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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.8-20.9


זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹRemember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.


שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָSix days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.1-5.22, 6.4-6.18, 8.10-8.20, 9.27, 10.4, 11.13-11.21, 24.8, 25.17-25.19, 33.9-33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 5.1. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָי׃] 5.2. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם׃ 5.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב׃ 5.3. לֹא אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי אִתָּנוּ אֲנַחְנוּ אֵלֶּה פֹה הַיּוֹם כֻּלָּנוּ חַיִּים׃ 5.3. בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּן וְטוֹב לָכֶם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּם יָמִים בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תִּירָשׁוּן׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.5. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר׃ 5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 5.11. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 5.13. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃ 5.14. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ׃ 5.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת׃ 5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 5.17. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ וְלֹא תִּנְאָף׃ וְלֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁוְא׃ 5.18. וְלֹא תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה בֵּית רֵעֶךָ שָׂדֵהוּ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 5.19. אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָנָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי׃ 5.21. וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת־כְּבֹדוֹ וְאֶת־גָּדְלוֹ וְאֶת־קֹלוֹ שָׁמַעְנוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה רָאִינוּ כִּי־יְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וָחָי׃ 5.22. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 6.11. וּבָתִּים מְלֵאִים כָּל־טוּב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מִלֵּאתָ וּבֹרֹת חֲצוּבִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָצַבְתָּ כְּרָמִים וְזֵיתִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נָטָעְתָּ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 6.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 6.14. לֹא תֵלְכוּן אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים מֵאֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 6.15. כִּי אֵל קַנָּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ פֶּן־יֶחֱרֶה אַף־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּךְ וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 6.17. שָׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמְרוּן אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְעֵדֹתָיו וְחֻקָּיו אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ׃ 6.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ הַיָּשָׁר וְהַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וּבָאתָ וְיָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 8.11. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 8.12. פֶּן־תֹּאכַל וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבָתִּים טוֹבִים תִּבְנֶה וְיָשָׁבְתָּ׃ 8.13. וּבְקָרְךָ וְצֹאנְךָ יִרְבְּיֻן וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב יִרְבֶּה־לָּךְ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ יִרְבֶּה׃ 8.14. וְרָם לְבָבֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמּוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 8.15. הַמּוֹלִיכֲךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב וְצִמָּאוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־מָיִם הַמּוֹצִיא לְךָ מַיִם מִצּוּר הַחַלָּמִישׁ׃ 8.16. הַמַּאֲכִלְךָ מָן בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ וּלְמַעַן נַסֹּתֶךָ לְהֵיטִבְךָ בְּאַחֲרִיתֶךָ׃ 8.17. וְאָמַרְתָּ בִּלְבָבֶךָ כֹּחִי וְעֹצֶם יָדִי עָשָׂה לִי אֶת־הַחַיִל הַזֶּה׃ 8.18. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי הוּא הַנֹּתֵן לְךָ כֹּחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת חָיִל לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.19. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁכֹחַ תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבַדְתָּם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם הַעִדֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 10.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת כַּמִּכְתָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוָה אֵלָי׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 24.8. הִשָּׁמֶר בְּנֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת לִשְׁמֹר מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוֹרוּ אֶתְכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם תִּשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 25.17. זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 25.18. אֲשֶׁר קָרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחַרֶיךָ וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים׃ 25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 5.1. And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them." 5.2. The LORD our God made a covet with us in Horeb." 5.3. The LORD made not this covet with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 5.5. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare unto you the word of the LORD; for ye were afraid because of the fire, and went not up into the mount—saying: ." 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 5.10. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 5.11. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 5.13. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 5.14. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou." 5.15. And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day." 5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 5.17. Thou shalt not murder. Neither shalt thou commit adultery. Neither shalt thou steal. Neither shalt thou bear false witness against thy neighbour." 5.18. Neither shalt thou covet thy neighbour’s wife; neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour’s house, his field, or his man-servant, or his maid-servant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 5.19. These words the LORD spoke unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice, and it went on no more. And He wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them unto me." 5.20. And it came to pass, when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain did burn with fire, that ye came near unto me, even all the heads of your tribes, and your elders;" 5.21. and ye said: ‘Behold, the LORD our God hath shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the midst of the fire; we have seen this day that God doth speak with man, and he liveth." 5.22. Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 6.10. And it shall be, when the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land which He swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee—great and goodly cities, which thou didst not build," 6.11. and houses full of all good things, which thou didst not fill, and cisterns hewn out, which thou the didst not hew, vineyards and olive-trees, which thou didst not plant, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied—" 6.12. then beware lest thou forget the LORD, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear." 6.14. Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the peoples that are round about you;" 6.15. for a jealous God, even the LORD thy God, is in the midst of thee; lest the anger of the LORD thy God be kindled against thee, and He destroy thee from off the face of the earth." 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 6.17. Ye shall diligently keep the commandments of the LORD your God, and His testimonies, and His statutes, which He hath commanded thee." 6.18. And thou shalt do that which is right and good in the sight of the LORD; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest go in and possess the good land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers," 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 8.11. Beware lest thou forget the LORD thy God, in not keeping His commandments, and His ordices, and His statutes, which I command thee this day;" 8.12. lest when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein;" 8.13. and when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, and all that thou hast is multiplied;" 8.14. then thy heart be lifted up, and thou forget the LORD thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage;" 8.15. who led thee through the great and dreadful wilderness, wherein were serpents, fiery serpents, and scorpions, and thirsty ground where was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint;" 8.16. who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end;" 8.17. and thou say in thy heart: ‘My power and the might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth.’" 8.18. But thou shalt remember the LORD thy God, for it is He that giveth thee power to get wealth, that He may establish His covet which He swore unto thy fathers, as it is this day." 8.19. And it shall be, if thou shalt forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I forewarn you this day that ye shall surely perish." 8.20. As the nations that the LORD maketh to perish before you, so shall ye perish; because ye would not hearken unto the voice of the LORD your God." 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 10.4. And He wrote on the tables according to the first writing, the ten words, which the LORD spoke unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly; and the LORD gave them unto me." 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth." 24.8. Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you, as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do." 25.17. Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way as ye came forth out of Egypt;" 25.18. how he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee, all that were enfeebled in thy rear, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared not God." 25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget." 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.5, 4.9, 6.7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11.2, 12.35, 12.36, 14.31, 15, 15.11, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 19.9, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16, 20.17, 24.8, 25.1-31.18, 28, 31.12, 31.13, 31.14, 31.15, 31.16, 31.17, 32, 32.13, 34.28, 35, 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.1-2.4, 2.7, 6.1-6.4, 9.9, 12.1, 15.6, 17.2, 33.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 2.2. וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 2.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁמוֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָדָם לֹא־מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.3. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 2.4. אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּרְאָם בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 17.2. וּלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל שְׁמַעְתִּיךָ הִנֵּה בֵּרַכְתִּי אֹתוֹ וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֹתוֹ וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֹתוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר נְשִׂיאִם יוֹלִיד וּנְתַתִּיו לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל׃ 17.2. וְאֶתְּנָה בְרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וְאַרְבֶּה אוֹתְךָ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד׃ 33.18. וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב שָׁלֵם עִיר שְׁכֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בְּבֹאוֹ מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם וַיִּחַן אֶת־פְּנֵי הָעִיר׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." 2.2. And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made." 2.3. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made." 2.4. These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 17.2. And I will make My covet between Me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.’" 33.18. And Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and encamped before the city."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.5-6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. עַל־כֵּן חָצַבְתִּי בַּנְּבִיאִים הֲרַגְתִּים בְּאִמְרֵי־פִי וּמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ אוֹר יֵצֵא׃ 6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.5. Therefore have I hewed them by the prophets, I have slain them by the words of My mouth; And thy judgment goeth forth as the light." 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 10.9, 33.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.9. זְכָר־נָא כִּי־כַחֹמֶר עֲשִׂיתָנִי וְאֶל־עָפָר תְּשִׁיבֵנִי׃ 33.6. הֵן־אֲנִי כְפִיךָ לָאֵל מֵחֹמֶר קֹרַצְתִּי גַם־אָנִי׃ 10.9. Remember, I beseech Thee, that Thou hast fashioned me as clay; And wilt Thou bring me into dust again?" 33.6. Behold, I am toward God even as thou art; I also am formed out of the clay."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.29, 17.8-17.16, 18.2, 18.4-18.5, 18.21, 18.30, 19.9-19.16, 20.2-20.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.29. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 17.8. וַאֲלֵהֶם תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־יָגוּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲלֶה עֹלָה אוֹ־זָבַח׃ 17.9. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ לַיהוָה וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מֵעַמָּיו׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 18.2. וְאֶל־אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ׃ 18.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.11. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.2. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ מוֹת יוּמָת עַם הָאָרֶץ יִרְגְּמֻהוּ בָאָבֶן׃ 20.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־דֹּדָתוֹ עֶרְוַת דֹּדוֹ גִּלָּה חֶטְאָם יִשָּׂאוּ עֲרִירִים יָמֻתוּ׃ 20.3. וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי׃ 20.4. וְאִם הַעְלֵם יַעְלִימוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מִן־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא בְּתִתּוֹ מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ לְבִלְתִּי הָמִית אֹתוֹ׃ 20.5. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבְמִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־הַזֹּנִים אַחֲרָיו לִזְנוֹת אַחֲרֵי הַמֹּלֶךְ מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 16.29. And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you." 17.8. And thou shalt say unto them: Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that offereth a burnt-offering or sacrifice," 17.9. and bringeth it not unto the door of the tent of meeting, to sacrifice it unto the LORD, even that man shall be cut off from his people." 17.10. And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood." 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 18.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: I am the LORD your God." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.11. Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 20.2. Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones." 20.3. I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name." 20.4. And if the people of the land do at all hide their eyes from that man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and put him not to death;" 20.5. then I will set My face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go astray after him, to go astray after Molech, from among their people."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.6-6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. בַּמָּה אֲקַדֵּם יְהוָה אִכַּף לֵאלֹהֵי מָרוֹם הַאֲקַדְּמֶנּוּ בְעוֹלוֹת בַּעֲגָלִים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה׃ 6.7. הֲיִרְצֶה יְהוָה בְּאַלְפֵי אֵילִים בְּרִבְבוֹת נַחֲלֵי־שָׁמֶן הַאֶתֵּן בְּכוֹרִי פִּשְׁעִי פְּרִי בִטְנִי חַטַּאת נַפְשִׁי׃ 6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 6.6. ’Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, And bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings, With calves of a year old?" 6.7. Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, With ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?’" 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.32, 35.4-35.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.32. וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיִּמְצְאוּ אִישׁ מְקֹשֵׁשׁ עֵצִים בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 35.4. וּמִגְרְשֵׁי הֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר תִּתְּנוּ לַלְוִיִּם מִקִּיר הָעִיר וָחוּצָה אֶלֶף אַמָּה סָבִיב׃ 35.5. וּמַדֹּתֶם מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶת־פְּאַת־קֵדְמָה אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־נֶגֶב אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־יָם אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְאֵת פְּאַת צָפוֹן אַלְפַּיִם בָּאַמָּה וְהָעִיר בַּתָּוֶךְ זֶה יִהְיֶה לָהֶם מִגְרְשֵׁי הֶעָרִים׃ 15.32. And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man gathering sticks upon the sabbath day." 35.4. And the open land about the cities, which ye shall give unto the Levites, shall be from the wall of the city and outward a thousand cubits round about." 35.5. And ye shall measure without the city for the east side two thousand cubits, and for the south side two thousand cubits, and for the west side two thousand cubits, and for the north side two thousand cubits, the city being in the midst. This shall be to them the open land about the cities."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 62.12, 92.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

62.12. אַחַת דִּבֶּר אֱלֹהִים שְׁתַּיִם־זוּ שָׁמָעְתִּי כִּי עֹז לֵאלֹהִים׃ 92.1. כִּי הִנֵּה אֹיְבֶיךָ יְהוָה כִּי־הִנֵּה אֹיְבֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ יִתְפָּרְדוּ כָּל־פֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן׃ 92.1. מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 62.12. God hath spoken once, Twice have I heard this: That strength belongeth unto God;" 92.1. A Psalm, a Song. For the sabbath day."
10. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.22, 5.25 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.22. כִּי אִם־תַּעֲלוּ־לִי עֹלוֹת וּמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם לֹא אֶרְצֶה וְשֶׁלֶם מְרִיאֵיכֶם לֹא אַבִּיט׃ 5.25. הַזְּבָחִים וּמִנְחָה הִגַּשְׁתֶּם־לִי בַמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.22. Yea, though ye offer me burnt-offerings and your meal-offerings, I will not accept them; Neither will I regard the peace-offerings of your fat beasts." 5.25. Did ye bring unto Me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel?"
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.11-1.13, 26.5, 58.13, 66.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃ 1.12. כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃ 1.13. לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃ 26.5. כִּי הֵשַׁח יֹשְׁבֵי מָרוֹם קִרְיָה נִשְׂגָּבָה יַשְׁפִּילֶנָּה יַשְׁפִּילָהּ עַד־אֶרֶץ יַגִּיעֶנָּה עַד־עָפָר׃ 58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 66.3. שׁוֹחֵט הַשּׁוֹר מַכֵּה־אִישׁ זוֹבֵחַ הַשֶּׂה עֹרֵף כֶּלֶב מַעֲלֵה מִנְחָה דַּם־חֲזִיר מַזְכִּיר לְבֹנָה מְבָרֵךְ אָוֶן גַּם־הֵמָּה בָּחֲרוּ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם נַפְשָׁם חָפֵצָה׃ 1.11. To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats." 1.12. When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?" 1.13. Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly." 26.5. For He hath brought down them that dwell on high, The lofty city, laying it low, laying it low even to the ground, Bringing it even to the dust." 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;" 66.3. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he broke a dog’s neck; He that offereth a meal-offering, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that maketh a memorial-offering of frankincense, as if he blessed an idol; according as they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.21-7.23, 23.29, 30.22, 31.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ עַל־זִבְחֵיכֶם וְאִכְלוּ בָשָׂר׃ 7.22. כִּי לֹא־דִבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים בְּיוֹם הוציא [הוֹצִיאִי] אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־דִּבְרֵי עוֹלָה וָזָבַח׃ 7.23. כִּי אִם־אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר שִׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָכֶם׃ 23.29. הֲלוֹא כֹה דְבָרִי כָּאֵשׁ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וּכְפַטִּישׁ יְפֹצֵץ סָלַע׃ 30.22. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי לְעָם וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 7.21. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh." 7.22. For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices;" 7.23. but this thing I commanded them, saying: ‘Hearken unto My voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people; and walk ye in all the way that I command you, that it may be well with you.’" 23.29. Is not My word like as fire? Saith the LORD; And like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?" 30.22. And ye shall be My people, and I will be your God." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;"
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.20 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.20. And when they came unto the nations, whither they came, they profaned My holy name; in that men said of them: These are the people of the LORD, and are gone forth out of His land."
14. Anon., Jubilees, 1.8, 1.14, 2.2, 2.17-2.33, 3.8-3.14, 5.1-5.7, 6.34, 23.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."... 3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.13. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden. 3.14. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tables in regard to her that giveth birth: 5.1. And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them 5.2. that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 5.3. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walketh on the earth 5.4. -all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other 5.5. and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually. 5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 23.19. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: "He hath lived long
15. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.41. So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places.
16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1, 33.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works.
17. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.11. To remind them of thy oracles they were bitten,and then were quickly delivered,lest they should fall into deep forgetfulness and become unresponsive to thy kindness.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. We find, then, that in the sacred oracles delivered by the prophet Moses, there are three separate characters; for a portion of them relates to the creation of the world, a portion is historical, and the third portion is legislative. Now the creation of the world is related throughout with exceeding beauty and in a manner admirably suited to the dignity of God, taking its beginning in the account of the creation of the heaven, and ending with that of the formation of man; the first of which things is the most perfect of all imperishable things, and the other of all corruptible and perishable things. And the Creator, connecting together immortal and mortal things at the creation, made the world, making what he had already created the domit parts, and what he was about to create the subject parts.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. And in every house there is a sacred shrine which is called the holy place, and the monastery in which they retire by themselves and perform all the mysteries of a holy life, bringing in nothing, neither meat, nor drink, nor anything else which is indispensable towards supplying the necessities of the body, but studying in that place the laws and the sacred oracles of God enunciated by the holy prophets, and hymns, and psalms, and all kinds of other things by reason of which knowledge and piety are increased and brought to perfection.
20. Anon., Didache, 1.2-1.6, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.311 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.311. for the Jews, by demolishing the tower of Antonia, had made their temple foursquare, while at the same time they had it written in their sacred oracles, “That then should their city be taken, as well as their holy house, when once their temple should become foursquare.”
22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.19-3.20, 6.9-6.10, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 3.20. And again, "TheLord knows the reasoning of the wise, that it is worthless. 6.9. Or don't you know that the unrighteouswill not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't be deceived. Neither thesexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor male prostitutes,nor homosexuals 6.10. nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, norslanderers, nor extortioners, will inherit the Kingdom of God. 9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar?
23. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Acts, 15.19-15.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath.
25. New Testament, Galatians, 5.19-5.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God.
26. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law.
27. New Testament, Romans, 3.20, 15.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
28. New Testament, John, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.8. All who came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep didn't listen to them.
29. New Testament, Luke, 6.20-6.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great.
30. New Testament, Mark, 2.23-2.28, 7.21, 10.17-10.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first.
31. New Testament, Matthew, 5.1-5.10, 5.19, 5.21-5.48, 7.12, 12.1-12.8, 18.20, 19.19, 22.37-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 5.2. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying 5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 12.1. At that time, Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the grain fields. His disciples were hungry and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. 12.2. But the Pharisees, when they saw it, said to him, "Behold, your disciples do what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath. 12.3. But he said to them, "Haven't you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him; 12.4. how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? 12.5. Or have you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath day, the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are guiltless? 12.6. But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here. 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 12.8. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them. 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
32. Suetonius, Domitianus, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Tosefta, Sotah, 8.6-8.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Clement of Alexandria, Extracts From The Prophets, 52-63, 51 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

36. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.17.84, 4.6.25-4.6.41, 5.6.32-5.6.40, 5.10.63, 5.10.66, 6.16.147, 7.14.84 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. ומן התפלין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ק"ש פשיטא מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,מהו דתימא הואיל ואית בה מלכות שמים קמ"ל:,ומן התפלין: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש למזוזה קמ"ל:,וחייבין בתפלה: דרחמי נינהו מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב בה (תהלים נה, יח) ערב ובקר וצהרים כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:,ובמזוזה: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש לתלמוד תורה קמשמע לן:,ובברכת המזון: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב (שמות טז, ח) בתת ה' לכם בערב בשר לאכל ולחם בבקר לשבע כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה נשים חייבות בקדוש היום דבר תורה אמאי מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות אמר אביי מדרבנן,א"ל רבא והא דבר תורה קאמר ועוד כל מצות עשה נחייבינהו מדרבנן,אלא אמר רבא אמר קרא (שמות כ, ז) זכור (דברים ה, יא) ושמור כל שישנו בשמירה ישנו בזכירה והני נשי הואיל ואיתנהו בשמירה איתנהו בזכירה,א"ל רבינא לרבא נשים בברכת המזון דאורייתא או דרבנן למאי נפקא מינה לאפוקי רבים ידי חובתן אי אמרת (בשלמא) דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא (אלא אי) אמרת דרבנן הוי שאינו מחוייב בדבר וכל שאינו מחוייב בדבר אינו מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן מאי,ת"ש באמת אמרו בן מברך לאביו ועבד מברך לרבו ואשה מברכת לבעלה אבל אמרו חכמים תבא מארה לאדם שאשתו ובניו מברכין לו,אי אמרת בשלמא דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא אלא אי אמרת דרבנן אתי דרבנן ומפיק דאורייתא,ולטעמיך קטן בר חיובא הוא אלא הכי במאי עסקינן כגון שאכל שיעורא דרבנן דאתי דרבנן ומפיק דרבנן:,דרש רב עוירא זמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אמי וזמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אסי אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע כתוב בתורתך (דברים י, יז) אשר לא ישא פנים ולא יקח שחד והלא אתה נושא פנים לישראל דכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא ה' פניו אליך אמר להם וכי לא אשא פנים לישראל שכתבתי להם בתורה (דברים ח, י) ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך והם מדקדקים [על] עצמם עד כזית ועד כביצה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בעל קרי מהרהר בלבו ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה ועל המזון מברך לאחריו ואינו מברך לפניו רבי יהודה אומר מברך לפניהם ולאחריהם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רבינא זאת אומרת הרהור כדבור דמי דאי סלקא דעתך לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר,אלא מאי הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו,כדאשכחן בסיני,ורב חסדא אמר הרהור לאו כדבור דמי דאי סלקא דעתך הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו,אלא מאי הרהור לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר אמר רבי אלעזר כדי שלא יהו כל העולם עוסקין בו והוא יושב ובטל,ונגרוס בפרקא אחרינא אמר רב אדא בר אהבה בדבר שהצבור עוסקין בו 20b. band from phylacteries, butthey bare obligated inthe mitzvot of bprayer, imezuza /i, and Grace after Meals.The Gemara explains the rationale for these exemptions and obligations.,GEMARA With regard to the mishna’s statement that women are exempt from bthe recitation of iShema /i,the Gemara asks: That is bobvious,as iShemais a btime-bound, positive mitzva, andthe halakhic principle is: bWomen are exempt from any time-bound, positive mitzva,i.e., any mitzva whose performance is only in effect at a particular time. iShemafalls into that category as its recitation is restricted to the morning and the evening. Why then did the mishna need to mention it specifically?,The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Since iShema bincludesthe acceptance of the yoke of bthe kingdom of Heaven,perhaps women are obligated in its recitation despite the fact that it is a time-bound, positive mitzva. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat, nevertheless, women are exempt.,We also learned in the mishna that women are exempt bfrom phylacteries.The Gemara asks: That is bobviousas well. The donning of phylacteries is only in effect at particular times; during the day but not at night, on weekdays but not on Shabbat or Festivals. The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Sincethe mitzva of phylacteries bis juxtaposedin the Torah btothe mitzva of imezuza /i,as it is written: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your hands and they shall be frontlets between your eyes” (Deuteronomy 6:8), followed by: “And you shall write them upon the door posts of your house and on your gates” (Deuteronomy 6:9), just as women are obligated in the mitzva of imezuza /i, so too they are obligated in the mitzva of phylacteries. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat nevertheless, women are exempt.,We also learned in the mishna that women, slaves, and children are bobligated in prayer.The Gemara explains that, although the mitzva of prayer is only in effect at particular times, which would lead to the conclusion that women are exempt, nevertheless, since prayer bissupplication for bmercyand women also require divine mercy, they are obligated. However, blest you say: Sinceregarding prayer it is bwritten: “Evening and morning and afternoonI pray and cry aloud and He hears my voice” (Psalms 55:18), perhaps prayer should be bconsidered a time-bound, positive mitzvaand women would be exempt, the mishna bteaches usthat, fundamentally, the mitzva of prayer is not time-bound and, therefore, everyone is obligated.,We also learned in the mishna that women are obligated in the mitzva of imezuza /i.The Gemara asks: That too is bobvious.Why would they be exempt from fulfilling this obligation, it is a positive mitzva that is not time-bound? The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Sincethe mitzva of imezuza bis juxtaposedin the Torah to the mitzva of bTorah study(Deuteronomy 11:19–20), just as women are exempt from Torah study, so too they are exempt from the mitzva of imezuza /i. Therefore, the mishna explicitly bteaches usthat they are obligated.,We also learned in the mishna that women are obligated to recite the bGrace after Meals.The Gemara asks: That too is bobvious.The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Since it is written: “When the Lord shall give you meat to eat in the evening and bread in the morning to the full”(Exodus 16:8), one might conclude that the Torah established fixed times for the meals and, consequently, for the mitzva of Grace after Meals and, therefore, it bis considered a time-bound, positive mitzva,exempting women from its recitation. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat women are obligated., bRav Adda bar Ahava said: Women are obligated torecite the sanctification of the Shabbat day [ikiddush /i]by Torah law.The Gemara asks: bWhy? iKiddushis a btime-bound, positive mitzva, and women are exemptfrom ball time-bound, positive mitzvot. Abaye said:Indeed, women are obligated to recite ikiddushby brabbinic,but not by Torah blaw. /b, bRava said toAbaye: There are two refutations to your explanation. First, Rav Adda bar Ahava said that women are obligated to recite ikiddush bby Torah law, and, furthermore,the very explanation is difficult to understand. If the Sages do indeed institute ordices in these circumstances, blet us obligate themto fulfill balltime-bound, bpositive mitzvot by rabbinic law,even though they are exempt by Torah law., bRather, Rava said:This has a unique explanation. In the Ten Commandments in the book of Exodus, bthe verse said: “RememberShabbat and sanctify it” (Exodus 20:8), while in the book of Deuteronomy it is said: b“ObserveShabbat and sanctify it” (Deuteronomy 5:12). From these two variants we can deduce that banyone included inthe obligation to bobserveShabbat by avoiding its desecration, bisalso bincluded inthe mitzva to brememberShabbat by reciting ikiddush /i. bSince these women are included inthe mitzva bto observeShabbat, as there is no distinction between men and women in the obligation to observe prohibitions in general and to refrain from the desecration of Shabbat in particular, so too bare they included inthe mitzva of brememberingShabbat., bRavina said to Rava:We learned in the mishna that bwomenare obligated in the mitzva of bGrace after Meals.However, are they obligated bby Torah lawor merely bby rabbinic law? What difference does it makewhether it is by Torah or rabbinic law? The difference is regarding her ability bto fulfill the obligation of otherswhen reciting the blessing on their behalf. bGranted, if you say thattheir obligation bis by Torah law,one whose obligation bis by Torah law can come and fulfill the obligationof others who are obligated bby Torah law. However, if you saythat their obligation is bby rabbinic law,then from the perspective of Torah law, women bareconsidered to be bone who is not obligated, andthe general principle is that bone who is not obligatedto fulfill a particular mitzva bcannot fulfill the obligations of the manyin that mitzva. Therefore, it is important to know bwhatis the resolution of this dilemma., bComeand bhearfrom what was taught in a ibaraita /i: bActually they saidthat ba son may recite a blessingon behalf of bhis father, and a slave may recite a blessingon behalf of bhis master, and a woman may recite a blessingon behalf of bher husband, but the Sages said: May a curse come to a manwho, due to his ignorance, requires bhis wife and children to recite a blessing on his behalf. /b,From here we may infer: bGranted, if you say thattheir obligation bis by Torah law,one whose obligation bis by Torah law can come and fulfill the obligationof others who are obligated bby Torah law. However, if you saythat their obligation is bby rabbinic law,can one who is obligated bby rabbinic law, come and fulfill the obligationof one whose obligation is bby Torah law? /b,The Gemara challenges this proof: bAnd according to your reasoning,is ba minor obligatedby Torah law to perform mitzvot? Everyone agrees that a minor is exempt by Torah law, yet here the ibaraitasaid that he may recite a blessing on behalf of his father. There must be another way to explain the ibaraita /i. bWith what we are dealing here? With a case wherehis father batea quantity of food that did not satisfy his hunger, a bmeasurefor which one is only obligated bby rabbinic lawto recite Grace after Meals. In that case, one whose obligation bis by rabbinic law can come and fulfill the obligationof another whose obligation bis by rabbinic law. /b,After citing the ihalakhathat one who eats a quantity of food that does not satisfy his hunger is obligated by rabbinic law to recite Grace after Meals, the Gemara cites a related homiletic interpretation. bRav Avira taught, sometimes he said it in the nameof bRabbi Ami, and sometimes he said it in the nameof bRabbi Asi: The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, in Your Torah it is written:“The great, mighty and awesome God bwho favors no one and takes no bribe”(Deuteronomy 10:17), byet You,nevertheless, bshow favor to Israel, as it is written: “The Lord shall show favor to youand give you peace” (Numbers 6:26). bHe replied to them: And how can I not show favor to Israel, as I wrote for them in the Torah: “And you shall eat and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 8:10), meaning that there is no obligation to bless the Lord until one is satiated; byet they are exacting with themselvesto recite Grace after Meals even if they have eaten bas much as an olive-bulk or an egg-bulk.Since they go beyond the requirements of the law, they are worthy of favor., strongMISHNA: /strong Ezra the Scribe decreed that one who is ritually impure because of a seminal emission may not engage in matters of Torah until he has immersed in a ritual bath and purified himself. This ihalakhawas accepted over the course of many generations; however, many disputes arose with regard to the Torah matters to which it applies. Regarding this, the mishna says: If the time for the recitation of iShemaarrived and boneis impure due to a bseminal emission,he may bcontemplate iShema bin his heart, but neither recites the blessings preceding iShema /i, bnor the blessings following it. Over foodwhich, after partaking, one is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing, bone recites a blessing afterward, but one does not recite a blessing beforehand,because the blessing recited prior to eating is a requirement by rabbinic law. bAndin all of these instances bRabbi Yehuda says: He recites a blessing beforehand and thereafterin both the case of iShemaand in the case of food., strongGEMARA: /strong bRavina said: That is to say,from the mishna that bcontemplation is tantamount to speech. As if it would enter your mindthat bit is not tantamount to speech,then bwhydoes one who is impure because of a seminal emission bcontemplate?It must be that it is tantamount to speech.,The Gemara rejects this: bBut whatare you saying, that bcontemplation is tantamount to speech?Then, if one who is impure because of a seminal emission is permitted to contemplate, why does he not butterthe words bwith his lips? /b,The Gemara answers: bAs we found atMount bSinai.There one who had sexual relations with a woman was required to immerse himself before receiving the Torah, which was spoken and not merely contemplated. Here, too, it was decreed that one who was impure due to a seminal emission may not recite matters of Torah out loud until he immerses himself., bAnd Rav Ḥisda saidthat the opposite conclusion should be drawn from the mishna: bContemplation is not tantamount to speech, as if it would enter your mindthat bcontemplation is tantamount to speech,then one who is impure because of a seminal emission should iab initio /i, butter iShema bwith his lips. /b,The Gemara challenges this argument: bBut whatare you saying, that bcontemplation is not tantamount to speech?If so, bwhy does he contemplate? Rabbi Elazar said: So thata situation bwill notarise bwhere everyone is engaged inreciting iShema band he sits idlyby.,The Gemara asks: If that is the only purpose, blet him study another chapterand not specifically iShemaor one of the blessings. bRav Adda bar Ahava said:It is fitting that one engage bin a matter in which the community is engaged. /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. מתניתין בזבינא מיצעא ודשמואל בזבינא חריפא,תניא כוותיה דשמואל הלוקח כלים מן התגר לשגרן לבית חמיו ואמר לו אם מקבלין אותן ממני אני נותן לך דמיהם ואם לאו אני נותן לך לפי טובת הנאה שבהן נאנסו בהליכה חייב,בחזרה פטור מפני שהוא כנושא שכר,ההוא ספסירא דשקל חמרא לזבוני ולא איזבן בהדי דהדר איתניס חמרא חייביה רב נחמן לשלומי איתיביה רבא לרב נחמן נאנסו בהליכה חייב בחזרה פטור,אמר ליה חזרה דספסירא הולכה היא דאילו משכח לזבוני אפילו אבבא דביתיה מי לא מזבין ליה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big קונם שאני נהנה לערלים מותר בערלי ישראל ואסור במולי נוכרים,שאני נהנה למולים אסור בערלי ישראל ומותר במולי נוכרים שאין הערלה קרויה אלא לשם נוכרים שנאמר כי כל הגוים ערלים וכל בית ישראל ערלי לב (ירמיהו ט, כה) ואומר והיה הפלשתי הערל הזה (שמואל א יז, לו) ואומר פן תשמחנה בנות פלשתים פן תעלוזנה בנות הערלים (שמואל ב א, כ),רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר מאוסה היא הערלה שנתגנו בה רשעים שנאמר כי כל הגוים ערלים (ירמיהו ט, כה) רבי ישמעאל אומר גדולה מילה שנכרתו עליה שלוש עשרה בריתות,רבי יוסי אומר גדולה מילה שדוחה את השבת חמורה,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר גדולה מילה שלא נתלה לו למשה הצדיק עליה מלוא שעה,רבי נחמיה אומר גדולה מילה שדוחה את הנגעים רבי אומר גדולה מילה שכל המצוות שעשה אברהם אבינו לא נקרא שלם עד שמל שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א),דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאלמלא היא לא ברא הקב"ה את עולמו שנאמר כה אמר ה' אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי (ירמיהו לג, כה), big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר גדולה מילה שכל זכויות שעשה משה רבינו לא עמדו לו כשנתרשל מן המילה שנאמר ויפגשהו ה' ויבקש המיתו (שמות ד, כד),אמר רבי חס ושלום שמשה רבינו נתרשל מן המילה אלא כך אמר אמול ואצא סכנה היא שנאמר ויהי ביום השלישי בהיותם כואבים וגו' (בראשית לד, כה) אמול ואשהא שלשה ימים הקב"ה אמר לי לך שוב מצרים (שמות ד, יט) אלא מפני מה נענש משה 31b. it must be that bthe mishnais dealing bwith an average sale,which is neither of particularly low quality and difficult to sell nor of particularly high quality and in high demand. Therefore, when it is sold at the fixed price, it cannot be said that either the buyer or seller benefits. Consequently, the one taking the vow must lower the price when selling to those forbidden by the vow and add to the price when buying from them. bAndby contrast, the case bof Shmuelis referring bto a keen sale,in which a sale at the fixed price is considered to be primarily beneficial to the buyer.,The Gemara comments: It bis taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance with the opinion of Shmuelthat taking an item from the seller to inspect it before purchase is considered like borrowing it. In the case of bone who takes utensils from a merchantin order bto send them to his father-in-law’s houseas a gift band says tothe merchant: bIf they accept them from me Iwill bgive you their value, and ifthey do bnotwant them, bIwill bgive youa sum of money baccording tothe value of bthe ficial benefit thatI received bfrom them,i.e., I will pay something for the benefit that I received from showing my father-in-law that I want to honor him, then if ban accident occurs tothe utensils bon the wayto the house of the father-in-law and they are broken, the buyer is bliableto pay because he has the status of a borrower.,But if the father-in-law did not want them and returned them to the seller, and an accident occurred bon the returntrip, the buyer bis exempt because he is like a paid bailee.Since the father-in-law decided not to accept them, and the prospective buyer no longer benefits from them, he is not considered to be a borrower, but rather, a paid bailee of these utensils, and a paid bailee is exempt in the case of an accident.,The Gemara relates: There was ba certain middleman [ isafseira /i] who took a donkey to sell but it was not sold,i.e., he was unsuccessful in finding a buyer. bWhile he was in the midst of returningthe donkey to its owner, ban accident occurredto the bdonkey. Rav Naḥmanthen bobligated him to payfor it. bRava raised an objection to Rav Naḥmanfrom this ibaraita /i: bIf an accident occurred while on the way, he is liableto pay; if it occurred bon the returntrip bhe is exempt.Since the case involving Rav Naḥman occurred on the return trip, why did Rav Naḥman obligate him to pay?,Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: The returntrip bof a middleman islike bthe tripthere, and an item is not considered returned until he actually gives it to its owner. This is bbecause were he to findsomeone bto sellthe donkey to beven at the door of his house, would he not sell it?Therefore, he retains the status of a borrower. However, in the case of bringing a gift to a particular person who does not accept it, the sale is nullified, and the prospective buyer has only to take care of the item until it is returned to its owner, which gives him the status of a paid bailee., strongMISHNA: /strong If one says: bBenefiting from those who are uncircumcised is ikonamfor me,he is bpermittedto derive benefit bfrom uncircumcised Jewsbecause they are not regarded as uncircumcised, bbut he is prohibitedfrom deriving benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world. /b,Conversely, if he said: bBenefiting from those who are circumcisedis ikonam bfor me, he is prohibitedfrom deriving benefit even bfrom uncircumcised Jews andhe is bpermittedto derive benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world, asthe term buncircumcised is used only to name the nations of the world, as it is stated: “For all the nations are uncircumcised, but all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart”(Jeremiah 9:25), band it says: “And this uncircumcised Philistine shall be”(I Samuel 17:36), band it says: “Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph”(II Samuel 1:20). These verses indicate that ordinary gentiles are referred to as uncircumcised, regardless of whether they are actually circumcised., bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The foreskin is repulsive, asis evident from the fact that bthe wicked are disgraced through it, as it is stated:“Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will punish all them that are circumcised in their uncircumcision: Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that have the corners of their hair polled, that dwell in the wilderness; bfor all the nations are uncircumcised,but all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart” (Jeremiah 9:25), which indicates that there is an element of disgrace associated with the foreskin. bRabbi Yishmael says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that thirteen covets were sealed with regard to it,for the word covet appears thirteen times in the biblical passage that discusses circumcision (Genesis, chapter 17)., bRabbi Yosei says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it overrides the strict ihalakhotof bShabbat,as circumcision is performed even if the eighth day following the birth of a son occurs on Shabbat, despite the fact that circumcision violates the prohibition of labor on Shabbat., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision,as is evident from the fact bthatthe punishment of bMoses the righteous fornot circumcising his son when he was capable of doing so bwas not postponedfor even ba full hour(see Exodus 4:24–26)., bRabbi Neḥemya says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it overridesthe prohibitions associated with bleprosy.If leprosy is found on the foreskin of an infant, although it is generally prohibited to cut the afflicted area, it is permitted to do so to perform the mitzva of circumcision. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision thatdespite ball the mitzvot that Abraham our Patriarch did,he bwas not called wholehearted until he circumcisedhimself, bas it is statedat the time that the mitzva was given to him: b“Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1)., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for it the Holy One, Blessed be He, would not have created His world, as it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: If My covet be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that all the merits that Moses our teacheraccrued when he bperformedmitzvot bdid not protect him when he was negligent aboutperforming bthemitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “And the Lord met him and sought to kill him”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Heaven forbid that Moses our teacher was neglectful of themitzva of bcircumcision. Rather, thisis what bhe said:If bI circumcisethe child now band departto begin my journey, it bis a dangerfor the child, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain”(Genesis 34:25), which indicates that the pain of circumcision lasts for several days and the child may be in danger while in pain. If bI circumcisehim immediately band wait three daysand only then embark on the journey, this is problematic, as bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to me: “Go, return into Egypt”(Exodus 4:19), i.e., go immediately. For these reasons Moses did not circumcise the child immediately, but no neglect existed on his part. bButaccording to this explanation, bfor what reason was Moses punished? /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. טעו לא ישלמו כל שכן שתנעול דלת בפני לווין,רבא אמר מתניתין דהכא בדיני קנסות ואידך בהודאות והלואות,רב פפא אמר אידי ואידי בהודאה והלואה כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאינו מרומה,כדריש לקיש דריש לקיש רמי כתיב (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך וכתיב (דברים טז, כ) צדק צדק תרדף הא כיצד כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאין מרומה,רב אשי אמר מתני׳ כדשנין קראי אחד לדין וא' לפשרה,כדתניא צדק צדק תרדף אחד לדין ואחד לפשרה כיצד שתי ספינות עוברות בנהר ופגעו זה בזה אם עוברות שתיהן שתיהן טובעות בזה אחר זה שתיהן עוברות וכן שני גמלים שהיו עולים במעלות בית חורון ופגעו זה בזה אם עלו שניהן שניהן נופלין בזה אחר זה שניהן עולין,הא כיצד טעונה ושאינה טעונה תידחה שאינה טעונה מפני טעונה קרובה ושאינה קרובה תידחה קרובה מפני שאינה קרובה היו שתיהן קרובות שתיהן רחוקות הטל פשרה ביניהן ומעלות שכר זו לזו,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר ב"ד יפה אחר רבי אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל,תנא קול ריחים בבורני שבוע הבן שבוע הבן אור הנר בברור חיל משתה שם משתה שם,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר חכמים לישיבה אחר ר' אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל אחר רבי יהושע לפקיעין אחר רבן גמליאל ליבנא אחר רבי עקיבא לבני ברק אחר רבי מתיא לרומי אחר רבי חנניא בן תרדיון לסיכני אחר ר' יוסי לציפורי אחר רבי יהודה בן בתירה לנציבין אחר רבי יהושע לגולה אחר רבי לבית שערים אחר חכמים ללשכת הגזית:,דיני ממונות פותחין כו': היכי אמרינן אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו מי יימר כדקאמריתו,א"ל עולא והא חסמינן להו וליחסמו מי לא תניא רבי שמעון בן אליעזר אומר מסיעין את העדים ממקום למקום כדי שתיטרף דעתן ויחזרו בהן,מי דמי התם ממילא קא מידחו הכא קא דחינן להו בידים,אלא אמר עולא הכי אמרינן יש לך עדים להזימם א"ל רבה וכי פותחין בזכותו של זה שהיא חובתו של זה,ומי הויא חובתו והתנן אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיגמר הדין,הכי אמינא אילו שתיק האי עד דמיגמר דיניה ומייתי עדים ומזים להו הויא ליה חובתו של זה אלא אמר רבה אמרינן ליה יש לך עדים להכחישן,רב כהנא אמר מדבריכם נזדכה פלוני אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אמרי' ליה אי לא קטלת לא תדחל רב אשי אמר כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו,תניא כוותיה דאביי ורבא רבי אומר (במדבר ה, יט) אם לא שכב איש אותך ואם לא שטית וגו' 32b. then if the judges berred they should notneed to bpaythe party they wronged, as they can claim that they were prevented from examining the witnesses effectively. The Gemara answers: If that were to be the ihalakha /i, ball the more so thatthis bwould lock the door in the face ofpotential bborrowers.If people know that the courts are not responsible for an error in judgment, they will not be willing to lend money., bRava says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard to laws of fines,not standard cases of monetary law. bAnd the othersources, i.e., the mishna in tractate iShevi’itand the ibaraita /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, are stated bwith regard tocases of badmissions and loans,in which there is cause to relax the procedures of deliberation, as explained., bRav Pappa says: This and that,i.e., both the mishna here and the other sources, are stated bwith regard tocases of ban admission and a loan.The distinction between them is that the mishna bhere,which rules that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court suspects that one party is attempting to defraud the other party and have witnesses offer false testimony on his own behalf. bThere,in the ibaraitaand in the mishna in tractate iShevi’it /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, the ruling is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b,This distinction is bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses: It bis writtenin one verse: b“In justice shall you judge your neighbor”(Leviticus 19:15), bandit bis writtenin another verse: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow”(Deuteronomy 16:21), with the repetition indicating that it is not enough to merely judge with justice. He continues: bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bHere,this latter verse is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court must take extra care to judge with justice; and bthere,that former verse is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b, bRav Ashi says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is bas we answered,i.e., in accordance with any one of the answers offered by the other iamora’im /i. And those bverseswere not stated with regard to fraudulent trials; rather, boneis stated bwith regard to judgment,in which the court must pursue justice extensively, band oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow,” onemention of “justice” is stated bwith regard to judgment and oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. How so?Where there are btwo boats traveling on the river and they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bpass, both of them sink,as the river is not wide enough for both to pass. If they pass bone after the other, both of them pass. And similarly,where there are btwo camels who were ascending the ascent of Beit Ḥoron,where there is a narrow steep path, band they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bascend, both of them fall.If they ascend bone after the other, both of them ascend. /b, bHowdoes one decide which of them should go first? If there is one boat that is bladen andone boat bthat is not laden,the needs of the one bthat is not laden should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is laden.If there is one boat that is bcloseto its destination bandone boat bthat is not closeto its destination, the needs of the one that is bclose should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is not close.If bboth of them were closeto their destinations, or bboth of them were farfrom their destinations, bimpose a compromise between themto decide which goes first, bandthe owners of the boats bpay a fee to one other,i.e., the owners of the first boat compensate the owner of the boat that waits, for any loss incurred.,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the best,most prestigious, bcourtof the generation. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil. /b,The Sages btaught:When the gentile authorities issued decrees outlawing observance of the mitzvot, members of Jewish communities devised clandestine ways of indicating observance of mitzvot to each other. For example: If one produces bthe sound of a millstone inthe city called bBurni,this is tantamount to announcing: bWeek of the son, week of the son,i.e., there will be a circumcision. If one displays the blight of a lamp inthe city called bBeror Ḥayil,this is tantamount to announcing: There is a wedding bfeast there,there is a wedding bfeast there. /b, bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the Sages to the academywhere they are found. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil, after Rabbi Yehoshua to Peki’in, after Rabban Gamliel to Yavne, after Rabbi Akiva to Bnei Brak, after Rabbi Matya to Rome [ iRomi /i], after Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon to Sikhnei, after Rabbi Yosei to Tzippori, after Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira to Netzivin, after Rabbi Yehoshua to the exile [ igola /i],i.e., Babylonia, bafter RabbiYehuda HaNasi bto Beit She’arim,and bafter the Sagesin the time of the Temple bto the Chamber of Hewn Stone. /b,§ The mishna teaches that in cases of bmonetary law,the court bopensthe deliberations either with a claim to exempt the accused, or with a claim to find him liable. In cases of capital law, the court opens the deliberations with a claim to acquit the accused, but does not open the deliberations with a claim to find him liable. The Gemara asks: bHow do we saythis opening stage of the deliberations? In other words, with what claim does the court begin deliberating? bRav Yehuda said: We say this tothe witnesses: bWho saysthat the event occurred bas you said?Perhaps you erred?, bUlla said to him: Butby confronting the witnesses in this manner, bwe silence them.The witnesses will think that the court suspects them of lying, and they will not testify. Rav Yehuda said to him: bAnd let them be silenced. Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:1): bRabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says:In cases of capital law, the court bbrings the witnesses fromone bplace toanother bplace in order to confuse them so that they will retracttheir testimony if they are lying.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bArethe ihalakhot bcomparable? There,where Rabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says to bring the witnesses from place to place, the witnesses bare repressed by themselves,whereas bhere, we repress them bydirect baction,and that the court should not do., bRather, Ulla says: We say thisto the accused: bDo you have witnesses to determinethat the witnesses who testified against you are bconspiring witnesses? Rabba said to him: But do we openthe deliberations bwitha claim to bacquitthe accused bthat isto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses? This claim can lead to the witnesses incurring liability for their testimony.,The Gemara questions Rabba’s assumption: bBut isthis to bthe liability ofthe witnesses? bBut didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iMakkot5b): bConspiring witnesses are not killedfor their testimony buntil the verdictof the one concerning whom they testified bis issued?Therefore, if they will be shown to be conspiring witnesses at this early stage of the proceedings, they will not be liable.,The Gemara restates Rabba’s objection: bThisis what bI say: Ifthe accused bwould be silent until his verdict is issued andthen bbrings witnesses andthe court bdetermines themto be bconspiringwitnesses, it will be found that the statement of the court bisto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses. bRather, Rabba says: We say tothe accused: bDo you have witnesses to contradict them?If the first witnesses are contradicted as to the facts of the case, no one is liable., bRav Kahana said:We say to the witnesses: bBased on your statements, so-and-so is acquitted.The court issues a ipro formadeclaration that it is possible to find a reason to acquit based on the testimony of the witnesses, and then they begin the deliberations. bAbaye and Rava both say: We say tothe accused: For example, bif you did not killanyone, bdo not fearthe consequences of these proceedings, as you will be acquitted. bRav Ashi says:The court announces: bWhoever knowsof a reason bto acquitthe accused bshould come and teachthis reason bconcerning him. /b,The Gemara comments: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe explanation bof Abaye and Rava. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The priest administering the isotarite to the isotasays to her: b“If no man has lain with you and if you have not gone astrayto impurity while under your husband, you shall be free from this water of bitterness that causes the curse. But if you have gone astray while under your husband…” (Numbers 5:19–20). The priest first states the scenario in which the woman is innocent of adultery.
41. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33b. על המעשר ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אומר על לשון הרע אמר רבא ואיתימא ריב"ל מאי קראה (תהלים סג, יב) והמלך ישמח באלהים יתהלל כל הנשבע בו כי יסכר פי דוברי שקר,איבעיא להו רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי על לשון הרע קאמר או דילמא אף על לשון הרע נמי קאמר ת"ש כשנכנסו רבותינו לכרם ביבנה היה שם רבי יהודה ור' אלעזר בר' יוסי ור"ש נשאלה שאלה זו בפניהם מכה זו מפני מה מתחלת בבני מעיים וגומרת בפה נענה רבי יהודה ברבי אלעאי ראש המדברים בכל מקום ואמר אע"פ שכליות יועצות ולב מבין ולשון מחתך פה גומר נענה רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי ואמר מפני שאוכלין בה דברים טמאין דברים טמאים סלקא דעתך אלא שאוכלין בה דברים שאינן מתוקנים נענה ר' שמעון ואמר בעון ביטול תורה,אמרו לו נשים יוכיחו שמבטלות את בעליהן נכרים יוכיחו שמבטלין את ישראל תינוקות יוכיחו שמבטלין את אביהן תינוקות של בית רבן יוכיחו,התם כדרבי גוריון דאמר רבי גוריון ואיתימא רב יוסף ברבי שמעיה בזמן שהצדיקים בדור צדיקים נתפסים על הדור אין צדיקים בדור תינוקות של בית רבן נתפסים על הדור א"ר יצחק בר זעירי ואמרי לה א"ר שמעון בן נזירא מאי קראה (שיר השירים א, ח) אם לא תדעי לך היפה בנשים צאי לך בעקבי הצאן וגו' ואמרינן גדיים הממושכנין על הרועים ש"מ אף על לשון הרע נמי קאמר ש"מ,ואמאי קרו ליה ראש המדברים בכל מקום דיתבי רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי ורבי שמעון ויתיב יהודה בן גרים גבייהו פתח ר' יהודה ואמר כמה נאים מעשיהן של אומה זו תקנו שווקים תקנו גשרים תקנו מרחצאות ר' יוסי שתק נענה רשב"י ואמר כל מה שתקנו לא תקנו אלא לצורך עצמן תקנו שווקין להושיב בהן זונות מרחצאות לעדן בהן עצמן גשרים ליטול מהן מכס הלך יהודה בן גרים וסיפר דבריהם ונשמעו למלכות אמרו יהודה שעילה יתעלה יוסי ששתק יגלה לציפורי שמעון שגינה יהרג,אזל הוא ובריה טשו בי מדרשא כל יומא הוה מייתי להו דביתהו ריפתא וכוזא דמיא וכרכי כי תקיף גזירתא א"ל לבריה נשים דעתן קלה עליהן דילמא מצערי לה ומגליא לן אזלו טשו במערתא איתרחיש ניסא איברי להו חרובא ועינא דמיא והוו משלחי מנייהו והוו יתבי עד צוארייהו בחלא כולי יומא גרסי בעידן צלויי לבשו מיכסו ומצלו והדר משלחי מנייהו כי היכי דלא ליבלו איתבו תריסר שני במערתא אתא אליהו וקם אפיתחא דמערתא אמר מאן לודעיה לבר יוחי דמית קיסר ובטיל גזירתיה,נפקו חזו אינשי דקא כרבי וזרעי אמר מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה כל מקום שנותנין עיניהן מיד נשרף יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם להחריב עולמי יצאתם חיזרו למערתכם הדור אזול איתיבו תריסר ירחי שתא אמרי משפט רשעים בגיהנם י"ב חדש יצתה בת קול ואמרה צאו ממערתכם נפקו כל היכא דהוה מחי ר' אלעזר הוה מסי ר"ש אמר לו בני די לעולם אני ואתה,בהדי פניא דמעלי שבתא חזו ההוא סבא דהוה נקיט תרי מדאני אסא ורהיט בין השמשות אמרו ליה הני למה לך אמר להו לכבוד שבת ותיסגי לך בחד חד כנגד (שמות כ, ז) זכור וחד כנגד (דברים ה, יא) שמור א"ל לבריה חזי כמה חביבין מצות על ישראל יתיב דעתייהו,שמע ר' פנחס בן יאיר חתניה ונפק לאפיה עייליה לבי בניה הוה קא אריך ליה לבישריה חזי דהוה ביה פילי בגופיה הוה קא בכי וקא נתרו דמעת עיניה וקמצוחא ליה א"ל אוי לי שראיתיך בכך א"ל אשריך שראיתני בכך שאילמלא לא ראיתני בכך לא מצאת בי כך דמעיקרא כי הוה מקשי ר"ש בן יוחי קושיא הוה מפרק ליה ר' פנחס בן יאיר תריסר פירוקי לסוף כי הוה מקשי ר"פ בן יאיר קושיא הוה מפרק ליה רשב"י עשרין וארבעה פירוקי,אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש ניסא איזיל אתקין מילתא דכתיב (בראשית לג, יח) ויבא יעקב שלם ואמר רב שלם בגופו שלם בממונו שלם בתורתו (בראשית לג, יח) ויחן את פני העיר אמר רב מטבע תיקן להם ושמואל אמר שווקים תיקן להם ור' יוחנן אמר מרחצאות תיקן להם אמר איכא מילתא דבעי לתקוני אמרו ליה איכא דוכתא דאית ביה ספק טומאה 33b. bforneglecting to separate btithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: iAskaracomes as punishment for bslander. Rava said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwho said it: bWhat is the versethat alludes to this? b“But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped”(Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. iAskaraaffects the mouth along with other parts of the body., bA dilemma was raised beforethose who were sitting in the study hall: Did bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, saythat iaskaracomes as punishment only bfor slander, or perhaps he saidit was balso for slander? Comeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: bWhen our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before themwith regard to bthis plagueof iaskara /i: bWhy does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila’i,who was bthe head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapesthe voice that emerges from the mouth, still, bthe mouth completesthe formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said:This disease ends in the mouth bbecause one eats with it non-kosher things.They immediately wondered about this: bDoes it enter your mindto say that iaskarais caused by eating bnon-kosher food?Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? bRather,it comes as a punishment bfor eatingfoods bthat were notritually bprepared,i.e., were not tithed. bRabbi Shimon responded and said:This disease comes as a punishment bfor the sin of dereliction inthe study of bTorah. /b, bThey said to him: Women will provethat dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract iaskara /i. He answered them: They are punished because bthey cause their husbands to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bGentiles will provethat this is not the cause, as they also contract iaskaraeven though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because bthey cause Israel to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bChildren will provethat this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from iaskara /i. He answered them: They are punished because bthey cause their fathers to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bSchool children will provethat this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from iaskara /i.,The Gemara answers: bThere /b, it must be understood bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Guryon,as bRabbi Guryon said, and some saythat it was bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya,who said it: bAt a time whenthere are brighteous people in the generation,the brighteous are seized /b, i.e., they die or suffer, bforthe sins of bthe generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children,who are also without sin, bare seized forthe sins of bthe generation /b. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Ze’iri said, and some saythat bRabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the versethat alludes to this? b“If you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flockand feed your kids, beside the shepherds’ tents [ imishkenot /i] b” ( /bSong of Songs 1:8). bAnd we sayin explanation of this verse: They are the blambs that are taken as collateral [ ihamemushkanin /i],which is etymologically similar to the word imishkenot /i, bin place of the shepherds.If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, bconclude from itthat Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaidthat the illness of iaskara balsoresults from bslander,as the ibaraitaprovides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, bconclude from it. /b,In this ibaraitaRabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: bAnd why did they call him head of the speakers in every place?The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place bwhen Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts, sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation,the Romans, as bthey established marketplaces, established bridges,and bestablished bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves;and bbridges, to collect taxes fromall who pass over bthem. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statementsto his household, bandthose statements continued to spread until bthey were heard by the monarchy. Theyruled and bsaid: Yehuda, who elevatedthe Roman regime, bshall be elevatedand appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. bYosei, who remained silent, shall be exiledfrom his home in Judea as punishment, and sent btothe city of bTzipporiin the Galilee. bAnd Shimon, who denouncedthe government, bshall be killed. /b,Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai band his son,Rabbi Elazar, bwentand bhid in the study hall. Every dayRabbi Shimon’s bwife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified,Rabbi Shimon bsaid to his son: Women are easily impressionableand, therefore, there is room for concern blestthe authorities btorture her and she reveal ourwhereabouts. bThey went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurredand ba carobtree bwas created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sitcovered bin sand up to their necks /b. bThey would studyTorah ball dayin that manner. bAt the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijahthe Prophet bcame and stood at the entrance to the caveand bsaid: Who will inform bar Yoḥai thatthe bemperor died and his decree has been abrogated? /b, bThey emergedfrom the cave, and bsaw people who were plowing and sowing.Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai bsaid:These people babandon eternal lifeof Torah study band engage in temporal lifefor their own sustece. The Gemara relates that bevery place thatRabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar bdirected their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them:Did byou emergefrom the cave in order bto destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again wentand bsatthere bfor twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lastsfor btwelve months.Surely their sin was atoned in that time. bA Divine Voice emerged and saidto them: bEmerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal.Rabbi Shimon bsaid toRabbi Elazar: bMy son, you and I suffice for theentire bworld,as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah., bAs the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat.They said to him: bAnd let one suffice.He answered them: bOneis bcorresponding to: “Rememberthe Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8), bandone is bcorresponding to: “Observethe Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon bsaid to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds wereput bat easeand they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study., bRabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir,Rabbi Shimon’s bson-in-law /b, bheard and went out togreet bhim. He brought him into the bathhouse andbegan btending to his flesh. He saw thatRabbi Shimon bhad cracks inthe skin on bhis body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and causedRabbi Shimon bpain.Rabbi Pineḥas bsaid toRabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: bWoe is me, that I have seen you like this.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me thisprominence in Torah, basthe Gemara relates: bAt first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would respondto his question with btwelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would raise a difficulty /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would respondwith btwenty-four answers. /b,Rabbi Shimon bsaid: Since a miracle transpiredfor me, bI will goand brepair somethingfor the sake of others in gratitude for God’s kindness, bas it is written: “And Jacob came wholeto the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countece of the city” (Genesis 33:18). bRav said,the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: bWhole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah.And what did he do? bAnd he graced the countece of the city;he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. bRav said:Jacob bestablished a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: He established bathhouses for them.In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. bHe said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2a. מתני׳ big strongהמקנא /strong /big לאשתו רבי אליעזר אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים ומשקה על פי עד אחד או ע"פ עצמו רבי יהושע אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים ומשקה ע"פ שנים,כיצד מקנא לה אומר לה בפני שנים אל תדברי עם איש פלוני ודברה עמו עדיין היא מותרת לביתה ומותרת לאכול בתרומה,נכנסה עמו לבית הסתר ושהתה עמו כדי טומאה אסורה לביתה ואסורה לאכול בתרומה ואם מת חולצת ולא מתייבמת, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מכדי תנא מנזיר סליק מאי תנא דקא תנא סוטה,כדרבי דתניא רבי אומר למה נסמכה פרשת נזיר לפרשת סוטה לומר לך שכל הרואה סוטה בקלקולה יזיר עצמו מן היין,וליתני סוטה והדר ליתני נזיר איידי דתנא כתובות ותנא המדיר תנא נדרים ואיידי דתנא נדרים תנא נזיר דדמי לנדרים וקתני סוטה כדרבי,המקנא דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא קסבר תנא דידן אסור לקנאות,א"ר שמואל בר רב יצחק כי הוה פתח ריש לקיש בסוטה אמר הכי אין מזווגין לו לאדם אשה אלא לפי מעשיו שנא' (תהלים קכה, ג) כי לא ינוח שבט הרשע על גורל הצדיקים אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן וקשין לזווגן כקריעת ים סוף, שנאמר (תהלים סח, ז) אלהים מושיב יחידים ביתה מוציא אסירים בכושרות,איני והא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ארבעים יום קודם יצירת הולד בת קול יוצאת ואומרת בת פלוני לפלוני בית פלוני לפלוני שדה פלוני לפלוני לא קשיא הא בזוג ראשון הא בזוג שני,ר"א אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים וכו' עד כאן לא פליגי אלא בקינוי וסתירה אבל בטומאה עד אחד מהימן,ותנן נמי עד אחד אומר אני ראיתי שניטמאת לא היתה שותה,מדאורייתא מנלן דמהימן עד אחד דתנו רבנן (במדבר ה, יג) ועד אין בה בשנים הכתוב מדבר,או אינו אלא אפילו באחד ת"ל (דברים יט, טו) לא יקום עד אחד באיש 2a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bone who issues a warning to his wifenot to seclude herself with a particular man, so that if she does not heed his warning she will assume the status of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [ isota /i], bRabbi Eliezer says:He bissues a warning to her based on,i.e., in the presence of, btwowitnesses for the warning to be effective. If two witnesses were not present for the warning, she is not a isotaeven if two witnesses saw her seclusion with another man. bAndthe husband bgivesthe bitter water to her bto drink based onthe testimony of bone witnesswho saw the seclusion, boreven bbased on his owntestimony that he himself saw them secluded together, as Rabbi Eliezer holds that only the warning requires witnesses, not the seclusion. bRabbi Yehoshua says:He both bissues a warning to her based on twowitnesses band givesthe bitter water to her bto drink based onthe testimony of btwowitnesses.,The mishna asks: bHowdoes he bissue a warning to herin an effective manner? If he bsays to her in the presence of twowitnesses: bDo not speak withthe bmancalled bso-and-so, and shenevertheless bspoke with him, she is still permitted to her home,i.e., she is permitted to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, bandif she is the wife of a priest bshe isstill bpermitted to partake of iteruma /i. /b,However, if after he told her not to speak with so-and-so, bshe entered into a secluded place and remained withthat man long benough tobecome bdefiled,i.e., sufficient time to engage in sexual intercourse, bshe is forbidden to her homefrom that moment until she undergoes the isotarite. bAndlikewise, if she was the wife of a priest bshe is prohibited from partaking of iteruma /i,as she was possibly disqualified by her infidelity, so long as her innocence is not proven by means of the bitter water. bAnd ifher husband bdieschildless before she drinks the bitter water, bshe perform iḥalitza /iwith her late husband’s brother band may not enter into levirate marriage,as, if she had been unfaithful, levirate marriage is forbidden., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara questions the placement of this tractate within the mishnaic order of iNashim /i. bNow,the itannaarose fromtractate iNazir /i,which is the tractate preceding iSotain the order of the Mishna. bWhatdid he bteachin iNazir bthatrequired that he bteachtractate iSota /iimmediately afterward, as at first glance there seems to be no connection between this tractate and iNazir /i?,The Gemara answers: This was done bin accordance withthe statement bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi with regard to the sequence of passages in the Torah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Why is the portion of a nazirite(Numbers, chapter 6) bplaced adjacent to the portion of a isota /i(Numbers, chapter 5)? This was done bto tell you that anyone who sees a isotain her disgraceas she undergoes the rite of the bitter water bshould renounce wine,as wine is one of the causes of sexual transgression, as it loosens inhibitions. For the same reason that the Torah teaches these passages one after the other, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi arranged these tractates one after the other.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, blethim bteachtractate iSotafirst and then lethim bteachtractate iNazir /i,which is the way these topics are ordered in the Torah, and also accords better with the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. The Gemara answers: bSincethe itanna btaughttractate iKetubot /i, andin that tractate he btaughta chapter that begins: bOne who vows,in which there are several imishnayotconcerning vows between husbands and wives, he then btaughttractate iNedarim /i,whose subject is the ihalakhotof vows. bAnd sincehe btaughttractate iNedarim /i,he then btaughttractate iNazir /i, which is similar totractate iNedarim /iin that one becomes a nazirite by taking a vow. bAndhe then bteachestractate iSota /i, in accordance withthe statement bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi.,§ The Gemara begins clarifying the mishna. The mishna states: bOne who issues a warningto his wife. By employing the descriptive phrase: One who issues a warning, and not the prescriptive phrase: One issues a warning, the itannaindicates that bafter the fact, yes,it is effective if he issues a warning in this manner, but ideally, bno,one should not issue a warning to his wife at all iab initio /i.Apparently, bthe itannaof ourmishna bholdsthat it bis prohibited to issue a warningto one’s wife iab initioin a manner that can cause her to become a isota /i, and all the ihalakhotconcerning a isotaare for one who issued a warning when not obligated to do so., bRav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak says: When Reish Lakish would introducehis discussion of the Torah passage bof isota /ihe would bsay this:Heaven bmatches a woman to a man only according to his actions, as it is stated: “For the rod of wickedness shall not rest upon the lot of the righteous”(Psalms 125:3), indicating that if one has a wicked wife it is due to his own evil conduct. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: And it is as difficult to matcha couple together baswas bthe splitting of the Red Sea, as it is statedin a verse that speaks of the exodus from Egypt: b“God makes the solitary individuals dwell in a house; He brings out prisoners into prosperity [ ibakosharot /i]”(Psalms 68:7). God takes single individuals and causes them to dwell in a house by properly matching a man to a woman. This is similar to the exodus from Egypt, which culminated in the splitting of the Red Sea, where He released prisoners into prosperity.,The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat a man is matched to a woman according to his actions? bBut Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Forty days before an embryo is formed a Divine Voice issues forth and says: The daughter of so-and-so isdestined btomarry bso-and-so; such and such a house isdestined btobe inhabited by bso-and-so; such and such a field isdestined btobe farmed by bso-and-so.This clearly states that these matters, including marriage, are decreed for a person even before he is formed. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement that Rav Yehuda says in the name of Rav is bwith regard to a first match [ izivug /i],while bthisstatement of Rabba bar bar Ḥana in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa is bwith regard to a second match.A first match is decreed in heaven; a second match is according to one’s actions.,§ The Gemara now clarifies the dispute in the mishna. bRabbi Eliezer says:The husband must bissue a warning to her based on,i.e., in the presence of, btwowitnesses, and he gives the bitter water to her to drink based on the testimony of one witness. Rabbi Yehoshua says: He both issues a warning to her based on two witnesses and gives the bitter water to her to drink based on the testimony of two witnesses who saw them secluded together. The Gemara notes: Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua bdisagree only with regard tothe requisite number of witnesses for the bwarning andthe bseclusion,whether one or two witnesses are required, bbut with regard tothe testimony concerning bdefilementafter the warning was issued and seclusion had occurred, they agree that even the testimony of bone witness is deemed credibleto establish that the woman actually engaged in sexual intercourse with the man while secluded.,The Gemara comments: bAnd we learned alsoin another mishna (31a) that if ba single witness says: I saw that she was defiled,then bshe would not drinkthe bitter water, as the testimony is accepted, and her husband must divorce her and she forfeits payment of her marriage contract. Therefore, there is no need to perform the isotarite.,The Gemara asks: bBy Torah law, from where do wederive bthat one witness is deemed crediblewith regard to testifying that a isotaengaged in sexual intercourse? The Gemara answers: bAs the Sages taughtin reference to the verse describing the circumstances in which a woman defiled through an act of adultery becomes forbidden to her husband, which states: “And a man lie with her carnally and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, band there is no witness [ ied /i] against her”(Numbers 5:13), bthe verse is speaking ofa lack of btwowitnesses. When the verse refers to the lack of an ied /i, written in the singular, it actually indicates that there are not two witnesses against her, but only one, as the ibaraitawill now explain.,The ibaraitacontinues and asks: bOrperhaps the verse is referring bonlyto a case where there was not beven onewitness to the act of sexual intercourse, as the singular usage of the word iedwould seem to indicate? The ibaraitanow proves that elsewhere the word iedis used to indicate two witnesses, as bthe verse states: “One witness [ ied /i] shall not rise up against a manfor any iniquity or any sin that he sins; by the mouth of two witnesses or by the mouth of three witnesses shall a matter be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15).
43. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.1.25-5.1.26 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.1.25. But the devil, thinking that he had already consumed Biblias, who was one of those who had denied Christ, desiring to increase her condemnation through the utterance of blasphemy, brought her again to the torture, to compel her, as already feeble and weak, to report impious things concerning us. 5.1.26. But she recovered herself under the suffering, and as if awaking from a deep sleep, and reminded by the present anguish of the eternal punishment in hell, she contradicted the blasphemers. 'How,' she said, 'could those eat children who do not think it lawful to taste the blood even of irrational animals?' And thenceforward she confessed herself a Christian, and was given a place in the order of the witnesses.
44. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 158, 155

155. wherefore he exhorts us in the Scripture also in these words: 'Thou shalt surely remember the Lord that wrought in thee those great and wonderful things'. For when they are properly conceived, they are manifestly great and glorious; first the construction of the body and the disposition of the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
abortion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
abraham, covenant with Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
abraham, gods promise to Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 53
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
accusations (against creator or creation) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
action Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
ada b. ahava, rav Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
adam Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 74
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
adultery Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
aeneas Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
aggadah, distribution of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
aggadah, in nonhalakhic discussions Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
all men Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of scripture Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
angel Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 74
angels Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 92
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
antony (m. antonius) Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
ass worship Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 23
bar kokhba (revolt) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 207
bavli, amoraic strata of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
beatitudes Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
biblical texts, halakhah and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
blessing Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 92
caracalla Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
cassius dio Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
circumcision, of angels Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 74
circumcision Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 23
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
collective memory Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
commandment, commandments Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5, 184
commandment Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
contract, relation to trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
conversation analysis Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
corruption Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
covenant Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
covenant and creation, as socio-legal instrument Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
creation Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 92
culture, effect on morality Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
david Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 205
death, way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
decalogue/ten commandments Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394; Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 129; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
demons, demonic, evil spirits Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
dies saturni (saturday) Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
diligence Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
diocletian Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
dionysius of halicarnassus Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
divine/god, connection to human realm Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
divine/god, exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
egypt, egyptians Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
egypt Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 207
eleazar Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
embodiment Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
enigma/enigmas, enigmatic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
eros Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil, actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil, plans Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
exegesis, allegorical Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exegesis, gnostic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exegesis, symbolic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
food Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
gnostics/gnostic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
gospels Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
group-orientation, and moral actions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
group-orientation, and moral agency Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
hanukah candles, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
harmonization Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
heart Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
hellenistic synagogal prayers Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 129
hellenists (jewish fraction) Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 23
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
high priest Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
high priests, oracle Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
homer Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
honour (and shame), morality and gods honour Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
identity marker / boundary marker Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 23
incarnation Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
intention Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 340; Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 461, 471
israel Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
jerusalem Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
jesus, and torah observance Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394
jesus Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 205
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
jews Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
jubilees (book) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
judaism, rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 205
kahana Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
kiddush hayom, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
knowledge, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
labor, prohibitions Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
law, jewish Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
lawsuits Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
love, of brothers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
love, of neighbours Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
magic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
matter (ïlh) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
matthew, gospel of Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394
megillah, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
mezuzot Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159, 472
minayin/minalan Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
moods, verbal, imperative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
moods, verbal, indicative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
morality, early christian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
morality, moral actions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
morality, moral agents Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
mortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 471; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
murder Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
mystery/mysteries, greater Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
name (divine), profanation of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
nations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
neighbour Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
new creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 53
new testament Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
oracles Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
oral Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
paidagogos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
parallel Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
passover, four cups of, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 471
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
paul, the apostle/st. paul, apostle divine apostle) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
pauline letters/epistles Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
performance Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
pharisees Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 205
philo of alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
phylacteries' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
plutarch Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
prayer Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159, 461, 471, 472
priest, priests Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
principles (érxæ) (first) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52, 53
prophets, ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
protreptikos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
providence Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
qedushat ha-yom Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 129
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
qumran Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
r. eleazar b. r. shimon Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136
r. phinḥas b. yair Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136
rabbinic, academies Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
rabbis, divergent opinions of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
rabbis / rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 205
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), purification of tiberias Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136
rava Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
recital, recitation Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5, 184
reliability Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
repetition Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184; Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 461, 471
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
ritual Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
sabbath, are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
sabbath Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 92; Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5, 184; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159; Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95; Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 74; Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 129; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 23, 205
sacrifice Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 471
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
saturnus Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
scribal memory Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
scribal performance Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
scribe Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
scripture Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
second temple period Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
secularisation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
sennacherib Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
septuagint, language Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
septuagint/lxx Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
septuagint Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
sermon, on the mount Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
sermon, on the plain Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
sex Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
shabbat (sabbath) Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
shemoneh esreh Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 129
shimon Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
shimon b. yochai Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
simeon b. lakish (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 461
siyyuma Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
skin disease Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
sol, sol indiges Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
sol, sol inuictus Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
sol Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
son, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 92
soul (human) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
special grammar Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
speech, as opposed to action Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
supersessionism, surpassed, of covenant and law Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
t. tatius Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
tamhui, provisions for sabbath Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 461, 471, 472
tefillin/phylacteries Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
temple, in jerusalem Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394
temples, shrines, and altars, of sol indiges (laurentum) Buszard, Greek Translations of Roman Gods (2023) 129
ten commandments Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
textuality Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 471
thematization Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 461, 471, 472
theology Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
timebound positive commandments, contradictory cases Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
timebound positive commandments, in amoraic period Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159, 461, 471; Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 129
torah (law) Iricinschi et al., Beyond the Gnostic Gospels: Studies Building on the Work of Elaine Pagels (2013) 394
tradition Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
traditional phraseology Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
traditions, matthean Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
transmission of rule, womens obligation to perform Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
ulla, r./aha b. ulla, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
variant Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
vegetables Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
vessel of Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
vessels, of clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
vessels, of dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
vessels Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
will, volition Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
wine Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
wisdom) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
word-selection Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
word Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
yehoshua b. levi, r. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
yerushalmi, tolerance for cases that contradict the rule Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
yerushalmi Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45