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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.2


אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.


לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

68 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.2, 2.4, 7.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 2.4. הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל־בֵּית הַיָּיִן וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה׃ 7.1. וְחִכֵּךְ כְּיֵין הַטּוֹב הוֹלֵךְ לְדוֹדִי לְמֵישָׁרִים דּוֹבֵב שִׂפְתֵי יְשֵׁנִים׃ 7.1. שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי הַשּׁוּלַמִּית שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי וְנֶחֱזֶה־בָּךְ מַה־תֶּחֱזוּ בַּשּׁוּלַמִּית כִּמְחֹלַת הַמַּחֲנָיִם׃ 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine. 2.4. He hath brought me to the banqueting-house, And his banner over me is love. 7.1. Return, return, O Shulammite; Return, return, that we may look upon thee. What will ye see in the Shulammite? As it were a dance of two companies.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.24-2.26, 4.1, 4.12, 5.1-5.22, 5.27, 6.4-6.18, 7.8, 8.14, 9.27, 11.13-11.21, 12.2-12.3, 13.5, 13.10, 13.17, 17.16, 20.10, 22.12, 24.16, 27.15, 28.68, 32.10, 32.16, 32.21, 32.41, 33.9-33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.24. קוּמוּ סְּעוּ וְעִבְרוּ אֶת־נַחַל אַרְנֹן רְאֵה נָתַתִּי בְיָדְךָ אֶת־סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ־חֶשְׁבּוֹן הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֶת־אַרְצוֹ הָחֵל רָשׁ וְהִתְגָּר בּוֹ מִלְחָמָה׃ 2.25. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אָחֵל תֵּת פַּחְדְּךָ וְיִרְאָתְךָ עַל־פְּנֵי הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן שִׁמְעֲךָ וְרָגְזוּ וְחָלוּ מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 2.26. וָאֶשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים מִמִּדְבַּר קְדֵמוֹת אֶל־סִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ חֶשְׁבּוֹן דִּבְרֵי שָׁלוֹם לֵאמֹר׃ 4.1. יוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בֶּאֱמֹר יְהוָה אֵלַי הַקְהֶל־לִי אֶת־הָעָם וְאַשְׁמִעֵם אֶת־דְּבָרָי אֲשֶׁר יִלְמְדוּן לְיִרְאָה אֹתִי כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר הֵם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם יְלַמֵּדוּן׃ 4.1. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמַע אֶל־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּ וּבָאתֶם וִירִשְׁתֶּם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 4.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃ 5.1. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 5.1. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָי׃] 5.2. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקּוֹל מִתּוֹךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם׃ 5.2. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב׃ 5.3. לֹא אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי אִתָּנוּ אֲנַחְנוּ אֵלֶּה פֹה הַיּוֹם כֻּלָּנוּ חַיִּים׃ 5.3. בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּן וְטוֹב לָכֶם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּם יָמִים בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תִּירָשׁוּן׃ 5.4. פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.5. אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר׃ 5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 5.11. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 5.13. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃ 5.14. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ׃ 5.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת׃ 5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 5.17. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ וְלֹא תִּנְאָף׃ וְלֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁוְא׃ 5.18. וְלֹא תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה בֵּית רֵעֶךָ שָׂדֵהוּ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 5.19. אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָנָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי׃ 5.21. וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת־כְּבֹדוֹ וְאֶת־גָּדְלוֹ וְאֶת־קֹלוֹ שָׁמַעְנוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה רָאִינוּ כִּי־יְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וָחָי׃ 5.22. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ׃ 5.27. לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 6.11. וּבָתִּים מְלֵאִים כָּל־טוּב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מִלֵּאתָ וּבֹרֹת חֲצוּבִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָצַבְתָּ כְּרָמִים וְזֵיתִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נָטָעְתָּ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 6.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 6.14. לֹא תֵלְכוּן אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים מֵאֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 6.15. כִּי אֵל קַנָּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ פֶּן־יֶחֱרֶה אַף־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּךְ וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 6.17. שָׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמְרוּן אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְעֵדֹתָיו וְחֻקָּיו אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ׃ 6.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ הַיָּשָׁר וְהַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וּבָאתָ וְיָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 7.8. כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוּ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וַיִּפְדְּךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים מִיַּד פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם׃ 8.14. וְרָם לְבָבֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמּוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 11.18. וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.21. לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.2. כִּי־יַרְחִיב יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־גְּבוּלְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לָךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֹכְלָה בָשָׂר כִּי־תְאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר׃ 12.2. אַבֵּד תְּאַבְּדוּן אֶת־כָּל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ־שָׁם הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹרְשִׁים אֹתָם אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם עַל־הֶהָרִים הָרָמִים וְעַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן׃ 12.3. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחֲרֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵי הִשָּׁמְדָם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּפֶן־תִּדְרֹשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר אֵיכָה יַעַבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־כֵּן גַּם־אָנִי׃ 12.3. וְנִתַּצְתֶּם אֶת־מִזְבּחֹתָם וְשִׁבַּרְתֶּם אֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם וַאֲשֵׁרֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ וּפְסִילֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וְאִבַּדְתֶּם אֶת־שְׁמָם מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 13.5. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֹתוֹ תִירָאוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתָיו תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּבְקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹדוּ וּבוֹ תִדְבָּקוּן׃ 13.17. וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ תִּקְבֹּץ אֶל־תּוֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ כָּלִיל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 22.12. גְּדִלִים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת כְּסוּתְךָ אֲשֶׁר תְּכַסֶּה־בָּהּ׃ 24.16. לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת אִיש בְּחֶטְאוֹ יוּמָתוּ׃ 27.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ 28.68. וֶהֱשִׁיבְךָ יְהוָה מִצְרַיִם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ לֹא־תֹסִיף עוֹד לִרְאֹתָהּ וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם שָׁם לְאֹיְבֶיךָ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת וְאֵין קֹנֶה׃ 32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.21. הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃ 32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 2.24. Rise ye up, take your journey, and pass over the valley of Arnon; behold, I have given into thy hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land; begin to possess it, and contend with him in battle." 2.25. This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the peoples that are under the whole heaven, who, when they hear the report of thee, shall tremble, and be in anguish because of thee.’" 2.26. And I sent messengers out of the wilderness of Kedemoth unto Sihon king of Heshbon with words of peace, saying:" 4.1. And now, O Israel, hearken unto the statutes and unto the ordices, which I teach you, to do them; that ye may live, and go in and possess the land which the LORD, the God of your fathers, giveth you." 4.12. And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice." 5.1. And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them." 5.2. The LORD our God made a covet with us in Horeb." 5.3. The LORD made not this covet with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day." 5.4. The LORD spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of the fire—" 5.5. I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare unto you the word of the LORD; for ye were afraid because of the fire, and went not up into the mount—saying: ." 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 5.10. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 5.11. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 5.13. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 5.14. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou." 5.15. And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day." 5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 5.17. Thou shalt not murder. Neither shalt thou commit adultery. Neither shalt thou steal. Neither shalt thou bear false witness against thy neighbour." 5.18. Neither shalt thou covet thy neighbour’s wife; neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour’s house, his field, or his man-servant, or his maid-servant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 5.19. These words the LORD spoke unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice, and it went on no more. And He wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them unto me." 5.20. And it came to pass, when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain did burn with fire, that ye came near unto me, even all the heads of your tribes, and your elders;" 5.21. and ye said: ‘Behold, the LORD our God hath shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the midst of the fire; we have seen this day that God doth speak with man, and he liveth." 5.22. Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die." 5.27. Go say to them: Return ye to your tents." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;" 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 6.10. And it shall be, when the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land which He swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee—great and goodly cities, which thou didst not build," 6.11. and houses full of all good things, which thou didst not fill, and cisterns hewn out, which thou the didst not hew, vineyards and olive-trees, which thou didst not plant, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied—" 6.12. then beware lest thou forget the LORD, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear." 6.14. Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the peoples that are round about you;" 6.15. for a jealous God, even the LORD thy God, is in the midst of thee; lest the anger of the LORD thy God be kindled against thee, and He destroy thee from off the face of the earth." 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 6.17. Ye shall diligently keep the commandments of the LORD your God, and His testimonies, and His statutes, which He hath commanded thee." 6.18. And thou shalt do that which is right and good in the sight of the LORD; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest go in and possess the good land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers," 7.8. but because the LORD loved you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore unto your fathers, hath the LORD brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt." 8.14. then thy heart be lifted up, and thou forget the LORD thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage;" 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 11.18. Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;" 11.21. that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth." 12.2. Ye shall surely destroy all the places, wherein the nations that ye are to dispossess served their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree." 12.3. And ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods; and ye shall destroy their name out of that place." 13.5. After the LORD your God shall ye walk, and Him shall ye fear, and His commandments shall ye keep, and unto His voice shall ye hearken, and Him shall ye serve, and unto Him shall ye cleave." 13.10. but thou shalt surely kill him; thy hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people." 13.17. And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the broad place thereof, and shall burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, unto the LORD thy God; and it shall be a heap for ever; it shall not be built again." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 20.10. When thou drawest nigh unto a city to fight against it, then proclaim peace unto it." 22.12. Thou shalt make thee twisted cords upon the four corners of thy covering, wherewith thou coverest thyself." 24.16. The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers; every man shall be put to death for his own sin." 27.15. Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen." 28.68. And the LORD shall bring thee back into Egypt in ships, by the way whereof I said unto thee: ‘Thou shalt see it no more again’; and there ye shall sell yourselves unto your enemies for bondmen and for bondwoman, and no man shall buy you." 32.10. He found him in a desert land, and in the waste, a howling wilderness; He compassed him about, He cared for him, He kept him as the apple of His eye." 32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him." 32.21. They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation." 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me." 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.13, 1.14, 2.11, 2.12, 2.23, 3.8, 3.12, 4.10, 4.23, 5.21, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7, 7.10, 7.16, 7.20, 8, 8.3, 8.5, 8.7, 8.17, 8.25, 9, 9.14, 9.30, 10, 10.1, 11, 11.2, 11.3, 12.35, 12.36, 13.3, 13.14, 14.5, 14.13, 15, 15.13, 15.15, 16, 18.4, 19.9, 20, 20.1, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16, 20.17, 20.19, 20.22, 23.2, 23.13, 24.8, 24.15, 25.1-31.18, 28, 32, 32.13, 33.11, 33.17, 34.1, 34.7, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. וַיַּעֲבִדוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 1.13. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 3.19, 12.10, 15.13, 41.57, 46.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 15.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לְאַבְרָם יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי־גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 41.57. וְכָל־הָאָרֶץ בָּאוּ מִצְרַיְמָה לִשְׁבֹּר אֶל־יוֹסֵף כִּי־חָזַק הָרָעָב בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 46.4. אָנֹכִי אֵרֵד עִמְּךָ מִצְרַיְמָה וְאָנֹכִי אַעַלְךָ גַם־עָלֹה וְיוֹסֵף יָשִׁית יָדוֹ עַל־עֵינֶיךָ׃ 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land." 15.13. And He said unto Abram: ‘Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;" 41.57. And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn; because the famine was sore in all the earth." 46.4. I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again; and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.5-6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. עַל־כֵּן חָצַבְתִּי בַּנְּבִיאִים הֲרַגְתִּים בְּאִמְרֵי־פִי וּמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ אוֹר יֵצֵא׃ 6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.5. Therefore have I hewed them by the prophets, I have slain them by the words of My mouth; And thy judgment goeth forth as the light." 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 9.11, 10.9, 23.8, 33.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.11. הֵן יַעֲבֹר עָלַי וְלֹא אֶרְאֶה וְיַחֲלֹף וְלֹא־אָבִין לוֹ׃ 10.9. זְכָר־נָא כִּי־כַחֹמֶר עֲשִׂיתָנִי וְאֶל־עָפָר תְּשִׁיבֵנִי׃ 23.8. הֵן קֶדֶם אֶהֱלֹךְ וְאֵינֶנּוּ וְאָחוֹר וְלֹא־אָבִין לוֹ׃ 33.6. הֵן־אֲנִי כְפִיךָ לָאֵל מֵחֹמֶר קֹרַצְתִּי גַם־אָנִי׃ 9.11. Lo, He goeth by me, and I see Him not. He passeth on also, but I perceive Him not." 10.9. Remember, I beseech Thee, that Thou hast fashioned me as clay; And wilt Thou bring me into dust again?" 23.8. Behold, I go forward, but He is not there, And backward, but I cannot perceive Him;" 33.6. Behold, I am toward God even as thou art; I also am formed out of the clay."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.1, 16.29, 17.8-17.16, 18.2-18.5, 18.21, 18.30, 19.4, 19.9-19.16, 20.2-20.5, 23.40, 25.55, 26.1, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן־הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃ 1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 16.29. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 17.8. וַאֲלֵהֶם תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־יָגוּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲלֶה עֹלָה אוֹ־זָבַח׃ 17.9. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא יְבִיאֶנּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ לַיהוָה וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מֵעַמָּיו׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 18.2. וְאֶל־אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ׃ 18.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.11. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.2. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ מוֹת יוּמָת עַם הָאָרֶץ יִרְגְּמֻהוּ בָאָבֶן׃ 20.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־דֹּדָתוֹ עֶרְוַת דֹּדוֹ גִּלָּה חֶטְאָם יִשָּׂאוּ עֲרִירִים יָמֻתוּ׃ 20.3. וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי׃ 20.4. וְאִם הַעְלֵם יַעְלִימוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מִן־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא בְּתִתּוֹ מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ לְבִלְתִּי הָמִית אֹתוֹ׃ 20.5. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבְמִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־הַזֹּנִים אַחֲרָיו לִזְנוֹת אַחֲרֵי הַמֹּלֶךְ מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 25.55. כִּי־לִי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃ 26.13. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃ 1.1. And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:" 16.29. And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you." 17.8. And thou shalt say unto them: Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that offereth a burnt-offering or sacrifice," 17.9. and bringeth it not unto the door of the tent of meeting, to sacrifice it unto the LORD, even that man shall be cut off from his people." 17.10. And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood." 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 18.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: I am the LORD your God." 18.3. After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.11. Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 20.2. Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones." 20.3. I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name." 20.4. And if the people of the land do at all hide their eyes from that man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and put him not to death;" 20.5. then I will set My face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go astray after him, to go astray after Molech, from among their people." 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days." 25.55. For unto Me the children of Israel are servants; they are My servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 26.1. Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God." 26.13. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright."
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.4, 6.6-6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. כִּי הֶעֱלִתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וּמִבֵּית עֲבָדִים פְּדִיתִיךָ וָאֶשְׁלַח לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת־מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם׃ 6.6. בַּמָּה אֲקַדֵּם יְהוָה אִכַּף לֵאלֹהֵי מָרוֹם הַאֲקַדְּמֶנּוּ בְעוֹלוֹת בַּעֲגָלִים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה׃ 6.7. הֲיִרְצֶה יְהוָה בְּאַלְפֵי אֵילִים בְּרִבְבוֹת נַחֲלֵי־שָׁמֶן הַאֶתֵּן בְּכוֹרִי פִּשְׁעִי פְּרִי בִטְנִי חַטַּאת נַפְשִׁי׃ 6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 6.4. For I brought thee up out of the land of Egypt, And redeemed thee out of the house of bondage, And I sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and Miriam." 6.6. ’Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, And bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings, With calves of a year old?" 6.7. Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, With ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?’" 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 7.26, 12.2-12.3, 15.38-15.41, 21.21-21.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.26. כַּף אַחַת עֲשָׂרָה זָהָב מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת׃ 12.2. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הֲרַק אַךְ־בְּמֹשֶׁה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה הֲלֹא גַּם־בָּנוּ דִבֵּר וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה׃ 12.3. וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 21.21. וַיִּשְׁלַח יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלְאָכִים אֶל־סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ־הָאֱמֹרִי לֵאמֹר׃ 21.22. אֶעְבְּרָה בְאַרְצֶךָ לֹא נִטֶּה בְּשָׂדֶה וּבְכֶרֶם לֹא נִשְׁתֶּה מֵי בְאֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ נֵלֵךְ עַד אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲבֹר גְּבֻלֶךָ׃ 7.26. one golden pan of ten shekels, full of incense;" 12.2. And they said: ‘Hath the LORD indeed spoken only with Moses? hath He not spoken also with us?’ And the LORD heard it.—" 12.3. Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 21.21. And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, saying:" 21.22. ’Let me pass through thy land; we will not turn aside into field, or into vineyard; we will not drink of the water of the wells; we will go by the king’s highway, until we have passed thy border.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19, 7.7, 8.22-8.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 7.7. וָאֵרֶא בַפְּתָאיִם אָבִינָה בַבָּנִים נַעַר חֲסַר־לֵב׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 7.7. And I beheld among the thoughtless ones, I discerned among the youths, A young man void of understanding," 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men."
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 29.4, 44.21, 75.4, 91.15, 104.24, 115.4, 133.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.4. קוֹל־יְהוָה בַּכֹּחַ קוֹל יְהוָה בֶּהָדָר׃ 44.21. אִם־שָׁכַחְנוּ שֵׁם אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַנִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפֵּינוּ לְאֵל זָר׃ 75.4. נְמֹגִים אֶרֶץ וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ אָנֹכִי תִכַּנְתִּי עַמּוּדֶיהָ סֶּלָה׃ 91.15. יִקְרָאֵנִי וְאֶעֱנֵהוּ עִמּוֹ־אָנֹכִי בְצָרָה אֲחַלְּצֵהוּ וַאֲכַבְּדֵהוּ׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 115.4. עֲ‍צַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 133.3. כְּטַל־חֶרְמוֹן שֶׁיֹּרֵד עַל־הַרְרֵי צִיּוֹן כִּי שָׁם צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־הַבְּרָכָה חַיִּים עַד־הָעוֹלָם׃ 29.4. The voice of the LORD is powerful; The voice of the LORD is full of majesty." 44.21. If we had forgotten the name of our God, or spread forth our hands to a strange god; ." 75.4. When the earth and all the inhabitants thereof are dissolved, I Myself establish the pillars of it.' Selah" 91.15. He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble; I will rescue him, and bring him to honour." 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures." 115.4. Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 133.3. Like the dew of Hermon, That cometh down upon the mountains of Zion; For there the LORD commanded the blessing, Even life for ever."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.4-1.11, 2.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיִּזְבַּח אֶלְקָנָה וְנָתַן לִפְנִנָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּלְכָל־בָּנֶיהָ וּבְנוֹתֶיהָ מָנוֹת׃ 1.5. וּלְחַנָּה יִתֵּן מָנָה אַחַת אַפָּיִם כִּי אֶת־חַנָּה אָהֵב וַיהוָה סָגַר רַחְמָהּ׃ 1.6. וְכִעֲסַתָּה צָרָתָהּ גַּם־כַּעַס בַּעֲבוּר הַרְּעִמָהּ כִּי־סָגַר יְהוָה בְּעַד רַחְמָהּ׃ 1.7. וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה מִדֵּי עֲלֹתָהּ בְּבֵית יְהוָה כֵּן תַּכְעִסֶנָּה וַתִּבְכֶּה וְלֹא תֹאכַל׃ 1.8. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ אֶלְקָנָה אִישָׁהּ חַנָּה לָמֶה תִבְכִּי וְלָמֶה לֹא תֹאכְלִי וְלָמֶה יֵרַע לְבָבֵךְ הֲלוֹא אָנֹכִי טוֹב לָךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָה בָּנִים׃ 1.9. וַתָּקָם חַנָּה אַחֲרֵי אָכְלָה בְשִׁלֹה וְאַחֲרֵי שָׁתֹה וְעֵלִי הַכֹּהֵן יֹשֵׁב עַל־הַכִּסֵּא עַל־מְזוּזַת הֵיכַל יְהוָה׃ 1.11. וַתִּדֹּר נֶדֶר וַתֹּאמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־רָאֹה תִרְאֶה בָּעֳנִי אֲמָתֶךָ וּזְכַרְתַּנִי וְלֹא־תִשְׁכַּח אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ וְנָתַתָּה לַאֲמָתְךָ זֶרַע אֲנָשִׁים וּנְתַתִּיו לַיהוָה כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 2.21. כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־חַנָּה וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד שְׁלֹשָׁה־בָנִים וּשְׁתֵּי בָנוֹת וַיִּגְדַּל הַנַּעַר שְׁמוּאֵל עִם־יְהוָה׃ 1.4. And when the time was that Elqana offered, he gave portions to Peninna his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters:" 1.5. but to Ĥanna he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Ĥanna: but the Lord had shut up her womb." 1.6. And her rival also provoked her sore, to make her fret, because the Lord had shut up her womb." 1.7. And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the Lord, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat." 1.8. Then Elqana her husband said to her, Ĥanna, why dost thou weep? and why dost thou not eat? and why is thy heart grieved? am I not better to thee than ten sons?" 1.9. So Ĥanna rose up after they had eaten in Shilo, and after they had drunk. Now ῾Eli the priest sat upon a seat by the gate post of the temple of the Lord." 1.10. And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed to the Lord, and wept bitterly." 1.11. And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if Thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of Thy handmaid, and remember me, and not forget Thy handmaid, but wilt give to Thy handmaid a man child, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall come upon his head." 2.21. And the Lord visited Ĥanna, so that she conceived, and bore three sons and two daughters. And the child Shemu᾽el grew before the Lord."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 14.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.6. וְאֶת־בְּנֵי הַמַּכִּים לֹא הֵמִית כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִם־אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ ימות [יוּמָת׃] 14.6. but the children of the murderers he put not to death; according to that which is written in the book of the law of Moses, as the LORD commanded saying: ‘The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children be put to death for the fathers; but every man shall be put to death for his own sin.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.23. וּמִי כְעַמְּךָ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ־אֱלֹהִים לִפְדּוֹת־לוֹ לְעָם וְלָשׂוּם לוֹ שֵׁם וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם הַגְּדוּלָּה וְנֹרָאוֹת לְאַרְצֶךָ מִפְּנֵי עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ לְּךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם גּוֹיִם וֵאלֹהָיו׃ 7.23. And what one nation in the earth is like Thy people, like Yisra᾽el, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make himself a name, and to do like the great things and terrible which Thou didst for Thy land, by driving out from before Thy people, whom Thou didst redeem to Thee from Miżrayim, the nations and their gods?"
15. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.22, 5.25 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.22. כִּי אִם־תַּעֲלוּ־לִי עֹלוֹת וּמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם לֹא אֶרְצֶה וְשֶׁלֶם מְרִיאֵיכֶם לֹא אַבִּיט׃ 5.25. הַזְּבָחִים וּמִנְחָה הִגַּשְׁתֶּם־לִי בַמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.22. Yea, though ye offer me burnt-offerings and your meal-offerings, I will not accept them; Neither will I regard the peace-offerings of your fat beasts." 5.25. Did ye bring unto Me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel?"
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.11-1.13, 26.5, 33.14, 44.6, 63.9, 66.3, 66.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃ 1.12. כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃ 1.13. לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃ 26.5. כִּי הֵשַׁח יֹשְׁבֵי מָרוֹם קִרְיָה נִשְׂגָּבָה יַשְׁפִּילֶנָּה יַשְׁפִּילָהּ עַד־אֶרֶץ יַגִּיעֶנָּה עַד־עָפָר׃ 33.14. פָּחֲדוּ בְצִיּוֹן חַטָּאִים אָחֲזָה רְעָדָה חֲנֵפִים מִי יָגוּר לָנוּ אֵשׁ אוֹכֵלָה מִי־יָגוּר לָנוּ מוֹקְדֵי עוֹלָם׃ 44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא [לוֹ] צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃ 66.3. שׁוֹחֵט הַשּׁוֹר מַכֵּה־אִישׁ זוֹבֵחַ הַשֶּׂה עֹרֵף כֶּלֶב מַעֲלֵה מִנְחָה דַּם־חֲזִיר מַזְכִּיר לְבֹנָה מְבָרֵךְ אָוֶן גַּם־הֵמָּה בָּחֲרוּ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם נַפְשָׁם חָפֵצָה׃ 66.12. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי נֹטֶה־אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם וּכְנַחַל שׁוֹטֵף כְּבוֹד גּוֹיִם וִינַקְתֶּם עַל־צַד תִּנָּשֵׂאוּ וְעַל־בִּרְכַּיִם תְּשָׁעֳשָׁעוּ׃ 1.11. To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats." 1.12. When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?" 1.13. Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly." 26.5. For He hath brought down them that dwell on high, The lofty city, laying it low, laying it low even to the ground, Bringing it even to the dust." 33.14. The sinners in Zion are afraid; Trembling hath seized the ungodly: ‘Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?’" 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God." 63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. ." 66.3. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he broke a dog’s neck; He that offereth a meal-offering, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that maketh a memorial-offering of frankincense, as if he blessed an idol; according as they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations;" 66.12. For thus saith the LORD: Behold, I will extend peace to her like a river. And the wealth of the nations like an overflowing stream, and ye shall suck thereof: Ye shall be borne upon the side, and shall be dandled upon the knees."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.21-7.23, 11.4, 31.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ עַל־זִבְחֵיכֶם וְאִכְלוּ בָשָׂר׃ 7.22. כִּי לֹא־דִבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים בְּיוֹם הוציא [הוֹצִיאִי] אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־דִּבְרֵי עוֹלָה וָזָבַח׃ 7.23. כִּי אִם־אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר שִׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָכֶם׃ 11.4. אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּיוֹם הוֹצִיאִי־אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם מִכּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל לֵאמֹר שִׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אוֹתָם כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־אֲצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם לִי לְעָם וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 7.21. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh." 7.22. For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices;" 7.23. but this thing I commanded them, saying: ‘Hearken unto My voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people; and walk ye in all the way that I command you, that it may be well with you.’" 11.4. which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the iron furnace, saying: Hearken to My voice, and do them, according to all which I command you; so shall ye be My people, and I will be your God;" 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;"
18. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.3, 24.25-24.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.3. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־אֲבִיכֶם אֶת־אַבְרָהָם מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וָאוֹלֵךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וארב [וָאַרְבֶּה] אֶת־זַרְעוֹ וָאֶתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־יִצְחָק׃ 24.3. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ בִּגְבוּל נַחֲלָתוֹ בְּתִמְנַת־סֶרַח אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר־אֶפְרָיִם מִצְּפוֹן לְהַר־גָּעַשׁ׃ 24.25. וַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרִית לָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיָּשֶׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט בִּשְׁכֶם׃ 24.26. וַיִּכְתֹּב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהִים וַיִּקַּח אֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָה וַיְקִימֶהָ שָּׁם תַּחַת הָאַלָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּמִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה׃ 24.3. And I took your father Abraham from beyond the River, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac." 24.25. So Joshua made a covet with the people that day, and set them a statute and an ordice in Shechem." 24.26. And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God; and he took a great stone, and set it up there under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the LORD."
19. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 6.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.8. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אִישׁ נָבִיא אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָנֹכִי הֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם וָאֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 6.8. that the Lord sent a prophet to the children of Yisra᾽el, who said to them, Thus says the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, I brought you up from Miżrayim, and brought you out of the house of slaves;"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh."
21. Cicero, On Invention, 2.142 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.142. tere accipi demonstrabit. et quemadmodum ei dice- bamus, qui ab scripto diceret, hoc fore utilissimum, si quid de aequitate ea, quae cum adversario staret, derogasset, sic huic, qui contra scriptum dicet, pluri- mum proderit, ex ipsa scriptura aliquid ad suam cau- sam convertere aut ambigue aliquid scriptum osten- dere; deinde ex illo ambiguo eam partem, quae sibi prosit, defendere aut verbi definitionem inducere et illius verbi vim, quo urgeri videatur, ad suae causae commodum traducere aut ex scripto non scriptum aliquid inducere per ratiocinationem, de qua post di-
22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Bibpar, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire."
24. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1, 24.9-24.10, 33.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 24.9. From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist.
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.1-7.2, 7.14, 7.21, 7.27, 9.9-9.10, 14.2, 16.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh 7.2. within the period of ten months, compacted with blood,from the seed of a man and the pleasure of marriage. 7.14. for it is an unfailing treasure for men;those who get it obtain friendship with God,commended for the gifts that come from instruction. 7.21. I learned both what is secret and what is manifest 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets; 9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments. 9.10. Send her forth from the holy heavens,and from the throne of thy glory send her,that she may be with me and toil,and that I may learn what is pleasing to thee. 14.2. For it was desire for gain that planned that vessel,and wisdom was the craftsman who built it; 16.11. To remind them of thy oracles they were bitten,and then were quickly delivered,lest they should fall into deep forgetfulness and become unresponsive to thy kindness.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 175 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. We find, then, that in the sacred oracles delivered by the prophet Moses, there are three separate characters; for a portion of them relates to the creation of the world, a portion is historical, and the third portion is legislative. Now the creation of the world is related throughout with exceeding beauty and in a manner admirably suited to the dignity of God, taking its beginning in the account of the creation of the heaven, and ending with that of the formation of man; the first of which things is the most perfect of all imperishable things, and the other of all corruptible and perishable things. And the Creator, connecting together immortal and mortal things at the creation, made the world, making what he had already created the domit parts, and what he was about to create the subject parts.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. And in every house there is a sacred shrine which is called the holy place, and the monastery in which they retire by themselves and perform all the mysteries of a holy life, bringing in nothing, neither meat, nor drink, nor anything else which is indispensable towards supplying the necessities of the body, but studying in that place the laws and the sacred oracles of God enunciated by the holy prophets, and hymns, and psalms, and all kinds of other things by reason of which knowledge and piety are increased and brought to perfection.
29. Anon., Didache, 1.2-1.6, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
30. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.311 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.311. for the Jews, by demolishing the tower of Antonia, had made their temple foursquare, while at the same time they had it written in their sacred oracles, “That then should their city be taken, as well as their holy house, when once their temple should become foursquare.”
31. Mishnah, Avot, 4.22 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.22. He used to say: the ones who were born are to die, and the ones who have died are to be brought to life, and the ones brought to life are to be judged; So that one may know, make known and have the knowledge that He is God, He is the designer, He is the creator, He is the discerner, He is the judge, He the witness, He the complait, and that He will summon to judgment. Blessed be He, before Whom there is no iniquity, nor forgetting, nor respect of persons, nor taking of bribes, for all is His. And know that all is according to the reckoning. And let not your impulse assure thee that the grave is a place of refuge for you; for against your will were you formed, against your will were you born, against your will you live, against your will you will die, and against your will you will give an account and reckoning before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He."
32. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.5, 2.2, 5.5, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. They mention the Exodus from Egypt at night. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah said: \"Behold, I am almost a seventy-year old man and I have not succeeded in [understanding why] the Exodus from Egypt should be mentioned at night, until Ben Zoma explained it from a verse (Deuteronomy 16:3): ‘In order that you may remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life.’ ‘The days of your life’ refers to the days. ‘All the days of your life’ refers to the nights. And the sages say: ‘the days of your life’ refers to this world. ‘All the days of your life’ includes the days of the Messiah." 2.2. These are the breaks between the sections: between the first blessing and the second, between the second and “Shema,” between “Shema” and “And it shall come to pass if you listen” between “And it shall come to pass if you listen” and “And the Lord said” and between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” (true and firm). Rabbi Judah says: between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” one should not interrupt. Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah said: Why was the section of “Shema” placed before that of “And it shall come to pass if you listen”? So that one should first accept upon himself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and then take upon himself the yoke of the commandments. Why does the section of “And it shall come to pass if you listen” come before that of “And the Lord said”? Because “And it shall come to pass if you listen” is customary during both day and night, whereas [the section] “And the Lord said” is customary only during the day." 5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”" 9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
33. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
34. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. The greater Sanhedrin was made up of seventy one and the little Sanhedrin of twenty three.From where do we learn that the greater Sanhedrin should be made up of seventy one? As it says, “Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel” (Num. 11:16), and when Moses is added to them there is seventy one. Rabbi Judah says: “Seventy.” From where do we learn that the little Sanhedrin should be made up of twenty three? As it says, “The assembly shall judge”, “The assembly shall deliver” (Num. 35:24-25), an assembly that judges and an assembly that delivers, thus we have twenty. And from where do we know that an assembly has ten? As it says, “How long shall I bear this evil congregation?” (Num. 14:27) [which refers to the twelve spies] but Joshua and Caleb were not included. And from where do we learn that we should bring three others [to the twenty]? By inference from what it says, “You shall not follow after the many to do evil” (Ex. 23:2), I conclude that I must be with them to do well. Then why does it say, “[To follow] after the many to change judgment” (Ex. 23:2). [It means that] your verdict of condemnation should not be like your verdict of acquittal, for your verdict of acquittal is reached by the decision of a majority of one, but your verdict of condemnation must be reached by the decision of a majority of two. The court must not be divisible equally, therefore they add to them one more; thus they are twenty three. And how many should there be in a city that it may be fit to have a Sanhedrin? A hundred and twenty. Rabbi Nehemiah says: “Two hundred and thirty, so that [the Sanhedrin of twenty three] should correspond with them that are chiefs of [at least] groups of ten."
35. New Testament, 1 John, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Behold, how great a love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called children of God! For this cause the world doesn't know us, because it didn't know him.
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.19-3.20, 6.9-6.10, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 3.20. And again, "TheLord knows the reasoning of the wise, that it is worthless. 6.9. Or don't you know that the unrighteouswill not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't be deceived. Neither thesexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor male prostitutes,nor homosexuals 6.10. nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, norslanderers, nor extortioners, will inherit the Kingdom of God. 9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar?
37. New Testament, Acts, 4.12, 15.19-15.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.12. There is salvation in none other, for neither is there any other name under heaven, that is given among men, in which we must be saved! 15.19. Therefore my judgment is that we don't trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God 15.20. but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath.
38. New Testament, Galatians, 5.1, 5.19-5.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God.
39. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.11-2.12, 2.17, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law.
40. New Testament, Romans, 3.20, 8.16, 15.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 8.16. The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God; 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
41. New Testament, John, 1.12, 1.14, 10.8, 15.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 10.8. All who came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep didn't listen to them. 15.15. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant doesn't know what his lord does. But I have called you friends, for everything that I heard from my Father, I have made known to you.
42. New Testament, Luke, 6.20-6.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great.
43. New Testament, Mark, 7.21, 10.17-10.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God. 10.28. Peter began to tell him, "Behold, we have left all, and have followed you. 10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 10.31. But many who are first will be last; and the last first.
44. New Testament, Matthew, 1.21, 1.23, 5.1-5.10, 5.19, 5.21-5.48, 7.12, 10.17, 18.20, 19.19, 22.37-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.21. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins. 1.23. Behold, the virgin shall be with child, And shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. 5.1. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 5.2. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying 5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them. 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
45. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 11.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Tosefta, Eduyot, 1.1, 1.4-1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. When the Sages entered the Vineyard in Yavneh, they said, \"In the future, there will come an hour when a person seeks a teaching from the teachings of the Torah and he will not find it, or in the teachings of the Scribes, and he will not find it.\" As it says, \"Behold, days are coming, says the Lord, etc. they will seek out the word of God and they will not find it (Amos 8).\" 'The word of God' refers to prophecy. 'The word of God' refers to the End (of Days). 'The word of God', so that there shall not be one word of Torah similar to its fellow. They said, \"Let us begin from Hillel and Shammai!\"..."
47. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 1.4, 8.3, 63.8, 66.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 8.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם (בראשית א, כו), בְּמִי נִמְלָךְ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ נִמְלָךְ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי סַנְקְלִיטִים, וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה דָבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתָּן. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר בְּמַעֲשֵׂה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם נִמְלַךְ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ סַנְקַתַּדְרוֹן, וְלֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה דָבָר חוּץ מִדַּעְתּוֹ. רַבִּי אַמֵּי אָמַר בְּלִבּוֹ נִמְלַךְ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁבָּנָה פָּלָטִין עַל יְדֵי אַרְדְּכָל, רָאָה אוֹתָהּ וְלֹא עָרְבָה לוֹ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְרַעֵם לֹא עַל אַרְדְּכָל, אֶתְמְהָא, הֱוֵי וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. אָמַר רַב אַסֵּי מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה לוֹ סְחוֹרָה עַל יְדֵי סַרְסוּר וְהִפְסִיד, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְרָעֵם לֹא עַל הַסַּרְסוּר, אֶתְמְהָא, הֱוֵי וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. 63.8. וַיִּמְלְאוּ יָמֶיהָ לָלֶדֶת (בראשית כה, כד), לְהַלָּן חֲסֵרִים וְכָאן מְלֵאִים, לְהַלָּן כְּתִיב (בראשית לח, כז): תְאוֹמִים, פֶּרֶץ וְזֶרַח שְׁנֵיהֶם צַדִּיקִים, וְכָאן תוֹמִם, יַעֲקֹב צַדִּיק וְעֵשָׂו רָשָׁע. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק בִּזְכוּת (ויקרא כג, מ): וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲנִי נִגְלֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מד, ו): אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן, וּפוֹרֵעַ לָכֶם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, זֶה עֵשָׂו, דִּכְתִיב: וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּבוֹנֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן, וְאָבִיא לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ישעיה מא, כז): רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן הִנֵּה הִנָּם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, לָמָה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ כְּהָדֵין פָּרָבִיטָא שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁטֵּף אֶת בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַרְחִיץ בְּנוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, כָּךְ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ. מַטְרוֹנָא שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא אָמְרָה לֵיהּ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה, אָמַר לָהּ, טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהּ מָשָׁל אִם תַּנִּיחוּ שְׁתֵּי מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת בִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת אַחַת, לֹא זוֹ שֶׁאַתְּ נוֹתְנָהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹצְאָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כָּךְ טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה. אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת דָּוִד אַדְמוֹנִי, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א טז, יב): וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי, נִתְיָרֵא וְאָמַר אַף זֶה שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים כְּעֵשָׂו. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (שמואל א טז, יב): עִם יְפֵה עֵינַיִם, עֵשָׂו מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא הוֹרֵג אֲבָל זֶה מִדַּעַת סַנְהֶדְרִין הוּא הוֹרֵג. דִּקְלִיטְיָינוֹס מַלְכָּא הֲוָה רָעֵי חֲזִירִין בַּהֲדָא טְבֶרְיָה, וְכֵיוָן דַּהֲוָה מָטֵי סִדְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי הֲוֵי מֵינוֹקָא נָפְקִין וּמָחֲיִין לֵיהּ, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אִיתְעֲבֵד מֶלֶךְ, נְחַת וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ בַּהֲדָא פַּנְיָיס נ"א: פַּמְיָיס, וּשְׁלַח כְּתָבִים לִטְבֶרְיָא מִפְּנֵי רַמְשָׁא דַעֲרוֹבְתָה, אֲמַר אֲנָא יָהֵיב קֵלֶווֹן דְּיֶהֱווֹן רַבְרְבָנֵי דִּיהוּדָאֵי קָיְימִין קֳדָמִי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבָּא. פַּקְדֵּיהּ לִשְׁלִיחָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא תִתֵּן יָתְהוֹן לְהוֹן אֶלָּא עִם מַטְעֲמֵי יוֹמָא דַעֲרוֹבְתָא. נְחַת רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן לְמִיסְחֵי, חַמְתֵי לְרַבִּי דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים קוֹמֵי סִדְרָא רַבָּה רָאָה פָּנָיו חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אֲמַר כֵּן וְכֵן אִשְׁתַּדַּר לִי כְּתָבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִיתָא סְחֵי דְּבָרְיָיךְ עֲבֵיד לָנָא נִסִּין. עָלוֹן לְמִסְחֵי וַאֲתָא הָדֵין אַרְגִּינִיטוֹן מְגַחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד קֳדָמֵיהוֹן. בְּעָא רַבִּי דְּיִזְעוֹף בֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן רַבִּי שַׁבְקֵיהּ דְּזִמְנִין עַל נִסִּין הוּא מִתְחֲמָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָרָיךְ בְּעָקָא וְאַתְּ קָאֵים גָּחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲזַלוּן וְאַכְלוּן וּשְׁתוֹן וְעַבְדוּן שַׁבָּא טָבָא דְּמָרֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין וַאֲנָא מְקִים לְכוֹן קֳדָמוֹי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבְּתָא. בַּאֲפוּקֵי שַׁבְּתָא בָּתַר סִידְרָא, נְסַבוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי דְּפַנְיָיס. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ הָא קָיְימִין קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי. אֲמַר סִגְרוּן פְּיָילִי. נְסַבוּהוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן עַל מְטַכְּסָא דִּמְדִינְתָּא. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ, אֲמַר אֲנָא קֵלֶווֹן אֲנָא דְּיִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמֵי וְיַעֲלוּן וְיִסְחוּן וְיֶאֱתוֹן לְגַבָּאי, אֲזַלוּן וְאִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין וְעָאל חַד אַרְגִינִיטוֹן וּמוֹזְגָהּ קֳדָמֵיהוֹן וְעָלוּ וּסְחוּן וַאֲתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן בְּגִין דְּאַתּוּן יָדְעִין דֵּאלָהֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין אַתּוּן מְקִילִין לְמַלְכָּא. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוֹס רָעֵי חֲזִירִין אֲקֵילֵינַן, בְּרַם לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוּס מַלְכָּא אֲנַן מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲפִלּוּ כֵּן לָא תִבְזוֹן לָא בְּרוֹמִי זְעֵיר וְלָא בְּגוּלְיָיר זְעֵיר. (בראשית כה, כה): כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַדֶּרֶת שֵׂעָר, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָה כֻּלּוֹ רָאוּי לְאַדֶּרֶת. רַבָּנָן דָּרוֹמָאֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי וְרַחֲבָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר יָצָא כֻּלּוֹ מְפֹזָר וּמְפֹרָד כְּאַדֶּרֶת, לִזְרוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹץ וּכְקַשׁ מֵאִדְּרָא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ב, לה): בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא וגו' וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר מִי גָרַם לָהֶם לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כְּעוּר, מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, עַל שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בָּאַדִּירִים. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיִּקְרְאוּ שְׁמוֹ עֵשָׂו, הֵא שָׁוְא שֶׁבָּרָאתִי בְּעוֹלָמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַתּוּן קְרֵיתוּן לַחֲזִירַתְכוֹן שֵׁם, אַף אֲנָא קוֹרֵא לִבְנִי בְכוֹרִי שֵׁם, (שמות ד, כב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' בְּנִי בְּכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. 66.2. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה פָּתַח (שיר השירים ז, א): שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי הַשּׁוּלַמִּית שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי וְנֶחֱזֶה בָּךְ, אַרְבָּעָה פְּעָמִים כְּתִיב שׁוּבִי, כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבַּע מַלְכֻיּוֹת שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִכְנָסִין לְתוֹכָן לְשָׁלוֹם וְיוֹצְאִין בְּשָׁלוֹם. הַשּׁוּלַמִּית, אֻמָּה שֶׁשְּׁלוֹם חַי הָעוֹלָמִים מִתְנַהֵג בָּהּ מֵאֹהֶל לְאֹהֶל. הַשּׁוּלַמִּית, אֻמָּה שֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים מְשִׂימִין לָהּ שָׁלוֹם בְּכָל יוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ו, כז): וְשָׂמוּ אֶת שְׁמִי, וּכְתִיב (במדבר ו, כו): וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. הַשּׁוּלַמִּית אֻמָּה שֶׁשְּׁלוֹם הָעוֹלָמִים דָּר בְּתוֹכָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה, ח): וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם, הַשּׁוּלַמִּית, אֻמָּה שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לִיתֵּן בָּהּ שָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כו, ו): וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ. הַשּׁוּלַמִּית, אֻמָּה שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לִנְטוֹת אֵלֶיהָ שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה סו, יב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' הִנְּנִי נוֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר תַּנְחוּם וְרַבִּי חָנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אִידִי אֻמָּה שֶׁעָשָׂת שָׁלוֹם בֵּינִי וּבֵין עוֹלָמִי, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי הִיא הָיִיתִי מַחֲרִיב אֶת עוֹלָמִי. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא פָּתַח (תהלים עה, ד): נְמוֹגִים אֶרֶץ וְכָל ישְׁבֶיהָ, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות טו, טו): נָמֹגוּ כֹּל ישְׁבֵי כְנָעַן. (תהלים עה, ד): אָנֹכִי תִּכַּנְתִּי, אָנֹכִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, (תהלים עה, ד): תִּכַּנְתִּי עַמּוּדֶיהָ סֶלָה, וְנִתְבַּשֵֹּׂם הָעוֹלָם. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן מָרוֹן אוֹמֵר אֻמָּה שֶׁהִיא מְשַׁלְּמָה אִישְׂטַטְיוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הֵן הֵן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, הֵן הֵן בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּל טוֹבָה שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה לָעוֹלָם אֵינָה בָּאָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּתָהּ, הַגְּשָׁמִים אֵינָם יוֹרְדִין אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּתָהּ, הַטְּלָלִים אֵינָם יוֹרְדִין אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְיִתֶּן לְךָ הָאֱלֹהִים מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם, לְךָ בִּזְכוּתְךָ וּבְךָ הַדָּבָר תָּלוּי. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)." 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 8.3. Let us make a human”—with whom did He rule/nimlokh? R’ Yehoshua in the name of R’ Levi said: With the work/m’la’khah of the heavens and the earth . . . R’ Shmuel bar Nachman said: With the work/ma`aseh of each and every day..." 63.8. “And her days to give birth were completed…” (Genesis 25:24) Below they were lacking, here they were full. Below where the word twins is written full, with the letter aleph, Peretz and Zerach were both righteous. Here it is written without an aleph, Yaakov was righteous and Esau was wicked. “And the first one emerged ruddy…” (Genesis 25:25) R’ Chaggai said in the name of R’ Yitzchak: in the merit of “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day…” (Leviticus 23:40) I will be revealed to you first, as it says “I am first and I am last” (Isaiah 44:6) and I will exact retribution on your behalf from the first who is Esau, as it is written “And the first one emerged” and I will build the first for you, which is the Holy Temple of which it is written “As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning…” (Jeremiah 17:12) and I will bring for you the first who is the King Messiah of whom it is written “The first one to Zion, behold, behold them…” (Isaiah 41:27)"
48. Anon., Sifra, 2.12 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.12. 2) Not necessarily. This may be so with the sneh, the beginning of G d's speaking, but not with the ohel moed (the tent of meeting), which was not the beginning. — This is refuted by Mount Sinai, which was not the beginning of G-d's speaking to him, and where dibbur is nonetheless preceded by kriyah (Shemoth 19:3)."
49. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 312, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

50. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

51. Anon., Targum Neofiti, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

52. Clement of Alexandria, Extracts From The Prophets, 52-63, 51 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.17.84, 4.6.25-4.6.41, 5.6.32-5.6.40, 5.10.63, 5.10.66, 6.16.147, 7.14.84 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, 2.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56. Tertullian, Antidote For The Scorpion'S Sting, 1.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. וזה הוא תנור של עכנאי מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שהקיפו דברים כעכנא זו וטמאוהו תנא באותו היום השיב רבי אליעזר כל תשובות שבעולם ולא קיבלו הימנו,אמר להם אם הלכה כמותי חרוב זה יוכיח נעקר חרוב ממקומו מאה אמה ואמרי לה ארבע מאות אמה אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מן החרוב חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי אמת המים יוכיחו חזרו אמת המים לאחוריהם אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מאמת המים,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי כותלי בית המדרש יוכיחו הטו כותלי בית המדרש ליפול גער בהם רבי יהושע אמר להם אם תלמידי חכמים מנצחים זה את זה בהלכה אתם מה טיבכם לא נפלו מפני כבודו של רבי יהושע ולא זקפו מפני כבודו של ר"א ועדיין מטין ועומדין,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי מן השמים יוכיחו יצאתה בת קול ואמרה מה לכם אצל ר"א שהלכה כמותו בכ"מ,עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר (דברים ל, יב) לא בשמים היא מאי לא בשמים היא אמר רבי ירמיה שכבר נתנה תורה מהר סיני אין אנו משגיחין בבת קול שכבר כתבת בהר סיני בתורה (שמות כג, ב) אחרי רבים להטות אשכחיה רבי נתן לאליהו א"ל מאי עביד קוב"ה בההיא שעתא א"ל קא חייך ואמר נצחוני בני נצחוני בני,אמרו אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום באש ונמנו עליו וברכוהו ואמרו מי ילך ויודיעו אמר להם ר"ע אני אלך שמא ילך אדם שאינו הגון ויודיעו ונמצא מחריב את כל העולם כולו,מה עשה ר"ע לבש שחורים ונתעטף שחורים וישב לפניו ברחוק ארבע אמות אמר לו ר"א עקיבא מה יום מיומים אמר לו רבי כמדומה לי שחבירים בדילים ממך אף הוא קרע בגדיו וחלץ מנעליו ונשמט וישב על גבי קרקע,זלגו עיניו דמעות לקה העולם שליש בזיתים ושליש בחטים ושליש בשעורים ויש אומרים אף בצק שבידי אשה טפח תנא אך גדול היה באותו היום שבכל מקום שנתן בו עיניו ר"א נשרף,ואף ר"ג היה בא בספינה עמד עליו נחשול לטבעו אמר כמדומה לי שאין זה אלא בשביל ר"א בן הורקנוס עמד על רגליו ואמר רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא עשיתי אלא לכבודך שלא ירבו מחלוקות בישראל נח הים מזעפו,אימא שלום דביתהו דר"א אחתיה דר"ג הואי מההוא מעשה ואילך לא הוה שבקה ליה לר"א למיפל על אפיה ההוא יומא ריש ירחא הוה ואיחלף לה בין מלא לחסר איכא דאמרי אתא עניא וקאי אבבא אפיקא ליה ריפתא,אשכחתיה דנפל על אנפיה אמרה ליה קום קטלית לאחי אדהכי נפק שיפורא מבית רבן גמליאל דשכיב אמר לה מנא ידעת אמרה ליה כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא כל השערים ננעלים חוץ משערי אונאה,תנו רבנן המאנה את הגר עובר בשלשה לאוין והלוחצו עובר בשנים,מאי שנא מאנה דכתיבי שלשה לאוין (שמות כב, כ) וגר לא תונה (ויקרא יט, לג) וכי יגור אתך גר בארצכם לא תונו אותו (ויקרא כה, יז) ולא תונו איש את עמיתו וגר בכלל עמיתו הוא לוחצו נמי שלשה כתיבי (שמות כב, כ) ולא תלחצנו (שמות כג, ט) וגר לא תלחץ (שמות כב, כד) ולא תהיה לו כנושה וגר בכלל הוא אלא אחד זה ואחד זה בשלשה,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מפני מה הזהירה תורה בל"ו מקומות ואמרי לה במ"ו מקומות בגר מפני שסורו רע,מאי דכתיב וגר לא תונה ולא תלחצנו כי גרים הייתם בארץ מצרים (תנינא) רבי נתן אומר מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך והיינו דאמרי אינשי דזקיף ליה זקיפא בדיותקיה לא נימא ליה לחבריה זקיף ביניתא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין מערבין פירות בפירות אפי' חדשים בחדשים 59b. bAnd this isknown as bthe oven of iakhnai /i.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the relevance of iakhnai /i,a snake, in this context? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It is characterized in that manner due to the fact bthatthe Rabbis bsurroundedit bwiththeir bstatements like this snake,which often forms a coil when at rest, band deemed it impure.The Sages btaught: On that day,when they discussed this matter, bRabbi Eliezer answered allpossible banswers in the worldto support his opinion, bbutthe Rabbis bdid not accepthis explanations bfrom him. /b,After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthis carobtree bwill proveit. The bcarobtree bwas uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits.The Rabbis bsaid to him: One does not citehalakhic bproof from the carobtree. Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthe stream will proveit. The water in bthe stream turned backwardand began flowing in the opposite direction. bThey said to him: One does not citehalakhic bproof from a stream. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthe walls of the study hall will proveit. bThe walls of the study hall leanedinward and began bto fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scoldedthe walls and bsaid to them: If Torah scholars are contendingwith beach other inmatters of ihalakha /i, whatis the bnatureof byourinvolvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls bdid not fall because ofthe bdeferencedue bRabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because ofthe bdeferencedue bRabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bHeaven will proveit. bA Divine Voice emergedfrom Heaven band said: Why are youdiffering bwith Rabbi Eliezer, asthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance withhis opinion bin every placethat he expresses an opinion?, bRabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said:It is written: b“It is not in heaven”(Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the relevance of the phrase b“It is not in heaven”in this context? bRabbi Yirmeya says:Since bthe Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: “After a majority to incline”(Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, the ihalakhais not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, bRabbi Natan encountered Elijahthe prophet and bsaid to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time,when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah bsaid to him:The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsmiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me. /b,The Sages bsaid:On bthat day,the Sages bbrought all the ritually pureitems bdeemed pure bythe ruling of bRabbi Eliezerwith regard to the oven band burned them in fire, andthe Sages breached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. Andthe Sages bsaid: Who will go and inform himof his ostracism? bRabbi Akiva,his beloved disciple, bsaid to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person goand inform him in a callous and offensive manner, band he would thereby destroy the entire world. /b, bWhat did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black,as an expression of mourning and pain, band sat beforeRabbi Eliezer bat a distance of four cubits,which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. bRabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, whatis different about btoday from other days,that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: My teacher, it appears to me thatyour bcolleagues are distancingthemselves bfrom you.He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer btoo, rent his garments and removed his shoes,as is the custom of an ostracized person, band he droppedfrom his seat band sat upon the ground. /b,The Gemara relates: bHis eyes shed tears,and as a result btheentire bworld was afflicted: One-third ofits boliveswere afflicted, band one-third ofits bwheat, and one-third ofits bbarley. And some saythat beven doughkneaded bin a woman’s hands spoiled.The Sages btaught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned. /b, bAnd even Rabban Gamliel,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, bwas coming on a boatat the time, and ba large wave swelled over himand threatened bto drown him.Rabban Gamliel bsaid: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus,as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel bstood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honorthat bI actedwhen ostracizing him, bnor was it for the honor of the house of my fatherthat bI acted; rather,it was bfor Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel.In response, bthe sea calmed from its raging. /b,The Gemara further relates: bImma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his headand recite the itaḥanunprayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. bA certain day wasaround the day of bthe New Moon, and sheinadvertently bsubstituted a fullthirty-day month bfor a deficienttwenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. bSome saythat ba pauper came and stood at the door,and bshe took bread out to him.The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.,When she returned, bshe found himand saw bthat he had lowered his headin prayer. bShe said to him: Arise, youalready bkilled my brother. Meanwhile,the sound of ba ishofaremerged from the house of Rabban Gamlielto announce bthatthe iNasi bhad died.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to her: From where did you knowthat your brother would die? bShe said to him: This isthe tradition that bI received from the house of the father ofmy bfather: All the gatesof Heaven are apt to be blocked, except for the gatesof prayer for victims bofverbal bmistreatment. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: One whoverbally bmistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses himin other ways bviolates two. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentwith regard to verbal bmistreatment, that three prohibitions are writtenconcerning it: b“And you shall neither mistreat a convert”(Exodus 22:20); b“And when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him”(Leviticus 19:33); b“And you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague”(Leviticus 25:17), band a convert isincluded in the category of bcolleague?With regard to bone who also oppressesa convert bas well, threeprohibitions bare written:“And you shall neither mistreat a convert, bnor oppress him”(Exodus 22:20); b“And you shall not oppress a convert(Exodus 23:9); b“And you shall not be to him like a creditor”(Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, bin which converts are included.Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. bRather, both thisone, who verbally mistreats a convert, band thatone, who oppresses him, bviolate three prohibitions. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard tocausing any distress to ba convert?It is bdue tothe fact bthata convert’s binclination is evil,i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living., bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt”(Exodus 22:20)? bWe learnedin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mentionit bin another.Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. bAnd thisexplains the adage bthat people say: One who hasa person bhanged in his family [ ibidyotkei /i], does not say to anothermember of his household: bHang a fish for me,as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not intermingle producebought from one supplier bwithother bproduce, evenif he intermingles bnewproduce bwithother bnewproduce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.
58. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. (ירמיהו י, י) וה' אלהים אמת,חוזר ואומר אמת או אינו חוזר ואומר אמת,א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן חוזר ואומר אמת רבה אמר אינו חוזר ואומר אמת ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה שמעיה רבה דאמר אמת אמת תרי זימני אמר רבה כל אמת אמת תפסיה להאי,אמר רב יוסף כמה מעליא הא שמעתתא דכי אתא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר אמרי במערבא ערבית דבר אל בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם אני ה' אלהיכם אמת,אמר ליה אביי מאי מעליותא והא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר וכי תימא ואמרת אליהם לא הוי התחלה והאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק אמר רב דבר אל בני ישראל לא הוי התחלה ואמרת אליהם הוי התחלה,אמר רב פפא קסברי במערבא ואמרת אליהם נמי לא הויא התחלה עד דאמר ועשו להם ציצית,אמר אביי הלכך אנן אתחולי מתחלינן דקא מתחלי במערבא וכיון דאתחלינן מגמר נמי גמרינן דהא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר,חייא בר רב אמר אמר אני ה' אלהיכם צריך לומר אמת לא אמר אני ה' אלהיכם אינו צ"ל אמת,והא בעי לאדכורי יציאת מצרים,דאמר הכי מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו שהוצאתנו מארץ מצרים ופדיתנו מבית עבדים ועשית לנו נסים וגבורות על הים ושרנו לך:,אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה למה קדמה פרשת שמע וכו':,תניא ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בדין הוא שיקדים שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וזה ללמד והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה ללמוד וזה לעשות,אטו שמע ללמוד אית ביה ללמד ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב ושננתם וקשרתם וכתבתם ותו והיה אם שמוע ללמד הוא דאית ביה ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב וקשרתם וכתבתם,אלא הכי קאמר בדין הוא שתקדם שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וללמד ולעשות והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה יש בה ללמד ולעשות ויאמר אין בה אלא לעשות בלבד,ותיפוק ליה מדרבי יהושע בן קרחה חדא ועוד קאמר חדא כדי שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואח"כ יקבל עליו עול מצות ועוד משום דאית בה הני מילי אחרנייתא.,רב משי ידיה וקרא ק"ש ואנח תפילין וצלי והיכי עביד הכי והתניא החופר כוך למת בקבר פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה הגיע זמן ק"ש עולה ונוטל ידיו ומניח תפילין וקורא ק"ש ומתפלל,הא גופא קשיא רישא אמר פטור וסיפא חייב,הא לא קשיא סיפא בתרי ורישא בחד,מ"מ קשיא לרב רב כרבי יהושע בן קרחה סבירא ליה דאמר עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואח"כ עול מצות,אימר דאמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה להקדים קריאה לקריאה קריאה לעשיה מי שמעת ליה,ותו מי סבר ליה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה והאמר רב חייא בר אשי זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב ומקדים ומשי ידיה ומברך ומתני לן פרקין ומנח תפילין והדר קרי ק"ש וכ"ת בדלא מטא זמן ק"ש א"כ מאי אסהדתיה דרב חייא בר אשי,לאפוקי ממ"ד למשנה אין צריך לברך קמ"ל דאף למשנה נמי צריך לברך,מ"מ קשיא לרב שלוחא הוא דעוית:,אמר עולא כל הקורא ק"ש בלא תפילין כאילו מעיד עדות שקר בעצמו א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כאילו הקריב עולה בלא מנחה וזבח בלא נסכים:,ואמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים שלמה 14b. b“And the Lord, God, is True”(Jeremiah 10:10).,After the conclusion of the final paragraph of iShemaalong with the first word of the subsequent blessing, with the words: “The Lord, your God, is True [ iHashem Eloheikhem emet /i],” the question is posed: bDoes one repeat iemet /iwhen he begins the blessing of iemet veyatziv /i, bor does he not repeat iemet /i? /b, bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: He repeats iemet /i. Rabba said: He does not repeat iemet /i.The Gemara relates: bThis person who descendedto lead the service bbefore Rabba, Rabba heard that he said iemet /i, iemettwice. Rabbamocked him and bsaid: Every iemet /i, iemethas caught this one;he must be passionate about the pursuit of truth., bRav Yosef said: How excellent is this traditionthat I heard, bas when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: bIn Eretz Yisrael, at the evening prayerthey do not recite the entire third portion of iShema /i, which deals with ritual fringes, as there is no obligation to wear ritual fringes at night. Rather, bthey saya condensed version of that portion that includes an excerpt from the beginning and an excerpt from the end: b“Speak to the children of Israel and say to them…I am the Lord, your God, True”(Numbers 15:38, 41)., bAbaye said to him: What is excellentabout this tradition? bDidn’t Rav Kahana saythat bRav said: Oneshould bnot beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, bbut if he does begin, he completesit? bAnd if you say that:Speak to the children of Israel band say to them, is not considered the beginningof the portion of ritual fringes, bdidn’t Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak saythat bRav said: Speak to the children of Israel, is notconsidered ba beginningof the portion of ritual fringes, as many passages in the Torah begin this way; band say to them, isconsidered ba beginning. /b, bRav Pappa said: In Eretz Yisrael, they holdthat band say to them, is notconsidered ba beginning, until he said: And make for them ritual fringes. /b, bAbaye said: Therefore, we beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes, bsince they beginto recite it bin Eretz Yisrael. And once we beginto recite it, bwe complete it as well, as Rav Kahana saidthat bRav said: Oneshould bnot beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, bbut if he does begin, he completesit., bḤiyya bar Rav said: Ifin the evening bone recitedthe portion of ritual fringes concluding with: bI am the Lord, your God, he must recite: Trueand Faithful [iemet /i ive’emuna /i], and the entire blessing of redemption. However, bif he did not recite: I am the Lord, your God, he need not recite iemet /i ive’emuna /i.,The Gemara asks: bIsn’t he required to mention the exodus from Egyptat night as well?,The Gemara responds: In place of reciting iemet ve’emuna bhe said the followingshorter passage: bWe give thanks to You, Lord, our God, Who took us out from Egypt and redeemed us from the house of bondage, and performed miracles and mighty deeds on our behalf on the sea, and we sang unto You,as this formula includes all of the content comprising iemet ve’emuna /i.,We learned in the mishna: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Why did the portion of iShemaprecedethat of iVeHaya im Shamoa /i? So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥaioffers a different explanation for the order of the portions of iShema /i. He bsays: By right, iShemashould precede iVeHaya im Shamoabecausethe iShemaincludes the directive bto learn, while iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directive bto teach.Similarly, iVeHaya im Shamoa /ishould precede iVaYomer /i,the final paragraph of iShema /i, because iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directive bto teach, whilethe portion of ritual fringes includes the directive bto perform. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say thatthe portion of iShemacontainsthe directive bto learnbut bit does not containthe directive bto teach and perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall teach themto your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), a directive to teach, as well as: b“And you shall bind themas a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 6:8) and: b“And write themon your door posts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), directives to perform? bFurthermore, does iVeHaya im Shamoacontainthe directive bto teachbut bit does not containthe directive bto perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall bind themas a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 11:18), a directive to perform?, bRather,Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai bsaid as follows: By right,the portion of iShemashould precede iVeHaya im Shamoabecausethe portion of iShemaincludes the directives bto learn, to teach, and to perform,while iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directives to teach and to perform. iVeHaya im Shamoashould precede iVaYomerbecause iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directives bto teach and to perform, while iVaYomer bonlyincludes the directive bto perform. /b,The Gemara asks: bLet him derive this,that the portion of iShemais recited first, bfromthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa.The Gemara responds: bHe stated onereason band another.Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai does not disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; he simply suggested as additional explanation as follows: bOnereason the portion of iShemais recited first is bso that one will first accept the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself and afterward the yoke of the mitzvot; andthe second reason is bbecausethe portion of iShema bcontains these other elementsas well.,The Gemara relates: bRav washed his hands, recited iShema /i, donned phylacteries, and prayedin that order. The Gemara asks: bHow could he do that? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who digs a grave for the deadin the wall of the family burial cave bis exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, from prayer, from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah.When btheappointed btime for the recitation of iShemaarrives, he emergesfrom the cave, bwashes his hands, dons phylacteries, recites iShema /i, and prays. /b,Before clarifying the problem, the Gemara comments: bThis ibaraita bitself is difficult;it appears to be contradictory. bThe first clauseof the ibaraita bstatedthat one digging a grave bis exemptfrom the recitation of iShema /i, band the latter clausestated that bhe is obligatedto emerge and recite iShema /i,The Gemara responds: bThat is not difficult. The latter clauseof the ibaraitarefers to a case bof twoindividuals digging the grave together; one pauses to recite iShemawhile the other continues digging. bThe first clauseof the ibaraitarefers to a case bof oneindividual digging alone, who may not stop., bIn any case, this ibaraita bcontradicts Ravin terms of the order in which the mitzvot are performed. The Gemara responds: bRav holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, who saidthat the acceptance of bthe yoke of the kingdom of Heaventakes precedence and should bcome first, followed bythe acceptance of bthe yoke of the mitzvot.Therefore, Rav first recited iShema /i, and only then donned phylacteries.,The Gemara challenges: bSaythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saidto bgive precedence to recitationof the portion concerning the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven over brecitationof other portions. But bdid you hear himsay the ihalakhagives precedence to brecitation over performance? /b, bAnd furthermore, doesRav breally hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? But didn’t Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi say: Many times I stood before Rav, and he first washed his hands, recited a blessing, taught us our lesson, donned phylacteries, and then recited iShema /i. And if you say:This was when bthe time for the recitation of iShemahad notyet barrivedand that is why he donned his phylacteries first, bthen what isthe point of bthe testimony of Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi? /b,The Gemara responds: Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi’s story comes bto excludethe opinion of bthe one who said that one need not recite the blessingon Torah study bforthe study of bmishna. It teaches us that even for mishna, one must recite a blessing. /b, bIn any casethis ibaraita bis difficult for Rav.The Gemara responds: bThe messenger was at faultand brought Rav his phylacteries late, so Rav recited iShemaat its appropriate time and later donned phylacteries.,With regard to the recitation of iShemawithout phylacteries, bUlla said: Anyone who recites iShemawithout phylacteries, it is as if he has borne false testimony against himself,as in iShema /i, he mentions his obligation to don phylacteries and in this case fails to don them himself ( iTalmidei Rabbeinu Yona /i). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:One who recites iShemawithout phylacteries, bit is as if he has offered a burnt-offering without a meal-offering or a peace-offering without libations.Despite the fact that he fulfilled his obligation, his offering is incomplete., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who seeks to accept upon himself the complete yoke of the kingdom of Heaven /b
59. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107b. בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב (שמואל ב ה, ה) בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו' והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב ש"מ נצטרע,אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך (תהלים פו, יז) עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שונאי ויבושו כי אתה ה' עזרתני ונחמתני א"ל בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך,בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר (תהלים כד, ז) שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה' עזוז וגבור ה' גבור מלחמה ונאמר (תהלים כד, ט) שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד וגו' ולא נענה,כיון שאמר (דברי הימים ב ו, מב) ה' אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקב"ה על אותו העון,גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל א"ר יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,וא"ד רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה [נא] המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) [צר],תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים [ולא כרבי יהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו ליש"ו בשתי ידים],גחזי דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) [ויפרץ] בו ויצר ככרים כסף וגו' ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל,אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא א"ל זיל טבול בירדן א"ל אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד,כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחא עילויה רישיה א"ל רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך עד עולם ויצא מלפניו מצורע כשלג: (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים פתח השער אמר ר' יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו,[הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי יהושע בן פרחיה מאי הוא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל רבי יהושע בן פרחיה ויש"ו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח לי' שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש ליכי אלכסנדרי' של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה,קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה,אתא לקמיה כמה זמנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר יש"ו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל:],תניא א"ר שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת,ת"ר ג' חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו [שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו וגו'],עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דור המבול אין להם חלק לעוה"ב ואין עומדין בדין שנא' (בראשית ו, ג) לא ידון רוחי באדם לעולם לא דין ולא רוח דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (בראשית יא, ח) ויפץ ה' אותם משם על פני כל הארץ (וכתיב ומשם הפיצם) ויפץ ה' אותם בעוה"ז ומשם הפיצם ה' לעולם הבא אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנא' (בראשית יג, יג) ואנשי סדום רעים וחטאים לה' מאד רעים בעולם הזה וחטאים לעולם הבא אבל עומדין בדין,ר' נחמיה אומר אלו ואלו אין עומדין בדין שנאמר (תהלים א, ה) על כן לא יקומו 107b. bin Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years”(I Kings 2:11). bAnd it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six monthsand in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II Samuel 5:5). bAnd those six months,the prophet bdid not tallythem as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. bConclude from itthat there were six months that he was not considered king because he bwas afflicted with leprosy. /b,David bsaid before Himafter this: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for this sin.God said to him: bIt is forgiven for you.David requested: b“Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame”(Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God bsaid to him: In your lifetime I will not makeit bknownthat you were forgiven, bbut I will makeit bknown in the lifetime of your son, Solomon. /b,The Gemara explains: bWhen Solomon built the Templeand bsought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies,the bgates clung togetherand could not be opened. Solomon buttered twenty-four songsof praise, bandhis prayer bwas not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle”(Psalms 24:7–8). bAnd it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in.Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), band he was not answered. /b, bOnce he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant”(II Chronicles 6:42), bhe was immediately answered,and the gates opened (II Chronicles 7:1). bAt that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turneddark blike thecharred bbottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin,as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.,§ The mishna states that bGehazi,the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is bas it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus(see II Kings 8:7). bWhere did he go,and for what purpose? bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent.Elisha bsaid to him: Repent.Gehazi bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b, bWhat did he dothat caused the masses to sin? bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin,i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that bhe suspended it between heaven and earth,i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. bAnd there arethose bwho say: He engravedthe sacred bnameof God bon its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I amthe Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), band: “You shall not haveother gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before., bAnd there arethose bwho say:Gehazi bpushed the Sagesaway bfromcoming bbefore him,i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, bas it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us”(II Kings 6:1). It may be derived bby inference that until now they were not numerousand the place was not bcrampedfor them, as Gehazi would turn people away., bThe Sages taught: Always have the lefthand bdrivesinners baway and the right drawthem bnear,so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is bunlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two handsand caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, band unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands. /b,Elisha drove bGehaziaway, bas it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silverin two bags, with two changes of garments” (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: b“And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?”(II Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: bAnd didGehazi btake all that? It ismerely bsilver and garments that he took. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This was the incident involving Gehazi: bAt that moment, Elisha was sitting and teachingthe ihalakhotof the beightimpure bcreeping animals.Now bNaaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. WhenNaaman bcameto him, Elisha bsaid to him: Go immerse in the Jordan.Naaman bsaid to him: Are you mocking meby suggesting that this will cure me? bThosecompanions bwho were withNaaman bsaid to him: What is the difference to you? Go, tryit. Naaman bwent and immersed in the Jordan and was healed.Naaman bcameand bbrought toElisha ball thoseitems bthat he hadtaken with him from Aram, and Elisha bdid not agree to receivethem bfrom him. Gehazi took leave from before Elishaand bwentand btookfrom Naaman bwhat he took, andhe bdepositedthem., bWhenGehazi bcame, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown onGehazi’s bhead.Elisha bsaid to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to takeyour breward forstudying the matter of bthe eight creeping animals.Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: b“The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow”(II Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: b“And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate”(II Kings 7:3), bRabbi Yoḥa says:These were bGehazi and his three sons,as he and his descendants were cursed.,§ bWhat isthe incident involving bYehoshua ben Peraḥya?The Gemara relates: bWhen King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus,his student, bwent to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peacebetween King Yannai and the Sages, bShimon ben Shataḥ senta message btoYehoshua ben Peraḥya: bFrom me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate.The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.,Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, barose, came, and happenedto arrive at ba certain innon the way to Jerusalem. bThey treated him with great honor.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid: How beautiful is this inn.Jesus, his student, bsaid to him:But bmy teacher, the eyes ofthe innkeeper’s wife bare narrow [ iterutot /i].Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid to him: Wicked one!Do byou involve yourself with regard to thatmatter, the appearance of a married woman? bHe produced four hundred ishofarotand ostracized him. /b,Jesus bcame beforeYehoshua ben Peraḥya bseveral timesand bsaid to him: Accept our,i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya btook no notice of him. One dayYehoshua ben Peraḥya bwas reciting iShema /iand Jesus bcame before himwith the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bintended to accept hisrequest, and bsignaled him with his handto wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and bthought: He is driving me away. He wentand bstood a brickupright to serve as an idol band he bowed to it.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then bsaid toJesus: bRepent.Jesus bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incitedJews to engage in idolatry, band led Israel astray.Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to the evil binclination,to ba child, andto ba woman, have the lefthand bdrivethem baway and the right drawthem bnear.Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness., bThe Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: Oneillness was due to the fact bthat he incited bears toattack and eat bchildren(see II Kings 2:24–25); band onewas due to the fact bthat he pushed Gehazi away with two handsand caused him to despair of atonement; band onewas the illness bfrom which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illnessfrom which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.,Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: bUntilthe time of bAbraham there was no aging,and the old and the young looked the same. bAnyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac,and banyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age”(Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. bUntilthe time of bJacob there was no weakness,i.e., illness. Jacob bprayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill”(Genesis 48:1). bUntilthe time of bElisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die”(II Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.,mishna The members of bthe generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgmentat the end of days, bas it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [ iyadon /i] in man forever”(Genesis 6:3); bneitherwill they stand in bjudgment [ idin /i] norshall their bsoulsbe restored to them. The members of bthe generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth”(Genesis 11:8), band it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter themupon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). b“And the Lord scattered them”indicates bin this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly”(Genesis 13:13). b“Wicked”indicates bin this world; “and sinners”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgmentand they will be sentenced to eternal contempt., bRabbi Neḥemya says:Both bthese,the people of Sodom, band those,the members of the generation of the flood, bwill not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand /b
60. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.1.25-5.1.26 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.1.25. But the devil, thinking that he had already consumed Biblias, who was one of those who had denied Christ, desiring to increase her condemnation through the utterance of blasphemy, brought her again to the torture, to compel her, as already feeble and weak, to report impious things concerning us. 5.1.26. But she recovered herself under the suffering, and as if awaking from a deep sleep, and reminded by the present anguish of the eternal punishment in hell, she contradicted the blasphemers. 'How,' she said, 'could those eat children who do not think it lawful to taste the blood even of irrational animals?' And thenceforward she confessed herself a Christian, and was given a place in the order of the witnesses.
61. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 15.12, 29.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

15.12. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר לִי וְלָכֶם הִיא הַגְּאֻלָּה, כִּבְיָכוֹל אֲנִי נִפְדֵיתִי עִמָּכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב ז, כג): אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ לְּךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם גּוֹיִם וֵאלֹהָיו, וְקִבְעוּ הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לִי וְלָכֶם, שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה דַּם הַפֶּסַח וּמְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: דַּבְּרוּ אֶל כָּל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּתְהֵא שִׂמְחַתְכֶם שְׁלֵמָה, אֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁהוּא עָנִי. שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן שָׁנָה, שֶׂה, בִּשְׁבִיל (בראשית כב, ח): אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה לוֹ הַשֶֹּׂה וגו'. תָּמִים, לִשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב, ד): הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ. זָכָר, שֶׁהוּא הוֹרֵג כָּל בְּכוֹרֵיהֶם שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם וְחָס עַל בְּכוֹרֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֲנִי הוֹרֵג הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה הַשְּׁבִי וְהַשִּׁפְחָה, כָּךְ רְשׁוּת בְּיֶדְכֶם לִטֹּל מִכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתֶּם רוֹצִים וְיִהְיוּ מְשַׁמְרִין אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁהוּא לָכֶם שִׂמְחָה [נסחה אחרת: שמירה] גְּדוֹלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת. וְשַׁחֲטוּ אוֹתוֹ, אַתֶּם שׁוֹחֲטִים פֶּסַח וַאֲנִי שׁוֹחֵט בְּכוֹרִים. וְלָקְחוּ מִן הַדָּם וְנָתְנוּ עַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְזוּזֹת, שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹסֵחַ וּמֵגֵן עֲלֵיכֶם. וְיִהְיוּ זְהִירִין בּוֹ, שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה הוּא נֶאֱכָל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה צְלִי אֵשׁ, בִּשְׁבִיל אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהִצַּלְתִּיו מִכִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ. וּמַצּוֹת, בִּשְׁבִיל שָׂרָה שֶׁעָשְׂתָה לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת עֻגוֹת וְלֹא טָעֲמוּ לֶחֶם. מְרֹרִים, בִּשְׁבִיל יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּרְדְּפוּ בָּנָיו בְּמִצְרַיִם כָּךְ רְדָפוֹ עֵשָׂו. וְלֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵינִי מְשַׁיֵּר נְשָׁמָה בִּבְכוֹרֵי מִצְרַיִם, כָּךְ לֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנוּ עַד בֹּקֶר. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁאָמַר לְבָנָיו הֱיוּ יוֹדְעִים שֶׁאֲנִי דָן דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת וּמְחַיֵּב, הַקְרִיבוּ לִי דּוֹרוֹן שֶׁאִם תַּעֲלוּ לְפָנַי לַבִּימָה שֶׁאַעֲבִיר אִילוֹגִין שֶׁלָּכֶם לְאַחֵר. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת אֲנִי מִתְעַסֵּק וּמוֹדִיעַ אֲנִי הֵיאַךְ אֲנִי חָס עֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַחֲמִים בְּדַם פֶּסַח וּבְדַם מִילָה, וַאֲנִי מְכַפֵּר עַל נַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם, שֶׁהָעֲבָרָה שֶׁאֲנִי עוֹבֵר קָשָׁה הִיא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעָבַרְתִּי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, וְכֵן יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמֵר (תהלים ט, י): וִיהִי ה' מִשְׁגָּב לַדָּךְ מִשְׂגָּב לְעִתּוֹת בַּצָּרָה. 29.5. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם מוֹלֵךְ וְיֵשׁ לוֹ אָב אוֹ אָח, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי אֵינִי כֵן (ישעיה מד, ו): אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁאֵין לִי אָב, (ישעיה מד, ו): וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן, שֶׁאֵין לִי אָח, (ישעיה מד, ו): וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים, שֶׁאֵין לִי בֵּן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מג, יב): אָנֹכִי הִגַּדְתִּי וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי וְהִשְׁמַעְתִּי וגו', אָנֹכִי הִגַּדְתִּי לְמִצְרַיִם שֶׁבְּרַחְתֶּם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרְדְּפוּ אַחֲרֵיכֶם וְיִטְבְּעוּ בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יד, ה): וַיֻּגַּד לְמֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם כִּי בָרַח הָעָם. וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יד, ל): וַיּוֹשַׁע ה' בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְהִשְׁמַעְתִּי לְעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טו, יד): שָׁמְעוּ עַמִּים יִרְגָּזוּן, וְאֵין בָּכֶם זָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יח, כז): וַיְשַׁלַּח משֶׁה אֶת חֹתְנוֹ, מִיָּד (שמות יט, א): בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. וְאַתֶּם עֵדַי נְאֻם ה' וַאֲנִי אֵל, אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ.
62. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 2.3 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

2.3. חִבָּה גְּדוֹלָה חִבְּבָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁעֲשָׂאָם דְּגָלִים כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִהְיוּ נִכָּרִין, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהוּא אַהֲבָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים ב, ד): הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן וגו', לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְעָשִׁיר שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ אוֹצָר מָלֵא יַיִן וְנִכְנַס לְבָדְקוֹ וּמְצָאוֹ כֻּלּוֹ חֹמֶץ, בָּא לָצֵאת מִתּוֹךְ הָאוֹצָר וּמָצָא חָבִית אַחַת יַיִן טוֹב, אָמַר חָבִית זוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עָלַי כִּמְלֹא אוֹצָר. כָּךְ בָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת וּמִכֻּלָּם לֹא מָצָא הֲנָיָה אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁיַּיִן עוֹלֶה שִׁבְעִים, י' עֲשָׂרָה, י' עֲשָׂרָה, נ' חֲמִשִּׁים, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים. וּמִכֻּלָּם וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּין, לַמַּרְתֵּף הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁל יַיִן, זֶה סִינַי, וְלִמְדַנִי משֶׁה תּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא נִדְרֶשֶׁת מ"ט פָּנִים. וְדִגְל"וֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כָּל מִי שֶׁהָיָה מַרְאֶה אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ בָּאֶצְבַּע הָיָה נֶהֱרָג, וְהַתִּינוֹקוֹת הוֹלְכִים לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וּמַרְאִים אֶת הָאַזְכָּרוֹת בָּאֶצְבַּע, אָמַר הָאֱלֹהִים וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, וְגוּדָלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. רַבִּי יִשָׂשכָר אוֹמֵר וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אֲפִלּוּ אָדָם יוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה וּמְדַלֵּג מֵהֲלָכָה לַהֲלָכָה וּמִפָּסוּק לְפָסוּק, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חָבִיב הוּא עָלַי, וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, וְדִלּוּגוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יֵשׁ לָאֻמּוֹת דְּגָלִים וְאֵין חָבִיב עָלַי אֶלָּא דִגְלוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל הַר סִינַי יָרְדוּ עִמּוֹ כ"ב רְבָבוֹת שֶׁל מַלְאָכִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים סח, יח): רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן, וְהָיוּ כֻלָּם עֲשׂוּיִם דְּגָלִים דְּגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ה, י): דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ אוֹתָן יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֵם עֲשׂוּיִם דְּגָלִים דְּגָלִים, הִתְחִילוּ מִתְאַוִּים לִדְגָלִים, אָמְרוּ אַלְוַאי כָּךְ אָנוּ נַעֲשִׂים דְּגָלִים כְּמוֹתָן, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, זֶה סִינַי שֶׁנִּתְּנָה בּוֹ הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה בַּיַּיִן (משלי ט, ה): וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי, הֱוֵי: אֶל בֵּית הַיָּיִן, זֶה סִינָי. וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה, אָמְרוּ אִלּוּלֵי הוּא מַגְדִּיל עָלַי אַהֲבָה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים כ, ו): נְרַנְּנָה בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַה נִּתְאַוִּיתֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת דְּגָלִים, חַיֵּיכֶם שֶׁאֲנִי מְמַלֵּא מִשְׁאֲלוֹתֵיכֶם, (תהלים כ, ו): יְמַלֵּא ה' כָּל מִשְׁאֲלוֹתֶיךָ, מִיָּד הוֹדִיעַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹתָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַר לְמשֶׁה לֵךְ עֲשֵׂה אוֹתָם דְּגָלִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְאַוּוּ.
63. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 28, 8, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

64. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 18 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

65. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 12.25

66. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 43, 21

67. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.2, 7.9

1.2. An additional meaning: \"See a man diligent in his work, before kings he will stand, he will not stand before mean men.\" That is Moses, our teacher, regarding the work of the Tabernacle. Therefore, before kings he will stand, this is Pharaoh, as it says, \"Hurriedly awaken in the morning and stand before Pharaoh (Exodus 8).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", this is Jethro. Rabbi Nehemiah said: \"You have made that which is holy, profane!\" Rather, \"Before kings he will stand\", that is King, the King of Kings, the Holy One Blessed Be He. As it is said, \"And he (Moses) was there with the Lord, for 40 days (Exodus 34).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", that is Pharaoh, as it says: \"And there was dark darkness, etc. (Exodus 10).\""
68. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 158, 155

155. wherefore he exhorts us in the Scripture also in these words: 'Thou shalt surely remember the Lord that wrought in thee those great and wonderful things'. For when they are properly conceived, they are manifestly great and glorious; first the construction of the body and the disposition of the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
aba b. midyah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
abbahu, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 77
abortion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
abraham Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
accusations (against creator or creation) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
action Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
adam Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
adultery Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 241
akiba (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142, 354
akiva, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 77
alexandria, rabbinic views of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
alexandria Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
all men Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of scripture Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
ancient near east Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
angels Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142, 354
anti-christian polemic Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 211
archaeology (and archaeologists) Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
art, sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263
ascalon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
babylonian talmud (bavli), aggadic material in Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
beatitudes Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
biblical commentaries and exegesis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
biblical texts, midrashim and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
blessings Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 241
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 241
christians, christianity Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
christians, claim to be true israel Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 211
cicero, on rhetorical reasoning Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260
cities Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
collective memory Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 490
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
conversation analysis Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
corruption Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
covenant, new Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
covenant Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
crucifixion Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
culture, effect on morality Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
daughter Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
davar aher Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
death, way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 438, 490, 519
decalogue/ten commandments Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
demons, demonic, evil spirits Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
derash, davar aher Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
divine/god, exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 354
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
easter Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
egypt Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142, 354
eleazar (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
eli Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
elkanah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
embodiment Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
enigma/enigmas, enigmatic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
enlightenment Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil, actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil, plans Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
exegesis, allegorical Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exegesis, and orthography Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 354
exegesis, concrete exegesis Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
exegesis, gnostic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exegesis, symbolic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exegesis Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 186; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 264; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 354
exodus Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142, 354; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
exodus traditions Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 130
famine, biblical egypt as refuge from Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
flattering Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
freedom Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
genesis rabbah, lives of patriarchs reveal paradigm of israels future Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 276
gnostics/gnostic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
god, denial of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
god, devouring fire Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
god, has no son Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 211
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265
god of israel Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
gospels Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
greek language Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 77
greenberg, moshe Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
group-orientation, and moral actions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
group-orientation, and moral agency Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
halakhah/halakhot Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 446, 490
hammurabis code Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
hanina b. papa, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
hannah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
harmonization Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
heart, writing on Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
heavenly court advocates, in rabbinic literature Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260
heavenly court advocates Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260
hellenism and hellenistic world Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
hermeneutic, of literalism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 186, 187
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 490
high priest Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
high priests, oracle Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
homer Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
honour (and shame), morality and gods honour Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
hor hahar Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
husband Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
hyperbole, in aggadah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
idolatry, second commandment Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
idolatry Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
image, imagery Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
intention Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 340; Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
intermediary Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 518, 519
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
iron age Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
isaac Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 276; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
isaac (amora) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
ishmael (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
israel, biblical, in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
israel, future history of, in genesis rabbah Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 276
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 438, 446, 457, 490, 518, 519
israel Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
israelites Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
jacob Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 276; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
jacob son of abraham, patriarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
japheth b. eli (yefet b. eli) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
jerusalem Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
jesus, as savior Pierce et al., Gospel Reading and Reception in Early Christian Literature (2022) 27
jesus Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 77
jewish society, diaspora Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
jewish society, law Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
jewish society, revolts against rome Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
jews, neighbors Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
jews Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
joseph (son of jacob the patriarch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
joshua b. levi Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
joshua ben peraḥyah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
judaea Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
judah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
judah ben simon Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
judaism Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
judaism (karaites, rabbanites) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
judgment Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
justice, biblical administration of, comparative ideas about Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
justice, biblical administration of Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
karaites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 438
kingship Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
kiss Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
lamentations rabbah, authentic narrative in Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 152, 168
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
law, jewish Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
law Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
law and power balance altered, historical perspective of Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
lawsuits Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
lawyers and legal system, roman court system Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260
levi (amora) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
liberation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
lieberman, saul, on rabbinic courts Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
love, of brothers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
love, of neighbours Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
magic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
martyr and martyrdom, christian, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 186, 187
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 186, 187
matter (ïlh) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
mediation Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
mediterranean, roman Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
meir, r., his reading of ps. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
meir (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
metatron Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 77
mezuzah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
mezuzot Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
midrash, aggadah and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
midrash, midrashic Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 490, 518, 519
mihaly, eugene Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 211
minim, deny god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim, gentiles Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim, nations of the world Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minim, two powers Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
minut, denial of god Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
miriam Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223
monarchy Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
moods, verbal, imperative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
moods, verbal, indicative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
morality, early christian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
morality, moral actions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
morality, moral agents Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 389
mortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265
moses, portrayal in pentateuchal sources DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 24
moses Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 186, 187; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 446, 490, 518, 519; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
murder Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
muslim, muslims Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
mystery/mysteries, greater Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
mysticism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263
name (divine) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 354
narrative, in lamentations rabbah Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 168
nash papyrus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
nations of the world, two powers Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
nehemiah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
neighbour Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
neologism Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 118
new testament Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
nile, river Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
offspring Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
oracles Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
order of giving Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 223
paidagogos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
papyrological evidence, prayer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
parallel Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
paul, the apostle/st. paul, apostle divine apostle) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
pauline letters/epistles Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
peninnah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
performance Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
philo Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
philo of alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
philos logos Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 118
phylacteries' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
prayer, daily Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
prayer Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 438, 446, 457, 490, 518, 519
preexistent torah Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 118
priesthood Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
principles (érxæ) (first) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
prophecy, prophets Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 238
prophets, ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
prophets Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
protagoras Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 260
protreptikos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
providence Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 446
qumran Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296
r. joshua b. qorha Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
r. simeon b. yohai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
rabbanite, rabbanites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 598
rabbi abbahu Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 211
rabbi jonathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
rabbi nathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
rabbis, hyperbole used by Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
rabbis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 368
rabbis (sages) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
redemption, divine Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142, 354
redemption Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 354
repetition Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
resurrection Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 446, 457; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 144
rhetoric Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 186, 187
rule of law Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
sabbath Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
sacrifices Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 56
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 446
samuel b. nahman, r. (nahmani), interpretations of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 104
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
sanhedrin Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 187
scribal memory Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
scribal performance Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
scribe Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320, 340
scripture Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 265; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
sculpture, in city centers and civic monuments Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
sculpture, messages, symbolism, and perceptions of Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
sculpture Eliav, A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 176
secularisation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
segal, alan f. Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 52
separation of powers Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 8
septuagint, language Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
septuagint/lxx Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 296; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 13
septuagint Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 182
sermon, on the mount Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
sermon, on the plain Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
sex Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
shekhina, auditory Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265
shekhina, visual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 263, 264, 265
shekhinah, enslavement of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
shekhinah, redemption of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 142
shema, biblical passages Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
shema, nash papyrus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551
shema, themes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 551