַּר נָשׁ אֲזַל לְגַבֵּי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי אָמְרִין לִי אֲזֵיל סַב פּוֹעָלַיָּא דַּאֲבוּךְ מִן קַפּוֹדְקִיָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וַאֲזַל אֲבוּךְ לְקַפּוֹדְקִיָּא מִן יוֹמֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ זִיל מְנֵי עֶשְׂרִים שְׁרָיֵי בְּכָרְסָא דְבֵיתָךְ אַתְּ מַשְׁכַּח לֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית בְּהוֹן עֶשְׂרִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאִי לֵית בְּהוֹן עֶשְׂרִין מְנֵי מִן רֵאשֵׁיהוֹן לְסוֹפֵיהוֹן וּמִן סוֹפֵיהוֹן לְרֵאשֵׁיהוֹן וְאַתְּ מַשְׁכַּח, אֲזַל מְנָא וְאַשְׁכַּח כֵּן. וּמִנַּיִן יַלִּיף לָהּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן קַפּוֹדְקִיָּא. תָּנֵי בַּר קַפָּרָא לֵית חֲלוֹם שֶׁאֵין לוֹ פִּתְרוֹן, וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה הַכֶּבֶשׁ. מֻצָּב אַרְצָה, זֶה מִזְבֵּחַ (שמות כ, כד): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי, וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אֵלּוּ הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁרֵיחָן עוֹלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, אֵלּוּ כֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים. עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, שֶׁהֵם עוֹלִים וְיוֹרְדִים בַּכֶּבֶשׁ. (בראשית כח, יג): וְהִנֵּה ה' נִצָּב עָלָיו, (עמוס ט, א): רָאִיתִי אֶת ה' נִצָּב עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, רַבָּנָן פָּתְרִין לֵיהּ בְּסִינַי. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה סִינַי. מֻצָּב אַרְצָה (שמות יט, יז): וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר. וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה (דברים ד, יא): וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד לֵב הַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם, זֶה סִינַי, אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּדֵין הוּא אוֹתִיּוֹת דְּדֵין. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, עַל שֵׁם (תהלים סח, יח): רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן. וְלָמַדְנוּ לַנְּבִיאִים שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ מַלְאָכִים, דִּכְתִיב (חגי א, יג): וַיֹּאמֶר חַגַּי מַלְאַךְ ה' בְּמַלְאֲכוּת ה' לָעָם. וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים, זֶה משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן. עֹלִים (שמות יט, ג): וּמשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים. וְיֹרְדִים, זֶה משֶׁה (שמות יט, יד): וַיֵּרֶד משֶׁה. וְהִנֵּה ה' נִצָּב עָלָיו (שמות יט, כ): וַיֵּרֶד ה' עַל הַר סִינַי אֶל רֹאשׁ הָהָר, רַבִּי שַׂלְמוֹנִי בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר תַּרְכּוּסָא שֶׁל שָׁלשׁ רַגְלַיִם הֶרְאָה לוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אַתְּ הוּא רֶגֶל שְׁלִישִׁי. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר (דברים לב, ט): כִּי חֵלֶק ה' עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ, מָה הַחֶבֶל הַזֶּה פָּחוּת מִשְׁלשָׁה אֵין מַפְקִיעִין אוֹתוֹ, כָּךְ הָאָבוֹת אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְׁלשָׁה. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר עוֹלָם וּשְׁלִישׁ עוֹלָם הֶרְאָה לוֹ, עֹלִים אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁנַיִם וְיֹרְדִים שְׁנַיִם. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהַמַּלְאָךְ שְׁלִישׁוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל י, ו): וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָּרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחשֶׁת קָלָל. רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, חַד אָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בַּסֻּלָּם, וְחַד אָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בְּיַעֲקֹב. מַאן דְּאָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בַּסֻּלָּם, נִיחָא. וּמַאן דְּאָמַר עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בְּיַעֲקֹב, מַעֲלִים וּמוֹרִידִים בּוֹ אָפְזִים בּוֹ קָפְזִים בּוֹ שׂוֹנְטִים בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מט, ג): יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר, אַתְּ הוּא שֶׁאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלְּךָ חֲקוּקָה לְמַעְלָה, עֹלִים לְמַעְלָה וְרוֹאִים אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְיֹרְדִים לְמַטָּה וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ יָשֵׁן. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְדָן, עוֹלִים לְבַסִּילְקִי וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ דָּן, וְיוֹצְאִים בַּפַּרְוָד וּמוֹצְאִים אוֹתוֹ יָשֵׁן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְמַעֲלָן, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זְכוּתוֹ, עוֹלֶה. חוֹבָתוֹ, יוֹרֵד. לְמַטָּן, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זְכוּתוֹ, יוֹרֵד. חוֹבָתוֹ, עוֹלֶה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ, עֹלִים אוֹתָם שֶׁלִּוּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, יֹרְדִים, אֵלּוּ שֶׁלִּוּוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁגִּלּוּ מִסְטוֹרִין שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִדְחוּ מִמְּחִצָּתָן קל"ח שָׁנָה, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הֲוָה מַפִּיק לִשָּׁנָא קָלָא. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּתְגָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ (בראשית יט, יג): כִּי מַשְׁחִיתִים אֲנַחְנוּ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה, הֵיכָן חָזְרוּ, כָּאן, עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים, עֹלִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹרְדִים. 78.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ (בראשית לב, כח כט), (ישעיה מד, כו): מֵקִים דְּבַר עַבְדּוֹ וַעֲצַת מַלְאָכָיו יַשְׁלִים, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר מִשֶּׁהוּא מְקַיֵּים דְּבַר עַבְדּוֹ וַעֲצַת מַלְאָכָיו יַשְׁלִים, אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר (ישעיה מד, כו): לִיְרוּשָׁלָיִם תּוּשָׁב וּלְעָרֵי יְהוּדָה תִּבָּנֶינָה, אֶלָּא מַלְאָךְ אֶחָד שֶׁנִּגְלָה עַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה שְּׁמֶךָ לֹא יַעֲקֹב. וַעֲצַת מַלְאָכָיו יַשְׁלִים, שֶׁנִּגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב בִּשְׁבִיל לְקַיֵּם גְּזֵרָתוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ מַלְאָךְ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ לֹא יַעֲקֹב, וְאַף הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָמַר לוֹ כֵן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית לה, י): וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֱלֹהִים שִׁמְךָ יַעֲקֹב וגו'. לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר, בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא קוֹרֵא לְאַבְרָהָם אַבְרָם עוֹבֵר בַּעֲשֵׂה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, (בראשית יז, ה): וְלֹא יִקָּרֵא עוֹד וגו' בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, (בראשית יז, ה): וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם, בַּעֲשֵׂה. וַהֲרֵי אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה קָרְאוּ אוֹתוֹ אַבְרָם, דִּכְתִיב (נחמיה ט, ז): אַתָּה הוּא ה' הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בְּאַבְרָם וגו', סִפּוּר הוּא מְסַפֵּר וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁעַד שֶׁהוּא אַבְרָם בָּחַרְתָּ בּוֹ. דִּכְוָתָהּ הַקּוֹרֵא לְשָׂרָה שָׂרַי עוֹבֵר בַּעֲשֵׂה, אֶלָּא הוּא שֶׁנִּצְטַוָּה עָלֶיהָ. דִּכְוָתָהּ הַקּוֹרֵא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲקֹב עוֹבֵר בַּעֲשֵׂה, תָּנֵי לֹא שֶׁיֵּעָקֵר שֵׁם יַעֲקֹב, אֶלָּא (בראשית לה, י): כִּי אִם יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיֶה שְׁמֶךָ, יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיֶה עִקָּר וְיַעֲקֹב טְפֵלָה. רַבִּי זְכַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא מִכָּל מָקוֹם יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְךָ אֶלָּא כִּי אִם יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיֶה שְׁמֶךָ, יַעֲקֹב עִקָּר וְיִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹסִיף עָלָיו. (בראשית לב, כט): כִּי שָׂרִיתָ עִם אֱלֹהִים וְעִם אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל, נִתְגּוֹשַׁשְׁתָּ עִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְיָכֹלְתָּ לָהֶם, וְעִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים וְיָכֹלְתָּ לָהֶם. עִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים זֶה הַמַּלְאָךְ, רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר שָׂרוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו הָיָה, הוּא דְּהוּא אָמַר לֵיהּ (בראשית לג, י): כִּי עַל כֵּן רָאִיתִי פָּנֶיךָ כִּרְאֹת פְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים, מַה פְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים, דִּין, אַף פָּנֶיךָ דִּין. מַה פְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים (שמות כג, טו): וְלֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם, אַף אַתְּ לֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם. עִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים וְיָכֹלְתָּ לָהֶם, זֶה עֵשָׂו וְאַלּוּפָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כִּי שָׂרִיתָ עִם אֱלֹהִים, אַתְּ הוּא שֶׁאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלְךָ חֲקוּקָה לְמַעְלָה. 82.2. כְּתִיב (תהלים כד, ג ה): מִי יַעֲלֶה בְהַר ה' וּמִי יָקוּם וגו' נְקִי כַפַּיִם וגו' יִשָֹּׂא בְרָכָה מֵאֵת ה' וגו'. כְּתִיב (ירמיה לא, כב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' צְבָאוֹת עוֹד יֹאמְרוּ יְבָרֶכְךָ ה' נְוֵה צֶדֶק הַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ וגו', כְּתִיב (משלי כח, כ): אִישׁ אֱמוּנוֹת רַב בְּרָכוֹת, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, (משלי כח, כ): וְאָץ לְהַעֲשִׁיר לֹא יִנָּקֶה, זֶה עֵשָׂו. כְּתִיב (משלי י, כב): בִּרְכַּת ה' הִיא תַעֲשִׁיר, וְאָץ לְהַעֲשִׁיר לֹא יַעֲשִׁיר אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא לֹא יִנָּקֶה, זֶה עֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע שֶׁנִּתְחַתֵּן בִּיהוּדִית וּבָשְׂמַת וּמַחֲלַת לְהַרְבּוֹת עשֶׁר, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ נִקּוּי עוֹלָמִים. כְּתִיב (יואל ד, כא): וְנִקֵּיתִי דָמָם לֹא נִקֵּיתִי וגו', הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עמוס א, יא): עַל רָדְפוֹ בַחֶרֶב אָחִיו וְשִׁחֵת רַחֲמָיו. (בראשית לה, ט): וַיֵּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶל יַעֲקֹב עוֹד בְּבֹאוֹ, רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (שמות כ, כב): מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי, וַהֲרֵי דְבָרִים קַל וָחֹמֶר וּמָה אִם זֶה שֶׁבָּנָה מִזְבֵּחַ לִשְׁמִי הֲרֵי אֲנִי נִגְלָה עָלָיו וּמְבָרְכוֹ, יַעֲקֹב שֶׁאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ קְבוּעָה בְּכִסְאִי עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. וַיֵּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶל יַעֲקֹב, רַבִּי לֵוִי פָּתַח (ויקרא ט, ד): וְשׁוֹר וָאַיִל לִשְׁלָמִים וגו', וַהֲרֵי דְבָרִים קַל וָחֹמֶר וּמַה זֶּה שֶׁהִקְרִיב אַיִל לִשְׁמִי הֲרֵי אֲנִי נִגְלָה עָלָיו וּמְבָרְכוֹ, יַעֲקֹב שֶׁאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּכִסְאִי עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. וַיֵּרָא אֱלֹהִים (דברים כח, ו): בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה בְּבֹאֶךָ וּבָרוּךְ אַתָּה בְּצֵאתֶךָ, בְּבוֹאוֹ לְבֵית חָמִיו נִטְעַן בְּרָכוֹת, (בראשית כח, ג): וְאֵל שַׁדַּי יְבָרֵךְ אֹתְךָ, וּבְצֵאתוֹ מִבֵּית חָמִיו נִטְעַן בְּרָכוֹת, וַיֵּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶל יַעֲקֹב. (ישעיה מד, כו): מֵקִים דְּבַר עַבְדּוֹ וַעֲצַת מַלְאָכָיו יַשְׁלִים, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר מִשֶּׁמֵּקִים דְּבַר עַבְדּוֹ אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁעֲצַת מַלְאָכָיו יַשְׁלִים, אֶלָּא מַלְאָךְ אֶחָד נִגְלָה עַל יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ וְאָמַר לוֹ עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִגָּלוֹת עָלֶיךָ בְּבֵית אֵל וּלְהַחֲלִיף אֶת שִׁמְךָ וַאֲנִי עָתִיד לַעֲמֹד שָׁם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (הושע יב, ה): בֵּית אֵל יִמְצָאֶנוּ וְשָׁם יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ, יְדַבֵּר עִמְּךָ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְשָׁם יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ, וְנִגְלָה עָלָיו הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְקַיֵּם דְּבָרָיו שֶׁל מַלְאָךְ, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים מִתְנַבְּאִים עָלֶיהָ, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵי נְבִיאָיו. 68.12. ...And he took stones of the place - R. Judah and R. Nehemiah, and the Rabbis. Rabbi Yehuda said he took 12 Stones. God decreed that he establish twelve tribes. Jacob said; Abraham did not establish them, Isaac did not establish them, if the twelve stones join together, I know that I will merit twelve tribes. Once they did he knew he was going to merit establishing the twelve tribes . Rabbi Nehemiah said he took 3 stones. Jacob took three stones and said : God placed his name on Abraham, and on Isaac. I, if the stones join together, I know that God is the unifying name for me. And since joined, he knew that God would unify his names with Jacob. The Rabbis said that the minimum of the plural of stones is 2. Abraham produced negative attributes/waste- Ishmael and the sons of Keturah . And Isaac produced Esau and his generals. I, if you join these 2 stones together, I know that I will not produce any negative attributes in my descendants."
52. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 20.10, 23.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23.8. וְעַתָּה לֹא רָאוּ אוֹר (איוב לז, כא), תָּנָא הָרוֹאֶה הַחַמָּה בִּתְקוּפָתָהּ, לְבָנָה בְּכַדּוּרָהּ, כּוֹכָבִים בִּמְסִלּוֹתָם, מַזָּלוֹת כְּסִדְרָן, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא הֲדָא דְאַתְּ אָמַר בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, וּבִלְבָד לְאַחַר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים. וְעַתָּה לֹא רָאוּ אוֹר, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמַר דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי בִּנְהַרְדָּעָא (שמות כד, י): וַיִּרְאוּ אֶת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, זֶה עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְאָלוּ, אֲבָל מִשֶּׁנִּגְאֲלוּ הֵיכָן הָיְתָה דַרְכָּהּ שֶׁל לְבֵנָה לִנָּתֵן שָׁם הָיְתָה נְתוּנָה. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה מַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא (שמות כד, י): כְּמַעֲשֵׂה, הִיא וְכָל אַרְגָּלִיָּא שֶׁלָּהּ נְתָנָהּ, הִיא וְהַסַּל וְהַמַּגְרֵפָה שֶׁלָּהּ נְתָנָהּ. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְאֲלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם הָיְתָה רְשׁוּמָה בָּרָקִיעַ, מִשֶּׁנִּגְאֲלוּ עוֹד לֹא נִרְאֲתָה בָּרָקִיעַ, מַאי טַעְמָא (שמות כד, י): וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר, כָּךְ אִינוּן נְקִיִּין מִן עֲנָנִין.
53. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 328, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

55. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 84, 143 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

56. Anon., Targum Onqelos, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

57. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

58. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, 4.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

59. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שהקב"ה מתפלל שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי תפלתם לא נאמר אלא תפלתי מכאן שהקב"ה מתפלל.,מאי מצלי,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב יה"ר מלפני שיכבשו רחמי את כעסי ויגולו רחמי על מדותי ואתנהג עם בני במדת רחמים ואכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין.,תניא א"ר ישמעאל בן אלישע פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטורת לפני ולפנים וראיתי אכתריאל יה ה' צבאות שהוא יושב על כסא רם ונשא ואמר לי ישמעאל בני ברכני אמרתי לו יה"ר מלפניך שיכבשו רחמיך את כעסך ויגולו רחמיך על מדותיך ותתנהג עם בניך במדת הרחמים ותכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין ונענע לי בראשו וקמ"ל שלא תהא ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שאין מרצין לו לאדם בשעת כעסו דכתיב (שמות לג, יד) פני ילכו והנחותי לך אמר לו הקב"ה למשה המתן לי עד שיעברו פנים של זעם ואניח לך,ומי איכא רתחא קמיה דקודשא בריך הוא,אין דתניא (תהלים ז, יב) ואל זועם בכל יום,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע אחד מחמשת רבוא ושמונת אלפים ושמנה מאות ושמנים ושמנה בשעה וזו היא רגע ואין כל בריה יכולה לכוין אותה שעה חוץ מבלעם הרשע דכתיב ביה (במדבר כד, טז) ויודע דעת עליון,השתא דעת בהמתו לא הוה ידע דעת עליון הוה ידע,אלא מלמד שהיה יודע לכוין אותה שעה שהקב"ה כועס בה,והיינו דאמר להו נביא לישראל (מיכה ו, ה) עמי זכר נא מה יעץ בלק מלך מואב וגו' מאי (מיכה ו, ה) למען דעת צדקות ה',א"ר אלעזר אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל דעו כמה צדקות עשיתי עמכם שלא כעסתי בימי בלעם הרשע שאלמלי כעסתי לא נשתייר משונאיהם של ישראל שריד ופליט,והיינו דקא"ל בלעם לבלק (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ומה אזעם לא זעם ה' מלמד שכל אותן הימים לא זעם.,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע א"ר אבין ואיתימא רבי אבינא רגע כמימריה.,ומנא לן דרגע רתח שנא' (תהלים ל, ו) כי רגע באפו חיים ברצונו ואב"א מהכא (ישעיהו כו, כ) חבי כמעט רגע עד יעבור זעם,ואימת רתח אמר אביי בהנך תלת שעי קמייתא כי חיורא כרבלתא דתרנגולא וקאי אחד כרעא,כל שעתא ושעתא נמי קאי הכי,כל שעתא אית ביה שורייקי סומקי בההיא שעתא לית ביה שורייקי סומקי.,ההוא צדוקי דהוה בשבבותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי הוה קא מצער ליה טובא בקראי יומא חד שקל תרנגולא ואוקמיה בין כרעי' דערסא ועיין ביה סבר כי מטא ההיא שעתא אלטייה כי מטא ההיא שעתא ניים אמר ש"מ לאו אורח ארעא למעבד הכי (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו כתיב,וכתיב (משלי יז, כו) גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב,תנא משמיה דר' מאיר בשעה שהחמה זורחת וכל מלכי מזרח ומערב מניחים כתריהם בראשיהם ומשתחוים לחמה מיד כועס הקב"ה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי טובה מרדות אחת בלבו של אדם יותר מכמה מלקיות שנא' (הושע ב, ט) ורדפה את מאהביה וגו' ואמרה אלכה ואשובה אל אישי הראשון כי טוב לי אז מעתה וריש לקיש אמר יותר ממאה מלקיות שנאמר (משלי יז, י) תחת גערה במבין מהכות כסיל מאה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי שלשה דברים בקש משה מלפני הקב"ה ונתן לו בקש שתשרה שכינה על ישראל ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) הלוא בלכתך עמנו,בקש שלא תשרה שכינה על עובדי כוכבים ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) ונפלינו אני ועמך,בקש להודיעו דרכיו של הקב"ה ונתן לו שנא' (שמות לג, יג) הודיעני נא את דרכיך אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה יש צדיק וטוב לו ויש צדיק ורע לו יש רשע וטוב לו ויש רשע ורע לו אמר לו משה צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע רשע וטוב לו רשע בן צדיק רשע ורע לו רשע בן רשע:,אמר מר צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע איני והא כתיב (שמות לד, ז) פקד עון אבות על בנים וכתיב (דברים כד, טז) ובנים לא יומתו על אבות ורמינן קראי אהדדי,ומשנינן לא קשיא הא כשאוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם הא כשאין אוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם,אלא הכי קא"ל צדיק וטוב לו צדיק גמור צדיק ורע לו צדיק שאינו גמור רשע וטוב לו רשע שאינו גמור רשע ורע לו רשע גמור,ופליגא דר' מאיר דא"ר מאיר שתים נתנו לו ואחת לא נתנו לו שנא' (שמות לג, יט) וחנתי את אשר אחון אע"פ שאינו הגון ורחמתי את אשר ארחם אע"פ שאינו הגון,(שמות לג, כ) ויאמר לא תוכל לראות את פני תנא משמיה דר' יהושע בן קרחה כך א"ל הקב"ה למשה כשרציתי לא רצית עכשיו שאתה רוצה איני רוצה,ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בשכר שלש זכה לשלש,בשכר (שמות ג, ו) ויסתר משה פניו זכה לקלסתר פנים בשכר כי ירא זכה (שמות לד, ל) לוייראו מגשת אליו בשכר מהביט זכה (במדבר יב, ח) לותמונת ה' יביט:,(שמות לג, כג)והסירתי את כפי וראית את אחרי אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא מלמד שהראה הקב"ה למשה קשר של תפילין:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי כל דבור ודבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה לטובה אפי' על תנאי לא חזר בו,מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני ואשמידם וגו' ואעשה אותך לגוי עצום אע"ג דבעא משה רחמי עלה דמלתא ובטלה אפ"ה אוקמה בזרעיה שנא' (דברי הימים א כג, טו) בני משה גרשום ואליעזר ויהיו בני אליעזר רחביה הראש וגו' ובני רחביה רבו למעלה וגו',ותני רב יוסף למעלה מששים רבוא אתיא רביה רביה כתיב הכא רבו למעלה וכתיב התם (שמות א, ז) ובני ישראל פרו וישרצו וירבו: 7a. Along the same lines, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays? As it is stated: “I will bring them to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in the house of My prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). The verse bdoes not saythe house of btheir prayer, but rather, “ /bthe house of bMy prayer”; from herewe see bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat doesGod bpray? /b, bRav Zutra bar Tovia saidthat bRav said: brGod says: bMay it be My will that My mercy will overcome My angertowards Israel for their transgressions, br band may My mercy prevail over Myother battributesthrough which Israel is punished, br band may I conductmyself btoward My children,Israel, bwith the attribute of mercy, br band may I enter before them beyond the letter of the law. /b,Similarly, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha,the High Priest, said: bOnce,on Yom Kippur, bI entered the innermost sanctum,the Holy of Holies, bto offer incense, andin a vision bI saw Akatriel Ya, the Lord of Hosts,one of the names of God expressing His ultimate authority, bseated upon a high and exalted throne(see Isaiah 6). br bAnd He said to me: Yishmael, My son, bless Me. br bI said to Himthe prayer that God prays: b“May it be Your will that Your mercy overcome Your anger, br band may Your mercy prevail over Yourother battributes, br band may You act toward Your children with the attribute of mercy, br band may You enter before them beyond the letter of the law.”brThe Holy One, Blessed be He, bnodded His headand accepted the blessing. This event bteaches us that you should not take the blessing of an ordinary person lightly.If God asked for and accepted a man’s blessing, all the more so that a man must value the blessing of another man., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat one must not placate a person whilehe is in the throes of bhis anger,rather he should mollify him after he has calmed down? bAs it is written,when following the sin of the Golden Calf, Moses requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it had previously, God said to him: b“My face will go, and I will give you rest”(Exodus 33:14). Rabbi Yoḥa explained: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses: bWait until My face of wrath will pass and I will grant yourrequest. One must wait for a person’s anger to pass as well.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is there anger before the Holy One, Blessed be He?Can we speak of God using terms like anger?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, God becomes angry, as it is stated: “God vindicates the righteous, bGod is furious every day”(Psalms 7:12)., bHow muchtime does bHis angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? One fifty-eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty-eighth of an hour, that is a moment.The Gemara adds: bAnd no creature canprecisely bdetermine that momentwhen God becomes angry, bexcept for Balaam the wicked, about whom it is written: “He who knows the knowledge of the Most High”(Numbers 24:16).,This should not be understood to mean that Balaam was a full-fledged prophet. bNow,clearly, Balaam bdid not know the mind of his animal; and he did know the mind of the Most High?If he could not understand the rebuke of his donkey, he was certainly unable to understand the mind of the Most High., bRather, thisverse from Numbers bteaches thatBalaam bwas able toprecisely bdetermine the hour that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry.At that moment, Balaam would utter his curse and, through God’s anger, it would be fulfilled., bAnd that is what the prophet said to Israel: “My nation, remember what Balak king of Moab advised,and how Balaam, son of Beor, responded; from Shittim to Gilgal, so that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord” (Micah 6:5). bWhat ismeant by the statement: b“So that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord”? /b, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: Know how many acts of kindness I performed on your behalf, that I did not become angry during the days of Balaam the wicked, for had I become angry, there would have been no remt or survivor remaining among the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaam’s curse went unfulfilled., bAnd that is what Balaam said to Balak: “How can I curse whom God has not cursed? And how can I condemn whom God has not condemned?”(Numbers 23:8). This verse bteaches that all those days,God bwas not angry. /b, bAnd howlong bdoes His angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? Rabbi Avin, and some say Rabbi Avina, said:A moment lasts as long as it takes bto say it [ irega /i] /b., bFrom where do wederive that God bisonly bangry for a moment? As it is stated: “His anger is but for a moment, His favor, for a lifetime”(Psalms 30:6). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead, bfrom here,as it is stated: b“Hide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passes”(Isaiah 26:20), meaning that God’s anger passes in a mere moment.,The Gemara asks: bWhen isthe Holy One, Blessed be He, bangry? Abaye said:God’s anger is revealed through animals. bDuring the first three hoursof the day, bwhen the sun whitens the crest of the rooster and it stands on one leg.When it appears that its life has left him and he suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry.,The Gemara asks: The rooster balso stands that way every hour.What kind of sign is this?,The Gemara answers: The difference is that beveryother bhourwhen the rooster stands in that way, bthere are red streaksin his crest. But bwhenGod is angry, bthere are no red streaksin his crest.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic who was in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s neighborhood would upset himby incessantly challenging the legitimacy of bverses. One day,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi btook a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bedupon which he sat band looked at it. He thought: When the momentof God’s anger barrives, I will curse himand be rid of him. bWhen the momentof God’s anger barrived,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bslept.When he woke up, bhe saidto himself: bConclude fromthe fact that I nodded off bthat it is not proper conduct to do so,to curse people, even if they are wicked. b“His mercy is over all His creations”(Psalms 145:9) bis writteneven with regard to sinners.,Moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as bit is written: “Punishment, even for the righteous, is not good”(Proverbs 17:26), even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.,Explaining the cause of God’s anger, bit is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the sun rises and the kings of the East and the West place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry.Since this occurs in the early hours every day, God becomes angry at His world at that moment every day., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: A single regretor pang of guilt bin one’s heart is preferable to many lashesadministered by others that cause only physical pain, bas it is stated: “And she chases her lovers,but she does not overtake them; she seeks them, but she will not find them; band she will say ‘I will go and return to my first husband; for it was better for me then than now’”(Hosea 2:9). Remorse is more effective than any externally imposed punishment listed in the verses that follow (Hosea 2:11–19). bAnd Reish Lakish saidthat in the Bible, it seems that such remorse is bpreferable to one hundred lashes, as it is stated: “A rebuke enters deeper into a man of understanding than a hundred lashes to a fool”(Proverbs 17:10)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yoseiregarding Moses’ request that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it once had: Moses brequested three things from the Holy One, Blessed be He,at that time, ball of which were granted him. He requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israeland not leave, band He grantedit bto him, as it is stated:“For how can it be known that I have found grace in Your sight, I and Your people? bIs it not in that You go with us,so that we are distinguished, I and Your people, from all the people that are on the face of the earth?” (Exodus 33:16). The request: Is it not in that You go with us, refers to the resting of the Divine Presence upon Israel.,Moses brequested that the Divine Presence not rest upon the nations of the world, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “So that we are distinguished, I and Your people,from all the people on the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16).,Lastly, Moses brequested that the waysin which bGodconducts the bworld be revealed to him, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “Show me Your waysand I will know You” (Exodus 33:13). brMoses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe. Why is it thatthe brighteous prosper, the righteous suffer,the bwicked prosper,the bwicked suffer? brGod bsaid to him: Moses, the righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson, who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho prospers is a wickedperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho suffers is a wicked person, the son of a wicked person,who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors.,The Gemara expands upon these righteous and wicked individuals: bThe Master said: The righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson. The Gemara asks: bIs it sothat one is always punished for his ancestors’ transgressions? bIsn’t it written: “He visits iniquity of the fathers upon the children,and upon the children’s children, unto the third and fourth generations” (Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is writtenelsewhere: “Fathers shall not die for their children, band children shall not be put to death for the fathers;every man shall die for his own transgression” (Deuteronomy 24:16). bAndthe Gemara braises a contradiction between the two verses. /b,The Gemara bresolvesthe contradiction: bThis is not difficult. Thisverse from Exodus, which states that God punishes descendants for the transgressions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own. While thisverse from Deuteronomy, which states that descendants are not punished for the actions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they do not adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own,as it is stated: “I visit iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and fourth generations of my enemies” (Exodus 20:5).,A righteous person is clearly not punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bRather,it must be that God bsaid toMoses bas follows: br bThe righteousperson bwho prospers isa bcompletely righteousperson whose actions are entirely good and whose reward is entirely good both in this world and in the World-to-Come. br bThe righteousperson bwho suffers isone who is bnot a completely righteousperson. Because he does have some transgressions, he is punished in this world so that he will receive a complete reward in the World-to-Come. br bThe wickedperson bwho prospers isone who is bnot a completely wickedperson. God rewards him in this world for the good deeds that he performed, so that he will receive a complete punishment in the World-to-Come. brFinally, bthe wickedperson bwho suffers isa bcompletely wickedperson. Since he performed absolutely no mitzvot and deserves no reward, he receives only punishment both in this world and in the World-to-Come (Maharsha).,Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion, that God granted Moses all three of his requests, bdisagrees withthat of bRabbi Meir,as bRabbi Meir said: Twoof Moses’ requests bwere granted to him, and one was not granted to him.God granted him that the Divine Presence would rest upon Israel and not leave, and that the Divine Presence would not rest upon the nations of the world, but God did not reveal to Moses the ways in which He conducts the world. bAs it is said: “And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious”(Exodus 33:19); in His mercy, God bestows His grace upon every person, beven though he is not worthy.Similarly, God says: b“And I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy,” even though he is not worthy.According to Rabbi Meir, the way in which God conducts the world and bestows grace and mercy was not revealed even to Moses.,The Gemara continues to cite the Sages’ explanation of verses that require clarification on the same topic. With regard to God’s statement to Moses, b“And He said: ‘You cannot see My face,for man shall not see Me and live’” (Exodus 33:20), bit was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses bas follows: When I wantedto show you My glory at the burning bush, byou did not wantto see it, as it is stated: “And Moses concealed his face, fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6). But bnow that you wantto see My glory, as you said: “Show me Your glory,” bI do not wantto show it to you. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa interprets Moses’ initial refusal to look upon God’s glory negatively, as he rebuffed God’s desire to be close to him.,This bdisagrees withthat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatansaid, as bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:Specifically bas a reward for threeacts of humility in averting his glance at the burning bush, Moses bwas privilegedto experience bthreegreat revelations:,Because “Moses bconcealed his face,fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6), bhe was privileged tohave his bcountece [ ikelaster /i]glow. brBecause bhe “feared,” he was privileged that “they feared to approach him”(Exodus 34:30). brBecause he did not b“gaze,” he was privileged to “behold the likeness of the Lord”(Numbers 12:8).,What did Moses see? It is said: b“And I will remove My hand, and you will see My back,but My face you will not see” (Exodus 33:23). bRav Ḥana bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida,the expression: “And you will see My back,” should be understood as follows: bThis teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He,Who, as mentioned above, wears phylacteries, bshowed him the knot of the phylacteriesof His head, which is worn on the back of the head.,On this subject, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Every statementto a person or to a nation bthat emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a promise bof good, even if it was conditional, He did not renegeon it. Ultimately, every promise made by God will be fulfilled., bFrom where do wederive that all of God’s promises are fulfilled? We know this bfrom Moses our teacher,as God promised and bsaid: “Leave Me alone; I will destroy themand blot out their name from under heaven; band I will make from you a nation mightierand greater than they” (Deuteronomy 9:14). bEven thoughMoses bprayedto have the decree repealed, bandit bwas nullified, the promise was fulfilledand Moses’ bdescendantsbecame a nation mightier and greater than the 600,000 Israelites in the desert. bAs it is statedwith regard to the Levites: b“The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer…and the sons of Eliezer were Reḥaviya the chief.And Eliezer had no other sons; band the sons of Reḥaviya were very many”(I Chronicles 23:15–17)., bAnd Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Many”means more bthan 600,000.This is learned through a verbal analogy between the words bmanyand bmany. It is written herewith regard to Reḥaviya’s sons: b“Were very many.” And it is written therewith regard to the Israelites in Egypt: b“And the children of Israel became numerous and multiplied and were very many,and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them” (Exodus 1:7). Just as when the children of Israel were in Egypt, very many meant that there were 600,000 of them, so too the descendants of Reḥaviya were 600,000.
60. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. הנה הוא זורה את גורן השעורים,רבי אבהו אמר מהכא (בראשית כב, ג) וישכם אברהם בבקר ויחבוש את וגו',ורבנן אמרי מהכא (בראשית לז, יד) לך נא ראה את שלום אחיך ואת שלום וגו',רב אמר מהכא (בראשית לב, לב) ויזרח לו השמש,אמר ר' עקיבא שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ואת רבי יהושע באיטליז של אימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של רבן גמליאל כתיב ויזרח לו השמש וכי שמש לו לבד זרחה והלא לכל העולם זרחה,אמר ר' יצחק שמש הבאה בעבורו זרחה בעבורו דכתיב (בראשית כח, י) ויצא יעקב מבאר שבע וילך חרנה וכתיב ויפגע במקום כי מטא לחרן אמר אפשר עברתי על מקום שהתפללו אבותי ואני לא התפללתי כד יהיב דעתיה למיהדר קפצה ליה ארעא מיד ויפגע במקום,כד צלי בעי למיהדר אמר הקב"ה צדיק זה בא לבית מלוני ויפטר בלא לינה מיד בא השמש,כתיב (בראשית כח, יא) ויקח מאבני המקום וכתיב ויקח את האבן אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שנתקבצו כל אותן אבנים למקום אחד וכל אחת ואחת אומרת עלי יניח צדיק זה ראשו תנא וכולן נבלעו באחד,(בראשית כח, יב) ויחלום והנה סולם מוצב ארצה תנא כמה רחבו של סולם שמונת אלפים פרסאות דכתיב (בראשית כח, יב) והנה מלאכי אלהים עולים ויורדים בו עולים שנים ויורדים שנים וכי פגעו בהדי הדדי הוו להו ארבעה,וכתיב ביה במלאך (דניאל י, ו) וגויתו כתרשיש וגמירי דתרשיש תרי אלפי פרסי הוו,תנא עולין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מעלה ויורדין ומסתכלין בדיוקנו של מטה בעו לסכוניה מיד (בראשית כח, יג) והנה ה' נצב עליו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאמרו כאדם שמניף על בנו,(בראשית כח, יג) הארץ אשר אתה שוכב עליה וגו' מאי רבותיה אמר רבי יצחק מלמד שקפלה הקב"ה לכל ארץ ישראל והניחה תחת יעקב אבינו שתהא נוחה ליכבש לבניו,(בראשית כח, א) ויאמר שלחני כי עלה השחר אמר לו גנב אתה או קוביוסטוס אתה שמתיירא מן השחר אמר לו מלאך אני ומיום שנבראתי לא הגיע זמני לומר שירה עד עכשיו,מסייע ליה לרב חננאל אמר רב דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב שלש כתות של מלאכי השרת אומרות שירה בכל יום אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש ה' צבאות,מיתיבי חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה יותר ממלאכי השרת שישראל אומרים שירה בכל שעה ומלאכי השרת אין אומרים שירה אלא פעם אחת ביום ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבת ואמרי לה פעם אחת בחודש ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשנה ואמרי לה פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעם אחת ביובל ואמרי לה פעם אחת בעולם,וישראל מזכירין את השם אחר שתי תיבות שנאמר (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' וגו' ומלאכי השרת אין מזכירין את השם אלא לאחר ג' תיבות כדכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות,ואין מה"ש אומרים שירה למעלה עד שיאמרו ישראל למטה שנאמר (איוב לח, ז) ברן יחד כוכבי בקר והדר ויריעו כל בני אלהים,אלא אחת אומרת קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש ואחת אומרת קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות והאיכא ברוך 91b. “And now is there not Boaz our kinsman, whose maidens you were with? bBehold, he winnows barley tonight in the threshing floor /b…and it shall be, when he lies down, that you shall mark the place where he shall lie” (Ruth 3:2–3). This teaches that the reason Boaz did not return home from the threshing floor was that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddledhis donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went to the place that God had told him” (Genesis 22:3). The fact that Abraham waited until morning and did not set off at night, even though others were traveling with him, indicates that a Torah scholar should not go out at night at all, and certainly not alone., bAnd the Rabbis saythat the source is bfrom here,the verse that describes when Jacob sent Joseph to his brothers: “And he said to him: bGo now, see whether it is well with you brothers and wellwith the flock; and bring me back word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem” (Genesis 37:14). The verse indicates that Jacob sent Joseph at a time when he could see his brothers, i.e., during the day. This shows that a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night., bRav saidthat the source is bfrom here: “And the sun rose for himas he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). This indicates that Jacob remained where he was all night and left in the morning, because a Torah scholar should not go out alone at night.,The Gemara cites an incident involving the final verse cited above. bRabbi Akiva says: I askedthe following question of bRabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua in the meat market [ ibe’itliz /i] ofthe town bEmmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for thewedding bfeast of Rabban Gamliel’s son: It is writtenin the verse: b“And the sun shone for himwhen he passed Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh” (Genesis 32:32). bBut did the sun shine only for him? Didn’t it shine for the entire world? /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:The verse means that bthe sun, which setearly exclusively bfor him,also bshoneearly exclusively bfor himin order to rectify the disparity created by the premature sunset. The Gemara explains when the sun set early for him: bAs it is written: “And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went toward Haran”(Genesis 28:10). bAnd it is writtenthereafter: b“And he encountered the place,and he slept there, because the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). bWhenJacob barrived at Haran, he said:Is it bpossiblethat bI passed a place where my fathers prayed and I did not praythere? bWhen he set his mind to return, the land contracted for him. Immediatelythe verse states: b“And he encountered the place,”indicating that he arrived there miraculously., bWhen hehad finished bprayingand bhe wanted to returnto Haran, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: This righteous man came to my lodging place and he will depart without remaining overnight? Immediately, the sun setbefore its proper time so that Jacob would stay overnight in that place.,The Gemara cites another exposition of Rabbi Yitzḥak to explain an apparent contradiction between two verses pertaining to this incident. bIt is written: “And he took of the stones of the place,and placed them under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep” (Genesis 28:11). bAnd it is written:“And Jacob rose up early in the morning, band he took the stonethat he had placed under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it” (Genesis 28:18). The first verse indicates that Jacob took several stones, whereas the latter verse indicates that he took only one stone. bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that all those stones gathered to one place and each one said:Let bthis righteous man place his head upon me.And it was btaught: And all of them were absorbed into onelarge rock.,The Gemara expounds other verses pertaining to the same incident. The verse states: b“And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth,and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it” (Genesis 28:12). It was btaught: How wide was the ladder?It was beight thousand parasangs [ iparsaot /i], as it is written: “And behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.”The word b“ascending [ iolim /i],”written in plural, indicates that there were btwoangels ascending simultaneously. Likewise, the term b“and descending [ iveyordim /i],”also in the plural, indicates that btwoangels were descending simultaneously. bAnd when they met one another they werea total of bfourin one place, so the ladder must have been wide enough to accommodate four angels., bAnd it is writtenin a verse bwith regard to an angel: “His body was like Tarshish”(Daniel 10:6). bAndit bis learnedas a tradition bthatthe city of bTarshish was two thousand parasangs.Consequently, in order to accommodate four angels, the ladder must have been eight thousands parasangs wide.,It was btaughtthat the angels were bascending and gazing at the image of [ ibidyokeno /i]Jacob babove,engraved on the Throne of Glory, band descending and gazing at his image below.The angels subsequently became jealous of Jacob, and bwanted to endangerhis life. bImmediatelyJacob received divine protection, as the verse states: b“And behold, the Lord stood over him”(Genesis 28:13). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Were it not writtenin a bverse it would be impossible to utter it,in deference to God, since it describes God as standing over Jacob to protect him from the angels blike a man who wavesa fan bover his sonto cool him down.,The Gemara explains another verse from Jacob’s dream. “And behold, the Lord stood over him and said: I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. bThe land upon which you lie,to you will I give it, and to your seed” (Genesis 28:13). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the greatnessof this promise, i.e., why is it expressed in this way despite the fact that in a literal sense Jacob was lying on a very small amount of land? bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, foldedup bthe entirety of Eretz Yisrael and placed it under Jacob, our patriarch, so that it would be easy for his children to conquer. /b,The Gemara returns to the verses that describe Jacob wrestling with the angel. b“And he said: Let me go, for the dawn has risen.And he said: I will not let you go until you bless me” (Genesis 32:27). Jacob bsaid tothe angel: bAre you a thief, or are you a gambler [ ikuveyustus /i], who is afraid of dawn?The angel bsaid to him: I am an angel, and from the day I was created my time to recite a songbefore God bhas not arrived, until now.Now I must ascend so that I can sing songs of praise to God.,The Gemara comments: This bsupportsthe opinion bof Rav Ḥaelwhen he related what bRav said. As Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: Three groups of ministering angels recite a song every dayfrom the verse “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord”; bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3).,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people are more dear to the Holy One, Blessed be He, than the ministering angels, as the Jewish peoplemay brecite a songof praise to God bat any time, but ministering angels recite a songof praise bonly one time per day. And some saythat the ministering angels recite a song of praise bone time per week. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per month. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per year. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inevery bseven years. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time per Jubilee. And some saythat they recite a song of praise bone time inthe entire history of bthe world. /b, bAndfurthermore, bthe Jewish people mention the nameof God bafter two words, as it is stated: “Hear, Israel: The Lordour God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4). bBut the ministering angels mention the nameof God bonly after three words, as it is written:“And one called unto another, and said: b“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts;the whole earth is full of His glory” (Isaiah 6:3)., bAnd the ministering angels do not recitetheir bsong above until the Jewish people recitetheir song bbelow,on earth, bas it is stated: “When the morning stars sang together”(Job 38:7), referring to the Jewish people, who are compared to stars; bandonly bthendoes the verse state: b“And all the sons of God shouted for joy,”which is a reference to the angels. This ibaraitateaches that the angels mention the name of God only after three words, i.e., after saying the word “holy” three times, whereas according to what Rav Ḥael stated that Rav said, the third group of angels says the word “holy” once and then immediately mentions the name of God.,The Gemara emends Rav Ḥael’s statement citing Rav: bRather,Rav said that bonegroup of ministering angels bsays: “Holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy,” andanother bone says: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts.”The Gemara challenges the statement of the ibaraitathat the angels mention the name of God only after three words: bBut there isthe verse: “Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: bBlessed bethe glory of the Lord from His place” (Ezekiel 3:12). In this praise, “Blessed be the glory of the Lord,” the word “Lord” appears as the third Hebrew word, apparently uttered by the ministering angels.
62. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. מבטלין ת"ת להוצאת המת ולהכנסת הכלה אמרו עליו על ר' יהודה בר' אילעאי שהיה מבטל ת"ת להוצאת המת ולהכנסת הכלה בד"א בשאין שם כל צורכו אבל יש שם כל צורכו אין מבטלין,וכמה כל צורכו אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב תריסר אלפי גברי ושיתא אלפי שיפורי ואמרי לה תריסר אלפי גברי ומינייהו שיתא אלפי שיפורי עולא אמר כגון דחייצי גברי מאבולא עד סיכרא,רב ששת אמר כנתינתה כך נטילתה מה נתינתה בששים ריבוא אף נטילתה בס' ריבוא ה"מ למאן דקרי ותני אבל למאן דמתני לית ליה שיעורא,תניא ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בוא וראה כמה חביבין ישראל לפני הקב"ה שבכל מקום שגלו שכינה עמהן גלו למצרים שכינה עמהן שנאמר (שמואל א ב, כז) הנגלה נגליתי לבית אביך בהיותם במצרים וגו' גלו לבבל שכינה עמהן שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יד) למענכם שלחתי בבלה ואף כשהן עתידין ליגאל שכינה עמהן שנאמר (דברים ל, ג) ושב ה' אלהיך את שבותך והשיב לא נאמר אלא ושב מלמד שהקב"ה שב עמהן מבין הגליות,בבבל היכא אמר אביי בבי כנישתא דהוצל ובבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא ולא תימא הכא והכא אלא זמנין הכא וזמנין הכא אמר אביי תיתי לי דכי מרחיקנא פרסה עיילנא ומצלינא התם אבוה דשמואל [ולוי] הוו יתבי בכנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אתיא שכינה שמעו קול ריגשא [קמו ונפקו,רב ששת הוה יתיב בבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אתיא שכינה] ולא נפק אתו מלאכי השרת וקא מבעתו ליה אמר לפניו רבש"ע עלוב ושאינו עלוב מי נדחה מפני מי אמר להו שבקוהו,(יחזקאל יא, טז) ואהי להם למקדש מעט אמר רבי יצחק אלו בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שבבבל ור"א אמר זה בית רבינו שבבבל,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים צ, א) ה' מעון אתה היית לנו אלו בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות אמר אביי מריש הואי גריסנא בביתא ומצלינא בבי כנשתא כיון דשמעית להא דקאמר דוד (תהלים כו, ח) ה' אהבתי מעון ביתך הואי גריסנא בבי כנישתא,תניא ר"א הקפר אומר עתידין בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שבבבל שיקבעו בא"י שנאמר (ירמיהו מו, יח) כי כתבור בהרים וככרמל בים יבא והלא דברים ק"ו ומה תבור וכרמל שלא באו אלא לפי שעה ללמוד תורה נקבעים בארץ ישראל בתי כנסיות ובתי מדרשות שקורין ומרביצין בהן תורה עאכ"ו,דרש בר קפרא מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, יז) למה תרצדון הרים גבנונים יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם למה תרצו דין עם סיני כולכם בעלי מומים אתם אצל סיני כתיב הכא גבנונים וכתיב התם (ויקרא כא, כ) או גבן או דק אמר רב אשי ש"מ האי מאן דיהיר בעל מום הוא:,אין עושין אותו קפנדריא: מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה מאי כשמה כמאן דאמר אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא,א"ר אבהו אם היה שביל מעיקרא מותר,אר"נ בר יצחק הנכנס ע"מ שלא לעשות קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא וא"ר חלבו אמר ר"ה הנכנס לבהכ"נ להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנא' (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים הבא דרך שער צפון להשתחוות יצא דרך שער נגב:,עלו בו עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש: והתניא אינו תולש ומאכיל אבל תולש ומניח כי תנן נמי מתני' תולש ומאכיל תנן,ת"ר בית הקברות אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש אין מרעין בהן בהמה ואין מוליכין בהן אמת המים ואין מלקטין בהן עשבים ואם ליקט שורפן במקומן מפני כבוד מתים,אהייא אילימא אסיפא כיון ששורפן במקומן מאי כבוד מתים איכא אלא ארישא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין בפרשת שקלים חל להיות בתוך השבת מקדימין לשעבר ומפסיקין לשבת אחרת,בשניה זכור בשלישית פרה אדומה ברביעית החודש הזה לכם בחמישית חוזרין לכסדרן,לכל מפסיקין בראשי חדשים בחנוכה ובפורים בתעניות ובמעמדות וביוה"כ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנן התם באחד באדר משמיעין על השקלים 29a. bOne interruptshis bTorah study to carry out the deadfor burial band to escort a brideto her wedding. bThey said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai, that he would interrupthis bTorah study to carry out the deadfor burial band to escort a brideto her wedding. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: bIn whatcase bis this statement said?Only bwhere there are not sufficientnumbers of other people available to perform these mitzvot and honor the deceased or the bride appropriately. bHowever,when bthere are sufficientnumbers, additional people bshould not interrupttheir Torah study to participate.,The Gemara asks: bAnd how manypeople bareconsidered bsufficient? Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: Twelve thousand men andanother bsix thousandmen to blow bhornsas a sign of mourning. bAnd some saya different version: bTwelve thousand men, among whom are six thousandmen with bhorns. Ulla said: For example,enough bto make a procession of peopleall the way bfrom thetown bgate [ iabbula /i] to the place of burial. /b, bRav Sheshet said: Asthe Torah bwas given, so itshould be btaken away,i.e., the same honor that was provided when the Torah was given at Mount Sinai should be provided when the Torah is taken through the passing away of a Torah scholar. bJust asthe Torah bwas given in the presence of six hundred thousandmen, bso too its takingshould be done bin the presence of six hundred thousandmen. The Gemara comments: bThis applies to someone who readthe Bible band studied ihalakhotfor himself. bBut for someone who taughtothers, bthere is no limitto the honor that should be shown to him.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Come and see how beloved the Jewish people are before the Holy One, Blessed be He. As every place they were exiled, the Divine Presencewent bwith them. They were exiled to Egypt,and bthe Divine Presencewent bwith them, as it is stated: “Did I reveal myself to the house of your father when they were in Egypt?”(I Samuel 2:27). bThey were exiled to Babylonia,and bthe Divine Presencewent bwith them, as it is stated: “For your sake I have sent to Babylonia”(Isaiah 43:14). bSo too, when, in the future, they will be redeemed, the Divine Presence will be with them, as it is stated: “Then the Lord your God will return with your captivity”(Deuteronomy 30:3). bIt does not state: He will bring back,i.e., He will cause the Jewish people to return, bbut ratherit says: b“He will return,”which bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will returntogether bwith them from among thevarious bexiles. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhere in Babyloniadoes the Divine Presence reside? bAbaye said: In theancient bsynagogue of Huzal and in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. And do not saythat the Divine Presence resided bhere and there,i.e., in both places simultaneously. bRather, at timesit resided bherein Huzal band at times therein Neharde’a. bAbaye said: I havea blessing bcoming to me, for whenever I amwithin ba distance of a parasangfrom one of those synagogues, bI go in and pray there,due to the special honor and sanctity attached to them. It was related that bthe father of Shmuel and Levi wereonce bsitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. The Divine Presence cameand bthey heard a loud sound,so bthey arose and left. /b,It was further related that bRav Sheshet wasonce bsitting in the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a,and bthe Divine Presence came but he did not go out. The ministering angels came and were frightening himin order to force him to leave. Rav Sheshet turned to God and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,if one is bwretched andthe other is bnot wretched, who should defer to whom?Shouldn’t the one who is not wretched give way to the one who is? Now I am blind and wretched; why then do you expect me to defer to the angels? God then turned to the angels and bsaid to them: Leave him. /b,The verse states: b“Yet I have been to them as a little sanctuaryin the countries where they have come” (Ezekiel 11:16). bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Thisis referring to bthe synagogues and study halls in Babylonia. And Rabbi Elazar said: Thisis referring to bthe house of our master,i.e., Rav, bin Babylonia,from which Torah issues forth to the entire world., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Lord, You have been our dwelling placein all generations” (Psalms 90:1)? bThisis referring to bthe synagogues and study halls. Abaye said: Initially, I used to studyTorah binmy bhome and pray in the synagogue. Once I heardand understood bthat whichKing bDavid says: “Lord, I love the habitation of Your house”(Psalms 26:8), bI wouldalways bstudyTorah bin the synagogue,to express my love for the place in which the Divine Presence resides., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Elazar HaKappar says: In the future, the synagogues and the study halls in Babylonia will betransported and breestablished in Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “Surely, like Tabor among the mountains, and like Carmel by the sea, so shall he come”(Jeremiah 46:18). There is a tradition that these mountains came to Sinai at the giving of the Torah and demanded that the Torah should be given upon them. bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred through an ia fortiori /iargument: bJust as Tabor and Carmel, which came only momentarily to study Torah, wererelocated and bestablished in Eretz Yisraelin reward for their actions, ball the more soshould bthe synagogues and study hallsin Babylonia, bin which the Torah is read and disseminated,be relocated to Eretz Yisrael., bBar Kappara interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why do you look askance [ iteratzdun /i], O high-peaked mountains,at the mountain that God has desired for His abode” (Psalms 68:17)? bA Divine Voice issued forth and said toall the mountains that came and demanded that the Torah be given upon them: bWhy do you seek [ itirtzu /i]to enter into ba legal dispute [ idin /i] withMount bSinai? You are all blemished in comparison toMount bSinai,as bit is written here: “High-peaked [ igavnunnim /i]” and it is written there,with regard to the blemishes that disqualify a priest: b“Or crookbacked [ igibben /i] or a dwarf”(Leviticus 21:20). bRav Ashi said: Learn fromthis that bone who is arrogant isconsidered bblemished.The other mountains arrogantly insisted that the Torah should be given upon them, and they were therefore described as blemished.,§ The mishna teaches that even if a synagogue fell into ruin, bit may not be madeinto ba ikappendarya /i.The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by ikappendarya /i? Rava said: A shortcut, asimplied by bits name.The Gemara clarifies: bWhatdo you mean by adding: bAsimplied by bits name?It is blike one who said: Instead of going around theentire row of bhouses [ imakkifna addari /i]to get to the other side, thereby lengthening my journey, bI will enter thishouse and walk through it to the other side. The word ikappendaryasounds like a contraction of imakkifna addari /i. This is what Rava meant by saying: As implied by its name., bRabbi Abbahu said: Ifa public bpath had initiallypassed through that location, before the synagogue was built, bit is permittedto continue to use it as a shortcut, for the honor due to a synagogue cannot annul the public’s right of access to the path., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:With regard to bone who entersa synagogue bwithout intending to make itinto ba shortcut,when he leaves bhe is permitted to make itinto ba shortcutfor himself, by leaving through the exit on the other side of the building. bAnd Rabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said:With regard to bone who enters a synagogue to pray, he is permitted to make itinto ba shortcutfor himself by leaving through a different exit, and it is fitting to do so, bas it is stated: “And when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, he that enters by way of the north gate to bow down shall go forth by the way of the south gate”(Ezekiel 46:9). This indicates that it is a show of respect not to leave through the same entrance through which one came in; it is better to leave through the other side.,§ The mishna teaches: If bgrass sprang up ina ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, bone should not pickit, bdue tothe banguishthat it will cause to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not pickthe grass band feedit to one’s animals, bbut he may pickit band leaveit there? The Gemara answers: bWhen we learnedthe prohibition against picking the grass in bthe mishna as well, we learnedonly that it is prohibited to bpickit and bfeedit to one’s animals, but it is permitted to leave it there., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In ba cemetery, one may not act with frivolity; one may not graze an animalon the grass growing binside it; and one may not direct a water channelto pass bthrough it; and one may not gather grass inside itto use the grass as feed for one’s animals; band if one gatheredgrass for that purpose, bit should be burnt on the spot, out of respect for the dead. /b,The Gemara clarifies: With regard to the phrase: Out of respect for the dead, bto whichclause of the ibaraitadoes it refer? bIf we sayit is referring bto the last clause,that if one gathered grass that it should be burnt out of respect for the dead, then one could ask: bSincethe grass bis burnt on the spot,and not publicly, bwhat respect for the dead is therein this act? bRather,the phrase must be referring bto the first clauseof the ibaraita /i, and it explains why it is prohibited to act with frivolity., strongMISHNA: /strong On four iShabbatotduring and surrounding the month of Adar, a Torah portion of seasonal significance is read. When bthe New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat,the congregation breads the portion of iShekalim /ion that Shabbat. If the New Moon boccurs duringthe middle of bthe week, they advancethe reading of that portion bto the previousShabbat, band,in such a case, bthey interruptthe reading of the four portions bon the following Shabbat,which would be the first Shabbat of the month of Adar, and no additional portion is read on it., bOn the secondShabbat, the Shabbat prior to Purim, they read the portion: b“Rememberwhat Amalek did” (Deuteronomy 25:17–19), which details the mitzva to remember and destroy the nation of Amalek. bOn the thirdShabbat, they read the portion of bthe Red Heifer [ iPara /i](Numbers 19:1–22), which details the purification process for one who became ritually impure through contact with a corpse. bOn the fourthShabbat, they read the portion: b“This month [ ihaḥodesh /i] shall be for you”(Exodus 12:1–20), which describes the offering of the Paschal lamb. bOn the fifthShabbat, bthey resume theregular weekly borderof readings and no special portion is read., bFor allspecial days, the congregation binterruptsthe regular weekly order of readings, and a special portion relating to the character of the day is read. This applies bon the New Moons, on Hanukkah, and on Purim, on fast days, and on thenon-priestly bwatches, and on Yom Kippur. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iShekalim1:1): bOn the first of Adar they makea public bannouncement concerningthe forthcoming collection of half- bshekels.The money is used for the communal offerings in the Temple in the coming year.
63. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

64. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
65. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86b. והא טבולי יום נינהו אביי בר רבין ורב חנינא בר אבין דאמרי תרווייהו ניתנה תורה לטבול יום יתיב מרימר וקאמר לה להא שמעת' א"ל רבינא למרימר ניתנה קאמרת או ראויה קאמרת אמר ליה ראויה קאמינא,וליטבלו ביני שימשי וליקבלו תורה ביני שימשי אמר רבי יצחק (ישעיהו מח, טז) לא מראש בסתר דברתי וליטבלו בצפרא דשבתא וליקבלו תורה בצפרא דשבתא א"ר יצחק שלא יהא הללו הולכין לקבל תורה והללו הולכין לטבילה,א"ר חייא ברבי אבא א"ר יוחנן זו דברי ר' ישמעאל ור' עקיבא אבל חכמים אומרים שש עונות שלמות בעינן אמר רב חסדא מחלוקת שפירשה מן האשה אבל פירשה מן האיש טמאה כל זמן שהיא לחה מתיב רב ששת (ויקרא טו, יז) וכל בגד וכל עור אשר יהיה עליו שכבת זרע פרט לשכבת זרע שהיא סרוחה מאי לאו שפירשה מן האיש לא שפירשה מן האשה,בעי רב פפא שכבת זרע של ישראל במעי כותית מהו ישראל דדאיגי במצות חביל גופייהו עכו"ם דלא דאיגי במצות לא או דילמא כיון דאכלין שקצים ורמשים חביל גופייהו ואם תמצי לומר כיון דאכלי שקצים ורמשים חביל גופייהו במעי בהמה מהו אשה (היא) דאית לה פרוזדור מסרחת אבל בהמה דלית לה פרוזדור לא או דילמא ל"ש תיקו:,ת"ר בששי בחדש ניתנו עשרת הדברות לישראל רבי יוסי אומר בשבעה בו אמר רבא דכולי עלמא בר"ח אתו למדבר סיני כתיב הכא (שמות יט, א) ביום הזה באו מדבר סיני וכתיב התם (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם ראש חדשים מה להלן ר"ח אף כאן ר"ח ודכולי עלמא בשבת ניתנה תורה לישראל כתיב הכא (שמות כ, ז) זכור את יום השבת לקדשו וכתיב התם (שמות יג, ג) ויאמר משה אל העם זכור את היום הזה מה להלן בעצומו של יום אף כאן בעצומו של יום כי פליגי בקביעא דירחא רבי יוסי סבר בחד בשבא איקבע ירחא ובחד בשבא לא אמר להו ולא מידי משום חולשא דאורחא בתרי בשבא אמר להו (שמות יט, ו) ואתם תהיו לי ממלכת כהנים 86b. The Gemara asks: bDidn’tsome of the people have status of bthose who immersed themselves during the daywhen they received the Torah? Some of the women immersed themselves on Shabbat evening to purify themselves from the discharge of semen. Even after immersion, the purification process is not complete until sunset. It was bAbaye bar Ravin and Rav Ḥanina bar Avin who both saidin response: bThe Torah was given to those who immersed themselves during the day,and that in no way diminishes the magnitude of the revelation. The Gemara relates that bMareimar sat and stated this ihalakha /i. Ravina said to Mareimar: Did you saythat the Torah bwasactually bgivento those who immersed themselves during the day, bor did you saythat bit was fitto be given to those who immersed themselves during the day, but, in reality, it was not? He bsaid to him: I saidthat the Torah bwas fitto be given, but in actuality the nation was ritually pure, and the women did not discharge semen on the third day.,The Gemara asks: bAnd let them immerseduring btwilighton Shabbat eve band receivethe bTorahjust after that during btwilight.Why was it necessary to delay revelation until Shabbat morning? bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat the verse said in that regard: b“From the first, I did not speak in concealment”(Isaiah 48:16). God did not give the Torah under the cloak of night, but rather in the light of day. The Gemara asks: bAnd let them immerse themselves on Shabbat morning and receive the Torah on Shabbat morning.In that case, according to all opinions, the period of separation could have begun one twelve-hour period later. bRabbi Yitzḥak said:This was not done bso thatthere would bnotbe a situation where bthese,one segment of the people, bwould be going to receive the Torah while those,another segment of the people, bwould be going to immerse themselves.Optimally, the entire nation should go to receive the Torah together., bRabbi Ḥiyya, son of Rabbi Abba, saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: These are the statements of Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva. However, the Rabbis say: We requirethat bsix completetwelve-hour bperiodselapse between cohabitation and discharge. If a woman discharged semen less than seventy-two hours after having relations, the semen renders her ritually impure. bRav Ḥisda said:The bdisputeover how long semen renders one ritually impure is only with regard to semen that bis discharged from a woman; however,if it bis discharged from a man,e.g., it was on a garment, bit is impure as long as it is moist,regardless of how much time passed since its discharge. bRav Sheshet raises an objectionbased on what was taught in a ibaraita /i: The Torah states: b“And every garment, and every hide on which there is semenshall be immersed in water, and be impure until evening” (Leviticus 15:17). And the Sages taught: This bexcludes semen which is foul. What, is it notreferring to semen bdischarged from a man,indicating that even moist semen becomes foul after a certain period of time and no longer transmits impurity? The Gemara rejects this: bNo,this ihalakhais referring to semen bthat was discharged from a woman. /b, bRav Pappa raised a dilemma: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bsemen of a Jew in the womb of a gentile woman?Do we say that since bJews are concerned aboutfulfilling bmitzvot,due to that concern, btheir bodytemperature bis hotand semen that is not absorbed becomes foul faster, in contrast to bgentiles who are not concerned aboutfulfilling bmitzvotfor whom that is bnotthe case? bOr, perhaps, sincegentiles beat detestable creatures and creeping animals their bodytemperature bisalso bhot? And if you say that sincethey beat detestable creatures and creeping animals, their bodytemperature bis hot,another dilemma can be raised: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to semen of a Jew bin the womb of an animal?Do we say that in ba woman, who has along bcorridor [ iperozdor /i]to her womb, the semen becomes bfoul; butin ban animal, which does not haveas long ba corridor,it does bnot? Or perhapsit is bnot different,and the period of time that the semen renders one ritually impure is the same in both cases? No resolution was found for these dilemmas. Therefore, blet them standunresolved., bThe Sages taught: On the sixthday bof the monthof Sivan, bthe Ten Commandments were given to the Jewish people. Rabbi Yosei says: On the seventhday bofthe month. bRava said: Everyone agreesthat the Jews bcame to the Sinai desert on the New Moon,as bit is written here:“In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, bthe same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai”(Exodus 19:1), without elaborating what day it was. bAnd it is written there: “This month shall be to you the beginning of months;it shall be the first month of the year to you” (Exodus 12:2). bJust as there,the term “this” is referring to the bNew Moon, so too, herethe term is referring to the bNew Moon. Andsimilarly, beveryone agrees that the Torah was given to the Jewish people on Shabbat,as bit is written herein the Ten Commandments: b“Remember the Shabbat day to keep it holy”(Exodus 20:8), band it is written there: “And Moses said to the people: Remember this day,in which you came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage, for by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from this place; there shall be no leaven eaten” (Exodus 13:3). bJust as there,the mitzva of remembrance was commanded bon the very dayof the Exodus, bso too, herethe mitzva of remembrance was commanded bon the very dayof Shabbat. bWhereRabbi Yosei and the Sages bdisagreeis bwith regard to the determination of the month,meaning which day of the week was established as the New Moon. bRabbi Yosei held:The bNew Moon was established on the first day of the week, and on the first day of the week He did not say anything to them due to the wearinesscaused by bthe journey. On the second day of the week, He said to them: “And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priestsand a holy nation; these are the words that you shall speak to the children of Israel” (Exodus 19:6).
66. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9b. ששהו את קיניהן מיהא מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו שכבום,בזיון קדשים דכתיב (שמואל א ב, טו) גם בטרם יקטירון את החלב ובא נער הכהן ואמר לאיש הזובח תנה בשר לצלות לכהן ולא יקח ממך בשר מבושל כי אם חי ויאמר אליו האיש קטר יקטירון כיום החלב וקח לך כאשר תאוה נפשך ואמר לו כי עתה תתן ואם לא לקחתי בחזקה ותהי חטאת הנערים גדולה מאד את פני ה' כי נאצו האנשים את מנחת ה',מקדש ראשון מפני מה חרב מפני ג' דברים שהיו בו ע"ז וגלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע,מאי קצר המצע מהשתרע א"ר יונתן קצר מצע זה מהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד,(ישעיהו כח, כ) והמסכה צרה כהתכנס א"ר שמואל בר נחמני כי מטי רבי יונתן להאי קרא בכי אמר מאן דכתיב ביה (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים נעשית לו מסכה צרה,גלוי עריות דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, טז) ויאמר ה' יען כי גבהו בנות ציון ותלכנה נטויות גרון ומשקרות עינים הלוך וטפוף תלכנה וברגליהן תעכסנה יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ומשקרות עינים דהוו מליין כוחלא עיניהן הלוך וטפוף תלכנה שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל וברגליהן תעכסנה א"ר יצחק שהיו מביאות מור ואפרסמון ומניחות במנעליהן וכשמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות ומתיזות עליהן ומכניסין בהן יצה"ר כארס בכעוס,שפיכות דמים דכתיב (מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה [הרבה מאד] עד אשר מלא את ירושלם פה לפה,אבל מקדש שני שהיו עוסקין בתורה ובמצות וגמילות חסדים מפני מה חרב מפני שהיתה בו שנאת חנם ללמדך ששקולה שנאת חנם כנגד שלש עבירות ע"ז גלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים,רשעים היו אלא שתלו בטחונם בהקב"ה אתאן למקדש ראשון דכתיב (מיכה ג, יא) ראשיה בשוחד ישפוטו וכהניה במחיר יורו ונביאיה בכסף יקסומו ועל ה' ישענו לאמר הלא ה' בקרבנו לא תבוא עלינו רעה לפיכך הביא עליהן הקב"ה ג' גזרות כנגד ג' עבירות שבידם שנאמר (מיכה ג, יב) לכן בגללכם ציון שדה תחרש וירושלים עיין תהיה והר הבית לבמות יער,ובמקדש ראשון לא הוה ביה שנאת חנם והכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) מגורי אל חרב היו את עמי לכן ספוק אל ירך וא"ר (אליעזר) אלו בני אדם שאוכלין ושותין זה עם זה ודוקרין זה את זה בחרבות שבלשונם,ההיא בנשיאי ישראל הואי דכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) זעק והילל בן אדם כי היא היתה בעמי ותניא זעק והילל בן אדם יכול לכל תלמוד לומר היא בכל נשיאי ישראל,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרווייהו ראשונים שנתגלה עונם נתגלה קצם אחרונים שלא נתגלה עונם לא נתגלה קצם,אמר רבי יוחנן טובה צפורנן של ראשונים מכריסו של אחרונים א"ל ריש לקיש אדרבה אחרונים עדיפי אף על גב דאיכא שעבוד מלכיות קא עסקי בתורה אמר ליה בירה תוכיח שחזרה לראשונים ולא חזרה לאחרונים,שאלו את רבי אלעזר ראשונים גדולים או אחרונים גדולים אמר להם תנו עיניכם בבירה איכא דאמרי אמר להם עידיכם בירה,ריש לקיש הוי סחי בירדנא אתא רבה בר בר חנה יהב ליה ידא א"ל אלהא סנינא לכו דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ט) אם חומה היא נבנה עליה טירת כסף ואם דלת היא נצור עליה לוח ארז אם עשיתם עצמכם כחומה ועליתם כולכם בימי עזרא נמשלתם ככסף שאין רקב שולט בו עכשיו שעליתם כדלתות נמשלתם כארז שהרקב שולט בו,מאי ארז אמר עולא ססמגור מאי ססמגור אמר רבי אבא בת קול כדתניא משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקדש מישראל ועדיין היו משתמשין בבת קול,וריש לקיש מי משתעי בהדי רבה בר בר חנה ומה רבי (אליעזר) דמרא דארעא דישראל הוה ולא הוה משתעי ר"ל בהדיה דמאן דמשתעי ר"ל בהדיה בשוק יהבו ליה עיסקא בלא סהדי בהדי רבב"ח משתעי,אמר רב פפא שדי גברא בינייהו או ריש לקיש הוה וזעירי או רבה בר בר חנה הוה ור"א כי אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן א"ל לאו היינו טעמא א"נ סליקו כולהו בימי עזרא לא הוה שריא שכינה במקדש שני דכתיב (בראשית ט, כז) יפת אלהים ליפת וישכן באהלי שם 9b. bthat they deferredthe sacrifice of btheirbird-offerings by women after childbirth; bnevertheless, the verse ascribes to them as if they laywith bthem.These women came to the Tabernacle to sacrifice doves or pigeons as bird-offerings as part of their purification process, which would permit them to engage in sexual relations with their husbands. Eli’s sons delayed the sacrifice of these offerings and thereby delayed the return of these women to their husbands and their fulfillment of the mitzva of procreation. Even though, according to this opinion, Eli’s sons did not actually engage in sexual relations with these women, the verse attributes that degree of severity to their conduct.,Eli’s sons also sinned in the bdegradation of consecrated items, as it is written: “Before the fat was made burned, the priest’s servant came and said to the man who sacrificed: Hand over some flesh to roast for the priest, for he will not take cooked flesh from you, but raw. And if the man said to him: Let the fat be burnt first and then take as much as you want, then he would say: No, hand it over right now, or I will take it by force. The sin of the young men against the Lord was very great, for the men treated the Lord’s offerings with contempt”(I Samuel 2:15–17).,§ The iToseftacontinues with a discussion of the sins of the Jewish people over the generations: bDue to whatreason bwasthe bFirst Temple destroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there were three mattersthat existed binthe First Temple: bIdol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. Idol worship, as it is written: “The bed is too short for stretching [ imehistare’a /i],and the cover is too narrow for gathering” (Isaiah 28:20)., bWhat isthe meaning of: b“The bed is too short for stretching?” Rabbi Yonatan said: This bed is too short for two counterparts [ ire’im /i] to dominate [ imehistarer /i]. iMehistare’ais a contraction of imehistarer re’im /i. It is inconceivable that there would be in one Temple both service of God and worship of the idol placed there by King Manasseh., bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd the cover [ ivehamasseikha /i] is too narrow [ itzara /i] for gathering [ ikehitkannes /i]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bwhen Rabbi Yonatan reached this verse, he weptand bsaid: For He about Whom it is written: “He gathers [ ikones /i] waters of the sea together as a heap”(Psalms 33:7), bthe idol [ imasseikha /i] became a rival [ itzara /i]?In the homiletic interpretation, imasseikhais interpreted as idol and itzarais interpreted as rival, as in the term used to describe the relationship between two women married to the same husband, iisha tzara /i.,With regard to bforbidden sexual relations, it is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet”(Isaiah 3:16). br bBecause the daughters of Zion are haughty,indicates a btallwoman walking balongsidea bshortone so that the tall woman would stand out. br bAnd walk with outstretched necks,indicates bthat they would walk with upright statureand carry themselves in an immodest way. br bAnd wanton eyes,indicates bthat they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadowin order to draw attention to their eyes. br bWalking and mincing as they go,indicates bthat they would walkin small steps, bheel to toe,so onlookers would notice them. br bMaking a tinkling [ ite’akasna /i] with their feet, Rabbi Yitzḥak said:This teaches bthat they would bring myrrh and balsam and placethem bin their shoesand would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. bAnd once they approacheda place where byoung Jewish menwere congregated, bthey would stamptheir feet on the ground band splashthe perfume btoward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ ike’eres bikhos /i]. /b,With regard to bbloodshed it is written: “Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another”(II Kings 21:16)., bHowever,considering that the people during bthe Second Templeperiod bwere engaged in Torahstudy, observance of bmitzvot, and acts of kindness,and that they did not perform the sinful acts that were performed in the First Temple, bwhy wasthe Second Temple bdestroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there was wanton hatredduring that period. This comes bto teach you thatthe sin of bwanton hatred is equivalent to the threesevere btransgressions: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations and bloodshed. /b,The Gemara continues: bThey were wicked; however, they put their faith in the Holy One, Blessed be He.With that statement bwe have come tothe bFirst Templeera, about bwhich it is written: “Her chiefs judge for bribes, her priests give rulings for a fee, and her prophets divine for pay; yet they rely on the Lord, saying: The Lord is in our midst, no tragedy will overtake us”(Micah 3:11). At least the final portion of the verse was to their credit. bTherefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought upon them three decrees corresponding to their three wicked sins, as it is stated: “Therefore, due to you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become heaps of ruins, and the Temple Mount will be a like a shrine in the woods”(Micah 3:12).,The Gemara asks: bAnd in the First Templeera bwas therereally bno baseless hatred? Isn’t it written:“Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people, this will befall all the princes of Israel: bThey will be cast before the sword together with my people, therefore strike the thigh”(Ezekiel 21:17)? bRabbi Eliezerinterpreted this verse and bsaid: These are people who eat and drink with each other, and stab each other with verbal barbs.Apparently, even those who were close were filled with hatred toward one another.,The Gemara answers: bThatbehavior bwasfound only among bthe princes of Israel, as it is written: “Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people”; and it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Cry and wail, son of man,for this will befall my people”; one bmighthave thought that this unsavory trait was common bto all.Therefore, bthe verse states: “This will befall all the princes of Israel.”It was only the leaders of the nation who harbored baseless hatred for each other; the people of the nation as a whole did not hate one another.,§ It was bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar who both said:In the case of bthe former,the people in the First Temple era, bwhose sin was exposedand no attempt was made to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas exposed,and the prophet informed them that they would return to their land in seventy years. In the case of bthe latter,the people in the Second Temple era, bwhose sin was not exposed;rather, they attempted to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas not exposed. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The fingernails of the former are preferable to the belly of the latter. Reish Lakish said to him: On the contrary, the latter were superior; even though there is subjugation by the kingdoms, they are engaged in Torah study.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid toReish Lakish: bThe Temple will provethat the former were superior, bas itwas brestored to the former.The Second Temple was constructed after the destruction of the first. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple, bitwas bnot restored to the latter.Apparently, the former were superior to the latter.,Similarly, the Sages basked Rabbi Elazar: Are the former greater or are the latter greater? He said to them: Look to the Templeand see if it has been restored, as it was to our predecessors. bSome saythe exchange was slightly different: bHe said to them: The Temple is your witness.The restoration of the Temple after the destruction of the First Temple, attests to the fact that the former generation was greater., bReish Lakish was swimming in the Jordan Riverwhen bRabba bar bar Ḥana came and gave him a handto help him out. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: My God! I hate youBabylonians, bas it is written: “If she be a wall we will build a silver turret upon her, if she be a door we will cover her with boards of cedar”(Song of Songs 8:9). This is the meaning of the verse as it applies to the Jewish people: bHad you rendered yourselvesa solid bloc blike a wall and all ascendedto Eretz Yisrael bin the days of Ezra, you would have been likened to silver, which rot does not infest,in the sense that you would have merited experiencing the Divine Presence in all its glory. bNow that you ascended like doors,and only some of you came to Eretz Yisrael, byou are likened to cedar, which rot infests,and you merit experiencing only partial revelation of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara asks: bWhatrot infests bcedar? Ulla said: It is isasmagor /i,a type of worm. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes isasmagor /ihave to do with the Divine Presence during the Second Temple era? bRabbi Abba said:Just as little remains from a cedar tree infested by this worm, similarly, all that remained from the Divine Presence during the Second Temple period was a bDivine Voice, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAfter the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people, and they were still utilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as an echo of prophecy.,The Gemara asks: bAnd would Reish Lakish speak with Rabba bar bar Ḥanain public? bJust as Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisraelin wisdom and character, bandnevertheless, bReish Lakish would not speak with himin public, as Reish Lakish was sparing in his speech and extended friendship to only a select few prominent, righteous people, to the extent that ba person to whom Reish Lakishwas seen bspeaking in the marketplace, one would give hima loan and bdo businesswith him bwithout witnesses;would he bhave spoken with Rabba bar bar Ḥana? /b, bRav Pappa said: Cast a man between them,and say that the incident did not involve Reish Lakish and Rabba bar bar Ḥana. It bwas either Reish Lakishbathing in the river band Ze’iri,the prominent Babylonian Sage, who extended him a hand, borit was bRabba bar bar Ḥanawho was in the river band Rabbi Elazarextended a hand to him. In any event, bwhenthe Sage who heard what Reish Lakish said bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand related it, Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: That is not the reason; even had they all ascended in the days of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested in the Second Temple, as it is written: “God will enlarge Japheth, and dwell in the tents of Shem”(Genesis 9:27).
67. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.24-6.38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.24. After the instance borrowed from the Mithraic mysteries, Celsus declares that he who would investigate the Christian mysteries, along with the aforesaid Persian, will, on comparing the two together, and on unveiling the rites of the Christians, see in this way the difference between them. Now, wherever he was able to give the names of the various sects, he was nothing loth to quote those with which he thought himself acquainted; but when he ought most of all to have done this, if they were really known to him, and to have informed us which was the sect that makes use of the diagram he has drawn, he has not done so. It seems to me, however, that it is from some statements of a very insignificant sect called Ophites, which he has misunderstood, that, in my opinion, he has partly borrowed what he says about the diagram. Now, as we have always been animated by a love of learning, we have fallen in with this diagram, and we have found in it the representations of men who, as Paul says, creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with various lusts; ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. The diagram was, however, so destitute of all credibility, that neither these easily deceived women, nor the most rustic class of men, nor those who were ready to be led away by any plausible pretender whatever, ever gave their assent to the diagram. Nor, indeed, have we ever met any individual, although we have visited many parts of the earth, and have sought out all those who anywhere made profession of knowledge, that placed any faith in this diagram. 6.25. In this diagram were described ten circles, distinct from each other, but united by one circle, which was said to be the soul of all things, and was called Leviathan. This Leviathan, the Jewish Scriptures say, whatever they mean by the expression, was created by God for a plaything; for we find in the Psalms: In wisdom have You made all things: the earth is full of Your creatures; so is this great and wide sea. There go the ships; small animals with great; there is this dragon, which You have formed to play therein. Instead of the word dragon, the term leviathan is in the Hebrew. This impious diagram, then, said of this leviathan, which is so clearly depreciated by the Psalmist, that it was the soul which had travelled through all things! We observed, also, in the diagram, the being named Behemoth, placed as it were under the lowest circle. The inventor of this accursed diagram had inscribed this leviathan at its circumference and centre, thus placing its name in two separate places. Moreover, Celsus says that the diagram was divided by a thick black line, and this line he asserted was called Gehenna, which is Tartarus. Now as we found that Gehenna was mentioned in the Gospel as a place of punishment, we searched to see whether it is mentioned anywhere in the ancient Scriptures, and especially because the Jews too use the word. And we ascertained that where the valley of the son of Ennom was named in Scripture in the Hebrew, instead of valley, with fundamentally the same meaning, it was termed both the valley of Ennom and also Geenna. And continuing our researches, we find that what was termed Geenna, or the valley of Ennom, was included in the lot of the tribe of Benjamin, in which Jerusalem also was situated. And seeking to ascertain what might be the inference from the heavenly Jerusalem belonging to the lot of Benjamin and the valley of Ennom, we find a certain confirmation of what is said regarding the place of punishment, intended for the purification of such souls as are to be purified by torments, agreeably to the saying: The Lord comes like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver and of gold. 6.26. It is in the precincts of Jerusalem, then, that punishments will be inflicted upon those who undergo the process of purification, who have received into the substance of their soul the elements of wickedness, which in a certain place is figuratively termed lead, and on that account iniquity is represented in Zechariah as sitting upon a talent of lead. But the remarks which might be made on this topic are neither to be made to all, nor to be uttered on the present occasion; for it is not unattended with danger to commit to writing the explanation of such subjects, seeing the multitude need no further instruction than that which relates to the punishment of sinners; while to ascend beyond this is not expedient, for the sake of those who are with difficulty restrained, even by fear of eternal punishment, from plunging into any degree of wickedness, and into the flood of evils which result from sin. The doctrine of Geenna, then, is unknown both to the diagram and to Celsus: for had it been otherwise, the framers of the former would not have boasted of their pictures of animals and diagrams, as if the truth were represented by these; nor would Celsus, in his treatise against the Christians, have introduced among the charges directed against them statements which they never uttered instead of what was spoken by some who perhaps are no longer in existence, but have altogether disappeared, or been reduced to a very few individuals, and these easily counted. And as it does not beseem those who profess the doctrines of Plato to offer a defense of Epicurus and his impious opinions, so neither is it for us to defend the diagram, or to refute the accusations brought against it by Celsus. We may therefore allow his charges on these points to pass as superfluous and useless, for we would censure more severely than Celsus any who should be carried away by such opinions. 6.27. After the matter of the diagram, he brings forward certain monstrous statements, in the form of question and answer, regarding what is called by ecclesiastical writers the seal, statements which did not arise from imperfect information; such as that he who impresses the seal is called father, and he who is sealed is called young man and son; and who answers, I have been anointed with white ointment from the tree of life,- things which we never heard to have occurred even among the heretics. In the next place, he determines even the number mentioned by those who deliver over the seal, as that of seven angels, who attach themselves to both sides of the soul of the dying body; the one party being named angels of light, the others 'archontics;' and he asserts that the ruler of those named 'archontics' is termed the 'accursed' god. Then, laying hold of the expression, he assails, not without reason, those who venture to use such language; and on that account we entertain a similar feeling of indignation with those who censure such individuals, if indeed there exist any who call the God of the Jews- who sends rain and thunder, and who is the Creator of this world, and the God of Moses, and of the cosmogony which he records - an accursed divinity. Celsus, however, appears to have had in view in employing these expressions, not a rational object, but one of a most irrational kind, arising out of his hatred towards us, which is so unlike a philosopher. For his aim was, that those who are unacquainted with our customs should, on perusing his treatise, at once assail us as if we called the noble Creator of this world an accursed divinity. He appears to me, indeed, to have acted like those Jews who, when Christianity began to be first preached, scattered abroad false reports of the Gospel, such as that Christians offered up an infant in sacrifice, and partook of its flesh; and again, that the professors of Christianity, wishing to do the 'works of darkness,' used to extinguish the lights (in their meetings), and each one to have sexual intercourse with any woman whom he chanced to meet. These calumnies have long exercised, although unreasonably, an influence over the minds of very many, leading those who are aliens to the Gospel to believe that Christians are men of such a character; and even at the present day they mislead some, and prevent them from entering even into the simple intercourse of conversation with those who are Christians. 6.28. With some such object as this in view does Celsus seem to have been actuated, when he alleged that Christians term the Creator an accursed divinity; in order that he who believes these charges of his against us, should, if possible, arise and exterminate the Christians as the most impious of mankind. Confusing, moreover, things that are distinct, he states also the reason why the God of the Mosaic cosmogony is termed accursed, asserting that such is his character, and worthy of execration in the opinion of those who so regard him, inasmuch as he pronounced a curse upon the serpent, who introduced the first human beings to the knowledge of good and evil. Now he ought to have known that those who have espoused the cause of the serpent, because he gave good advice to the first human beings, and who go far beyond the Titans and Giants of fable, and are on this account called Ophites, are so far from being Christians, that they bring accusations against Jesus to as great a degree as Celsus himself; and they do not admit any one into their assembly until he has uttered maledictions against Jesus. See, then, how irrational is the procedure of Celsus, who, in his discourse against the Christians, represents as such those who will not even listen to the name of Jesus, or omit even that He was a wise man, or a person of virtuous character! What, then, could evince greater folly or madness, not only on the part of those who wish to derive their name from the serpent as the author of good, but also on the part of Celsus, who thinks that the accusations with which the Ophites are charged, are chargeable also against the Christians! Long ago, indeed, that Greek philosopher who preferred a state of poverty, and who exhibited the pattern of a happy life, showing that he was not excluded from happiness although he was possessed of nothing, termed himself a Cynic; while these impious wretches, as not being human beings, whose enemy the serpent is, but as being serpents, pride themselves upon being called Ophites from the serpent, which is an animal most hostile to and greatly dreaded by man, and boast of one Euphrates as the introducer of these unhallowed opinions. 6.29. In the next place, as if it were the Christians whom he was calumniating, he continues his accusations against those who termed the God of Moses and of his law an accursed divinity; and imagining that it is the Christians who so speak, he expresses himself thus: What could be more foolish or insane than such senseless wisdom? For what blunder has the Jewish lawgiver committed? And why do you accept, by means, as you say, of a certain allegorical and typical method of interpretation, the cosmogony which he gives, and the law of the Jews, while it is with unwillingness, O most impious man, that you give praise to the Creator of the world, who promised to give them all things; who promised to multiply their race to the ends of the earth, and to raise them up from the dead with the same flesh and blood, and who gave inspiration to their prophets; and, again, you slander Him! When you feel the force of such considerations, indeed, you acknowledge that you worship the same God; but when your teacher Jesus and the Jewish Moses give contradictory decisions, you seek another God, instead of Him, and the Father! Now, by such statements, this illustrious philosopher Celsus distinctly slanders the Christians, asserting that, when the Jews press them hard, they acknowledge the same God as they do; but that when Jesus legislates differently from Moses, they seek another god instead of Him. Now, whether we are conversing with the Jews, or are alone with ourselves, we know of only one and the same God, whom the Jews also worshipped of old time, and still profess to worship as God, and we are guilty of no impiety towards Him. We do not assert, however, that God will raise men from the dead with the same flesh and blood, as has been shown in the preceding pages; for we do not maintain that the natural body, which is sown in corruption, and in dishonour, and in weakness, will rise again such as it was sown. On such subjects, however, we have spoken at adequate length in the foregoing pages. 6.30. He next returns to the subject of the Seven ruling Demons, whose names are not found among Christians, but who, I think, are accepted by the Ophites. We found, indeed, that in the diagram, which on their account we procured a sight of, the same order was laid down as that which Celsus has given. Celsus says that the goat was shaped like a lion, not mentioning the name given him by those who are truly the most impious of individuals; whereas we discovered that He who is honoured in holy Scripture as the angel of the Creator is called by this accursed diagram Michael the Lion-like. Again, Celsus says that the second in order is a bull; whereas the diagram which we possessed made him to be Suriel, the bull-like. Further, Celsus termed the third an amphibious sort of animal, and one that hissed frightfully; while the diagram described the third as Raphael, the serpent-like. Moreover, Celsus asserted that the fourth had the form of an eagle; the diagram representing him as Gabriel, the eagle-like. Again, the fifth, according to Celsus, had the countece of a bear; and this, according to the diagram, was Thauthabaoth, the bear-like. Celsus continues his account, that the sixth was described as having the face of a dog; and him the diagram called Erataoth. The seventh, he adds, had the countece of an ass, and was named Thaphabaoth or Onoel; whereas we discovered that in the diagram he is called Onoel, or Thartharaoth, being somewhat asinine in appearance. We have thought it proper to be exact in stating these matters, that we might not appear to be ignorant of those things which Celsus professed to know, but that we Christians, knowing them better than he, may demonstrate that these are not the words of Christians, but of those who are altogether alienated from salvation, and who neither acknowledge Jesus as Saviour, nor God, nor Teacher, nor Son of God. 6.31. Moreover, if any one would wish to become acquainted with the artifices of those sorcerers, through which they desire to lead men away by their teaching (as if they possessed the knowledge of certain secret rites), but are not at all successful in so doing, let him listen to the instruction which they receive after passing through what is termed the fence of wickedness, - gates which are subjected to the world of ruling spirits. (The following, then, is the manner in which they proceed): I salute the one-formed king, the bond of blindness, complete oblivion, the first power, preserved by the spirit of providence and by wisdom, from whom I am sent forth pure, being already part of the light of the son and of the father: grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say also that the beginnings of the Ogdoad are derived from this. In the next place, they are taught to say as follows, while passing through what they call Ialdabaoth: You, O first and seventh, who art born to command with confidence, you, O Ialdabaoth, who art the rational ruler of a pure mind, and a perfect work to son and father, bearing the symbol of life in the character of a type, and opening to the world the gate which you closed against your kingdom, I pass again in freedom through your realm. Let grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say, moreover, that the star Ph non is in sympathy with the lion-like ruler. They next imagine that he who has passed through Ialdabaoth and arrived at Iao ought thus to speak: You, O second Iao, who shines by night, who art the ruler of the secret mysteries of son and father, first prince of death, and portion of the innocent, bearing now my own beard as symbol, I am ready to pass through your realm, having strengthened him who is born of you by the living word. Grace be with me; father, let it be with me. They next come to Sabaoth, to whom they think the following should be addressed: O governor of the fifth realm, powerful Sabaoth, defender of the law of your creatures, who are liberated by your grace through the help of a more powerful Pentad, admit me, seeing the faultless symbol of their art, preserved by the stamp of an image, a body liberated by a Pentad. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. And after Sabaoth they come to Astaph us, to whom they believe the following prayer should be offered: O Astaph us, ruler of the third gate, overseer of the first principle of water, look upon me as one of your initiated, admit me who am purified with the spirit of a virgin, you who sees the essence of the world. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. After him comes Alo us, who is to be thus addressed: O Alo us, governor of the second gate, let me pass, seeing I bring to you the symbol of your mother, a grace which is hidden by the powers of the realms. Let grace be with me, O father, let it be with me. And last of all they name Hor us, and think that the following prayer ought to be offered to him: You who fearlessly leaped over the rampart of fire, O Hor us, who obtained the government of the first gate, let me pass, seeing you behold the symbol of your own power, sculptured on the figure of the tree of life, and formed after this image, in the likeness of innocence. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. 6.32. The supposed great learning of Celsus, which is composed, however, rather of curious trifles and silly talk than anything else, has made us touch upon these topics, from a wish to show to every one who peruses his treatise and our reply, that we have no lack of information on those subjects, from which he takes occasion to calumniate the Christians, who neither are acquainted with, nor concern themselves about, such matters. For we, too, desired both to learn and set forth these things, in order that sorcerers might not, under pretext of knowing more than we, delude those who are easily carried away by the glitter of names. And I could have given many more illustrations to show that we are acquainted with the opinions of these deluders, and that we disown them, as being alien to ours, and impious, and not in harmony with the doctrines of true Christians, of which we are ready to make confession even to the death. It must be noticed, too, that those who have drawn up this array of fictions, have, from neither understanding magic, nor discriminating the meaning of holy Scripture, thrown everything into confusion; seeing that they have borrowed from magic the names of Ialdabaoth, and Astaph us, and Hor us, and from the Hebrew Scriptures him who is termed in Hebrew Iao or Jah, and Sabaoth, and Adon us, and Elo us. Now the names taken from the Scriptures are names of one and the same God; which, not being understood by the enemies of God, as even themselves acknowledge, led to their imagining that Iao was a different God, and Sabaoth another, and Adon us, whom the Scriptures term Adonai, a third besides, and that Elo us, whom the prophets name in Hebrew Eloi, was also different 6.33. Celsus next relates other fables, to the effect that certain persons return to the shapes of the archontics, so that some are called lions, others bulls, others dragons, or eagles, or bears, or dogs. We found also in the diagram which we possessed, and which Celsus called the square pattern, the statements made by these unhappy beings concerning the gates of Paradise. The flaming sword was depicted as the diameter of a flaming circle, and as if mounting guard over the tree of knowledge and of life. Celsus, however, either would not or could not repeat the harangues which, according to the fables of these impious individuals, are represented as spoken at each of the gates by those who pass through them; but this we have done in order to show to Celsus and those who read his treatise, that we know the depth of these unhallowed mysteries, and that they are far removed from the worship which Christians offer up to God. 6.34. After finishing the foregoing, and those analogous matters which we ourselves have added, Celsus continues as follows: They continue to heap together one thing after another - discourses of prophets, and circles upon circles, and effluents from an earthly church, and from circumcision; and a power flowing from one Prunicos, a virgin and a living soul; and a heaven slain in order to live, and an earth slaughtered by the sword, and many put to death that they may live, and death ceasing in the world, when the sin of the world is dead; and, again, a narrow way, and gates that open spontaneously. And in all their writings (is mention made) of the tree of life, and a resurrection of the flesh by means of the 'tree,' because, I imagine, their teacher was nailed to a cross, and was a carpenter by craft; so that if he had chanced to have been cast from a precipice, or thrust into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, or had been a leather-cutter, or stone-cutter, or worker in iron, there would have been (invented) a precipice of life beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality, or a blessed stone, or an iron of love, or a sacred leather! Now what old woman would not be ashamed to utter such things in a whisper, even when making stories to lull an infant to sleep? In using such language as this, Celsus appears to me to confuse together matters which he has imperfectly heard. For it seems likely that, even supposing that he had heard a few words traceable to some existing heresy, he did not clearly understand the meaning intended to be conveyed; but heaping the words together, he wished to show before those who knew nothing either of our opinions or of those of the heretics, that he was acquainted with all the doctrines of the Christians. And this is evident also from the foregoing words. 6.35. It is our practice, indeed, to make use of the words of the prophets, who demonstrate that Jesus is the Christ predicted by them, and who show from the prophetic writings the events in the Gospels regarding Jesus have been fulfilled. But when Celsus speaks of circles upon circles, (he perhaps borrowed the expression) from the aforementioned heresy, which includes in one circle (which they call the soul of all things, and Leviathan) the seven circles of archontic demons, or perhaps it arises from misunderstanding the preacher, when he says: The wind goes in a circle of circles, and returns again upon its circles. The expression, too, effluents of an earthly church and of circumcision, was probably taken from the fact that the church on earth was called by some an effluent from a heavenly church and a better world; and that the circumcision described in the law was a symbol of the circumcision performed there, in a certain place set apart for purification. The adherents of Valentinus, moreover, in keeping with their system of error, give the name of Prunicos to a certain kind of wisdom, of which they would have the woman afflicted with the twelve years' issue of blood to be the symbol; so that Celsus, who confuses together all sorts of opinions - Greek, Barbarian, and Heretical - having heard of her, asserted that it was a power flowing forth from one Prunicos, a virgin. The living soul, again, is perhaps mysteriously referred by some of the followers of Valentinus to the being whom they term the psychic creator of the world; or perhaps, in contradistinction to a dead soul, the living soul is termed by some, not inelegantly, the soul of him who is saved. I know nothing, however, of a heaven which is said to be slain, or of an earth slaughtered by the sword, or of many persons slain in order that they might live; for it is not unlikely that these were coined by Celsus out of his own brain. 6.36. We would say, moreover, that death ceases in the world when the sin of the world dies, referring the saying to the mystical words of the apostle, which run as follows: When He shall have put all enemies under His feet, then the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. And also: When this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. The strait descent, again, may perhaps be referred by those who hold the doctrine of transmigration of souls to that view of things. And it is not incredible that the gates which are said to open spontaneously are referred obscurely by some to the words, Open to me the gates of righteousness, that I may go into them, and praise the Lord; this gate of the Lord, into it the righteous shall enter; and again, to what is said in the ninth psalm, You that lifts me up from the gates of death, that I may show forth all Your praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion. The Scripture further gives the name of gates of death to those sins which lead to destruction, as it terms, on the contrary, good actions the gates of Zion. So also the gates of righteousness, which is an equivalent expression to the gates of virtue, and these are ready to be opened to him who follows after virtuous pursuits. The subject of the tree of life will be more appropriately explained when we interpret the statements in the book of Genesis regarding the paradise planted by God. Celsus, moreover, has often mocked at the subject of a resurrection, - a doctrine which he did not comprehend; and on the present occasion, not satisfied with what he has formerly said, he adds, And there is said to be a resurrection of the flesh by means of the tree; not understanding, I think, the symbolic expression, that through the tree came death, and through the tree comes life, because death was in Adam, and life in Christ. He next scoffs at the tree, assailing it on two grounds, and saying, For this reason is the tree introduced, either because our teacher was nailed to a cross, or because he was a carpenter by trade; not observing that the tree of life is mentioned in the Mosaic writings, and being blind also to this, that in none of the Gospels current in the Churches is Jesus Himself ever described as being a carpenter. 6.37. Celsus, moreover, thinks that we have invented this tree of life to give an allegorical meaning to the cross; and in consequence of his error upon this point, he adds: If he had happened to be cast down a precipice, or shoved into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, there would have been invented a precipice of life far beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality. And again: If the 'tree of life' were an invention, because he - Jesus - (is reported) to have been a carpenter, it would follow that if he had been a leather-cutter, something would have been said about holy leather; or had he been a stone-cutter, about a blessed stone; or if a worker in iron, about an iron of love. Now, who does not see at once the paltry nature of his charge, in thus calumniating men whom he professed to convert on the ground of their being deceived? And after these remarks, he goes on to speak in a way quite in harmony with the tone of those who have invented the fictions of lion-like, and ass-headed, and serpent-like ruling angels, and other similar absurdities, but which does not affect those who belong to the Church. of a truth, even a drunken old woman would be ashamed to chaunt or whisper to an infant, in order to lull him to sleep, any such fables as those have done who invented the beings with asses' heads, and the harangues, so to speak, which are delivered at each of the gates. But Celsus is not acquainted with the doctrines of the members of the Church, which very few have been able to comprehend, even of those who have devoted all their lives, in conformity with the command of Jesus, to the searching of the Scriptures, and have laboured to investigate the meaning of the sacred books, to a greater degree than Greek philosophers in their efforts to attain a so-called wisdom. 6.38. Our noble (friend), moreover, not satisfied with the objections which he has drawn from the diagram, desires, in order to strengthen his accusations against us, who have nothing in common with it, to introduce certain other charges, which he adduces from the same (heretics), but yet as if they were from a different source. His words are: And that is not the least of their marvels, for there are between the upper circles - those that are above the heavens - certain inscriptions of which they give the interpretation, and among others two words especially, 'a greater and a less,' which they refer to Father and Son. Now, in the diagram referred to, we found the greater and the lesser circle, upon the diameter of which was inscribed Father and Son; and between the greater circle (in which the lesser was contained) and another composed of two circles - the outer one of which was yellow, and the inner blue - a barrier inscribed in the shape of a hatchet. And above it, a short circle, close to the greater of the two former, having the inscription Love; and lower down, one touching the same circle, with the word Life. And on the second circle, which was intertwined with and included two other circles, another figure, like a rhomboid, (entitled) The foresight of wisdom. And within their point of common section was The nature of wisdom. And above their point of common section was a circle, on which was inscribed Knowledge; and lower down another, on which was the inscription, Understanding. We have introduced these matters into our reply to Celsus, to show to our readers that we know better than he, and not by mere report, those things, even although we also disapprove of them. Moreover, if those who pride themselves upon such matters profess also a kind of magic and sorcery - which, in their opinion, is the summit of wisdom - we, on the other hand, make no affirmation about it, seeing we never have discovered anything of the kind. Let Celsus, however, who has been already often convicted of false witness and irrational accusations, see whether he is not guilty of falsehood in these also, or whether he has not extracted and introduced into his treatise, statements taken from the writings of those who are foreigners and strangers to our Christian faith.
68. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 4.1 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל משֶׁה פְּקֹד כָּל בְּכֹר זָכָר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וגו' (במדבר ג, מ), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מג, ד): מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וגו', אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיַעֲקֹב, יַעֲקֹב הַרְבֵּה אַתְּ יָקָר בְּעֵינַי שֶׁכִּבְיָכוֹל קָבַעְתִּי אִיקוֹנִים שֶׁלְךָ בְּכִסְאִי, וּבְשִׁמְךָ הַמַּלְאָכִים מְקַלְסִין אוֹתִי וְאוֹמְרִים (תהלים מא, יד): בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵהָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם, הֱוֵי: מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיַעֲקֹב הַרְבֵּה יָקָר אַתְּ בְּעֵינַי, שֶׁכִּבְיָכוֹל אֲנִי וּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת שֶׁלִּי יָצְאוּ לִקְרָאתְךָ בְּצֵאתְךָ לֵילֵךְ לְפַדַּן אֲרָם וּבְבִיאָתְךָ. בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיָּצָאתָ מַה כְּתִיב (בראשית כח, י יג): וַיֵּצֵא יַעֲקֹב וגו' וַיִּפְגַע בַּמָּקוֹם וגו' וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם וגו' וְהִנֵּה ה' נִצָּב עָלָיו וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אַשְׁרֵי יְלוּד אִשָּׁה שֶׁכָּךְ רָאָה הַמֶּלֶךְ וּפָמַלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וּמְשַׁמְּרִים אוֹתוֹ. וּמִנַּיִן בְּבִיאָתוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לב, ב): וְיַעֲקֹב הָלַךְ לְדַרְכּוֹ וגו', הֲרֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים. הַשְּׁכִינָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לה, ט): וַיֵּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶל יַעֲקֹב עוֹד בְּבֹאוֹ וגו', הֱוֵי: מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי וגו', אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יָקָר אַתְּ בְּעֵינַי, שֶׁלְּכָל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֹא נָתַתִּי מִנְיָן וּלְךָ נָתַתִּי מִנְיָן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ גְּרָנוֹת הַרְבֵּה וְהָיוּ כֻּלָּם טִנּוֹפוֹת וּמְלֵאוֹת זוּנִים, וְלֹא דִּקְדֵּק בְּמִנְיָנָן, וְהָיָה לוֹ גֹּרֶן אַחַת רָאָה אוֹתָהּ נָאָה, אָמַר לְבֶן בֵּיתוֹ אוֹתָן הַגְּרָנוֹת טִנּוֹפוֹת וּמְלֵאוֹת זוּנִים לְפִיכָךְ אַל תְּדַקְדֵּק בְּמִנְיָנָם, אֲבָל זֶה דַּע כַּמָּה כּוֹרִים יֵשׁ בּוֹ, כַּמָּה שַׂקִּים, כַּמָּה מוֹדִיאוֹת יֵשׁ בּוֹ. כָּךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ זֶה מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְהַגֹּרֶן אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל (ישעיה כא, י): מְדֻשָׁתִי וּבֶן גָּרְנִי, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ירמיה ב, ג): קֹדֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַה' רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתֹה. וּבֶן בֵּיתוֹ זֶה משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יב, ז): לֹא כֵן עַבְדִּי משֶׁה בְּכָל בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה, הָעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים טִנּוֹפוֹת הֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה לג, יב): וְהָיוּ עַמִּים מִשְׂרְפוֹת שִׂיד קוֹצִים כְּסוּחִים וגו', לְפִיכָךְ אַל תְּדַקְדֵּק בְּמִנְיָנָם, אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל צַדִּיקִים הֵם, כֻּלָּם חִטִּים אַגּוּדֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס, כא): וְעַמֵּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים ד, ז): כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ, לְכָךְ דַּקְדֵּק בְּמִנְיָנָם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּךְ עָשָׂה משֶׁה מָנָה אוֹתָם כַּמָּה כּוֹרִין יֵשׁ בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר א, ב): שְׂאוּ אֶת רֹאשׁ כָּל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כַּמָּה שַׂקִּים, (שיר השירים ב, ד): וּצְבָאוֹ וּפְקוּדֵיהֶם, כַּמָּה מִדּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: פְּקֹד כָּל זָכָר וגו'. 4.1. וְלָקַחְתָּ חֲמֵשֶׁת חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים וגו' (במדבר ג, מז), אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתֶּם מְכַרְתֶּם בְּכוֹרָהּ שֶׁל רָחֵל, זֶה יוֹסֵף (בראשית לז, כח). בְּעֶשְׂרִים כֶּסֶף, שֶׁהֵם חֲמִשָׁה שְׁקָלִים, לְפִיכָךְ יִהְיֶה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִכֶּם פּוֹדֶה בְּנוֹ הַבְּכוֹר חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. (במדבר ג, מח): וְנָתַתָּה הַכֶּסֶף לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו פְּדוּיֵי הָעֹדְפִים בָּהֶם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ הַלְוִיִּם לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו, דִּכְתִיב (במדבר ג, ט): וְנָתַתָּה אֶת הַלְוִיִּם לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו נְתוּנִם נְתוּנִם הֵמָּה לוֹ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּךְ נִתַּן לוֹ כֶּסֶף הַפִּדְיוֹן שֶׁהָיָה בִּמְקוֹם לְוִיִּם. (במדבר ג, מט): וַיִקַּח משֶׁה אֵת כֶּסֶף הַפִּדְיוֹם וגו', כֵּיצַד עָשָׂה לָהֶם, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר כָּךְ עָשָׂה כָּתַב עַל עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁנַיִם אֶלֶף פְּתָקִין לֵוִי לֵוִי וְנָתַן בְּקַלְפֵּי, וְעוֹד עַל מָאתַיִם וְשִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלשָׁה פְּתָקִין כָּתַב חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים וְנָתַן בְּקַלְפֵּי וְעֵרְבָן, וְהָיָה אָבִיו שֶׁל בְּכוֹר פּוֹשֵׁט יָדוֹ בַּקַּלְפֵּי אִם עָלָה בְּיָדוֹ פֶּתֶק כְּתָב בֶּן לֵוִי, הָיָה אוֹמֵר לוֹ כְּבָר פְּדָאֲךָ בֶּן לֵוִי, וּמִי שֶׁעָלָה בְּיָדוֹ פֶּתֶק שֶׁל חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים הָיָה משֶׁה אוֹמֵר לוֹ תֵּן חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים שֶׁאַתָּה חַיָּב, וְכֵן עָשׂוּ כֻלָּם. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר אִם כֵּן יָכוֹל הוּא לָדוּן עִמּוֹ וְלוֹמַר לוֹ לֹא הֵימָךְ לוֹמַר לִתֵּן חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים הֲרֵי נִתְמַצּוּ כָּל הַפְּתָקִין שֶׁכָּתוּב עֲלֵיהֶן לֵוִי לֵוִי, אִם אֲנִי נוֹתֵן יָדִי מָה עוֹלֶה בְּיָדִי לֹא פְּתָקִין שֶׁל חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים, מִי אוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁאִם הָיָה שָׁם פֶּתֶק שֶׁל לֵוִי לֵוִי שֶׁלֹא זָכִיתִי בּוֹ, אֶלָּא כָּךְ עָשָׂה כָּתַב עַל עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁנַיִם אֶלֶף וּמָאתַיִם וְשִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלשָׁה פְּתָקִין לֵוִי לֵוִי, וְעַל מָאתַים וְשִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלשָׁה חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים, בָּאוּ וְנָתְנוּ יָדָן וּמִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹלֶה בְּיָדוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה סְלָעִים, אִם הָיָה בָּא לוֹמַר לוֹ כְּלוּם, הָיָה מְשִׁיבוֹ משֶׁה, אִלּוּ זָכִיתָ לֹא הָיָה שָׁם פֶּתֶק לֵוִי לֵוִי, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתְּ חַיָּב מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הָיָה נוֹתֵן.
69. Anon., 2 Enoch, 1.5

70. Anon., 3 Baruch, 2.2

71. Anon., 3 Enoch, 33.3

72. Anon., 4 Ezra, 13.3, 14.39

13.3. And I looked, and behold, this wind made something like the figure of a man come up out of the heart of the sea. And I looked, and behold, that man flew with the clouds of heaven; and wherever he turned his face to look, everything under his gaze trembled 14.39. Then I opened my mouth, and behold, a full cup was offered to me; it was full of something like water, but its color was like fire.
73. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 18

74. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.1-9.4

9.1. Now those who were with Jeremiah were rejoicing and offeringsacrifices on behalf of the people for nine days. 9.2. But on the tenth, Jeremiah alone offered sacrifice. 9.3. And he prayed a prayer, saying: Holy, holy, holy, fragrant aroma of the living trees, true light that enlightens me until I ascend to you; 9.4. For your mercy, I beg you -- for the sweet voice of the two seraphim, I beg -- for another fragrant aroma.
75. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 17.5

76. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 4.8

77. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 14.9, 14.11, 16.12, 16.14-16.16, 18.5, 18.11, 20.8

78. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 4, 35

79. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 408, 372



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159
abihu Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
active intellect, philos logos related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
akiba, rabbi Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 219
akiba (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 139
alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
alienation Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
altar, incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522
altar Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
altmann, alexander Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
angel, angelic, angelic transformation, angelomorphism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
angel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61, 169
angels, angel of the presence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
angels, angelus interpres interpreting angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
angels, at mt. sinai Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
angels, worshippers of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 279; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 136; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68, 290, 554
anger, divine Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
anthropomorphism, age Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
anthropomorphism, compassion Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
anthropomorphism, feet Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 136, 137, 201, 391
anthropomorphism, suffering Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 215
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 136, 137, 139, 215, 351, 352
anthropomorphism Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 188; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159
anthropos (heavenly) Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61
anti-gnostic polemic Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
apologetic texts Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250
apostasy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
arm/hand, bound/limitation of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
arm/hand, right Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
art, metatron Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 279
art, sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 279
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
ascent Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 161
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68
aseneth Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61
atonement, in the levitical cult nan
attributes, divine, and divine names Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
azriel (r.), babylon Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 215
azriel (r.), exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 215
bar qappara (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 137, 352
beauty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522
beit ha-midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 270, 275
berekhia (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 137, 352
beth-el, imagery in Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
bible Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159, 161
boat Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 32
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
body Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
boundaries Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168
brother, brotherhood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
burning, mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
burning, of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
burning, stars Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
canaanites Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 199
chariot, divine Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 260
chariot, of god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 74, 75
chariot Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
cherubim Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68, 77
church Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
cloud, vision of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522
clouds Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 477
community Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522, 833
confession Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
contagion Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 14
conversion Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
court Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
creation, from snow Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
crisis, national Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135
crisis, personal Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135
crown Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61
cyprian Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
daniel, book of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68
daniel Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
day, of the new creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
death Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 477
decalogue Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
deuteronomy, as re-written law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
deuteronomy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
divine, splendor/glory Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
divine/god, as warrior Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
divine/god, exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 215, 351, 352
divine/god, glory Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
divine/god, justice Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 391
divine/god, polymorphy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
divine/god, throne Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 137, 201, 215, 352
divine essence, divine immanence and transcendence related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
divine essence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
divine essence and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
divine presence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
divine transcendence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
dream, vision Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
drink Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
eating Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168
economic Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 32
edom Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 351
egypt Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 136, 137, 139, 232, 351, 352; Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 32
egyptian god, amo(u)n, ʾehyeh Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
elam Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 351, 352
elders, seventy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
eleazar ha-darshan (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 137
eliezer (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135
elisha ben abuya (same as aher) Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 219
embodiment Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 14
endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
enoch Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
eschatology, eschatological Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
eschatology/eschatological, events Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
eucharist Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 222; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
exegesis, and mythmaking Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 139
exegesis, and nonscriptural myth Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 139
exegesis, concrete exegesis Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 139
exegesis, scriptural correlation Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 139, 215, 351, 352
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24, 269, 274, 275; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 136, 137, 139, 201, 352
experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
eyes, feeding the Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68, 290; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159
face Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61, 168, 169; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
fire Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
firmament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68, 290, 554
food/dietary laws Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
food Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168, 169
glory, divine Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 279
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
glory, kavod related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
glory, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
glory, throne of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
glory/glory Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
gnosticism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 260
gnostics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
god, and Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 269
god, as male lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
god, hand of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
god, handiwork of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
god, incorporeal Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
god, lord of the sheep Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24, 250, 273, 274
god Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
god body of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 74, 75
godhead; see also attributes, hierarchy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
greece Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
hashmal Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 290
hasmonean period Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
hasmoneans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
hayyot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 290
heart Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
heaven Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 273, 279, 280; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
heavenly voice Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
heavens Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
hebraism and hellenism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 260
hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
heikhalot traditions Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
hekhalot Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
hekhalot literature, history of study Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 161
hekhalot literature Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 198, 200
hekhalot zutarti Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 290
hermeneutics, and the endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
hermeneutics, and unveiling Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 477
hermetic literature Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 554
high priest, levitical nan
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
high priests of jerusalem, and the hebrew bible Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
high priests of jerusalem, in philo Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
high priests of jerusalem Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
holiness Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 14
horeb Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
hypostasis, voice as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
hypostasis, yahweh as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
idolatry Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68
immortal, immortality Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 833
ingestion Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168
instruction/teaching, by god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
instruction/teaching, to the angel of the presence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250
interpretation, inner-biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250
interpretation, targumic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 279, 280
interpretation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 219, 504
irenaeus, against heretics Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
isaiah Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 275; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159
ishmael, r., sees gods right arm Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
israel, land of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 391
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 219, 477, 504
israel, suffering of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
israel Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 136, 137, 139, 201; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 169
jerusalem, second temple of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33
jesus, last supper of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 222
jesus, temple incident of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 222
joseph Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
journeys/voyages, heavenly, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 707
judah b. ila͗͑i (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
judah b. pazzi (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
judah bar simon (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
judea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
judeans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
kavod, angelic creature Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
kavod, glory related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
kavod, shekhinah and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
king, pedagogy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
king, rhetoric Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 352
lapis Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 32
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 219
lebanon Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135
levi b. sisi (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 137, 352
leviathan, fins Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 215
libnat ha-sapir Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 136, 137, 201, 215, 352
lieberman, saul Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 195
light, illumination Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
likeness Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168
liturgy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 215; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
magic, magical, magician, magico-mystical Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
maimonides Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250
male lover, as figure of god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
martyrdom, martyr, desire Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
martyrdom, martyr, judaism, jewish Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
martyrdom, martyr, sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
martyrdom, martyr, trauma, traumatic experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
media Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 351
medical texts Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 32
meir, rabbi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 554
memra, shekhinah (and voice) related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 68
merkavah Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159, 161
merkavah mysticism, idea of Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159, 161
merkavah mysticism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 260
messiah, covenant-inaugural nan
messiah, daily nan
messiah, red heifer nan
messianism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 554
metaphor Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 32; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 222
metatron, merkavah imagery identified with Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246, 260
metatron, philos logos and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
metatron Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 279; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
metatron identified with Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246, 260
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 290
midrash, as restrained and limited Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 477, 504
midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250
mishnah, and visionary tradition Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 200
modesty Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 279, 280
moses, legislator Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24
moses, mosaic Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32
moses, veil of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 24, 273, 274, 275, 279, 280; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 33; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 199; Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 158; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 219, 477, 504; Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61, 168, 169; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105; Swartz, The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism (2018) 159; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105, 707
multiplicity and multiformity within, representation/imagination Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 27
mysticism, heikhalot traditions and' Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 75
mysticism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 270, 279, 280; Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 200; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 554
myth, fragmentary Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 136
myth, historical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
mythmaking, and language Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 201
mythmaking, centrality of scriptural anchor Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 139
mythmaking, response to scripture Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 139
mythmaking, transmission Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 135, 351
mythos Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 134
nadab Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 32; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 105
name (divine), full name Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
name (divine), profanation of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
narrative (διήγησις) Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
nations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 232
nations of the world, christians Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 196
nations of the world, romans Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 196
naḥash Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 215
noetic union, unio-mystica understood as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
nourishment Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168, 169
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 522
ophites Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 260
otherworld Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 168
papyri Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 171
paradise Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 61
patriarchs Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 391
pharisees Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 222
philo of alexandria Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 250
philos logos, active intellect and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
philos logos, metatron and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 246
piyyuṭ Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 215
polity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 219
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 290