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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 22.18


כָּל־שֹׁכֵב עִם־בְּהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָת׃Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 18.9-18.14, 27.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.9. כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃ 18.11. וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃ 18.12. כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 18.13. תָּמִים תִּהְיֶה עִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 18.14. כִּי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתָם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִים יִשְׁמָעוּ וְאַתָּה לֹא כֵן נָתַן לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.21. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 18.9. When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations." 18.10. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer," 18.11. or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer." 18.12. For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee." 18.13. Thou shalt be whole-hearted with the LORD thy God." 18.14. For these nations, that thou art to dispossess, hearken unto soothsayers, and unto diviners; but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do." 27.21. Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say: Amen."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.10-7.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 7.12. וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אִישׁ מַטֵּהוּ וַיִּהְיוּ לְתַנִּינִם וַיִּבְלַע מַטֵּה־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֹּתָם׃ 7.13. וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 7.10. And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the LORD had commanded; and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent." 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 7.12. For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods." 7.13. And Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 41.1-41.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

41.1. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים וּפַרְעֹה חֹלֵם וְהִנֵּה עֹמֵד עַל־הַיְאֹר׃ 41.1. פַּרְעֹה קָצַף עַל־עֲבָדָיו וַיִּתֵּן אֹתִי בְּמִשְׁמַר בֵּית שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים אֹתִי וְאֵת שַׂר הָאֹפִים׃ 41.2. וַתֹּאכַלְנָה הַפָּרוֹת הָרַקּוֹת וְהָרָעוֹת אֵת שֶׁבַע הַפָּרוֹת הָרִאשֹׁנוֹת הַבְּרִיאֹת׃ 41.2. וְהִנֵּה מִן־הַיְאֹר עֹלֹת שֶׁבַע פָּרוֹת יְפוֹת מַרְאֶה וּבְרִיאֹת בָּשָׂר וַתִּרְעֶינָה בָּאָחוּ׃ 41.3. וְקָמוּ שֶׁבַע שְׁנֵי רָעָב אַחֲרֵיהֶן וְנִשְׁכַּח כָּל־הַשָּׂבָע בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְכִלָּה הָרָעָב אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 41.3. וְהִנֵּה שֶׁבַע פָּרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת עֹלוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶן מִן־הַיְאֹר רָעוֹת מַרְאֶה וְדַקּוֹת בָּשָׂר וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה אֵצֶל הַפָּרוֹת עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃ 41.4. וַתֹּאכַלְנָה הַפָּרוֹת רָעוֹת הַמַּרְאֶה וְדַקֹּת הַבָּשָׂר אֵת שֶׁבַע הַפָּרוֹת יְפֹת הַמַּרְאֶה וְהַבְּרִיאֹת וַיִּיקַץ פַּרְעֹה׃ 41.4. אַתָּה תִּהְיֶה עַל־בֵּיתִי וְעַל־פִּיךָ יִשַּׁק כָּל־עַמִּי רַק הַכִּסֵּא אֶגְדַּל מִמֶּךָּ׃ 41.5. וּלְיוֹסֵף יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים בְּטֶרֶם תָּבוֹא שְׁנַת הָרָעָב אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה־לּוֹ אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אוֹן׃ 41.5. וַיִּישָׁן וַיַּחֲלֹם שֵׁנִית וְהִנֵּה שֶׁבַע שִׁבֳּלִים עֹלוֹת בְּקָנֶה אֶחָד בְּרִיאוֹת וְטֹבוֹת׃ 41.6. וְהִנֵּה שֶׁבַע שִׁבֳּלִים דַּקּוֹת וּשְׁדוּפֹת קָדִים צֹמְחוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶן׃ 41.7. וַתִּבְלַעְנָה הַשִּׁבֳּלִים הַדַּקּוֹת אֵת שֶׁבַע הַשִּׁבֳּלִים הַבְּרִיאוֹת וְהַמְּלֵאוֹת וַיִּיקַץ פַּרְעֹה וְהִנֵּה חֲלוֹם׃ 41.8. וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר וַתִּפָּעֶם רוּחוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־כָּל־חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם וְאֶת־כָּל־חֲכָמֶיהָ וַיְסַפֵּר פַּרְעֹה לָהֶם אֶת־חֲלֹמוֹ וְאֵין־פּוֹתֵר אוֹתָם לְפַרְעֹה׃ 41.9. וַיְדַבֵּר שַׂר הַמַּשְׁקִים אֶת־פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר אֶת־חֲטָאַי אֲנִי מַזְכִּיר הַיּוֹם׃ 41.11. וַנַּחַלְמָה חֲלוֹם בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד אֲנִי וָהוּא אִישׁ כְּפִתְרוֹן חֲלֹמוֹ חָלָמְנוּ׃ 41.12. וְשָׁם אִתָּנוּ נַעַר עִבְרִי עֶבֶד לְשַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים וַנְּסַפֶּר־לוֹ וַיִּפְתָּר־לָנוּ אֶת־חֲלֹמֹתֵינוּ אִישׁ כַּחֲלֹמוֹ פָּתָר׃ 41.13. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר פָּתַר־לָנוּ כֵּן הָיָה אֹתִי הֵשִׁיב עַל־כַּנִּי וְאֹתוֹ תָלָה׃ 41.14. וַיִּשְׁלַח פַּרְעֹה וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־יוֹסֵף וַיְרִיצֻהוּ מִן־הַבּוֹר וַיְגַלַּח וַיְחַלֵּף שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פַּרְעֹה׃ 41.15. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף חֲלוֹם חָלַמְתִּי וּפֹתֵר אֵין אֹתוֹ וַאֲנִי שָׁמַעְתִּי עָלֶיךָ לֵאמֹר תִּשְׁמַע חֲלוֹם לִפְתֹּר אֹתוֹ׃ 41.16. וַיַּעַן יוֹסֵף אֶת־פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר בִּלְעָדָי אֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶה אֶת־שְׁלוֹם פַּרְעֹה׃ 41.17. וַיְדַבֵּר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף בַּחֲלֹמִי הִנְנִי עֹמֵד עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃ 41.18. וְהִנֵּה מִן־הַיְאֹר עֹלֹת שֶׁבַע פָּרוֹת בְּרִיאוֹת בָּשָׂר וִיפֹת תֹּאַר וַתִּרְעֶינָה בָּאָחוּ׃ 41.19. וְהִנֵּה שֶׁבַע־פָּרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת עֹלוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶן דַּלּוֹת וְרָעוֹת תֹּאַר מְאֹד וְרַקּוֹת בָּשָׂר לֹא־רָאִיתִי כָהֵנָּה בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לָרֹעַ׃ 41.21. וַתָּבֹאנָה אֶל־קִרְבֶּנָה וְלֹא נוֹדַע כִּי־בָאוּ אֶל־קִרְבֶּנָה וּמַרְאֵיהֶן רַע כַּאֲשֶׁר בַּתְּחִלָּה וָאִיקָץ׃ 41.22. וָאֵרֶא בַּחֲלֹמִי וְהִנֵּה שֶׁבַע שִׁבֳּלִים עֹלֹת בְּקָנֶה אֶחָד מְלֵאֹת וְטֹבוֹת׃ 41.23. וְהִנֵּה שֶׁבַע שִׁבֳּלִים צְנֻמוֹת דַּקּוֹת שְׁדֻפוֹת קָדִים צֹמְחוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 41.24. וַתִּבְלַעְןָ הָשִׁבֳּלִים הַדַּקֹּת אֵת שֶׁבַע הַשִׁבֳּלִים הַטֹּבוֹת וָאֹמַר אֶל־הַחַרְטֻמִּים וְאֵין מַגִּיד לִי׃ 41.25. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹסֵף אֶל־פַּרְעֹה חֲלוֹם פַּרְעֹה אֶחָד הוּא אֵת אֲשֶׁר הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׂה הִגִּיד לְפַרְעֹה׃ 41.26. שֶׁבַע פָּרֹת הַטֹּבֹת שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים הֵנָּה וְשֶׁבַע הַשִּׁבֳּלִים הַטֹּבֹת שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים הֵנָּה חֲלוֹם אֶחָד הוּא׃ 41.27. וְשֶׁבַע הַפָּרוֹת הָרַקּוֹת וְהָרָעֹת הָעֹלֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶן שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים הֵנָּה וְשֶׁבַע הַשִׁבֳּלִים הָרֵקוֹת שְׁדֻפוֹת הַקָּדִים יִהְיוּ שֶׁבַע שְׁנֵי רָעָב׃ 41.28. הוּא הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶל־פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׂה הֶרְאָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה׃ 41.29. הִנֵּה שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בָּאוֹת שָׂבָע גָּדוֹל בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.31. וְלֹא־יִוָּדַע הַשָּׂבָע בָּאָרֶץ מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב הַהוּא אַחֲרֵי־כֵן כִּי־כָבֵד הוּא מְאֹד׃ 41.32. וְעַל הִשָּׁנוֹת הַחֲלוֹם אֶל־פַּרְעֹה פַּעֲמָיִם כִּי־נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר מֵעִם הָאֱלֹהִים וּמְמַהֵר הָאֱלֹהִים לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 41.33. וְעַתָּה יֵרֶא פַרְעֹה אִישׁ נָבוֹן וְחָכָם וִישִׁיתֵהוּ עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.34. יַעֲשֶׂה פַרְעֹה וְיַפְקֵד פְּקִדִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְחִמֵּשׁ אֶת־אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּשֶׁבַע שְׁנֵי הַשָּׂבָע׃ 41.35. וְיִקְבְּצוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֹכֶל הַשָּׁנִים הַטֹּבֹת הַבָּאֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְיִצְבְּרוּ־בָר תַּחַת יַד־פַּרְעֹה אֹכֶל בֶּעָרִים וְשָׁמָרוּ׃ 41.36. וְהָיָה הָאֹכֶל לְפִקָּדוֹן לָאָרֶץ לְשֶׁבַע שְׁנֵי הָרָעָב אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶיןָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְלֹא־תִכָּרֵת הָאָרֶץ בָּרָעָב׃ 41.37. וַיִּיטַב הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי פַרְעֹה וּבְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲבָדָיו׃ 41.38. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בּוֹ׃ 41.39. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף אַחֲרֵי הוֹדִיעַ אֱלֹהִים אוֹתְךָ אֶת־כָּל־זֹאת אֵין־נָבוֹן וְחָכָם כָּמוֹךָ׃ 41.41. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף רְאֵה נָתַתִּי אֹתְךָ עַל כָּל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.42. וַיָּסַר פַּרְעֹה אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ מֵעַל יָדוֹ וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ עַל־יַד יוֹסֵף וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ בִּגְדֵי־שֵׁשׁ וַיָּשֶׂם רְבִד הַזָּהָב עַל־צַוָּארוֹ׃ 41.43. וַיַּרְכֵּב אֹתוֹ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וַיִּקְרְאוּ לְפָנָיו אַבְרֵךְ וְנָתוֹן אֹתוֹ עַל כָּל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.44. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף אֲנִי פַרְעֹה וּבִלְעָדֶיךָ לֹא־יָרִים אִישׁ אֶת־יָדוֹ וְאֶת־רַגְלוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.45. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה שֵׁם־יוֹסֵף צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אֹן לְאִשָּׁה וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.1. And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed: and, behold, he stood by the river." 41.2. And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine, well-favoured and fat-fleshed; and they fed in the reed-grass." 41.3. And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured and lean-fleshed; and stood by the other kine upon the brink of the river." 41.4. And the ill-favoured and lean-fleshed kine did eat up the seven well-favoured and fat kine. So Pharaoh awoke." 41.5. And he slept and dreamed a second time: and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good." 41.6. And, behold, seven ears, thin and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them." 41.7. And the thin ears swallowed up the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream." 41.8. And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof; and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh." 41.9. Then spoke the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying: ‘I make mention of my faults this day:" 41.10. Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in the ward of the house of the captain of the guard, me and the chief baker." 41.11. And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he; we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream." 41.12. And there was with us there a young man, a Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard; and we told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each man according to his dream he did interpret." 41.13. And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was: I was restored unto mine office, and he was hanged.’" 41.14. Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon. And he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh." 41.15. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph: ‘I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it; and I have heard say of thee, that when thou hearest a dream thou canst interpret it.’" 41.16. And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying: ‘It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace.’" 41.17. And Pharaoh spoke unto Joseph: ‘In my dream, behold, I stood upon the brink of the river." 41.18. And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine, fat-fleshed and well-favoured; and they fed in the reedgrass." 41.19. And, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very ill-favoured and lean-fleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt for badness." 41.20. And the lean and ill-favoured kine did eat up the first seven fat kine." 41.21. And when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them; but they were still ill-favoured as at the beginning. So I awoke." 41.22. And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears came up upon one stalk, full and good." 41.23. And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them." 41.24. And the thin ears swallowed up the seven good ears. And I told it unto the magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me.’" 41.25. And Joseph said unto Pharaoh: ‘The dream of Pharaoh is one; what God is about to do He hath declared unto Pharaoh." 41.26. The seven good kine are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is one." 41.27. And the seven lean and ill-favoured kine that came up after them are seven years, and also the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind; they shall be seven years of famine." 41.28. That is the thing which I spoke unto Pharaoh: what God is about to do He hath shown unto Pharaoh." 41.29. Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt." 41.30. And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land;" 41.31. and the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine which followeth; for it shall be very grievous." 41.32. And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice, it is because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass." 41.33. Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt." 41.34. Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint overseers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven years of plenty." 41.35. And let them gather all the food of these good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh for food in the cities, and let them keep it." 41.36. And the food shall be for a store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land perish not through the famine.’" 41.37. And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants." 41.38. And Pharaoh said unto his servants: ‘Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom the spirit of God is?’" 41.39. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph: ‘Forasmuch as God hath shown thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou." 41.40. Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled; only in the throne will I be greater than thou.’" 41.41. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph: ‘See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt.’" 41.42. And Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph’s hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck." 41.43. And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him: ‘Abrech’; and he set him over all the land of Egypt." 41.44. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph: ‘I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.’" 41.45. And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.—"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.23, 19.19, 20.15-20.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.23. וּבְכָל־בְּהֵמָה לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ וְאִשָּׁה לֹא־תַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי בְהֵמָה לְרִבְעָהּ תֶּבֶל הוּא׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 20.15. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתּוֹ בִּבְהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָת וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה תַּהֲרֹגוּ׃ 20.16. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרַב אֶל־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה לְרִבְעָה אֹתָהּ וְהָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה מוֹת יוּמָתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם׃ 18.23. And thou shalt not lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith; neither shall any woman stand before a beast, to lie down thereto; it is perversion." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 20.15. And if a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death; and ye shall slay the beast." 20.16. And if a woman approach unto any beast, and lie down thereto, thou shalt kill the woman, and the beast: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them."
5. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 3.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. מֵרֹב זְנוּנֵי זוֹנָה טוֹבַת חֵן בַּעֲלַת כְּשָׁפִים הַמֹּכֶרֶת גּוֹיִם בִּזְנוּנֶיהָ וּמִשְׁפָּחוֹת בִּכְשָׁפֶיהָ׃ 3.4. Because of the multitude of the harlotries of the well-favoured harlot, The mistress of witchcrafts, That selleth nations through her harlotries, And families through her witchcrafts.
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 44.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.25. מֵפֵר אֹתוֹת בַּדִּים וְקֹסְמִים יְהוֹלֵל מֵשִׁיב חֲכָמִים אָחוֹר וְדַעְתָּם יְשַׂכֵּל׃ 44.25. That frustrateth the tokens of the imposters, And maketh diviners mad; That turneth wise men backward, And maketh their knowledge foolish;"
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.9, 1.56, 3.43, 3.45-3.47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. First of all, it is a symbol of the excision of the pleasures which delude the mind; for since, of all the delights which pleasure can afford, the association of man with woman is the most exquisite, it seemed good to the lawgivers to mutilate the organ which ministers to such connections; by which rite they signified figuratively the excision of all superfluous and excessive pleasure, not, indeed, of one only, but of all others whatever, though that one which is the most imperious of all. 1.56. There is, in the history of the law, a record of one man who ventured on this exploit of noble daring, for when he saw some men connecting themselves with foreign women, and by reason of their allurements neglecting all their national customs and laws, and practising fabulous ceremonies, he was seized with a sudden enthusiasm in the presence of the whole multitude; and driving away all those on each side who were collected to see the sight, he slew one man who was so daring as to put himself forward as the leader and chief of this transgression of the law (for the impious deed had been already displayed and made a public exhibition of 3.43. But some persons, imitating the sensual indulgences of the Sybarites and of other nations more licentious still, have in the first place devoted themselves to gluttony and wine-bibbing, and other pleasures affecting the belly and the parts adjacent to the belly, and then when fully sated have behaved with such extraordinary insolence (and it is natural for satiety to produce insolence 3.45. And it is very likely that there may be other Pasipha's also, with passions equally unbridled, and that not women only, but men likewise may fall madly in love with animals, from whom, perhaps, indescribable monsters may be born, being memorials of the excessive pollution of men; owing to which, perhaps, those unnatural creations of unprecedented and fabulous monsters will exist, such as hippocentaurs and chimaeras, and other similar animals. 3.46. But so great are the precautions which are taken against them in the holy laws of God, that in order to prevent the possibility of men ever desiring any unlawful connection, it is expressly commanded that even animals of different kinds shall not be put together. And no Jewish shepherd will endeavour to cross a sheep with a he-goat, or a ram with a she-goat, or a cow with a horse; and if he does, he must pay the penalty as breaking a solemn law of nature who is desirous to keep the original kinds of animals free from all spurious admixture. 3.47. And some persons prefer mules to every other kind of animal for the yoke, since their bodies are very compact, and are very strong and powerful; and accordingly, in the pastures and stalls where they keep their horses, they also keep asses of an extraordinary size, which they call celones, in order that they may breed with the mares; and then the mares produce a mixed animal, half horse and half ass, which, since Moses knew that its production was wholly contrary to nature, he forbade the existence of with all his might by a general injunction, that that no union or combination between different kinds of animals should on any account be permitted.
8. Mishnah, Avot, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. He used to say: The more flesh, the more worms; The more property, the more anxiety; The more wives, the more witchcraft; The more female slaves, the more lewdness; The more slaves, the more robbery; [But] the more Torah, the more life; The more sitting [in the company of scholars], the more wisdom; The more counsel, the more understanding; The more charity, the more peace. If one acquires a good name, he has acquired something for himself; If one acquires for himself knowledge of torah, he has acquired life in the world to come."
9. New Testament, Acts, 13.6-13.12, 19.13-19.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.6. When they had gone through the island to Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar Jesus 13.7. who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of understanding. The same summoned Barnabas and Saul, and sought to hear the word of God. 13.8. But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn aside the proconsul from the faith. 13.9. But Saul, who is also called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, fastened his eyes on him 13.10. and said, "Full of all deceit and all cunning, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord? 13.11. Now, behold, the hand of the Lord is on you, and you will be blind, not seeing the sun for a season!"Immediately there fell on him a mist and darkness. He went around seeking someone to lead him by the hand. 13.12. Then the proconsul, when he saw what was done, believed, being astonished at the teaching of the Lord. 19.13. But some of the itinerant Jews, exorcists, took on themselves to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, "We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preaches. 19.14. There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this. 19.15. The evil spirit answered, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who are you? 19.16. The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overpowered them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 19.17. This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived at Ephesus. Fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. 19.18. Many also of those who had believed came, confessing, and declaring their deeds. 19.19. Many of those who practiced magical arts brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all. They counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. 19.20. So the word of the Lord was growing and becoming mighty.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

64b. בעל בנכסי אשתו,רבא אמר אפילו עבד עיסקא ורווח רב פפא אמר אפי' מצא מציאה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אפילו כתב בהו תפילין,ואמר רב חנין ואיתימא ר' חנינא מאי קראה דכתיב (במדבר כא, ב) וידר ישראל נדר וגו',אמר רמי בר אבא דרך מיל ושינה כל שהוא מפיגין את היין אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא שנו אלא ששתה כדי רביעית אבל שתה יותר מרביעית כל שכן שדרך טורדתו ושינה משכרתו,ודרך מיל מפיגה היין והתניא מעשה בר"ג שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה מהלך מעכו לכזיב והיה רבי אילעאי מהלך אחריו מצא גלוסקין בדרך אמר לו אילעאי טול גלוסקין מן הדרך מצא נכרי אחד אמר לו מבגאי טול גלוסקין הללו מאילעאי,ניטפל לו ר' אילעאי אמר לו מהיכן אתה אמר לו מעיירות של בורגנין ומה שמך מבגאי שמני כלום היכירך רבן גמליאל מעולם אמר לו לאו,באותה שעה למדנו שכוון רבן גמליאל ברוח הקודש ושלשה דברים למדנו באותה שעה למדנו שאין מעבירין על האוכלין,ולמדנו שהולכין אחרי רוב עוברי דרכים ולמדנו שחמצו של נכרי אחר הפסח מותר בהנאה,כיון שהגיע לכזיב בא אחד לישאל על נדרו אמר לזה שעמו כלום שתינו רביעית יין האיטלקי אמר לו הן אם כן יטייל אחרינו עד שיפיג יינינו,וטייל אחריהן ג' מילין עד שהגיע לסולמא של צור כיון שהגיע לסולמא דצור ירד ר"ג מן החמור ונתעטף וישב והתיר לו נדרו,והרבה דברים למדנו באותה שעה למדנו שרביעית יין האיטלקי משכר ולמדנו שיכור אל יורה ולמדנו שדרך מפיגה את היין ולמדנו שאין מפירין נדרים לא רכוב ולא מהלך ולא עומד אלא יושב,קתני מיהת שלשה מילין שאני יין האיטלקי דמשכר טפי,והאמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא שנו אלא ששתה רביעית אבל שתה יותר מרביעית כל שכן דרך טורדתו ושינה משכרתו,רכוב שאני השתא דאתית להכי לרמי בר אבא נמי לא קשיא רכוב שאני,איני והאמר רב נחמן מפירין נדרים בין מהלך בין עומד ובין רכוב,תנאי היא דאיכא למאן דאמר פותחין בחרטה,ואיכא למאן דאמר אין פותחין בחרטה,דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי פתח ליה רבן גמליאל לההוא גברא (משלי יב, יח) יש בוטה כמדקרות חרב ולשון חכמים מרפא כל הבוטה ראוי לדוקרו בחרב אלא שלשון חכמים מרפא,אמר מר ואין מעבירין על האוכלין אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי לא שנו אלא בדורות הראשונים שאין בנות ישראל פרוצות בכשפים אבל בדורות האחרונים שבנות ישראל פרוצות בכשפים מעבירין,תנא שלימין מעבירין פתיתין אין מעבירין אמר ליה רב אסי לרב אשי ואפתיתין לא עבדן והכתיב (יחזקאל יג, יט) ותחללנה אותי אל עמי בשעלי שעורים ובפתותי לחם דשקלי באגרייהו,אמר רב ששת משום רבי אלעזר בן עזריה 64b. ba husbandwho acquired rights bto his wife’s propertythat she had brought into the marriage as her dowry should use part of the profits for the acquisition of a Torah scroll., bRava said: Even if he entered into a business venture and made alarge bprofit,he should act in a similar manner. bRav Pappa said: Even if he found a lost article,he should do the same. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:He need not use the money to commission the writing of a Torah scroll, as beven ifhe bwrotea set of bphylacteries with it,this, too, is a mitzva whose merit will enable him to retain the rest of the money., bRav Ḥanin said, and some sayit was bRabbi Ḥaninawho said: bWhat is the versethat alludes to this? bAs it is written: “And Israel vowed a vowto the Lord and said: If You will indeed deliver this people into my hand, then I will consecrate their cities” (Numbers 21:2), which shows that one who wishes to succeed should sanctify a portion of his earnings for Heaven.,The Gemara now cites additional teachings relating to the drinking of wine. bRami bar Abba said:Walking a bpath of a imil /i, andsimilarly, bsleepingeven ba minimal amount,will bdispel theeffect of bwinethat one has drunk. bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said: They only taughtthis with regard to one bwho has drunk a quarter-ilogof wine, bbutwith regard to bone who has drunk more than a quarter-ilog /i, this advice is not useful. In that case, walking a bpathof such a distance bwill preoccupyand exhaust bhim all the more, anda small amount bof sleep willfurther bintoxicate him. /b,The Gemara poses a question: bDoeswalking ba path ofonly ba imildispel theeffects of bwine? Wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere was an incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who was riding a donkey and traveling from Akko to Keziv, andhis student bRabbi Elai was walking behind him.Rabban Gamliel bfoundsome bfine loavesof bread bon the road, and he said tohis student: bElai, take the loaves from the road.Further along the way, Rabban Gamliel bencountered a certain gentileand bsaid to him: Mavgai, take these loaves from Elai. /b, bElai joinedthe gentile band said to him: Where are you from?He bsaid to him: From thenearby btowns of guardsmen.He asked: bAnd what is your name?The gentile replied: bMy name is Mavgai.He then inquired: bHas Rabban Gamliel ever met you before,seeing as he knows your name? He bsaid to him: No. /b,The Gemara interrupts the story in order to comment: bAt that time we learned that Rabban Gamliel divinedthe gentile’s name bby way of divine inspirationthat rested upon him. bAnd at that time wealso blearned three mattersof ihalakhafrom Rabban Gamliel’s behavior: bWe learned that one may not pass by food,i.e., if a person sees food lying on the ground, he must stop and pick it up., bWealso blearned that we follow the majority of travelers.Since the area was populated mostly by gentiles, Rabban Gamliel assumed that the loaf belonged to a gentile, and was consequently prohibited to be eaten by a Jew. Therefore, he ordered that it be given to a gentile. And bwefurther blearned thatwith regard to bleavened bread belonging to a gentile, it is permittedto bbenefitfrom this food bafter Passover.The incident recounted above occurred not long after the festival of Passover. By giving the loaf to the gentile instead of burning it in accordance with the ihalakhotof leavened bread that remains after Passover, Rabban Gamliel gained a certain benefit from it in the form of the gentile’s gratitude. This benefit is regarded as having monetary value.,The Gemara resumes the narrative: bWhenRabban Gamliel barrived in Keziv, aperson bcamebefore him bto requestthat he dissolve bhis vow.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to the one who was with him,i.e., Rabbi Elai: bDid we drink a quarter-ilog bof Italian wineearlier? He bsaid to him: Yes.Rabban Gamliel replied: bIf so, let him journey after us untilthe effect of bour wine is dispelled,after which we may consider his issue., bAndthat person bjourneyed after themfor bthree imil /i, untilRabban Gamliel barrived at the Ladder of Tyre. When he arrived at the Ladder of Tyre, Rabban Gamliel alighted from his donkey and wrapped himselfin his shawl in the customary manner of a judge, who wraps himself in a shawl in order to sit in awe at the time of judgment, band he sat and dissolved his vow. /b,The Gemara continues: bAt that time we learned many mattersof ihalakhafrom Rabban Gamliel’s conduct. bWe learned that a quarter-ilog bof Italian wine intoxicates, and we learnedthat bone who is intoxicated may not issue ahalakhic bruling, and we learned thatwalking on ba path dispelsthe effect bof wine, andlastly bwe learned that one may not annul vowswhen he is beither mountedon an animal, bor walking, oreven bstanding, butonly when he is bsitting. /b, bIn any event,the ibaraita bis teachingthat Rabban Gamliel found it necessary to walk bthree imil /iin order to become sober after drinking wine. The Gemara resolves the contradiction. bItalian wine is differentin that bit is more intoxicating,therefore more extended activity is required in order to dispel its effects.,The Gemara poses a question: bBut didn’t Rav Naḥman saythat bRabba bar Avuh said: They taughtthis bonlywith regard to one bwho has drunk a quarter-ilogof wine, bbutwith regard to bone who has drunk more than a quarter-ilog /i, bwalkingthat distance bwill preoccupyand exhaust bhim all the more, anda small amount of bsleep willfurther bintoxicate him?If Italian wine is more intoxicating than other wine, shouldn’t a quarter- ilogbe considered like a larger quantity of other wine?,The Gemara answers: Being bmountedon an animal bis differentfrom walking; since he is not on foot it is not such a tiring activity. Accordingly, riding three imilwill not exhaust him; rather, it will dispel the effect of the wine. The Gemara adds: bNow that you have arrived at thisconclusion, baccording to Rami bar Abba,who says that walking one imilis sufficient, bit is also not difficult,as he too can say that briding is differentfrom walking. Since one is not on foot, the effects of the wine are not dispelled as quickly. Therefore, three imilis necessary.,The Gemara poses a question with regard to one of the details of the story: bIs that so,that Rabban Gamliel was required to alight from his donkey in order to annul the vow? bBut didn’t Rav Naḥman say: One may annul vows walking, standing, or mounted?Why, then, did Rabban Gamliel dismount his donkey?,The Gemara answers: bThis isa dispute between itanna’im /i, as there isan authority bwho saysthat bonemay bopenthe possibility for dissolution of a vow bby means of regretalone. In other words, there is no need to search for a special reason in order to dissolve a person’s vow; it is enough to ascertain that he regrets making it. This can be done easily, even while walking, standing, or riding., bAnd there isanother authority bwho saysthat bonemay bnot openthe possibility for dissolution of a vow bby means of regretalone. Rather, one must find an opening, i.e., a particular reason to dissolve the vow in question, which requires a thorough analysis of the circumstances of the vow. This task must be performed free of distractions, which means one must be seated ( iTosafot /i)., bAs Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With bwhat did Rabban Gamliel openthe possibility for dissolving his vow bfor that man,i.e., what opening did he find for him? Rabban Gamliel cited the verse: b“There is one who utters like the piercings of a sword; but the tongue of the wise is health”(Proverbs 12:18) and explained it as follows: bWhoever uttersa vow bdeserves to be pierced by a sword,as he might fail to fulfill it. Therefore, one should not vow at all. Had you known that whoever vows is liable to be executed, would you have vowed? bRather, it is the tongue of the wise that heals,as when a Sage dissolves a vow, he dissolves it retroactively, and it is as though one had never taken the vow.,The Gemara continues with its analysis of the ibaraita /i. bThe Master saidpreviously: One of the ihalakhotlearned from the incident involving Rabban Gamliel was that bone may not pass by food;rather, one must treat the food with respect and pick it up. bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: They taughtthis ruling bonly in the early generations, when Jewish women were not accustomed to using witchcraft. However, in the later generations, when Jewish women are accustomed to using witchcraft, one may pass byfood, as a spell might have been cast on the bread, and one must not put himself in unnecessary danger.,A Sage btaught:If the loaves are bwhole, onemay bpassthem bby,as they might have been placed there for the purposes of witchcraft; however, if they are in bpieces, onemay bnot passthem bby,because bread in pieces is not used for witchcraft. bRav Asi said to Rav Ashi:Do bthey not performmagic with bpiecesof bread? bIsn’t it writtenin the verse that deals with witchcraft: b“And you have profaned Me among My people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread”(Ezekiel 13:19)? The Gemara answers: The verse does not mean that they used pieces of bread in their witchcraft, but rather that bthey tooksuch pieces bas their wages. /b, bRav Sheshet said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

111a. חוץ מן המים ור' יוחנן אמר אפילו מים אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא חמימי לגו קרירי וקרירי לגו חמימי אבל חמימי לגו חמימי וקרירי לגו קרירי לא,אמר ריש לקיש ארבעה דברים העושה אותן דמו בראשו ומתחייב בנפשו אלו הן הנפנה בין דקל לכותל והעובר בין שני דקלים והשותה מים שאולין והעובר על מים שפוכין ואפילו שפכתו אשתו בפניו,הנפנה בין דקל לכותל לא אמרן אלא דלית ליה ארבע אמות אבל אית ליה ארבע אמות לית לן בה וכי לית ליה ארבע אמות לא אמרן אלא דליכא דירכא אחרינא אבל איכא דירכא אחרינא לית לן בה,והעובר בין שני דקלים לא אמרן אלא דלא פסקינהו רשות הרבים אבל פסקינהו רשות הרבים לית לן בה השותה מים שאולין לא אמרן אלא דשיילינהו קטן אבל גדול לית לן בה,ואפילו שיילינהו קטן נמי לא אמרן אלא בשדה דלא שכיחי אבל בעיר דשכיחי לית לן בה ואפילו בשדה נמי לא אמרן אלא מיא אבל חמרא ושיכרא לית לן בה,והעובר על מים שפוכין לא אמרן אלא דלא אפסקינהו בעפרא ולא תף בהו רוקא אבל אפסקינהו או תף בהו רוקא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא עבר עלייהו שימשא ולא עבר עלייהו שיתין ניגרי אבל עבר עלייהו שימשא ועבר עלייהו שיתין ניגרי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא רכיב חמרא ולא סיים מסני אבל רכיב חמרא וסיים מסני לית לן בה,וה"מ היכא דליכא למיחש לכשפים אבל היכא דאיכא למיחש לכשפים אע"ג דאיכא כל הני חיישינן (וההוא) גברא דרכיב חמרא וסיים מסני וגמוד מסאניה וצוו כרעיה,ת"ר שלשה אין ממצעין ולא מתמצעין ואלו הן הכלב והדקל והאשה וי"א אף החזיר וי"א אף הנחש,ואי ממצעין מאי תקנתיה אמר רב פפא נפתח באל ונפסיק באל,א"נ נפתח בלא ונפסיק בלא,הני בי תרי דמצעא להו אשה נדה אם תחלת נדתה היא הורגת א' מהן אם סוף נדתה היא מריבה עושה ביניהן מאי תקנתיה נפתח באל ונפסיק באל,הני תרי נשי דיתבן בפרשת דרכים חדא בהאי גיסא דשבילא וחדא באידך גיסא ומכוונן אפייהו להדדי ודאי בכשפים עסיקן מאי תקנתיה אי איכא דירכא אחרינא ליזיל בה ואי ליכא דירכא אחרינא אי איכא איניש אחרינא בהדיה נינקטו לידייהו בהדי הדדי וניחלפו ואי ליכא איניש אחרינא נימא הכי אגרת אזלת אסיא בלוסיא מתקטלא בחיק קבל,האי מאן דפגע באיתתא בעידנא דסלקא מטבילת מצוה אי איהו קדים ומשמש אחדא ליה לדידיה רוח זנונים אי איהי קדמה ומשמשה אחדא לה לדידה רוח זנונים מאי תקנתיה לימא הכי (תהלים קז, מ) שופך בוז על נדיבים ויתעם בתוהו לא דרך,א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים כג, ד) גם כי אלך בגיא צלמות לא אירא רע כי אתה עמדי זה הישן בצל דקל יחידי ובצל לבנה ובצל דקל יחידי לא אמרן אלא דלא נפיל טולא דחבריה עילויה אבל נפל טולא דחבריה עילויה לית לן בה,אלא הא דתניא הישן בצל דקל יחידי בחצר והישן בצל לבנה דמו בראשו היכי דמי אי לימא דלא נפל טולא דחבריה עילויה אפילו בשדה נמי אלא לאו שמע מינה בחצר אף על גב דנפיל טולא דחבריה עילויה שמע מינה,ובצילה של לבנה לא אמרן אלא במערבה אבל במדינחתא לית לן בה 111a. bexcept for water.If one mixes water with other water, it is not considered diluted and does not count toward the number of cups. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even waterjoins the number of cups. bRav Pappa said: We said this statement onlyabout bhotwater poured binto coldwater, band coldwater poured binto hot water.Rabbi Yoḥa maintains that these cups are considered diluted. bHowever,everyone agrees that bhotwater poured binto hotwater bor coldwater poured binto coldwater, bno,they are not considered diluted.,The Gemara cites more statements concerning superstitions and witchcraft. bReish Lakish said:There are bfour matters. The one who performs them, his blood is upon hisown bhead, andhe is held bliable for his own life,due to the evil spirit that rests upon him: bOne who relieves himselfin a spot bbetween a palm tree and a wall, one who passes between two palm trees, one who drinks borrowed water, and one who passes over spilled water, even if his wife poured it out in front of him. /b,The Gemara elaborates: With regard to bone who relieves himself between a palm tree and a wall, we saidthat he places himself in danger bonly when there are not four cubitsof space between the two objects. bHowever,if bthere are four cubits, we have noproblem bwith it.The demons have enough room to pass, and he will not obstruct them. bAndfurthermore, even bwhen there are not four cubits, we saidthere is a problem bonly whenthe demons bhave no other routebesides that one. bHowever,if they bhave another route, we have noproblem bwith it. /b, bAndwith regard to bone who passes between two palm trees, we saidthat he is in danger bonly if a public domain does not cross between them. However,if ba public domain crosses between them, we have noproblem bwith it,as demons are not permitted to cause harm in a public place. bAndwith regard to bone who drinks borrowed water, we saidit is dangerous bonly if a minor borrowed it. However,if ban adultborrowed the water, bwe have noproblem bwith it. /b, bAnd evenif ba minor borrowed it, we saidthis poses a danger bonlyif it occurred bin a field, wherewater bis not found. However, in a city, wherewater bcan be found, we have noproblem bwith it. And even in a field, we saidthere is cause for concern bonlyin a case of borrowed bwater; however,with regard to bwine and beer, we have noproblem bwith it. /b, bAndwith regard to bone who passes over spilled water, we saidhe places himself in danger bonly if no one sprinkled dirt over it and no one spat in it. However, ifsomeone bsprinkled dirt over it or spat in it, we have noproblem bwith it. And we saidthis is a concern bonly if the sun did not pass over it,i.e., it occurred at night, band sixty stepsof people walking in the area bhave not passed over it. However,if bthe sun passed over it and sixty steps passed over it, we have noproblem bwith it. And we saidthis concern bonly if he was not riding a donkey and not wearing shoes; however, if he was riding a donkey and wearing shoes, we have noproblem bwith it. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndall bthisapplies only bwhere there is noreason for bconcern for witchcraft,as no one is interested in harming him. bHowever, where there isreason for bconcern for witchcraft, even if all of theselimiting conditions barein place, bwe arenevertheless bconcerned. Andthis is similar to what happened to ba certain man who was riding a donkey and wearing shoes.Nevertheless, he passed over water band his shoes shrank and his feet shriveled up. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss this issue. bThe Sages taught: Threeobjects should bnotbe allowed to bpass betweentwo people walking along a road, and people should bnot walk betweentwo of them: bA dog, a palm tree, and a woman. And some say: Also a pig. And some say: Also a snake.All of these were associated with witchcraft.,The Gemara asks: bAnd if they pass between them, what is the remedyto prevent one from harm? bRav Pappa said: Heshould bbeginreciting a verse that starts bwiththe word bGod and conclude witha verse that ends with the word bGod.In other words, he should recite the passage: “God Who brought them out of Egypt is for them like the lofty horns of the wild ox. For there is no enchantment with Jacob, nor is there any divination with Israel; now is it said of Jacob and of Israel: What has been performed by God” (Numbers 23:22–23). This verse indicates that spells do not affect the Jewish people., bAlternatively, heshould bopenwith a verse that begins with the word ilo /i,no, bandshould bconcludewith the same verse that ends with ilo /i:“No [ ilo /i] man is God that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent. When He has said will He not do it, or when He has spoken will He not [ ilo /i] make it good?” (Numbers 23:19).,Similarly, bthese twomen, bbetween whom a menstruating woman passes, if she is at the beginning of her menstruation she kills one of them,i.e., she causes the death of one of the two men. bIf she isat bthe end of her menstruationshe does not kill, but she bcauses a fight between them. What is his remedy? Heshould bopenwith a verse that begins bwiththe word bGod and heshould bconclude witha verse that ends with the word bGod,as explained above.,The Gemara further states: bThese two women, who are sitting at a crossroads, one on this side of the road and the other on the other side, and they are facing each other, they are certainly engaging in witchcraft. What isthe bremedyfor one who walks by? bIf there is another route, heshould bgo by it. And if there is no other route, if there is another person with him, theyshould bhold hands and switchplaces. bAnd if there is no other person with him, heshould bsay as follows: Iggeret, Azlat, Asiya, Belusiya are killed by arrows.These are names of demons invoked by witches.,The Gemara cites a related statement: bOne who meets a woman when she is ascending from the ritual immersion of a mitzva,after her menstruation, bif he has intercoursewith any woman bfirst, a spirit of immorality overtakes him; if she has intercourse first, a spirit of immorality overtakes her. What is his remedy? Heshould bsay this: “He pours contempt upon princes, and causes them to wander in the waste, where there is no way”(Psalms 107:40)., bRav Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that which bis written: “Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me”(Psalms 23:4)? bThis isa person bwho sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, and in the shadow of the moon.Despite his dangerous position, he trusts God and is not afraid. The Gemara qualifies the previous statement: bAnd with regard toone who sleeps bin the shadow of a single palm tree, we saidhe is in danger bonly if the shadow of anotherpalm tree bdoes not fall upon him. However,if bthe shadow of anotherpalm tree bfalls upon him, we have noproblem bwith it. /b,The Gemara asks: bButwhat about bthatwhich bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to one bwho sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree in a courtyard and one who sleeps in the shadow of the moon, his blood is upon hisown bhead. What are the circumstances? If we say that the shadow of anotherpalm tree bdoes not fall on him,he would balsobe harmed if he were bin a field. Rather,must bone not conclude fromthis ibaraitathat if one is in a bcourtyard, even if the shadow of anothertree bfell on him,it remains dangerous? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from itthat this is so.,The Gemara adds: bAndwith regard bto the shadow of the moon, we saidit is dangerous to sleep there bonlyat the end of the month when the moon shines in the east, and therefore its shadow is bin the west. However,at the start of the month, when the moon shines in the west and its shadow is bin the east, we have noproblem bwith it. /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

100b. הוי אומר מדה טובה מרובה ממדת פורענות במדה טובה כתיב (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול ובמידת פורענות הוא אומר (בראשית ז, יא) וארובות השמים נפתחו,במידת פורענות כתיב (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה והיו דראון לכל בשר והלא אדם מושיט אצבעו באור בעולם הזה מיד נכוה אלא כשם שנותן הקב"ה כח ברשעים לקבל פורענותם כך נותן הקב"ה כח בצדיקים לקבל טובתן:,רבי עקיבא אומר אף הקורא בספרים החיצונים וכו': תנא בספרי מינים רב יוסף אמר בספר בן סירא נמי אסור למיקרי א"ל אביי מאי טעמא אילימא משום דכתב [ביה] לא תינטוש גילדנא מאודניה דלא ליזיל משכיה לחבלא אלא צלי יתיה בנורא ואיכול ביה תרתין גריצים,אי מפשטיה באורייתא נמי כתב (דברים כ, יט) לא תשחית את עצה אי מדרשא אורח ארעא קמ"ל דלא ליבעול שלא כדרכה,ואלא משום דכתיב בת לאביה מטמונת שוא מפחדה לא יישן בלילה בקטנותה שמא תתפתה בנערותה שמא תזנה בגרה שמא לא תינשא נישאת שמא לא יהיו לה בנים הזקינה שמא תעשה כשפים הא רבנן נמי אמרוה אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אשרי מי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות,אלא משום דכתיב לא תעיל דויא בלבך דגברי גיברין קטל דויא הא שלמה אמרה (משלי יב, כה) דאגה בלב איש ישחנה ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר ישיחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים,ואלא משום דכתיב מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא אל ביתך והא רבי נמי אמרה דתניא רבי אומר לעולם לא ירבה אדם רעים בתוך ביתו שנאמר (משלי יח, כד) איש רעים להתרועע,אלא משום דכתיב זלדקן קורטמן עבדקן סכסן דנפח בכסיה לא צחי אמר במאי איכול לחמא לחמא סב מיניה מאן דאית ליה מעברתא בדיקני' כולי עלמא לא יכלי ליה,אמר רב יוסף מילי מעלייתא דאית ביה דרשינן להו אשה טובה מתנה טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה מביתו ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפיה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת (ירמיהו ה, כז) ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סודך לאחד מאלף משוכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אל תצר צרת מחר (משלי כז, א) כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא למחר איננו ונמצא מצטער על עולם שאינו שלו,(משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים בן סירא אומר אף לילות בשפל גגים גגו ובמרום הרים כרמו ממטר גגים לגגו ומעפר כרמו לכרמים,[סימן זיר"א רב"א משרשי"א חנינ"א טובי"ה ינא"י יפ"ה יוחנ"ן מרח"ם יהוש"ע מקצ"ר],אמר ר' זירא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים אלו בעלי תלמוד וטוב לב משתה תמיד אלו בעלי משנה,רבא אמר איפכא והיינו דאמר רב משרשיא משמיה דרבא מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, ט) מסיע אבנים יעצב בהם אלו בעלי משנה (קהלת י, ט) ובוקע עצים יסכן בם אלו בעלי תלמוד,רבי חנינא אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה מי שיש לו אשה רעה וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שיש לו אשה טובה רבי ינאי אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה אסטניס וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שדעתו יפה רבי יוחנן אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה רחמני וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה אכזרי רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה 100b. bYou must say that the attribute of reward is greater than the attribute of punishment,as bwith regard to the attribute of reward it is written: “He commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, and rained upon them manna to eat”(Psalms 78:23–24). bAnd with regard to the attribute of punishmentat the time of the flood the verse bsays: “And the windows of the heavens were opened”(Genesis 7:11). To mete out punishment, God opened only windows, which are considerably smaller openings than doors, indicating that the attribute of reward is greater., bWith regard to the attribute of punishment it is written: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh”(Isaiah 66:24). The Gemara asks: bIs it not sothat when ba person extends his finger into the fire in this world, he is immediately burned?How, then, can one withstand the fire of Gehenna, which is never extinguished? bRather, just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the wicked to receive their punishment, so too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the righteous to receive their reward,His handful.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Akiva says: Also one who reads external literaturehas no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: This is a reference to reading bbooks of heretics. Rav Yosef says: It is also prohibited to read the book of ben Sira,due to its problematic content. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bWhat is the reasonthat it is prohibited to read the book of ben Sira? bIf we saythat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact bthatben Sira bwrote in it: Do not flay the skin of the fish from its ear, so that its skin does not go to ruin, but roast it on the fire and eat with it two loaves of bread,and you believe it to be nonsense, that is not a sufficient reason., bIfyour difficulty is bfrom its literalmeaning, that does not pose a difficulty, as bin the Torah,God balso wrote: “You shall not destroy its trees”(Deuteronomy 20:19). It is prohibited to destroy both trees and fish skin arbitrarily. bIfyour difficulty is bfromits bhomiletic interpretationas a euphemism, ben Sira bis teaching us proper conduct:A man bshould not engage in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner,i.e., anal intercourse, with his wife, as it causes her discomfort., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA daughter is for her father false treasure; due to fear for her he will not sleep at night: During her minority, lest she be seduced; during her young womanhood lest she engage in licentiousness; once she has reached her majority, lest she not marry; once she marries, lest she have no children; once she grows old, lest she engage in witchcraft(Ben Sira 42:11–14). Perhaps you believe that one should not say this to the father of daughters. bDidn’t the Sages also say itwith regard to women? They said: It is bimpossible for the worldto exist bwithout males and without females;nevertheless, bhappy is one whose children are males and woe unto him whose children are females. /b, bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bDo not introduce anxiety into your heart, as anxiety has killed mighty men(Ben Sira 14:1; 30:29). bDidn’t Solomonalready bsay itin the verse: b“Anxiety in a man’s heart dejects him [ iyashḥena /i]”(Proverbs 12:25)? bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiinterpret the term homiletically and read it as iyesiḥenna /i. bOne saysthat it means: bHe shall remove it [ iyesiḥenna /i] from his mind,and that will ease his anxiety. bAnd one says: He shall tell it [ iyesiḥenna /i] to others,and that will ease his anxiety. Both agree with the statement of ben Sira., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bBut didn’t RabbiYehuda HaNasi balso say it, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: A person should never have many friends inside his house, as it is stated: “There are friends that one has to his own detriment”(Proverbs 18:24), as through his association with them he will become weak and be ruined., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA sparse-bearded man is clever; a thick-bearded man is a fool. One who blows on his cup is not thirsty. One who said: With what will I eat bread, take the bread from him. One who has a passage in his beard, the entire world is unable to overcome him.Abaye suggests: Due to all this nonsense, it is not appropriate to read this book., bRav Yosef says:Even though there are passages in the book that are inappropriate, bwe teach the superior matters that are in iteven in public. bA good wife is a good gift; she will be given into the bosom of a God-fearing man(Ben Sira 26:3). bA bad wife is leprosy for her husband. What is his remedy? He shall chase her from his house and will be healed from his leprosy(Ben Sira 25:30). bA beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days is doubled(Ben Sira 26:1). Due to his happiness, it is as though his life is twice as long.,We also teach what it states there: bAvert your eyes from a woman of grace, lest you be trapped in her snare. Turn not to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him, as many have been corrupted by the beauty of the beautiful woman, and mighty are all her fatalities(Ben Sira 9:9–11). bMany are the wounds of a peddler(Ben Sira 11:36), which in this context is referring to those bwho accustomothers bto matters of forbidden sexual relations. Like a spark ignites a coal(Ben Sira 11:43), blike a cage full of birds, so too, their houses are filled with deceit(Ben Sira 11:36–37). bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bLet many be those who greet you; reveal your secrets to one in a thousand. From she who lies in your bosom guard the openings of your mouth,i.e., do not tell her everything. bGrieve not about tomorrow’s trouble, because you know not what a day may bring; perhaps tomorrow you will no longer be, and one will have worried about a world that is not his. /b,The verse states: b“All the days of the poor are terrible”(Proverbs 15:15). The book of bben Sira says: Also the nightsare terrible, as then the poor person worries. The poor person’s broof is among the lowest roofsin the city, band in the elevation of the hills is his vineyard,at the highest point, as those are of the lowest quality and consequently the least expensive places for each. bFrom the rain on the roofsof the entire city, water will flow down bto his roofand dampen it, band the soil of his vineyardis eroded by the rain and swept down btoother bvineyards. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow, based primarily on those who authored those statements. bZeira; Rava; Mesharshiyya; Ḥanina itoviyya /i,referring to Rabbi Ḥanina, who spoke of a good [ itova /i] wife; bYannai iyafe /i,referring to Rabbi Yannai, who spoke of one who is broad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i]; bYoḥa imeraḥem /i,referring to Rabbi Yoḥa, who spoke of one who is compassionate [ imeraḥem /i]; bYehoshua imekatzer /i,referring to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who spoke of one who is intolerant [ ida’ato ketzara /i]., bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“All the days of the poor are terrible, and for the good-hearted it is always a feast” (Proverbs 15:15)? b“All the days of the poor are terrible”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest constant effort in their study and encounter endless difficulties and questions. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; these are masters of the Mishna,who study only halakhic conclusions and encounter no difficulties., bRava saysthat bthe oppositeis true; band this isthat bwhich Rav Mesharshiyya said in the name of Rava: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by themand he who chops wood shall be warmed by it” (Ecclesiastes 10:9)? “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by them”; bthese are masters of the Mishna,as they invest effort, but are unable to benefit from that effort, as they do not reach halakhic conclusions. b“And he who chops wood shall be warmed by it”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest considerable effort and benefit from it, as they reach halakhic conclusions., bRabbi Ḥanina says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to bone who has a bad wife. “And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to bone who has a good wife. Rabbi Yannai says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bdelicate [ iistenis /i],i.e., one who is sensitive to repulsive items. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bbroad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i],i.e., he is not particular and will eat anything. bRabbi Yoḥa says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bcompassionate [ imeraḥem /i],as he always senses the suffering in the world and is constantly anxious. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bcrueland indifferent to suffering in the world. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
animals, sacred, in judea Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 79
anti-judaism, under domitian Westwood, Moses among the Greek Lawgivers: Reading Josephus’ Antiquities through Plutarch’s Lives (2023) 20
apostasy Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 193
bestiality Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
bible, occult sciences in Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 16
boyarin, d. Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
brown, p. Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
centaurs Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
chimeras Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
crimen magiae Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 16
divination DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 61
domitian, anti-judaism ( anti-judaism, under domitian ) Westwood, Moses among the Greek Lawgivers: Reading Josephus’ Antiquities through Plutarch’s Lives (2023) 20
fiscus judaicus Westwood, Moses among the Greek Lawgivers: Reading Josephus’ Antiquities through Plutarch’s Lives (2023) 20
gentiles, and law of nature Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 117
herem, as imposed involuntarily on persons by decree Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 79
ilan, t. Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
jericho, herem valuables stolen at Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 79
law of nature, and gentiles Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 117
law of nature, in philo Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 117
levites Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 193
magic, kinds of Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 16
midianite women Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 193
minotaur Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
myth, greek (pagan) Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
myth, jewish Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
papyri, greek magical Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 16
pasiphae Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 162
phineas Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 193
pleasure Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 193
potions Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
projection, freudian Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 86
prophecy, and divination DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 61
prostitution Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
sepher ha-razim Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 16
sexuality Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
syncretism Luck, Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts (2006) 16
unity of law, in philo Martens, One God, One Law: Philo of Alexandria on the Mosaic and Greco-Roman Law (2003) 117
witch Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 86
women, more likely to practicewomen' Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 86
women, more likely to practicewomen Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 87
women Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 86, 87
yahweh, animals of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 79