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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.21


הִשָּׁמֶר מִפָּנָיו וּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ אַל־תַּמֵּר בּוֹ כִּי לֹא יִשָּׂא לְפִשְׁעֲכֶם כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

38 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 5.10-5.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 5.12. עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃ 5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃ 5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃ 5.15. שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃ 5.16. חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven. 5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set. 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars. 5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.7-26.8, 32.8-32.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.2, 3.4-3.5, 3.14, 4.31, 8.19, 14.19, 15.3, 23.20, 23.22-23.23, 24.1, 24.18, 28.36-28.38, 32.34, 33.2, 33.15, 33.20, 34.29-34.35, 40.30-40.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל׃ 3.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם׃ 3.4. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי סָר לִרְאוֹת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו אֱלֹהִים מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל־נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת־קֹדֶשׁ הוּא׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 4.31. וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 8.19. וְשַׂמְתִּי פְדֻת בֵּין עַמִּי וּבֵין עַמֶּךָ לְמָחָר יִהְיֶה הָאֹת הַזֶּה׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃ 23.22. כִּי אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ וְעָשִׂיתָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֲדַבֵּר וְאָיַבְתִּי אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְצַרְתִּי אֶת־צֹרְרֶיךָ׃ 23.23. כִּי־יֵלֵךְ מַלְאָכִי לְפָנֶיךָ וֶהֱבִיאֲךָ אֶל־הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי וְהִכְחַדְתִּיו׃ 24.1. וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר׃ 24.1. וְאֶל־מֹשֶׁה אָמַר עֲלֵה אֶל־יְהוָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 28.36. וְעָשִׂיתָ צִּיץ זָהָב טָהוֹר וּפִתַּחְתָּ עָלָיו פִּתּוּחֵי חֹתָם קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃ 28.37. וְשַׂמְתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת וְהָיָה עַל־הַמִּצְנָפֶת אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי־הַמִּצְנֶפֶת יִהְיֶה׃ 28.38. וְהָיָה עַל־מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־עֲוֺן הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל־מַתְּנֹת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם וְהָיָה עַל־מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד לְרָצוֹן לָהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 32.34. וְעַתָּה לֵךְ נְחֵה אֶת־הָעָם אֶל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ הִנֵּה מַלְאָכִי יֵלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ וּבְיוֹם פָּקְדִי וּפָקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם חַטָּאתָם׃ 33.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תוּכַל לִרְאֹת אֶת־פָּנָי כִּי לֹא־יִרְאַנִי הָאָדָם וָחָי׃ 33.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ מַלְאָךְ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 33.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אִם־אֵין פָּנֶיךָ הֹלְכִים אַל־תַּעֲלֵנוּ מִזֶּה׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 40.31. וְרָחֲצוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 3.2. And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." 3.4. And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said: ‘Moses, Moses.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’" 3.5. And He said: ‘Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.’" 3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’" 4.31. And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped." 8.19. And I will put a division between My people and thy people—by to-morrow shall this sign be.’" 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name." 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 23.22. But if thou shalt indeed hearken unto his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries." 23.23. For Mine angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; and I will cut them off." 24.1. And unto Moses He said: ‘Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off;" 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights." 28.36. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it, like the engravings of a signet: HOLY TO THE LORD." 28.37. And thou shalt put it on a thread of blue, and it shall be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be." 28.38. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity committed in the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, even in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD." 32.34. And now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee; behold, Mine angel shall go before thee; nevertheless in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon them.’" 33.2. and I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite—" 33.15. And he said unto Him: ‘If Thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence." 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him." 40.30. And he set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar, and put water therein, wherewith to wash;" 40.31. that Moses and Aaron and his sons might wash their hands and their feet thereat;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 14.22, 16.7-16.13, 22.11, 22.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם הֲרִימֹתִי יָדִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 16.7. וַיִּמְצָאָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עַל־עֵין הַמַּיִם בַּמִּדְבָּר עַל־הָעַיִן בְּדֶרֶךְ שׁוּר׃ 16.8. וַיֹּאמַר הָגָר שִׁפְחַת שָׂרַי אֵי־מִזֶּה בָאת וְאָנָה תֵלֵכִי וַתֹּאמֶר מִפְּנֵי שָׂרַי גְּבִרְתִּי אָנֹכִי בֹּרַחַת׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה שׁוּבִי אֶל־גְּבִרְתֵּךְ וְהִתְעַנִּי תַּחַת יָדֶיהָ׃ 16.11. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל כִּי־שָׁמַע יְהוָה אֶל־עָנְיֵךְ׃ 16.12. וְהוּא יִהְיֶה פֶּרֶא אָדָם יָדוֹ בַכֹּל וְיַד כֹּל בּוֹ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־אֶחָיו יִשְׁכֹּן׃ 16.13. וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם־יְהוָה הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי כִּי אָמְרָה הֲגַם הֲלֹם רָאִיתִי אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי׃ 22.11. וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 22.15. וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם שֵׁנִית מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 14.22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom: ‘I have lifted up my hand unto the LORD, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth," 16.7. And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur." 16.8. And he said: ‘Hagar, Sarai’s handmaid, whence camest thou? and whither goest thou?’ And she said: ‘I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.’" 16.9. And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.’" 16.10. And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘I will greatly multiply thy seed, that it shall not be numbered for multitude." 16.11. And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son; and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because the LORD hath heard thy affliction." 16.12. And he shall be a wild ass of a man: his hand shall be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren.’" 16.13. And she called the name of the LORD that spoke unto her, Thou art a God of seeing; for she said: ‘Have I even here seen Him that seeth Me?’" 22.11. And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said: ‘Abraham, Abraham.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’" 22.15. And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven,"
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. הָבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל־בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה עַד־בְּלִי־דָי׃ 3.1. הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָכִי וּפִנָּה־דֶרֶךְ לְפָנָי וּפִתְאֹם יָבוֹא אֶל־הֵיכָלוֹ הָאָדוֹן אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מְבַקְשִׁים וּמַלְאַךְ הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם חֲפֵצִים הִנֵּה־בָא אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 3.1. Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall clear the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to His temple, and the messenger of the covet, Whom ye delight in, Behold, he cometh, Saith the LORD of hosts."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 20.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.16. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמַע קֹלֵנוּ וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָךְ וַיֹּצִאֵנוּ מִמִּצְרָיִם וְהִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ בְקָדֵשׁ עִיר קְצֵה גְבוּלֶךָ׃ 20.16. and when we cried unto the LORD, He heard our voice, and sent an angel, and brought us forth out of Egypt; and, behold, we are in Kadesh, a city in the uttermost of thy border."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 97.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

97.9. כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה עֶלְיוֹן עַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ מְאֹד נַעֲלֵיתָ עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִים׃ 97.9. For Thou, LORD, art most high above all the earth; Thou art exalted far above all gods."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 63.7-64.12, 63.9, 63.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them."
9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ קֻם לָךְ לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל־פָּנֶיךָ׃ 7.1. וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעַל בַּחֵרֶם וַיִּקַּח עָכָן בֶּן־כַּרְמִי בֶן־זַבְדִּי בֶן־זֶרַח לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה מִן־הַחֵרֶם וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.1. But the children of Israel committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing; for Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the devoted thing; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against the children of Israel."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.26-1.28, 23.21 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 23.21. וַתִּפְקְדִי אֵת זִמַּת נְעוּרָיִךְ בַּעְשׂוֹת מִמִּצְרַיִם דַּדַּיִךְ לְמַעַן שְׁדֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ׃ 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke." 23.21. Thus thou didst call to remembrance the lewdness of thy youth, when they from Egypt bruised thy breasts for the bosom of thy youth."
11. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.29-9.30 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.29. וַתָּעַד בָּהֶם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְהֵמָּה הֵזִידוּ וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לְמִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּבְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ חָטְאוּ־בָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וְחָיָה בָהֶם וַיִּתְּנוּ כָתֵף סוֹרֶרֶת וְעָרְפָּם הִקְשׁוּ וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ׃ 9.29. and didst forewarn them, that Thou mightest bring them back unto Thy law; yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto Thy commandments, but sinned against Thine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them, and presented a stubborn shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear." 9.30. Yet many years didst Thou extend mercy unto them, and didst forewarn them by Thy spirit through Thy prophets; yet would they not give ear; therefore gavest Thou them into the hand of the peoples of the lands."
12. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 7.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.12. וְלִבָּם שָׂמוּ שָׁמִיר מִשְּׁמוֹעַ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה וְאֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּרוּחוֹ בְּיַד הַנְּבִיאִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים וַיְהִי קֶצֶף גָּדוֹל מֵאֵת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 7.12. Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts had sent by His spirit by the hand of the former prophets; therefore came there great wrath from the LORD of hosts."
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q511, 35 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Scroll of Blessings, 4.24-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.1-50.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige. 50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary! 50.7. like the sun shining upon the temple of the Most High,and like the rainbow gleaming in glorious clouds; 50.8. like roses in the days of the first fruits,like lilies by a spring of water,like a green shoot on Lebanon on a summer day; 50.9. like fire and incense in the censer,like a vessel of hammered gold adorned with all kinds of precious stones; 50.11. When he put on his glorious robe and clothed himself with superb perfection and went up to the holy altar,he made the court of the sanctuary glorious. 50.12. And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees 50.13. all the sons of Aaron in their splendor with the Lords offering in their hands,before the whole congregation of Israel. 50.14. Finishing the service at the altars,and arranging the offering to the Most High, the Almighty 50.15. he reached out his hand to the cup and poured a libation of the blood of the grape;he poured it out at the foot of the altar,a pleasing odor to the Most High, the King of all. 50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High. 50.18. And the singers praised him with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody. 50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service. 50.21. and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. and let every one in his turn say the same thing, for it is very becoming to every man who loves God to study such a song as this, but above all this world should sing it. For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine; and he regulates the nature of the heaven, and the periodical revolutions of the sun and moon, and the variations and harmonious movements of the other stars, ruling them according to law and justice; appointing, as their immediate superintendent, his own right reason, his first-born son, who is to receive the charge of this sacred company, as the lieutet of the great king; for it is said somewhere, "Behold, I am he! I will send my messenger before thy face, who shall keep thee in the Road.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 63, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. But the divine word which is above these does not come into any visible appearance, inasmuch as it is not like to any of the things that come under the external senses, but is itself an image of God, the most ancient of all the objects of intellect in the whole world, and that which is placed in the closest proximity to the only truly existing God, without any partition or distance being interposed between them: for it is said, "I will speak unto thee from above the mercyseat, in the midst, between the two Cherubim." So that the word is, as it were, the charioteer of the powers, and he who utters it is the rider, who directs the charioteer how to proceed with a view to the proper guidance of the universe.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.62, 1.68-1.69, 1.86, 1.228-1.229 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.62. Now place is considered in three ways: firstly, as a situation filled by a body; secondly, as a divine word which God himself has filled wholly and entirely with incorporeal powers; for says the scripture, "I have seen the place in which the God of Israel Stood," in which alone he permitted his prophet to perform sacrifice to him, forbidding him to do so in other places. For he is ordered to go up into the place which the Lord God shall choose, and there to sacrifice burnt offerings and sacrifices for salvation, and to bring other victims also without spot. 1.68. These things, then, being defined as a necessary preliminary, when the practiser of virtue comes to Charran, the outward sense, he does not "meet" the place, nor that place either which is filled by a mortal body; for all those who are born of the dust, and who occupy any place whatever, and who do of necessity fill some position, partake of that; nor the third and most excellent kind of place, of which it was scarcely possible for that man to form an idea who made his abode at the well which was entitled the "well of the oath," where the self-taught race, Isaac, abides, who never abandons his faith in God and his invisible comprehension of him, but who keeps to the intermediate divine word, which affords him the best suggestions, and teaches him everything which is suitable to the times. 1.69. For God, not condescending to come down to the external senses, sends his own words or angels for the sake of giving assistance to those who love virtue. But they attend like physicians to the disease of the soul, and apply themselves to heal them, offering sacred recommendations like sacred laws, and inviting men to practice the duties inculcated by them, and, like the trainers of wrestlers, implanting in their pupils strength, and power, and irresistible vigour. 1.86. For the word of God, when it reaches to our earthly constitution, assists and protects those who are akin to virtue, or whose inclinations lead them to virtue; so that it provides them with a complete refuge and salvation, but upon their enemies it sends irremediable overthrow and destruction. 1.228. A very glorious boast for the soul, that God should think fit to appear to and to converse with it. And do not pass by what is here said, but examine it accurately, and see whether there are really two Gods. For it is said: "I am the God who was seen by thee;" not in my place, but in the place of God, as if he meant of some other God. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.169-3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts; 3.170. for there are two kinds of states, the greater and the smaller. And the larger ones are called really cities; but the smaller ones are called houses. And the superintendence and management of these is allotted to the two sexes separately; the men having the government of the greater, which government is called a polity; and the women that of the smaller, which is called oeconomy. 3.171. Therefore let no woman busy herself about those things which are beyond the province of oeconomy, but let her cultivate solitude, and not be seen to be going about like a woman who walks the streets in the sight of other men, except when it is necessary for her to go to the temple, if she has any proper regard for herself; and even then let her not go at noon when the market is full, but after the greater part of the people have returned home; like a well-born woman, a real and true citizen, performing her vows and her sacrifices in tranquillity, so as to avert evils and to receive blessings. 3.172. But when men are abusing one another or fighting, for women to venture to run out under pretence of assisting or defending them, is a blameable action and one of no slight shamelessness, since even, in the times of war and of military expeditions, and of dangers to their whole native land, the law does not choose that they should be enrolled as its defenders; looking at what is becoming, which it thinks desirable to preserve unchangeable at all times and in all places, thinking that this very thing is of itself better than victory, or then freedom, or than any kind of success and prosperity. 3.173. Moreover, if any woman, hearing that her husband is being assaulted, being out of her affection for him carried away by love for her husband, should yield to the feelings which overpower her and rush forth to aid him, still let her not be so audacious as to behave like a man, outrunning the nature of a woman; {16}{#de 25:11.} but even while aiding him let her continue a woman. For it would be a very terrible thing if a woman, being desirous to deliver her husband from an insult, should expose herself to insult, by exhibiting human life as full of shamelessness and liable to great reproaches for her incurable boldness; 3.174. for shall a woman utter abuse in the marketplace and give vent to unlawful language? and if another man uses foul language, will not she stop her ears and run away? But as it is now, some women are advanced to such a pitch of shamelessness as not only, though they are women, to give vent to intemperate language and abuse among a crowd of men, but even to strike men and insult them, with hands practised rather in works of the loom and spinning than in blows and assaults, like competitors in the pancratium or wrestlers. And other things, indeed, may be tolerable, and what any one might easily bear, but that is a shocking thing if a woman were to proceed to such a degree of boldness as to seize hold of the genitals of one of the men quarrelling. 3.175. For let not such a woman be let go on the ground that she appears to have done this action in order to assist her own husband; but let her be impeached and suffer the punishment due to her excessive audacity, so that if she should ever be inclined to commit the same offence again she may not have an opportunity of doing so; and other women, also, who might be inclined to be precipitate, may be taught by fear to be moderate and to restrain themselves. And let the punishment be the cutting off of the hand which has touched what it ought not to have touched. 3.176. And it is fitting to praise those who have been the judges and managers of the gymnastic games, who have kept women from the spectacle, in order that they might not be thrown among naked men and so mar the approved coinage of their modesty, neglecting the ordices of nature, which she has appointed for each section of our race; for neither is it right for men to mix with women when they have laid aside their garments, but each of the sexes ought to avoid the sight of the other when they are naked, in accordance with the promptings of nature. 3.177. Well, then, of those things of which we are to abstain from the sight, are not the hands much more to be blamed for the touch? For the eyes, being wholly at freedom, are nevertheless often constrained so as to see things which they do not wish to see; but the hands are ranked among those parts which are completely under subjection, and obey our commands, and are subservient to us.XXXII. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.66 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.66. And in the middle of the flame there was seen a certain very beautiful form, not resembling any visible thing, a most Godlike image, emitting a light more brilliant than fire, which any one might have imagined to be the image of the living God. But let it be called an angel, because it merely related (dieµngelleto
21. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

143. And know that this way is wisdom. For the mind being guided by wisdom, while the road is straight and level and easy, proceeds along it to the end; and the end of this road is the knowledge and understanding of God. But every companion of the flesh hates and repudiates, and endeavours to corrupt this way; for there is no one thing so much at variance with another, as knowledge is at variance with the pleasure of the flesh. Accordingly, the earthly Edom is always fighting with those who wish to proceed by this road
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours:
24. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.22. Flee from youthful lusts; but pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart.
26. New Testament, Acts, 2.17-2.21, 2.38, 5.1-5.3, 7.30, 9.14, 22.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.21. It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 5.1. But a certain man named Aias, with Sapphira, his wife, sold a possession 5.2. and kept back part of the price, his wife also being aware of it, and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostles' feet. 5.3. But Peter said, "Aias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit, and to keep back part of the price of the land? 7.30. When forty years were fulfilled, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai , in a flame of fire in a bush. 9.14. Here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name. 22.16. Now why do you wait? Arise, be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on the name of the Lord.'
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.30. Don't grieve the Holy Spirit of God, in whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.
28. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have.
29. New Testament, Philippians, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name;
30. New Testament, Romans, 10.9-10.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.
31. New Testament, Luke, 12.8-12.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.8. I tell you, everyone who confesses me before men, him will the Son of Man also confess before the angels of God; 12.9. but he who denies me in the presence of men will be denied in the presence of the angels of God. 12.10. Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but those who blaspheme against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 12.12. for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that same hour what you must say.
32. New Testament, Mark, 3.28-3.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 12.22, 12.28, 12.31-12.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.22. Then one possessed by a demon, blind and mute, was brought to him and he healed him, so that the blind and mute man both spoke and saw. 12.28. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out demons, then the Kingdom of God has come upon you. 12.31. Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 12.32. Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come.
34. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3b. דמשכא להו תקופת תמוז עד חגא והוי להו צערא והאמר רבא מצטער פטור מן הסוכה נהי דפטור בעוטי מי מבעטי,מיד הקב"ה יושב ומשחק עליהן שנאמר (תהלים ב, ד) יושב בשמים ישחק וגו' א"ר יצחק אין שחוק לפני הקב"ה אלא אותו היום בלבד,איכא דמתני להא דרבי יצחק אהא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר לעתיד לבא באין עובדי כוכבים ומתגיירין ומי מקבלינן מינייהו והתניא אין מקבלין גרים לימות המשיח כיוצא בו לא קבלו גרים לא בימי דוד ולא בימי שלמה,אלא שנעשו גרים גרורים ומניחין תפילין בראשיהן תפילין בזרועותיהם ציצית בבגדיהם מזוזה בפתחיהם,כיון שרואין מלחמת גוג ומגוג אומר להן על מה באתם אומרים לו על ה' ועל משיחו שנאמר (תהלים ב, א) למה רגשו גוים ולאומים יהגו ריק [וגו'],וכל אחד מנתק מצותו והולך שנאמר (תהלים ב, ג) ננתקה את מוסרותימו [וגו] והקב"ה יושב ומשחק שנאמר יושב בשמים ישחק וגו' א"ר יצחק אין לו להקב"ה שחוק אלא אותו היום בלבד,איני והא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שלש הראשונות הקב"ה יושב ועוסק בתורה שניות יושב ודן את כל העולם כולו כיון שרואה שנתחייב עולם כלייה עומד מכסא הדין ויושב על כסא רחמים,שלישיות יושב וזן את כל העולם כולו מקרני ראמים עד ביצי כנים רביעיות יושב ומשחק עם לויתן שנאמר (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עם בריותיו משחק ועל בריותיו אינו משחק אלא אותו היום בלבד,א"ל רב אחא לרב נחמן בר יצחק מיום שחרב בית המקדש אין שחוק להקב"ה ומנלן דליכא שחוק אילימא מדכתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא ה' אלהים צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה וגו' דלמא ההוא יומא ותו לא,אלא דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ה) אם אשכחך ירושלם תשכח ימיני תדבק לשוני לחכי אם לא אזכרכי דלמא שכחה הוא דליכא אבל שחוק מיהא איכא אלא מהא (ישעיהו מב, יד) החשיתי מעולם אחריש אתאפק וגו',ברביעיות מאי עביד יושב ומלמד תינוקות של בית רבן תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ט) את מי יורה דעה ואת מי יבין שמועה גמולי מחלב עתיקי משדים למי יורה דעה ולמי יבין שמועה לגמולי מחלב ולעתיקי משדים,ומעיקרא מאן הוה מיגמר להו איבעית אימא מיטטרון ואיבעית אימא הא והא עביד,ובליליא מאי עביד איבעית אימא מעין יממא ואיבעית אימא רוכב על כרוב קל שלו ושט בשמונה עשר אלף עולמות שנאמר (תהלים סח, יח) רכב אלהים רבותים אלפי שנאן אל תקרי שנאן אלא שאינן ואיבעית אימא יושב ושומע שירה מפי חיות שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירו עמי,אמר רבי לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין לו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושורש רתמים לחמם אמר ריש לקיש כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירו עמי מה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום דבלילה שירו עמי,איכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעולם הזה הדומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד בעולם הבא הדומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מאי דכתיב (חבקוק א, יד) ותעשה אדם כדגי הים כרמש לא מושל בו למה נמשלו בני אדם כדגי הים לומר לך מה דגים שבים כיון שעולין ליבשה מיד מתים אף בני אדם כיון שפורשין מדברי תורה ומן המצות מיד מתים דבר אחר מה דגים שבים כיון שקדרה עליהם חמה מיד מתים כך בני אדם כיון שקדרה עליהם חמה מיד מתים,איבעית אימא בעולם הזה ואיבעית אימא לעולם הבא איבעית אימא בעולם הזה כדר' חנינא דא"ר חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מצנים פחים שנאמר (משלי כב, ה) צנים פחים בדרך עקש שומר נפשו ירחק מהם,ואיבעית אימא לעולם הבא כדרשב"ל דאמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אין גיהנם לעתיד לבא אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא מוציא חמה מנרתיקה ומקדיר רשעים נידונין בה וצדיקים מתרפאין בה רשעים נידונין 3b. bwhen the season of Tammuz extends until the festivalof iSukkot /i, bandin such years sitting in the isukka bcauses them suffering.The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rava saythat bone who suffersin the isukka bis exempt fromperforming bthemitzva of isukka /i,and under these circumstances even a Jew is permitted to leave the isukka /i? If so, why are the gentiles criticized for leaving? The Gemara answers: bGranted that one is exemptfrom performing the mitzva and is permitted to leave his isukka /i, but bshould one kickit?,The Gemara resumes its narration: bImmediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport ofthose gentiles, i.e., He laughs at them, bas it is stated: “He that sits in heaven makes sport,the Lord has them in derision” (Psalms 2:4). With regard to this verse, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone. /b, bThere arethose bwho teach that which Rabbi Yitzḥaksubsequently said bwith regard to thismatter, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: In the future, the nations of the worldwill bcome and convert.The Gemara asks: bAnd do we accept themas converts at that time? bBut isn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i: The court bdoes not accept converts in the days of the Messiah; similarly, they did not accept converts either in the days of David or in the days of Solomon,due to a concern that these people wanted to convert for ulterior motives, because the Jewish people were mighty and respected?, bRather,Rabbi Yosei means bthat they become convertswho have battachedthemselves to the Jewish people, band they don phylacteries on their heads, phylacteries on their arms,place britual fringes on their garments,and ba imezuzain their doorways. /b, bWhenthese converts bsee the war of Gog and Magog,every convert of this sort will bsay toGog and Magog: bFor whatpurpose bdid you come? Theywill bsay to him:We came to fight bagainst the Lord and against His Messiah, as it is stated: “Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain.The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Messiah” (Psalms 2:1–2)., bAndthen bevery oneof these converts will btear loose hissign of performance of ba mitzva and leave, as it is stated: “Let us tear their bands asunder,and cast away their cords from us” (Psalms 2:3). bAnd the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport,i.e., laughs or rejoices, bas it is stated: “He that sits in heaven makes sport,the Lord has them in derision” (Psalms 2:4). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is there is no other making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He? bBut doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: There are twelve hoursin bthe day.During bthe first three, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and engages in Torahstudy. During the bsecondthree hours, bHe sits and judges the entire world. Once He sees that the world has rendered itself liable to destruction, He arises from the throne of judgment and sits on the throne of mercy,and the world is not destroyed.,During the bthirdset of three hours, the Holy One, Blessed be He, bsits and sustains the entire world, from the horns of wild oxen to the eggs of lice.During the bfourththree hours, bHe sits and makes sport with the leviathan, as it is stated: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26). Evidently, God makes sport every day, not only on that one day. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bHe makes sport with His creations,just as He sports with the leviathan; bHe does not make sport of His creations but on that day alone. /b, bRav Aḥa said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: From the day the Temple was destroyed, there is nolonger any bmaking sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He. And from where do wederive bthat there is no making sport? If we saythat it is bfromthat bwhich is written: “And in that day did the Lord, the God of hosts, call to weeping, and to lamentation, and to baldnessand to girding with sackcloth” (Isaiah 22:12), that is inconclusive: bPerhaps that dayalone was called for weeping and lamentation, band no additionaldays., bRather,you might suggest that the source is bthat it is written: “If I forget you, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I do not remember you”(Psalms 137:5–6). This is also inconclusive, as bperhaps there is no forgettingof Jerusalem for God, bbut in any event there isstill bmaking sport. Rather,it is derived bfrom thisverse: b“I have long time held My peace, I have been still, and refrained Myself;now will I cry like a travailing woman, gasping and panting at once” (Isaiah 42:14).,The Gemara asks: If God no longer makes sport, bwhat does Henow bdo during the fourththree-hour period of the day? The Gemara answers: bHe sits and teaches Torah to schoolchildren, as it is stated: “Whom shall one teach knowledge? And whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk, them that are drawn from the breasts”(Isaiah 28:9). The verse is interpreted in the following manner: bTo whomdoes God bteach knowledge, and to whom does He make to understand the message? Tothose bwho arejust bweaned from the milk and tothose bwho are drawn from the breasts,i.e., children only recently weaned from nursing.,The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the destruction of the Temple, bwho would teachthe schoolchildren? The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat the angel bMetatronwould teach them, band if you wish, sayinstead that bHe would doboth bthis,sport with the leviathan, band that,teach the schoolchildren; whereas after the destruction of the Temple in the fourth period of the day He only teaches the schoolchildren.,The Gemara asks: bAnd duringthe twelve hours of bthe night, what doesGod bdo?The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat the night is bsimilar to the day,i.e., God performs the same activities as in the day. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that He brides on his light cherub and flies in eighteen thousand worlds, as it is stated: “The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even [ ishi /i] thousands”(Psalms 68:18). bDo not readit as beven [ ishi /i], ratherread it as: bThat which are not [ ishe’ei /i].Since the minimum of thousands is two thousand, the phrase: That which are not thousands, indicates that two thousand are not present, i.e., the chariots of God are twenty thousand minus two thousand, which means that God rides in eighteen thousand worlds. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that God bsits and listens to the songs from the mouths of theangelic bcreatures, as it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His loving-kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me”(Psalms 42:9).,§ bRabbi Levi says: Anyone who interruptshis study bof words of Torah to occupyhimself bwith mundane matterswill be bfed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck salt-wort from wormwood, and the roots of the broom are their food”(Job 30:4). bReish Lakish says:With regard to bany-one who occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me”(Psalms 42:9). The verse is understood as follows: bWhat is the reasonthat bby day, the Lord will command His kindnessto extend over him? It is bdue tothe fact bthat in the night His song is with me,i.e., he occupies himself at night with Torah, which is referred to as a song., bThere arethose bwho saythat this is what bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who occupieshimself bwith Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,and in the night His song shall be with me.”,The Gemara continues discussing the importance of Torah study. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And makes people as the fish of the sea, as the creeping things, that have no ruler over them”(Habakkuk 1:14)? bWhy are people compared to the fish of the sea?This serves bto say to you: Just aswith regard to bthe fish of the sea, once they arise onto dry land they die immediately; so too,with regard to bpeople, once they separatethemselves bfromstudying bwords of Torah andperforming bthe mitzvot, they die immediately. Alternatively, just aswith regard to the bfish of the sea, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately, so toowith regard to bpeople, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bIf you wish, saythat this applies bin this world, and if you wish, sayinstead that it applies bto the World-to-Come. If you wish, saythat it applies bin this world, in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Ḥanina. As Rabbi Ḥanina says: Alloccurrences that befall man bare in the hands of Heaven except for coldsand bobstacles [ ipaḥim /i],from which one is able to protect himself, basit bis stated: “Colds and snares are on the path of the crooked; he who guards his soul shall keep far from them”(Proverbs 22:5). This indicates that cold and, conversely, heat, are forms of harm from which one must protect himself, which teaches that being exposed to excessive heat can cause death., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this is referring bto the World-to-Come, in accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: There is no Gehenna in the World-to-Come. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He,will bremove the sun from its sheath [ iminnarteikah /i],where it is situated during these times, band heats [ iumakdir /i]that world with it. bThe wicked will be punished by itand consumed by the heat, bbut the righteous will be healed by it. The wicked will be punished /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
36. Anon., 3 Enoch, 12.5, 13.1

37. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 10.3, 11.1-11.3

38. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 341



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 70
achan Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
active intellect, philos logos related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
acts of the apostles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
alexandria Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
ananias Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
angel, angelic, angelic transformation, angelomorphism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 59
angel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 72, 81, 84
angel of the lord Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 148
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 523, 526, 578
aphrahat Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 148
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
art, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
art, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
ascent Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
baptism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 81
beloved (title for christ) Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
bible Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 81
chariot Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
christian, literature/authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
christian/s, sects Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 59
cohen, m.s. Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 526
commandment Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
community, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523, 578
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 70, 72
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
divine essence, tetragrammaton identified with Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 279
divine identity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 72, 81, 84
divine name Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 72, 81, 84
dream, vision Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
ecstasis, ecstasy, ecstatic, ex stasis Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
elohim Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 279
emanation Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 279
eschatology Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
ethiopian Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 59
exodus, the Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
face Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
father Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 84
gender Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 279
glory, kavod related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 70, 81; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
gnosticism, gnosis Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
gnosticism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 133
god, finger of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
hayyot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521
heaven Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 70, 72
hebrew Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
heresy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 526
high priest Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 81
hypostasis, metatron as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
identity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
image of god Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 72, 81
image xvi Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
immortality Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
jacob Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521
jesus, metatron and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
jesus christ, in synoptics Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
jew/jewish, leaders Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
jew/jewish, literature/ authors' "151.0_230.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
kavod, glory related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
kavod Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
kelim (hayyot, ofnanim, kerubim, serafim) Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
law, laws Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
light, illumination Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
logos, theology of Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
logos Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 81
maase merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
magharians Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
magic, magical, magician, magico-mystical Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
mark Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
markos Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
matthew Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 578
messianism Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
metatron, hypostasis Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
metatron, jesus and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
metatron, merkavah imagery identified with Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
metatron, sar torah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
metatron, tetragrammaton (lesser yhwh) as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
metatron Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 70, 72, 84; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 523, 526
metatron identified with Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
moses Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 84; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 523, 526, 578; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
mysticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
peter Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
philos logos, active intellect and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 215
philosophy Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
platonism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
prayer Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
priest, priesthood Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 81
priesthood, priests, angelic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
priestly messiah Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 578
prophecy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
qumran, angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
qumran, liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
qumran, priesthood Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
qumran, songs Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
qumran Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 148
rabbis Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
rainbow Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
ritual Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 84
sapphira Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
sar torah Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
satan Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
seals Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 523
second temple Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 81
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521
sectarianism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
seeing Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
septuagint Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 84
shekhina, ritual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
shiur koma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 523, 526, 578
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
songs of the sabbath sacrifice Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521
spells, incantations Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
spirit, and translation issues' Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
spirit, modes of presence, opposition to Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
spirit Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
spiritual Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
stephen Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 230
synagogue, wilderness tradition Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
tetragrammaton, the (divine name), divine essence related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 279
tetragrammaton, the (divine name), metatron and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262
tetragrammaton, the (divine name), ḥokhmah and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 279
tetragrammaton Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 84
theurgy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 578
throne Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 262; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 70
trance Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
trinity, holy Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 59
two powers in heaven Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 133
veil, veiled, unveiled Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 26
vision Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
wilderness Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 40
worship Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 526; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 59
yahoel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 72, 84
yahweh, yhwh Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 62, 70, 72, 81, 84
youth, description of angel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 521, 523, 526, 578