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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.19


וַיְהִי קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר הוֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק מְאֹד מֹשֶׁה יְדַבֵּר וְהָאֱלֹהִים יַעֲנֶנּוּ בְקוֹל׃And when the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice.


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58 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.21, 1.25, 1.27, 1.32, 4.12, 4.33, 4.36, 5.23-5.24, 6.4, 16.16, 18.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. רְאֵה נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ עֲלֵה רֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת׃ 1.27. וַתֵּרָגְנוּ בְאָהֳלֵיכֶם וַתֹּאמְרוּ בְּשִׂנְאַת יְהוָה אֹתָנוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַשְׁמִידֵנוּ׃ 1.32. וּבַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֵינְכֶם מַאֲמִינִם בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 4.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃ 4.33. הֲשָׁמַע עָם קוֹל אֱלֹהִים מְדַבֵּר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַיֶּחִי׃ 4.36. מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם הִשְׁמִיעֲךָ אֶת־קֹלוֹ לְיַסְּרֶךָּ וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ הֶרְאֲךָ אֶת־אִשּׁוֹ הַגְּדוֹלָה וּדְבָרָיו שָׁמַעְתָּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 5.23. כִּי מִי כָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע קוֹל אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים מְדַבֵּר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵשׁ כָּמֹנוּ וַיֶּחִי׃ 5.24. קְרַב אַתָּה וּשֲׁמָע אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְאַתְּ תְּדַבֵּר אֵלֵינוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְנוּ וְעָשִׂינוּ׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 16.16. שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר בְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת וּבְחַג הַשָּׁבֻעוֹת וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה רֵיקָם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 1.21. Behold, the LORD thy God hath set the land before thee; go up, take possession, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath spoken unto thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’" 1.27. and ye murmured in your tents, and said: ‘Because the LORD hated us, He hath brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us." 1.32. Yet in this thing ye do not believe the LORD your God," 4.12. And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice." 4.33. Did ever a people hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard, and live?" 4.36. Out of heaven He made thee to hear His voice, that He might instruct thee; and upon earth He made thee to see His great fire; and thou didst hear His words out of the midst of the fire." 5.23. For who is there of all flesh, that hath heard the voice of the living God speaking out of the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived?" 5.24. Go thou near, and hear all that the LORD our God may say; and thou shalt speak unto us all that the LORD our God may speak unto thee; and we will hear it and do it.’" 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 16.16. Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the LORD empty;" 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.5-2.10, 2.24, 5.21, 13.21-13.22, 14.19, 14.24, 15.13, 15.18, 19.2, 19.5-19.6, 19.10-19.18, 19.20-19.24, 20.15, 20.17-20.18, 23.17, 24.4-24.6, 24.9-24.18, 32.16, 33.9, 33.11-33.23, 34.5, 34.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. וַתֵּרֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לִרְחֹץ עַל־הַיְאֹר וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלְכֹת עַל־יַד הַיְאֹר וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף וַתִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֲמָתָהּ וַתִּקָּחֶהָ 2.6. וַתִּפְתַּח וַתִּרְאֵהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וְהִנֵּה־נַעַר בֹּכֶה וַתַּחְמֹל עָלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר מִיַּלְדֵי הָעִבְרִים זֶה׃ 2.7. וַתֹּאמֶר אֲחֹתוֹ אֶל־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הַאֵלֵךְ וְקָרָאתִי לָךְ אִשָּׁה מֵינֶקֶת מִן הָעִבְרִיֹּת וְתֵינִק לָךְ אֶת־הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.8. וַתֹּאמֶר־לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לֵכִי וַתֵּלֶךְ הָעַלְמָה וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־אֵם הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הֵילִיכִי אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה וְהֵינִקִהוּ לִי וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־שְׂכָרֵךְ וַתִּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּנִיקֵהוּ׃ 2.24. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃ 5.21. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם יֵרֶא יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם וְיִשְׁפֹּט אֲשֶׁר הִבְאַשְׁתֶּם אֶת־רֵיחֵנוּ בְּעֵינֵי פַרְעֹה וּבְעֵינֵי עֲבָדָיו לָתֶת־חֶרֶב בְּיָדָם לְהָרְגֵנוּ׃ 13.21. וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 14.24. וַיְהִי בְּאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַבֹּקֶר וַיַּשְׁקֵף יְהוָה אֶל־מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ וְעָנָן וַיָּהָם אֵת מַחֲנֵה מִצְרָיִם׃ 15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 19.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵרְפִידִים וַיָּבֹאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינַי וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיִּחַן־שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶד הָהָר׃ 19.2. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה לְמֹשֶׁה אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.11. וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֵרֵד יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם עַל־הַר סִינָי׃ 19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.14. וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה מִן־הָהָר אֶל־הָעָם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם וַיְכַבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.16. וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר וַיְהִי קֹלֹת וּבְרָקִים וְעָנָן כָּבֵד עַל־הָהָר וְקֹל שֹׁפָר חָזָק מְאֹד וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 19.17. וַיּוֹצֵא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם לִקְרַאת הָאֱלֹהִים מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּתַחְתִּית הָהָר׃ 19.18. וְהַר סִינַי עָשַׁן כֻּלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר יָרַד עָלָיו יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ וַיַּעַל עֲשָׁנוֹ כְּעֶשֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָהָר מְאֹד׃ 19.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רֵד הָעֵד בָּעָם פֶּן־יֶהֶרְסוּ אֶל־יְהוָה לִרְאוֹת וְנָפַל מִמֶּנּוּ רָב׃ 19.22. וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 19.23. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֹא־יוּכַל הָעָם לַעֲלֹת אֶל־הַר סִינָי כִּי־אַתָּה הַעֵדֹתָה בָּנוּ לֵאמֹר הַגְבֵּל אֶת־הָהָר וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ׃ 19.24. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה לֶךְ־רֵד וְעָלִיתָ אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן עִמָּךְ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם אַל־יֶהֶרְסוּ לַעֲלֹת אֶל־יְהוָה פֶּן־יִפְרָץ־בָּם׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 20.18. וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 23.17. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶל־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.9. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 24.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וֶהְיֵה־שָׁם וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־לֻחֹת הָאֶבֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה וְהַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַבְתִּי לְהוֹרֹתָם׃ 24.13. וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ מְשָׁרְתוֹ וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.14. וְאֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אָמַר שְׁבוּ־לָנוּ בָזֶה עַד אֲשֶׁר־נָשׁוּב אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִנֵּה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עִמָּכֶם מִי־בַעַל דְּבָרִים יִגַּשׁ אֲלֵהֶם׃ 24.15. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָהָר וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־הָהָר׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶעָנָן וַיַּעַל אֶל־הָהָר וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 33.9. וְהָיָה כְּבֹא מֹשֶׁה הָאֹהֱלָה יֵרֵד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן וְעָמַד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְדִבֶּר עִם־מֹשֶׁה׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 33.12. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה רְאֵה אַתָּה אֹמֵר אֵלַי הַעַל אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הוֹדַעְתַּנִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַח עִמִּי וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ יְדַעְתִּיךָ בְשֵׁם וְגַם־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינָי׃ 33.13. וְעַתָּה אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הוֹדִעֵנִי נָא אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאֵדָעֲךָ לְמַעַן אֶמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה כִּי עַמְּךָ הַגּוֹי הַזֶּה׃ 33.14. וַיֹּאמַר פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ וַהֲנִחֹתִי לָךְ׃ 33.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אִם־אֵין פָּנֶיךָ הֹלְכִים אַל־תַּעֲלֵנוּ מִזֶּה׃ 33.16. וּבַמֶּה יִוָּדַע אֵפוֹא כִּי־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲנִי וְעַמֶּךָ הֲלוֹא בְּלֶכְתְּךָ עִמָּנוּ וְנִפְלֵינוּ אֲנִי וְעַמְּךָ מִכָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 33.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה גַּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶעֱשֶׂה כִּי־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינַי וָאֵדָעֲךָ בְּשֵׁם׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.21. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל־הַצּוּר׃ 33.22. וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 34.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיִּתְיַצֵּב עִמּוֹ שָׁם וַיִּקְרָא בְשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 34.23. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.5. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." 2.6. And she opened it, and saw it, even the child; and behold a boy that wept. And she had compassion on him, and said: ‘This is one of the Hebrews’children.’" 2.7. Then said his sister to Pharaoh’s daughter: ‘Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?’" 2.8. And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her: ‘Go.’ And the maiden went and called the child’s mother." 2.9. And Pharaoh’s daughter said unto her: ‘Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages.’ And the woman took the child, and nursed it." 2.10. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses, and said: ‘Because I drew him out of the water.’" 2.24. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covet with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob." 5.21. and they said unto them: ‘The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.’" 13.21. And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:" 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 14.24. And it came to pass in the morning watch, that the LORD looked forth upon the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloud, and discomfited the host of the Egyptians." 15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation." 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 19.2. And when they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mount." 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;" 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 19.10. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go unto the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments," 19.11. and be ready against the third day; for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai." 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.14. And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their garments." 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’" 19.16. And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a horn exceeding loud; and all the people that were in the camp trembled." 19.17. And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount." 19.18. Now mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly." 19.20. And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, to the top of the mount; and the LORD called Moses to the top of the mount; and Moses went up." 19.21. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish." 19.22. And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’" 19.23. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘The people cannot come up to mount Sinai; for thou didst charge us, saying: Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it.’" 19.24. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Go, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee; but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest He break forth upon them.’" 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off." 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 20.18. And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was." 23.17. Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD." 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.9. Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;" 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink." 24.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Come up to Me into the mount and be there; and I will give thee the tables of stone, and the law and the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayest teach them.’" 24.13. And Moses rose up, and Joshua his minister; and Moses went up into the mount of God." 24.14. And unto the elders he said: ‘Tarry ye here for us, until we come back unto you; and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whosoever hath a cause, let him come near unto them.’" 24.15. And Moses went up into the mount, and the cloud covered the mount." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 24.18. And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights." 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables." 33.9. And it came to pass, when Moses entered into the Tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the Tent; and [the LORD] spoke with Moses." 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent." 33.12. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘See, Thou sayest unto me: Bring up this people; and Thou hast not let me know whom Thou wilt send with me. Yet Thou hast said: I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in My sight." 33.13. Now therefore, I pray Thee, if I have found grace in Thy sight, show me now Thy ways, that I may know Thee, to the end that I may find grace in Thy sight; and consider that this nation is Thy people.’" 33.14. And He said: ‘My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest.’" 33.15. And he said unto Him: ‘If Thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence." 33.16. For wherein now shall it be known that I have found grace in Thy sight, I and Thy people? is it not in that Thou goest with us, so that we are distinguished, I and Thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth?’" 33.17. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken, for thou hast found grace in My sight, and I know thee by name.’" 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 33.21. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock." 33.22. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by." 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’" 34.5. And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD." 34.23. Three times in the year shall all thy males appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.13, 8.1, 17.1, 18.1, 19.3, 32.1-32.2, 32.4, 32.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.8. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי׃ 1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.12. וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי׃ 8.1. וַיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֹּסֶף שַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.1. וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֵת כָּל־הַחַיָּה וְאֶת־כָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה וַיַּעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 19.3. וַיִּפְצַר־בָּם מְאֹד וַיָּסֻרוּ אֵלָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם מִשְׁתֶּה וּמַצּוֹת אָפָה וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 19.3. וַיַּעַל לוֹט מִצּוֹעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב בָּהָר וּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו עִמּוֹ כִּי יָרֵא לָשֶׁבֶת בְּצוֹעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמְּעָרָה הוּא וּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו׃ 32.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי אַבְרָהָם וֵאלֹהֵי אָבִי יִצְחָק יְהוָה הָאֹמֵר אֵלַי שׁוּב לְאַרְצְךָ וּלְמוֹלַדְתְּךָ וְאֵיטִיבָה עִמָּךְ׃ 32.1. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם לָבָן בַּבֹּקֶר וַיְנַשֵּׁק לְבָנָיו וְלִבְנוֹתָיו וַיְבָרֶךְ אֶתְהֶם וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיָּשָׁב לָבָן לִמְקֹמוֹ׃ 32.2. וְיַעֲקֹב הָלַךְ לְדַרְכּוֹ וַיִּפְגְּעוּ־בוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 32.2. וַיְצַו גַּם אֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי גַּם אֶת־הַשְּׁלִישִׁי גַּם אֶת־כָּל־הַהֹלְכִים אַחֲרֵי הָעֲדָרִים לֵאמֹר כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה תְּדַבְּרוּן אֶל־עֵשָׂו בְּמֹצַאֲכֶם אֹתוֹ׃ 32.4. וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב מַלְאָכִים לְפָנָיו אֶל־עֵשָׂו אָחִיו אַרְצָה שֵׂעִיר שְׂדֵה אֱדוֹם׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day." 1.9. And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so." 1.10. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good." 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.12. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.13. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day." 8.1. And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged;" 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;" 19.3. And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat." 32.1. And Laban arose early in the morning, kissed his sons and daughters, and blessed them; and then Laban went and returned to his place." 32.2. And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him." 32.4. And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom." 32.10. And Jacob said: ‘O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O LORD, who saidst unto me: Return unto thy country, and to thy kindred, and I will do thee good;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.1-38.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.1. וַיַּעַן־יְהוָה אֶת־אִיּוֹב מנ הסערה [מִן ] [הַסְּעָרָה] וַיֹּאמַר׃ 38.1. וָאֶשְׁבֹּר עָלָיו חֻקִּי וָאָשִׂים בְּרִיחַ וּדְלָתָיִם׃ 38.2. כִּי תִקָּחֶנּוּ אֶל־גְּבוּלוֹ וְכִי־תָבִין נְתִיבוֹת בֵּיתוֹ׃ 38.2. מִי זֶה מַחְשִׁיךְ עֵצָה בְמִלִּין בְּלִי־דָעַת׃ 38.3. אֱזָר־נָא כְגֶבֶר חֲלָצֶיךָ וְאֶשְׁאָלְךָ וְהוֹדִיעֵנִי׃ 38.3. כָּאֶבֶן מַיִם יִתְחַבָּאוּ וּפְנֵי תְהוֹם יִתְלַכָּדוּ׃ 38.4. אֵיפֹה הָיִיתָ בְּיָסְדִי־אָרֶץ הַגֵּד אִם־יָדַעְתָּ בִינָה׃ 38.4. כִּי־יָשֹׁחוּ בַמְּעוֹנוֹת יֵשְׁבוּ בַסֻּכָּה לְמוֹ־אָרֶב׃ 38.5. מִי־שָׂם מְמַדֶּיהָ כִּי תֵדָע אוֹ מִי־נָטָה עָלֶיהָ קָּו׃ 38.6. עַל־מָה אֲדָנֶיהָ הָטְבָּעוּ אוֹ מִי־יָרָה אֶבֶן פִּנָּתָהּ׃ 38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 38.8. וַיָּסֶךְ בִּדְלָתַיִם יָם בְּגִיחוֹ מֵרֶחֶם יֵצֵא׃ 38.9. בְּשׂוּמִי עָנָן לְבֻשׁוֹ וַעֲרָפֶל חֲתֻלָּתוֹ׃ 38.11. וָאֹמַר עַד־פֹּה תָבוֹא וְלֹא תֹסִיף וּפֹא־יָשִׁית בִּגְאוֹן גַּלֶּיךָ׃ 38.12. הְמִיָּמֶיךָ צִוִּיתָ בֹּקֶר ידעתה שחר [יִדַּעְתָּה] [הַשַּׁחַר] מְקֹמוֹ׃ 38.13. לֶאֱחֹז בְּכַנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ וְיִנָּעֲרוּ רְשָׁעִים מִמֶּנָּה׃ 38.14. תִּתְהַפֵּךְ כְּחֹמֶר חוֹתָם וְיִתְיַצְּבוּ כְּמוֹ לְבוּשׁ׃ 38.15. וְיִמָּנַע מֵרְשָׁעִים אוֹרָם וּזְרוֹעַ רָמָה תִּשָּׁבֵר׃ 38.16. הֲבָאתָ עַד־נִבְכֵי־יָם וּבְחֵקֶר תְּהוֹם הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 38.17. הֲנִגְלוּ לְךָ שַׁעֲרֵי־מָוֶת וְשַׁעֲרֵי צַלְמָוֶת תִּרְאֶה׃ 38.1. Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said:" 38.2. Who is this that darkeneth counsel By words without knowledge?" 38.3. Gird up now thy loins like a man; For I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto Me." 38.4. Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare, if thou hast the understanding." 38.5. Who determined the measures thereof, if thou knowest? Or who stretched the line upon it?" 38.6. Whereupon were the foundations thereof fastened? Or who laid the corner-stone thereof," 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?" 38.8. Or who shut up the sea with doors, When it broke forth, and issued out of the womb;" 38.9. When I made the cloud the garment thereof, And thick darkness a swaddlingband for it," 38.10. And prescribed for it My decree, And set bars and doors," 38.11. And said: ‘Thus far shalt thou come, but no further; And here shall thy proud waves be stayed’?" 38.12. Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days began, And caused the dayspring to know its place;" 38.13. That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, And the wicked be shaken out of it?" 38.14. It is changed as clay under the seal; And they stand as a garment." 38.15. But from the wicked their light is withholden, And the high arm is broken." 38.16. Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea? Or hast thou walked in the recesses of the deep? ." 38.17. Have the gates of death been revealed unto thee? Or hast thou seen the gates of the shadow of death?"
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.1, 2.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּצִיּוֹן וְהָרִיעוּ בְּהַר קָדְשִׁי יִרְגְּזוּ כֹּל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ כִּי־בָא יוֹם־יְהוָה כִּי קָרוֹב׃ 2.1. לְפָנָיו רָגְזָה אֶרֶץ רָעֲשׁוּ שָׁמָיִם שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ קָדָרוּ וְכוֹכָבִים אָסְפוּ נָגְהָם׃ 2.15. תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּצִיּוֹן קַדְּשׁוּ־צוֹם קִרְאוּ עֲצָרָה׃ 2.1. Blow ye the horn in Zion, And sound an alarm in My holy mountain; Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble; For the day of the LORD cometh, For it is at hand;" 2.15. Blow the horn in Zion, Sanctify a fast, call a solemn assembly;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25.8-25.9, 26.42, 26.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.8. וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.9. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶם׃ 26.42. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַעֲקוֹב וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יִצְחָק וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אַבְרָהָם אֶזְכֹּר וְהָאָרֶץ אֶזְכֹּר׃ 26.45. וְזָכַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי־אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם לִהְיֹת לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 25.8. And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and there shall be unto thee the days of seven sabbaths of years, even forty and nine years." 25.9. Then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn on the tenth day of the seventh month; in the day of atonement shall ye make proclamation with the horn throughout all your land." 26.42. then will I remember My covet with Jacob, and also My covet with Isaac, and also My covet with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land." 26.45. But I will for their sakes remember the covet of their ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations, that I might be their God: I am the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.23-3.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.23. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 3.24. וְהֵשִׁיב לֵב־אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְלֵב בָּנִים עַל־אֲבוֹתָם פֶּן־אָבוֹא וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ חֵרֶם׃ br small[הנה אנכי שלח לכם את אליה הנביא לפני בוא יום יהוה הגדול והנורא] /small 3.23. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD." 3.24. And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers; lest I come and smite the land with utter destruction. br small[Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.] /small"
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 5.1-5.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וְהִכְרַתִּי עָרֵי אַרְצֶךָ וְהָרַסְתִּי כָּל־מִבְצָרֶיךָ׃ 5.1. וְאַתָּה בֵּית־לֶחֶם אֶפְרָתָה צָעִיר לִהְיוֹת בְּאַלְפֵי יְהוּדָה מִמְּךָ לִי יֵצֵא לִהְיוֹת מוֹשֵׁל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמוֹצָאֹתָיו מִקֶּדֶם מִימֵי עוֹלָם׃ 5.2. לָכֵן יִתְּנֵם עַד־עֵת יוֹלֵדָה יָלָדָה וְיֶתֶר אֶחָיו יְשׁוּבוּן עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.3. וְעָמַד וְרָעָה בְּעֹז יְהוָה בִּגְאוֹן שֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וְיָשָׁבוּ כִּי־עַתָּה יִגְדַּל עַד־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 5.1. But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, Which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, Out of thee shall one come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel; Whose goings forth are from of old, from ancient days." 5.2. Therefore will He give them up, Until the time that she who travaileth hath brought forth; Then the residue of his brethren shall return with the children of Israel." 5.3. And he shall stand, and shall feed his flock in the strength of the LORD, In the majesty of the name of the LORD his God; And they shall abide, for then shall he be great unto the ends of the earth."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 10.10, 14.4, 14.7-14.9, 14.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו נִתְּנָה רֹאשׁ וְנָשׁוּבָה מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 14.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶל־רֹאשׁ־הָהָר לֵאמֹר הִנֶּנּוּ וְעָלִינוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר יְהוָה כִּי חָטָאנוּ׃ 14.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר עָבַרְנוּ בָהּ לָתוּר אֹתָהּ טוֹבָה הָאָרֶץ מְאֹד מְאֹד׃ 14.8. אִם־חָפֵץ בָּנוּ יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּנְתָנָהּ לָנוּ אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הִוא זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 14.9. אַךְ בַּיהוָה אַל־תִּמְרֹדוּ וְאַתֶּם אַל־תִּירְאוּ אֶת־עַם הָאָרֶץ כִּי לַחְמֵנוּ הֵם סָר צִלָּם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וַיהוָה אִתָּנוּ אַל־תִּירָאֻם׃ 14.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עַד־אָנָה יְנַאֲצֻנִי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְעַד־אָנָה לֹא־יַאֲמִינוּ בִי בְּכֹל הָאֹתוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 10.10. Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 14.4. And they said one to another: ‘Let us make a captain, and let us return into Egypt.’" 14.7. And they spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying: ‘The land, which we passed through to spy it out, is an exceeding good land." 14.8. If the LORD delight in us, then He will bring us into this land, and give it unto us—a land which floweth with milk and honey." 14.9. Only rebel not against the LORD, neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us; their defence is removed from over them, and the LORD is with us; fear them not.’" 14.11. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘How long will this people despise Me? and how long will they not believe in Me, for all the signs which I have wrought among them?"
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 11.4, 29.7, 47.5, 68.8-68.9, 81.3, 82.1, 85.12, 85.14, 89.6-89.7, 89.15, 97.2-97.3, 98.6, 99.6-99.7, 103.19-103.20, 104.4, 106.24, 132.5, 132.7, 150.3-150.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. יְהוָה בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשׁוֹ יְהוָה בַּשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאוֹ עֵינָיו יֶחֱזוּ עַפְעַפָּיו יִבְחֲנוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 29.7. קוֹל־יְהוָה חֹצֵב לַהֲבוֹת אֵשׁ׃ 47.5. יִבְחַר־לָנוּ אֶת־נַחֲלָתֵנוּ אֶת גְּאוֹן יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר־אָהֵב סֶלָה׃ 68.8. אֱ‍לֹהִים בְּצֵאתְךָ לִפְנֵי עַמֶּךָ בְּצַעְדְּךָ בִישִׁימוֹן סֶלָה׃ 68.9. אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה אַף־שָׁמַיִם נָטְפוּ מִפְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים זֶה סִינַי מִפְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 81.3. שְׂאוּ־זִמְרָה וּתְנוּ־תֹף כִּנּוֹר נָעִים עִם־נָבֶל׃ 82.1. מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱ‍לֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט׃ 85.12. אֱמֶת מֵאֶרֶץ תִּצְמָח וְצֶדֶק מִשָּׁמַיִם נִשְׁקָף׃ 85.14. צֶדֶק לְפָנָיו יְהַלֵּךְ וְיָשֵׂם לְדֶרֶךְ פְּעָמָיו׃ 89.6. וְיוֹדוּ שָׁמַיִם פִּלְאֲךָ יְהוָה אַף־אֱמוּנָתְךָ בִּקְהַל קְדֹשִׁים׃ 89.7. כִּי מִי בַשַּׁחַק יַעֲרֹךְ לַיהוָה יִדְמֶה לַיהוָה בִּבְנֵי אֵלִים׃ 89.15. צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט מְכוֹן כִּסְאֶךָ חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת יְקַדְּמוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 97.2. עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל סְבִיבָיו צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט מְכוֹן כִּסְאוֹ׃ 97.3. אֵשׁ לְפָנָיו תֵּלֵךְ וּתְלַהֵט סָבִיב צָרָיו׃ 98.6. בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר הָרִיעוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה׃ 99.6. מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן בְּכֹהֲנָיו וּשְׁמוּאֵל בְּקֹרְאֵי שְׁמוֹ קֹרִאים אֶל־יְהוָה וְהוּא יַעֲנֵם׃ 99.7. בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן יְדַבֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם שָׁמְרוּ עֵדֹתָיו וְחֹק נָתַן־לָמוֹ׃ 103.19. יְהוָה בַּשָּׁמַיִם הֵכִין כִּסְאוֹ וּמַלְכוּתוֹ בַּכֹּל מָשָׁלָה׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 106.24. וַיִּמְאֲסוּ בְּאֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה לֹא־הֶאֱמִינוּ לִדְבָרוֹ׃ 132.5. עַד־אֶמְצָא מָקוֹם לַיהוָה מִשְׁכָּנוֹת לַאֲבִיר יַעֲקֹב׃ 132.7. נָבוֹאָה לְמִשְׁכְּנוֹתָיו נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַהֲדֹם רַגְלָיו׃ 150.3. הַלְלוּהוּ בְּתֵקַע שׁוֹפָר הַלְלוּהוּ בְּנֵבֶל וְכִנּוֹר׃ 150.4. הַלְלוּהוּ בְתֹף וּמָחוֹל הַלְלוּהוּ בְּמִנִּים וְעוּגָב׃ 150.5. הַלְלוּהוּ בְצִלְצְלֵי־שָׁמַע הַלְלוּהוּ בְּצִלְצְלֵי תְרוּעָה׃ 11.4. The LORD is in His holy temple, the LORD, His throne is in heaven; His eyes behold, His eyelids try, the children of men." 29.7. The voice of the LORD heweth out flames of fire." 47.5. He chooseth our inheritance for us, the pride of Jacob whom He loveth. Selah" 68.8. O God, when Thou wentest forth before Thy people, When Thou didst march through the wilderness; Selah" 68.9. The earth trembled, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God; Even yon Sinai trembled at the presence of God, the God of Israel." 81.3. Take up the melody, and sound the timbrel, the sweet harp with the psaltery." 82.1. A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judgeth:" 85.12. Truth springeth out of the earth; And righteousness hath looked down from heaven." 85.14. Righteousness shall go before Him, And shall make His footsteps a way." 89.6. So shall the heavens praise Thy wonders, O LORD, Thy faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones." 89.7. For who in the skies can be compared unto the LORD, Who among the sons of might can be likened unto the LORD," 89.15. Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Thy throne; Mercy and truth go before Thee." 97.2. Clouds and darkness are round about Him; Righteousness and justice are the foundation of His throne." 97.3. A fire goeth before Him, And burneth up His adversaries round about." 98.6. With trumpets and sound of the horn Shout ye before the King, the LORD." 99.6. Moses and Aaron among His priests, And Samuel among them that call upon His name, Did call upon the LORD, and He answered them." 99.7. He spoke unto them in the pillar of cloud; They kept His testimonies, and the statute that He gave them." 103.19. The LORD hath established His throne in the heavens; And His kingdom ruleth over all." 103.20. Bless the LORD, ye angels of His, Ye mighty in strength, that fulfil His word, Hearkening unto the voice of His word." 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers." 106.24. Moreover, they scorned the desirable land, They believed not His word;" 132.5. Until I find out a place for the LORD, A dwelling-place for the Mighty One of Jacob.'" 132.7. Let us go into His dwelling-place; Let us worship at His footstool. ." 150.3. Praise Him with the blast of the horn; Praise Him with the psaltery and harp." 150.4. Praise Him with the timbrel and dance; Praise Him with stringed instruments and the pipe." 150.5. Praise Him with the loud-sounding cymbals; Praise Him with the clanging cymbals."
11. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.16. יוֹם שׁוֹפָר וּתְרוּעָה עַל הֶעָרִים הַבְּצֻרוֹת וְעַל הַפִּנּוֹת הַגְּבֹהוֹת׃ 1.16. A day of the horn and alarm, Against the fortified cities, and against the high towers."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 19.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.12. וְאַחַר הָרַעַשׁ אֵשׁ לֹא בָאֵשׁ יְהוָה וְאַחַר הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּמָמָה דַקָּה׃ 19.12. and after the earthquake a fire; but the LORD was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 13.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.3. וַיַּךְ יוֹנָתָן אֵת נְצִיב פְּלִשְׁתִּים אֲשֶׁר בְּגֶבַע וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְשָׁאוּל תָּקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ לֵאמֹר יִשְׁמְעוּ הָעִבְרִים׃ 13.3. And Yonatan smote the garrison of the Pelishtim that was in Geva, and the Pelishtim heard of it. And Sha᾽ul blew the shofar throughout all the land saying, Let the Hebrews hear."
14. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 1.2, 7.1, 7.4, 7.7, 8.1, 9.1-9.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִצִיּוֹן יִשְׁאָג וּמִירוּשָׁלִַם יִתֵּן קוֹלוֹ וְאָבְלוּ נְאוֹת הָרֹעִים וְיָבֵשׁ רֹאשׁ הַכַּרְמֶל׃ 7.4. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִנֵּה קֹרֵא לָרִב בָּאֵשׁ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וַתֹּאכַל אֶת־תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וְאָכְלָה אֶת־הַחֵלֶק׃ 7.7. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי וְהִנֵּה אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־חוֹמַת אֲנָךְ וּבְיָדוֹ אֲנָךְ׃ 8.1. כֹּה הִרְאַנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִנֵּה כְּלוּב קָיִץ׃ 8.1. וְהָפַכְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם לְאֵבֶל וְכָל־שִׁירֵיכֶם לְקִינָה וְהַעֲלֵיתִי עַל־כָּל־מָתְנַיִם שָׂק וְעַל־כָּל־רֹאשׁ קָרְחָה וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ כְּאֵבֶל יָחִיד וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר׃ 9.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־אֲדֹנָי נִצָּב עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיֹּאמֶר הַךְ הַכַּפְתּוֹר וְיִרְעֲשׁוּ הַסִּפִּים וּבְצַעַם בְּרֹאשׁ כֻּלָּם וְאַחֲרִיתָם בַּחֶרֶב אֶהֱרֹג לֹא־יָנוּס לָהֶם נָס וְלֹא־יִמָּלֵט לָהֶם פָּלִיט׃ 9.1. בַּחֶרֶב יָמוּתוּ כֹּל חַטָּאֵי עַמִּי הָאֹמְרִים לֹא־תַגִּישׁ וְתַקְדִּים בַּעֲדֵינוּ הָרָעָה׃ 9.2. אִם־יַחְתְּרוּ בִשְׁאוֹל מִשָּׁם יָדִי תִקָּחֵם וְאִם־יַעֲלוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מִשָּׁם אוֹרִידֵם׃ 9.3. וְאִם־יֵחָבְאוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַכַּרְמֶל מִשָּׁם אֲחַפֵּשׂ וּלְקַחְתִּים וְאִם־יִסָּתְרוּ מִנֶּגֶד עֵינַי בְּקַרְקַע הַיָּם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וּנְשָׁכָם׃ 9.4. וְאִם־יֵלְכוּ בַשְּׁבִי לִפְנֵי אֹיבֵיהֶם מִשָּׁם אֲצַוֶּה אֶת־הַחֶרֶב וַהֲרָגָתַם וְשַׂמְתִּי עֵינִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה׃ 1.2. And he said: The LORD roareth from Zion, And uttereth His voice from Jerusalem; and the pastures of the shepherds shall mourn, and the top of Carmel shall wither." 7.4. Thus the Lord GOD showed me; and, behold, the Lord GOD called to contend by fire; and it devoured the great deep, and would have eaten up the land." 7.7. Thus He showed me; and, behold, the Lord stood beside a wall made by a plumbline, with a plumbline in His hand." 8.1. Thus the Lord GOD showed me; and behold a basket of summer fruit." 9.1. I saw the Lord standing beside the altar; and He said: Smite the capitals, that the posts may shake; And break them in pieces on the head of all of them; And I will slay the residue of them with the sword; There shall not one of them flee away, And there shall not one of them escape." 9.2. Though they dig into the nether-world, Thence shall My hand take them; And though they climb up to heaven, Thence will I bring them down." 9.3. And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out thence; And though they be hid from My sight in the bottom of the sea, Thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them." 9.4. And though they go into captivity before their enemies, Thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them; And I will set Mine eyes upon them For evil, and not for good."
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.16-1.20, 3.10-3.12, 3.14-3.15, 6.1-6.4, 7.10-7.16, 8.1-8.2, 9.6-9.7, 11.1-11.10, 12.3, 12.6, 14.13, 27.13, 35.1-35.10, 44.6, 49.8, 49.13-49.15, 50.4-50.9, 50.11, 55.1-55.3, 55.5-55.13, 57.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.16. רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃ 1.17. לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃ 1.18. לְכוּ־נָא וְנִוָּכְחָה יֹאמַר יְהוָה אִם־יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ אִם־יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע כַּצֶּמֶר יִהְיוּ׃ 1.19. אִם־תֹּאבוּ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּם טוּב הָאָרֶץ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 3.11. אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃ 3.12. עַמִּי נֹגְשָׂיו מְעוֹלֵל וְנָשִׁים מָשְׁלוּ בוֹ עַמִּי מְאַשְּׁרֶיךָ מַתְעִים וְדֶרֶךְ אֹרְחֹתֶיךָ בִּלֵּעוּ׃ 3.14. יְהוָה בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָבוֹא עִם־זִקְנֵי עַמּוֹ וְשָׂרָיו וְאַתֶּם בִּעַרְתֶּם הַכֶּרֶם גְּזֵלַת הֶעָנִי בְּבָתֵּיכֶם׃ 3.15. מלכם [מַה־] [לָּכֶם] תְּדַכְּאוּ עַמִּי וּפְנֵי עֲנִיִּים תִּטְחָנוּ נְאֻם־אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת׃ 6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4. וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 7.11. שְׁאַל־לְךָ אוֹת מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַעְמֵק שְׁאָלָה אוֹ הַגְבֵּהַּ לְמָעְלָה׃ 7.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אָחָז לֹא־אֶשְׁאַל וְלֹא־אֲנַסֶּה אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 7.13. וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָא בֵּית דָּוִד הַמְעַט מִכֶּם הַלְאוֹת אֲנָשִׁים כִּי תַלְאוּ גַּם אֶת־אֱלֹהָי׃ 7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 7.15. חֶמְאָה וּדְבַשׁ יֹאכֵל לְדַעְתּוֹ מָאוֹס בָּרָע וּבָחוֹר בַּטּוֹב׃ 7.16. כִּי בְּטֶרֶם יֵדַע הַנַּעַר מָאֹס בָּרָע וּבָחֹר בַּטּוֹב תֵּעָזֵב הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה קָץ מִפְּנֵי שְׁנֵי מְלָכֶיהָ׃ 8.1. עֻצוּ עֵצָה וְתֻפָר דַּבְּרוּ דָבָר וְלֹא יָקוּם כִּי עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי קַח־לְךָ גִּלָּיוֹן גָּדוֹל וּכְתֹב עָלָיו בְּחֶרֶט אֱנוֹשׁ לְמַהֵר שָׁלָל חָשׁ בַּז׃ 8.2. לְתוֹרָה וְלִתְעוּדָה אִם־לֹא יֹאמְרוּ כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ שָׁחַר׃ 8.2. וְאָעִידָה לִּי עֵדִים נֶאֱמָנִים אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת־זְכַרְיָהוּ בֶּן יְבֶרֶכְיָהוּ׃ 9.6. לםרבה [לְמַרְבֵּה] הַמִּשְׂרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין־קֵץ עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ לְהָכִין אֹתָהּ וּלְסַעֲדָהּ בְּמִשְׁפָּט וּבִצְדָקָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם קִנְאַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּאת׃ 9.7. דָּבָר שָׁלַח אֲדֹנָי בְּיַעֲקֹב וְנָפַל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 11.5. וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו׃ 11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃ 11.7. וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן׃ 11.8. וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל־חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה׃ 11.9. לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת־יְהוָה כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים׃ 12.3. וּשְׁאַבְתֶּם־מַיִם בְּשָׂשׂוֹן מִמַּעַיְנֵי הַיְשׁוּעָה׃ 12.6. צַהֲלִי וָרֹנִּי יוֹשֶׁבֶת צִיּוֹן כִּי־גָדוֹל בְּקִרְבֵּךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 27.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 35.1. וּפְדוּיֵי יְהוָה יְשֻׁבוּן וּבָאוּ צִיּוֹן בְּרִנָּה וְשִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם עַל־רֹאשָׁם שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּ וְנָסוּ יָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה׃ 35.1. יְשֻׂשׂוּם מִדְבָּר וְצִיָּה וְתָגֵל עֲרָבָה וְתִפְרַח כַּחֲבַצָּלֶת׃ 35.2. פָּרֹחַ תִּפְרַח וְתָגֵל אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן נִתַּן־לָהּ הֲדַר הַכַּרְמֶל וְהַשָּׁרוֹן הֵמָּה יִרְאוּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָה הֲדַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 35.3. חַזְּקוּ יָדַיִם רָפוֹת וּבִרְכַּיִם כֹּשְׁלוֹת אַמֵּצוּ׃ 35.4. אִמְרוּ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵב חִזְקוּ אַל־תִּירָאוּ הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נָקָם יָבוֹא גְּמוּל אֱלֹהִים הוּא יָבוֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶם׃ 35.5. אָז תִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי עִוְרִים וְאָזְנֵי חֵרְשִׁים תִּפָּתַחְנָה׃ 35.6. אָז יְדַלֵּג כָּאַיָּל פִּסֵּחַ וְתָרֹן לְשׁוֹן אִלֵּם כִּי־נִבְקְעוּ בַמִּדְבָּר מַיִם וּנְחָלִים בָּעֲרָבָה׃ 35.7. וְהָיָה הַשָּׁרָב לַאֲגַם וְצִמָּאוֹן לְמַבּוּעֵי מָיִם בִּנְוֵה תַנִּים רִבְצָהּ חָצִיר לְקָנֶה וָגֹמֶא׃ 35.8. וְהָיָה־שָׁם מַסְלוּל וָדֶרֶךְ וְדֶרֶךְ הַקֹּדֶשׁ יִקָּרֵא לָהּ לֹא־יַעַבְרֶנּוּ טָמֵא וְהוּא־לָמוֹ הֹלֵךְ דֶּרֶךְ וֶאֱוִילִים לֹא יִתְעוּ׃ 35.9. לֹא־יִהְיֶה שָׁם אַרְיֵה וּפְרִיץ חַיּוֹת בַּל־יַעֲלֶנָּה לֹא תִמָּצֵא שָׁם וְהָלְכוּ גְּאוּלִים׃ 44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 49.8. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּעֵת רָצוֹן עֲנִיתִיךָ וּבְיוֹם יְשׁוּעָה עֲזַרְתִּיךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ לִבְרִית עָם לְהָקִים אֶרֶץ לְהַנְחִיל נְחָלוֹת שֹׁמֵמוֹת׃ 49.13. רָנּוּ שָׁמַיִם וְגִילִי אָרֶץ יפצחו [וּפִצְחוּ] הָרִים רִנָּה כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וַעֲנִיָּו יְרַחֵם׃ 49.14. וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃ 49.15. הֲתִשְׁכַּח אִשָּׁה עוּלָהּ מֵרַחֵם בֶּן־בִּטְנָהּ גַּם־אֵלֶּה תִשְׁכַּחְנָה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ׃ 50.4. אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה נָתַן לִי לְשׁוֹן לִמּוּדִים לָדַעַת לָעוּת אֶת־יָעֵף דָּבָר יָעִיר בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר יָעִיר לִי אֹזֶן לִשְׁמֹעַ כַּלִּמּוּדִים׃ 50.5. אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה פָּתַח־לִי אֹזֶן וְאָנֹכִי לֹא מָרִיתִי אָחוֹר לֹא נְסוּגֹתִי׃ 50.6. גֵּוִי נָתַתִּי לְמַכִּים וּלְחָיַי לְמֹרְטִים פָּנַי לֹא הִסְתַּרְתִּי מִכְּלִמּוֹת וָרֹק׃ 50.7. וַאדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעֲזָר־לִי עַל־כֵּן לֹא נִכְלָמְתִּי עַל־כֵּן שַׂמְתִּי פָנַי כַּחַלָּמִישׁ וָאֵדַע כִּי־לֹא אֵבוֹשׁ׃ 50.8. קָרוֹב מַצְדִּיקִי מִי־יָרִיב אִתִּי נַעַמְדָה יָּחַד מִי־בַעַל מִשְׁפָּטִי יִגַּשׁ אֵלָי׃ 50.9. הֵן אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעֲזָר־לִי מִי־הוּא יַרְשִׁיעֵנִי הֵן כֻּלָּם כַּבֶּגֶד יִבְלוּ עָשׁ יֹאכְלֵם׃ 50.11. הֵן כֻּלְּכֶם קֹדְחֵי אֵשׁ מְאַזְּרֵי זִיקוֹת לְכוּ בְּאוּר אֶשְׁכֶם וּבְזִיקוֹת בִּעַרְתֶּם מִיָּדִי הָיְתָה־זֹּאת לָכֶם לְמַעֲצֵבָה תִּשְׁכָּבוּן׃ 55.1. כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵרֵד הַגֶּשֶׁם וְהַשֶּׁלֶג מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְשָׁמָּה לֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי אִם־הִרְוָה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹלִידָהּ וְהִצְמִיחָהּ וְנָתַן זֶרַע לַזֹּרֵעַ וְלֶחֶם לָאֹכֵל׃ 55.1. הוֹי כָּל־צָמֵא לְכוּ לַמַּיִם וַאֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ כָּסֶף לְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ וֶאֱכֹלוּ וּלְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ בְּלוֹא־כֶסֶף וּבְלוֹא מְחִיר יַיִן וְחָלָב׃ 55.2. לָמָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ־כֶסֶף בְּלוֹא־לֶחֶם וִיגִיעֲכֶם בְּלוֹא לְשָׂבְעָה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ אֵלַי וְאִכְלוּ־טוֹב וְתִתְעַנַּג בַּדֶּשֶׁן נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 55.3. הַטּוּ אָזְנְכֶם וּלְכוּ אֵלַי שִׁמְעוּ וּתְחִי נַפְשְׁכֶם וְאֶכְרְתָה לָכֶם בְּרִית עוֹלָם חַסְדֵי דָוִד הַנֶּאֱמָנִים׃ 55.5. הֵן גּוֹי לֹא־תֵדַע תִּקְרָא וְגוֹי לֹא־יְדָעוּךָ אֵלֶיךָ יָרוּצוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְלִקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי פֵאֲרָךְ׃ 55.6. דִּרְשׁוּ יְהוָה בְּהִמָּצְאוֹ קְרָאֻהוּ בִּהְיוֹתוֹ קָרוֹב׃ 55.7. יַעֲזֹב רָשָׁע דַּרְכּוֹ וְאִישׁ אָוֶן מַחְשְׁבֹתָיו וְיָשֹׁב אֶל־יְהוָה וִירַחֲמֵהוּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֵינוּ כִּי־יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֹחַ׃ 55.8. כִּי לֹא מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם דְּרָכָי נְאֻם יְהוָה׃ 55.9. כִּי־גָבְהוּ שָׁמַיִם מֵאָרֶץ כֵּן גָּבְהוּ דְרָכַי מִדַּרְכֵיכֶם וּמַחְשְׁבֹתַי מִמַּחְשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 55.11. כֵּן יִהְיֶה דְבָרִי אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִפִּי לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלַי רֵיקָם כִּי אִם־עָשָׂה אֶת־אֲשֶׁר חָפַצְתִּי וְהִצְלִיחַ אֲשֶׁר שְׁלַחְתִּיו׃ 55.12. כִּי־בְשִׂמְחָה תֵצֵאוּ וּבְשָׁלוֹם תּוּבָלוּן הֶהָרִים וְהַגְּבָעוֹת יִפְצְחוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם רִנָּה וְכָל־עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה יִמְחֲאוּ־כָף׃ 55.13. תַּחַת הַנַּעֲצוּץ יַעֲלֶה בְרוֹשׁ תחת [וְתַחַת] הַסִּרְפַּד יַעֲלֶה הֲדַס וְהָיָה לַיהוָה לְשֵׁם לְאוֹת עוֹלָם לֹא יִכָּרֵת׃ 57.15. כִּי כֹה אָמַר רָם וְנִשָּׂא שֹׁכֵן עַד וְקָדוֹשׁ שְׁמוֹ מָרוֹם וְקָדוֹשׁ אֶשְׁכּוֹן וְאֶת־דַּכָּא וּשְׁפַל־רוּחַ לְהַחֲיוֹת רוּחַ שְׁפָלִים וּלְהַחֲיוֹת לֵב נִדְכָּאִים׃ 1.16. Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;" 1.17. Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow." 1.18. Come now, and let us reason together, Saith the LORD; Though your sins be as scarlet, They shall be as white as snow; Though they be red like crimson, They shall be as wool." 1.19. If ye be willing and obedient, Ye shall eat the good of the land;" 1.20. But if ye refuse and rebel, Ye shall be devoured with the sword; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken." 3.10. Say ye of the righteous, that it shall be well with him; For they shall eat the fruit of their doings." 3.11. Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him." 3.12. As for My people, a babe is their master, And women rule over them. O My people, they that lead thee cause thee to err, And destroy the way of thy paths." 3.14. The LORD will enter into judgment With the elders of His people, and the princes thereof: ‘It is ye that have eaten up the vineyard; The spoil of the poor is in your houses;" 3.15. What mean ye that ye crush My people, And grind the face of the poor?’ Saith the Lord, the GOD of hosts." 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly." 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 6.4. And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke." 7.10. And the LORD spoke again unto Ahaz, saying:" 7.11. ’Ask thee a sign of the LORD thy God: ask it either in the depth, or in the height above.’" 7.12. But Ahaz said: ‘I will not ask, neither will I try the LORD.’" 7.13. And he said: ‘Hear ye now, O house of David: Is it a small thing for you to weary men, that ye will weary my God also?" 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." 7.15. Curd and honey shall he eat, when he knoweth to refuse the evil, and choose the good." 7.16. Yea, before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land whose two kings thou hast a horror of shall be forsaken." 8.1. And the LORD said unto me: ‘Take thee a great tablet, and write upon it in common script: The spoil speedeth, the prey hasteth;" 8.2. and I will take unto Me faithful witnesses to record, Uriah the priest, and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah.’" 9.6. That the government may be increased, and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it through justice and through righteousness From henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts doth perform this." 9.7. The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel." 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." 11.5. And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins." 11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them." 11.7. And the cow and the bear feed; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox." 11.8. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den." 11.9. They shall not hurt nor destroy In all My holy mountain; For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea." 11.10. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the root of Jesse, that standeth for an ensign of the peoples, Unto him shall the nations seek; And his resting-place shall be glorious." 12.3. Therefore with joy shall ye draw water Out of the wells of salvation." 12.6. Cry aloud and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion, For great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.’" 14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;" 27.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem." 35.1. The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad; And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose." 35.2. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice, Even with joy and singing; The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, The excellency of Carmel and Sharon; They shall see the glory of the LORD, The excellency of our God." 35.3. Strengthen ye the weak hands, And make firm the tottering knees." 35.4. Say to them that are of a fearful heart: ‘Be strong, fear not’; Behold, your God will come with vengeance, With the recompense of God He will come and save you." 35.5. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped." 35.6. Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, And the tongue of the dumb shall sing; For in the wilderness shall waters break out, And streams in the desert." 35.7. And the parched land shall become a pool, And the thirsty ground springs of water; In the habitation of jackals herds shall lie down, It shall be an enclosure for reeds and rushes." 35.8. And a highway shall be there, and a way, And it shall be called The way of holiness; The unclean shall not pass over it; but it shall be for those; The wayfaring men, yea fools, shall not err therein." 35.9. No lion shall be there, Nor shall any ravenous beast go up thereon, They shall not be found there; But the redeemed shall walk there;" 35.10. And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come with singing unto Zion, And everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; They shall obtain gladness and joy, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away." 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God." 49.8. Thus saith the LORD: In an acceptable time have I answered thee, And in a day of salvation have I helped thee; And I will preserve thee, and give thee For a covet of the people, To raise up the land, To cause to inherit the desolate heritages;" 49.13. Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth, And break forth into singing, O mountains; For the LORD hath comforted His people, And hath compassion upon His afflicted." 49.14. But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’" 49.15. Can a woman forget her sucking child, That she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, these may forget, Yet will not I forget thee." 50.4. The Lord GOD hath given me The tongue of them that are taught, That I should know how to sustain with words him that is weary; He wakeneth morning by morning, He wakeneth mine ear To hear as they that are taught." 50.5. The Lord GOD hath opened mine ear, And I was not rebellious, Neither turned away backward." 50.6. I gave my back to the smiters, And my checks to them that plucked off the hair; I hid not my face from shame and spitting." 50.7. For the Lord GOD will help me; Therefore have I not been confounded; Therefore have I set my face like a flint, And I know that I shall not be ashamed." 50.8. He is near that justifieth me; Who will contend with me? let us stand up together; Who is mine adversary? let him come near to me." 50.9. Behold, the Lord GOD will help me; Who is he that shall condemn me? Behold, they all shall wax old as a garment, The moth shall eat them up." 50.11. Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, That gird yourselves with firebrands, Begone in the flame of your fire, And among the brands that ye have kindled. This shall ye have of My hand; Ye shall lie down in sorrow." 55.1. Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye for water, And he that hath no money; Come ye, buy, and eat; Yea, come, buy wine and milk Without money and without price." 55.2. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? And your gain for that which satisfieth not? Hearken diligently unto Me, and eat ye that which is good, And let your soul delight itself in fatness." 55.3. Incline your ear, and come unto Me; Hear, and your soul shall live; And I will make an everlasting covet with you, Even the sure mercies of David." 55.5. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, And a nation that knew not thee shall run unto thee; Because of the LORD thy God, And for the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified thee." 55.6. Seek ye the LORD while He may be found, Call ye upon Him while He is near;" 55.7. Let the wicked forsake his way, And the man of iniquity his thoughts; And let him return unto the LORD, and He will have compassion upon him, And to our God, for He will abundantly pardon" 55.8. For My thoughts are not your thoughts, Neither are your ways My ways, saith the LORD." 55.9. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, So are My ways higher than your ways, And My thoughts than your thoughts." 55.10. For as the rain cometh down and the snow from heaven, And returneth not thither, Except it water the earth, And make it bring forth and bud, And give seed to the sower and bread to the eater;" 55.11. So shall My word be that goeth forth out of My mouth: It shall not return unto Me void, Except it accomplish that which I please, And make the thing whereto I sent it prosper." 55.12. For ye shall go out with joy, And be led forth with peace; The mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands." 55.13. Instead of the thorn shall come up the cypress, And instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle; And it shall be to the LORD for a memorial, For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off." 57.15. For thus saith the High and Lofty One That inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place, With him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, To revive the spirit of the humble, And to revive the heart of the contrite ones."
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.2, 6.1, 25.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃ 2.2. כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד [אֶעֱבוֹר] כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃ 6.1. הָעִזוּ בְּנֵי בִניָמִן מִקֶּרֶב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּבִתְקוֹעַ תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר וְעַל־בֵּית הַכֶּרֶם שְׂאוּ מַשְׂאֵת כִּי רָעָה נִשְׁקְפָה מִצָּפוֹן וְשֶׁבֶר גָּדוֹל׃ 6.1. עַל־מִי אֲדַבְּרָה וְאָעִידָה וְיִשְׁמָעוּ הִנֵּה עֲרֵלָה אָזְנָם וְלֹא יוּכְלוּ לְהַקְשִׁיב הִנֵּה דְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה לָהֶם לְחֶרְפָּה לֹא יַחְפְּצוּ־בוֹ׃ 2.2. Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown." 6.1. Put yourselves under covert, ye children of Benjamin, Away from the midst of Jerusalem, And blow the horn in Tekoa, And set up a signal on Beth-cherem; For evil looketh forth from the north, And a great destruction." 25.30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them: The LORD doth roar from on high, And utter His voice from His holy habitation; He doth mightily roar because of His fold; He giveth a shout, as they that tread the grapes, Against all the inhabitants of the earth."
17. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.5, 6.5, 6.17-6.20, 7.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־הָעָם הִתְקַדָּשׁוּ כִּי מָחָר יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה בְּקִרְבְּכֶם נִפְלָאוֹת׃ 6.5. וְהָיָה בִּמְשֹׁךְ בְּקֶרֶן הַיּוֹבֵל בשמעכם [כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם] אֶת־קוֹל הַשּׁוֹפָר יָרִיעוּ כָל־הָעָם תְּרוּעָה גְדוֹלָה וְנָפְלָה חוֹמַת הָעִיר תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְעָלוּ הָעָם אִישׁ נֶגְדּוֹ׃ 6.17. וְהָיְתָה הָעִיר חֵרֶם הִיא וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לַיהוָה רַק רָחָב הַזּוֹנָה תִּחְיֶה הִיא וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר אִתָּהּ בַּבַּיִת כִּי הֶחְבְּאַתָה אֶת־הַמַּלְאָכִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְנוּ׃ 6.18. וְרַק־אַתֶּם שִׁמְרוּ מִן־הַחֵרֶם פֶּן־תַּחֲרִימוּ וּלְקַחְתֶּם מִן־הַחֵרֶם וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחֵרֶם וַעֲכַרְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ׃ 6.19. וְכֹל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל קֹדֶשׁ הוּא לַיהוָה אוֹצַר יְהוָה יָבוֹא׃ 7.13. קֻם קַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם וְאָמַרְתָּ הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לְמָחָר כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חֵרֶם בְּקִרְבְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תוּכַל לָקוּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ עַד־הֲסִירְכֶם הַחֵרֶם מִקִּרְבְּכֶם׃ 3.5. And Joshua said unto the people: ‘Sanctify yourselves; for to-morrow the LORD will do wonders among you.’" 6.5. And it shall be, that when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, and when ye hear the sound of the horn, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall go up every man straight before him.’" 6.17. And the city shall be devoted, even it and all that is therein, to the LORD; only Rahab the harlot shall live, she and all that are with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent." 6.18. And ye, in any wise keep yourselves from the devoted thing, lest ye make yourselves accursed by taking of the devoted thing, so should ye make the camp of Israel accursed, and trouble it." 6.19. But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are holy unto the LORD; they shall come into the treasury of the LORD.’" 6.20. So the people shouted, and [the priests] blew with the horns. And it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the horn, that the people shouted with a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city." 7.13. Up, sanctify the people, and say: Sanctify yourselves against tomorrow; for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: There is a curse in the midst of thee, O Israel; thou canst not stand before thine enemies, until ye take away the accursed thing from among you."
18. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 6.36-6.40, 7.8-7.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.36. וַיֹּאמֶר גִּדְעוֹן אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אִם־יֶשְׁךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ בְּיָדִי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 6.37. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַצִּיג אֶת־גִּזַּת הַצֶּמֶר בַּגֹּרֶן אִם טַל יִהְיֶה עַל־הַגִּזָּה לְבַדָּהּ וְעַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ חֹרֶב וְיָדַעְתִּי כִּי־תוֹשִׁיעַ בְּיָדִי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 6.38. וַיְהִי־כֵן וַיַּשְׁכֵּם מִמָּחֳרָת וַיָּזַר אֶת־הַגִּזָּה וַיִּמֶץ טַל מִן־הַגִּזָּה מְלוֹא הַסֵּפֶל מָיִם׃ 6.39. וַיֹּאמֶר גִּדְעוֹן אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אַל־יִחַר אַפְּךָ בִּי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אַךְ הַפָּעַם אֲנַסֶּה נָּא־רַק־הַפַּעַם בַּגִּזָּה יְהִי־נָא חֹרֶב אֶל־הַגִּזָּה לְבַדָּהּ וְעַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ יִהְיֶה־טָּל׃ 7.8. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־צֵדָה הָעָם בְּיָדָם וְאֵת שׁוֹפְרֹתֵיהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁלַּח אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וּבִשְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ הֶחֱזִיק וּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן הָיָה לוֹ מִתַּחַת בָּעֵמֶק׃ 7.9. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה קוּם רֵד בַּמַּחֲנֶה כִּי נְתַתִּיו בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 7.11. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ מַה־יְדַבֵּרוּ וְאַחַר תֶּחֱזַקְנָה יָדֶיךָ וְיָרַדְתָּ בַּמַּחֲנֶה וַיֵּרֶד הוּא וּפֻרָה נַעֲרוֹ אֶל־קְצֵה הַחֲמֻשִׁים אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 7.12. וּמִדְיָן וַעֲמָלֵק וְכָל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם נֹפְלִים בָּעֵמֶק כָּאַרְבֶּה לָרֹב וְלִגְמַלֵּיהֶם אֵין מִסְפָּר כַּחוֹל שֶׁעַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם לָרֹב׃ 7.13. וַיָּבֹא גִדְעוֹן וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ מְסַפֵּר לְרֵעֵהוּ חֲלוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה חֲלוֹם חָלַמְתִּי וְהִנֵּה צלול [צְלִיל] לֶחֶם שְׂעֹרִים מִתְהַפֵּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן וַיָּבֹא עַד־הָאֹהֶל וַיַּכֵּהוּ וַיִּפֹּל וַיַּהַפְכֵהוּ לְמַעְלָה וְנָפַל הָאֹהֶל׃ 7.14. וַיַּעַן רֵעֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין זֹאת בִּלְתִּי אִם־חֶרֶב גִּדְעוֹן בֶּן־יוֹאָשׁ אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָתַן הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־מִדְיָן וְאֶת־כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 7.15. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ גִּדְעוֹן אֶת־מִסְפַּר הַחֲלוֹם וְאֶת־שִׁבְרוֹ וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר קוּמוּ כִּי־נָתַן יְהוָה בְּיֶדְכֶם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן׃ 7.16. וַיַּחַץ אֶת־שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּתֵּן שׁוֹפָרוֹת בְּיַד־כֻּלָּם וְכַדִּים רֵקִים וְלַפִּדִים בְּתוֹךְ הַכַּדִּים׃ 7.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם מִמֶּנִּי תִרְאוּ וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָא בִּקְצֵה הַמַּחֲנֶה וְהָיָה כַאֲשֶׁר־אֶעֱשֶׂה כֵּן תַּעֲשׂוּן׃ 7.18. וְתָקַעְתִּי בַּשּׁוֹפָר אָנֹכִי וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר אִתִּי וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת גַּם־אַתֶּם סְבִיבוֹת כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לַיהוָה וּלְגִדְעוֹן׃ 7.19. וַיָּבֹא גִדְעוֹן וּמֵאָה־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ בִּקְצֵה הַמַּחֲנֶה רֹאשׁ הָאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַתִּיכוֹנָה אַךְ הָקֵם הֵקִימוּ אֶת־הַשֹּׁמְרִים וַיִּתְקְעוּ בַּשּׁוֹפָרוֹת וְנָפוֹץ הַכַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדָם׃ 7.21. וַיַּעַמְדוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו סָבִיב לַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרָץ כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרִיעוּ ויניסו [וַיָּנוּסוּ׃] 7.22. וַיִּתְקְעוּ שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה אֵת חֶרֶב אִישׁ בְּרֵעֵהוּ וּבְכָל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּנָס הַמַּחֲנֶה עַד־בֵּית הַשִּׁטָּה צְרֵרָתָה עַד שְׂפַת־אָבֵל מְחוֹלָה עַל־טַבָּת׃ 6.36. And Gid῾on said to God, If Thou wilt save Yisra᾽el by my hand, as Thou hast said," 6.37. behold, I will put a fleece of wool on the threshing floor; and if there be dew on the fleece only, and it be dry on all the ground elsewhere, then shall I know that Thou wilt save Yisra᾽el by my hand, as Thou hast said," 6.38. And it was so: for he rose up early on the morrow, and pressed the fleece together, and wrung the dew out of the fleece, a bowl full of water." 6.39. And Gid῾on said to God, Let not Thy anger burn against me, and I will speak but this once: let me prove, I pray Thee, but this once with the fleece; let it now be dry only upon the fleece, and upon all the ground let there be dew." 6.40. And God did so that night: for it was dry on the fleece only, and there was dew on all the ground." 7.8. So the people took provisions in their hands, and their shofarot: and he sent all the rest of Yisra᾽el, every man to his tent, and retained those three hundred men: and the host of Midyan was beneath him in the valley." 7.9. And it was on the same night, that the Lord said to him, Arise, go down to the camp; for I have delivered it into thy hand." 7.10. But if thou fear to go down, go thou with Pura thy boy down to the camp:" 7.11. and thou shalt hear what they say; and afterwards shall thy hands be strengthened to go down unto the host. Then went he down with Pura his boy to the fringe of the armed men that were in the camp." 7.12. Now Midyan and ῾Amaleq and all the children of the east lay along in the valley like locusts for multitude; and their camels were without number, as the sand by the sea side for multitude." 7.13. And when Gid῾on was come, behold, there was a man that told a dream to his fellow, and said, Behold, I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a slice of barley bread was rolling through the camp of Midyan, and it came to a tent, and smote it so that it fell, and overturned it, so that the tent tumbled down." 7.14. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else but the sword of Gid῾on the son of Yo᾽ash, a man of Yisra᾽el: for into his hand has God delivered Midyan, and all the camp." 7.15. And it was, when Gid῾on heard the telling of the dream, and its interpretation, that he bowed himself down to the ground, and returned to the camp of Yisra᾽el and said, Arise; for the Lord has delivered into your hand the host of Midyan. 7.16. And he divided the three hundred men into three companies, and he put a shofar in every man’s hand, with empty jars, and torches within the jars." 7.17. And he said to them, Whatever you see me do, do likewise: and, behold, I am going to the edge of the camp, and it shall be, whatever I do, so shall you do." 7.18. When I blow on the shofar, I and all that are with me, then you blow your shofarot also on every side of all the camp, and say, The sword of the Lord, and of Gid῾on." 7.19. So Gid῾on, and the hundred men that were with him, came to the edge of the camp at the beginning of the middle watch; and they had newly posted the sentinels: and they blew with the shofarot, and broke the jars that were in their hands." 7.20. Then the three companies blew on the shofarot, and broke the jars, and held the torches in their left hands, and the shofarot in their right hands to blow on them: and they cried, The sword of the Lord, and of Gid῾on." 7.21. And they stood every man in his place round about the camp: and all the camp ran, and cried, and fled." 7.22. And the three hundred blew the horns, and the Lord set every man’s sword against his fellow, throughout all the camp: and the host fled to Bet-hashshitta in Żerera, and to the border of Avel-meĥola, at Tabbat."
19. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. גָּדַע בָּחֳרִי אַף כֹּל קֶרֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵשִׁיב אָחוֹר יְמִינוֹ מִפְּנֵי אוֹיֵב וַיִּבְעַר בְּיַעֲקֹב כְּאֵשׁ לֶהָבָה אָכְלָה סָבִיב׃ 2.3. He hath cut off in fierce anger All the horn of Israel; He hath drawn back His right hand From before the enemy; And He hath burned in Jacob like a flaming fire, Which devoureth round about."
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.24-1.25, 3.12-3.13, 10.5, 43.6 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.24. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל כַּנְפֵיהֶם כְּקוֹל מַיִם רַבִּים כְּקוֹל־שַׁדַּי בְּלֶכְתָּם קוֹל הֲמֻלָּה כְּקוֹל מַחֲנֶה בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.25. וַיְהִי־קוֹל מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 3.12. וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַע אַחֲרַי קוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל בָּרוּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ׃ 3.13. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַחַיּוֹת מַשִּׁיקוֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ וְקוֹל הָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם וְקוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל׃ 10.5. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃ 43.6. וָאֶשְׁמַע מִדַּבֵּר אֵלַי מֵהַבָּיִת וְאִישׁ הָיָה עֹמֵד אֶצְלִי׃ 1.24. And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, a noise of tumult like the noise of a host; when they stood, they let down their wings." 1.25. For, when there was a voice above the firmament that was over their heads, as they stood, they let down their wings." 3.12. Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: ‘Blessed be the glory of the LORD from His place’;" 3.13. also the noise of the wings of the living creatures as they touched one another, and the noise of the wheels beside them, even the noise of a great rushing." 10.5. And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh." 43.6. And I heard one speaking unto me out of the house; and a man stood by me."
21. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.2. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ חֲזַק וֶאֱמַץ וַעֲשֵׂה אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהַי עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ עַד־לִכְלוֹת כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃ 28.2. וַיָּקָם דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־רַגְלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמָעוּנִי אַחַי וְעַמִּי אֲנִי עִם־לְבָבִי לִבְנוֹת בֵּית מְנוּחָה לַאֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה וְלַהֲדֹם רַגְלֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַהֲכִינוֹתִי לִבְנוֹת׃ 28.2. Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said: ‘Hear me, my brethren, and my people; as for me, it was in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covet of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God; and I had made ready for the building."
22. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 9.14, 11.7, 11.12-11.13, 12.10, 13.6-13.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 11.7. וָאֶרְעֶה אֶת־צֹאן הַהֲרֵגָה לָכֵן עֲנִיֵּי הַצֹּאן וָאֶקַּח־לִי שְׁנֵי מַקְלוֹת לְאַחַד קָרָאתִי נֹעַם וּלְאַחַד קָרָאתִי חֹבְלִים וָאֶרְעֶה אֶת־הַצֹּאן׃ 11.12. וָאֹמַר אֲלֵיהֶם אִם־טוֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶם הָבוּ שְׂכָרִי וְאִם־לֹא חֲדָלוּ וַיִּשְׁקְלוּ אֶת־שְׂכָרִי שְׁלֹשִׁים כָּסֶף׃ 11.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי הַשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אֶל־הַיּוֹצֵר אֶדֶר הַיְקָר אֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתִּי מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וָאֶקְחָה שְׁלֹשִׁים הַכֶּסֶף וָאַשְׁלִיךְ אֹתוֹ בֵּית יְהוָה אֶל־הַיּוֹצֵר׃ 13.6. וְאָמַר אֵלָיו מָה הַמַּכּוֹת הָאֵלֶּה בֵּין יָדֶיךָ וְאָמַר אֲשֶׁר הֻכֵּיתִי בֵּית מְאַהֲבָי׃ 13.7. חֶרֶב עוּרִי עַל־רֹעִי וְעַל־גֶּבֶר עֲמִיתִי נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הַךְ אֶת־הָרֹעֶה וּתְפוּצֶיןָ הַצֹּאן וַהֲשִׁבֹתִי יָדִי עַל־הַצֹּעֲרִים׃ 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south." 11.7. So I fed the flock of slaughter, verily the poor of the flock. And I took unto me two staves; the one I called Graciousness, and the other I called Binders; and I fed the flock." 11.12. And I said unto them: ‘If ye think good, give me my hire; and if not, forbear.’ So they weighed for my hire thirty pieces of silver." 11.13. And the LORD said unto me: ‘Cast it into the treasury, the goodly price that I was prized at of them.’ And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them into the treasury, in the house of the LORD." 12.10. And I will pour upon the house of David, And upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, The spirit of grace and of supplication; And they shall look unto Me because athey have thrust him through; And they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, And shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born." 13.6. And one shall say unto him: ‘What are these wounds between thy hands?’ Then he shall answer: ‘Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends.’" 13.7. Awake, O sword, against My shepherd, And against the man that is near unto Me, Saith the LORD of hosts; Smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered; And I will turn My hand upon the little ones."
23. Aristobulus Cassandreus, Fragments, 2.5 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 3.2, 3.4, 3.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.31-2.36, 2.44-2.45, 3.5, 3.7, 3.10, 4.31, 8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.31. אַנְתְּה מַלְכָּא חָזֵה הֲוַיְתָ וַאֲלוּ צְלֵם חַד שַׂגִּיא צַלְמָא דִּכֵּן רַב וְזִיוֵהּ יַתִּיר קָאֵם לְקָבְלָךְ וְרֵוֵהּ דְּחִיל׃ 2.32. הוּא צַלְמָא רֵאשֵׁהּ דִּי־דְהַב טָב חֲדוֹהִי וּדְרָעוֹהִי דִּי כְסַף מְעוֹהִי וְיַרְכָתֵהּ דִּי נְחָשׁ׃ 2.33. שָׁקוֹהִי דִּי פַרְזֶל רַגְלוֹהִי מנהון [מִנְּהֵין] דִּי פַרְזֶל ומנהון [וּמִנְּהֵין] דִּי חֲסַף׃ 2.34. חָזֵה הֲוַיְתָ עַד דִּי הִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וּמְחָת לְצַלְמָא עַל־רַגְלוֹהִי דִּי פַרְזְלָא וְחַסְפָּא וְהַדֵּקֶת הִמּוֹן׃ 2.35. בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא חַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן־אִדְּרֵי־קַיִט וּנְשָׂא הִמּוֹן רוּחָא וְכָל־אֲתַר לָא־הִשְׁתֲּכַח לְהוֹן וְאַבְנָא דִּי־מְחָת לְצַלְמָא הֲוָת לְטוּר רַב וּמְלָת כָּל־אַרְעָא׃ 2.36. דְּנָה חֶלְמָא וּפִשְׁרֵהּ נֵאמַר קֳדָם־מַלְכָּא׃ 2.44. וּבְיוֹמֵיהוֹן דִּי מַלְכַיָּא אִנּוּן יְקִים אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא מַלְכוּ דִּי לְעָלְמִין לָא תִתְחַבַּל וּמַלְכוּתָה לְעַם אָחֳרָן לָא תִשְׁתְּבִק תַּדִּק וְתָסֵיף כָּל־אִלֵּין מַלְכְוָתָא וְהִיא תְּקוּם לְעָלְמַיָּא׃ 2.45. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־חֲזַיְתָ דִּי מִטּוּרָא אִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וְהַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָא נְחָשָׁא חַסְפָּא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא אֱלָהּ רַב הוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְיַצִּיב חֶלְמָא וּמְהֵימַן פִּשְׁרֵהּ׃ 3.5. בְּעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרוס [קַתְרוֹס] סַבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין סוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.7. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא כְּדִי שָׁמְעִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְטֵרִין וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא נָפְלִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא סָגְדִין לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 4.31. וְלִקְצָת יוֹמַיָּה אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר עַיְנַי לִשְׁמַיָּא נִטְלֵת וּמַנְדְּעִי עֲלַי יְתוּב ולעליא [וּלְעִלָּאָה] בָּרְכֵת וּלְחַי עָלְמָא שַׁבְּחֵת וְהַדְּרֵת דִּי שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 2.31. Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was surpassing, stood before thee; and the appearance thereof was terrible." 2.32. As for that image, its head was of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass," 2.33. its legs of iron, its feet part of iron and part of clay." 2.34. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon its feet that were of iron and clay, and broke them to pieces." 2.35. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, so that no place was found for them; and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth." 2.36. This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king." 2.44. And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed; nor shall the kingdom be left to another people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, but it shall stand for ever." 2.45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter; and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.’" 3.5. that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up;" 3.7. Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.10. Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image;" 4.31. ‘And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honoured Him that liveth for ever; For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom from generation to generation;" 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’"
26. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 11.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11.1. Wisdom prospered their works by the hand of a holy prophet.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 44, 159 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.186, 2.188-2.189, 2.193 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.186. When the third season takes place in the seventh month at the autumnal equinox, at the beginning of the month, the feast which begins the sacred month named "the feast of trumpets" and which was discussed earlier is celebrated. On the tenth day the fast takes place which they take seriously--not only those who are zealous about piety and holiness, but even those who do nothing religious the rest of the time. For all are astounded, overcome with the sacredness of it; in fact, at that time the worse compete with the better in selfcontrol and virtue. 2.188. Immediately after comes the festival of the sacred moon; in which it is the custom to play the trumpet in the temple at the same moment that the sacrifices are offered. From which practice this is called the true feast of trumpets, and there are two reasons for it, one peculiar to the nation, and the other common to all mankind. Peculiar to the nation, as being a commemoration of that most marvellous, wonderful, and miraculous event that took place when the holy oracles of the law were given; 2.189. for then the voice of a trumpet sounded from heaven, which it is natural to suppose reached to the very extremities of the universe, so that so wondrous a sound attracted all who were present, making them consider, as it is probable, that such mighty events were signs betokening some great things to be accomplished. 2.193. And after the feast of trumpets the solemnity of the fast is celebrated, {27}{part of sections 193û194 was omitted in Yonge's translation because the edition on which Yonge based his translation, Mangey, lacked this material. These lines have been newly translated for this volume.} Perhaps some of those who are perversely minded and are not ashamed to censure excellent things will say, "What sort of a feast is this where there is no eating and drinking, no troupe of entertainers or audience, no copious supply of strong drink nor the generous display of a public banquet, nor moreover the merriment and revelry of dancing to the sound of flute and harp, and timbrels and cymbals, and the other instruments of music which awaken the unruly lusts through the channel of the ears?
29. Anon., Didache, 16.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Aristobulus Milesius, Fragments, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 5.51 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
33. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
34. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. [When] they stand up to pray they bring down before the ark an old man conversant [with the prayers], one who has children and whose house is empty [of food], so that his heart is complete prayer. He recites before them twenty-four benedictions, the eighteen recited daily, to which he adds six." 2.3. These are they [the six additional benedictions:Zikhronot,“If there is famine in the land, if there is pestilence” (I Kings 8:37). Shofarot,“The word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah concerning the droughts” (Jeremiah. “In my distress I called to the Lord and He answered me” (Psalm. “I turn my eyes to the mountains” (Psalm. “Out of the depths I call you, O Lord” (Psalm. “A prayer of lowly man when he is faint” (Psalm. Rabbi Judah says: he need not recite the zikhronot and shofarot, but instead he should recite [the following]: And he ends each [of the additional six] sections with its appropriate concluding benediction."
35. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.12, 14.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 14.8. For if the trumpet gave an uncertainsound, who would prepare himself for war?
37. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.16. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first
38. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. New Testament, Acts, 2.1-2.13, 7.31, 10.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2.2. Suddenly there came from the sky a sound like the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 2.3. Tongues like fire appeared and were distributed to them, and it sat on each one of them. 2.4. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. 2.5. Now there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under the sky. 2.6. When this sound was heard, the multitude came together, and were bewildered, because everyone heard them speaking in his own language. 2.7. They were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, "Behold, aren't all these who speak Galileans? 2.8. How do we hear, everyone in our own native language? 2.9. Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia 2.10. Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes 2.11. Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God! 2.12. They were all amazed, and were perplexed, saying one to another, "What does this mean? 2.13. Others, mocking, said, "They are filled with new wine. 7.31. When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight. As he came close to see, a voice of the Lord came to him 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat!
40. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.9-1.20, 8.2, 8.6-8.13, 9.1, 10.4, 10.7, 11.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 1.11. saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. 1.12. I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. 1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.15. His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 1.17. When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last 1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. 8.2. I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them. 8.6. The seven angels who had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound. 8.7. The first sounded, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and they were thrown on the earth. One third of the earth was burnt up, and one third of the trees were burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. 8.8. The second angel sounded, and something like a great burning mountain was thrown into the sea. One third of the sea became blood 8.9. and one third of the creatures which were in the sea died, those who had life. One third of the ships were destroyed. 8.10. The third angel sounded, and a great star fell from the sky, burning like a torch, and it fell on one third of the rivers, and on the springs of the waters. 8.11. The name of the star is called "Wormwood." One third of the waters became wormwood. Many men died from the waters, because they were made bitter. 8.12. The fourth angel sounded, and one third of the sun was struck, and one third of the moon, and one third of the stars; so that one third of them would be darkened, and the day wouldn't shine for one third of it, and the night in the same way. 8.13. I saw, and I heard an eagle, flying in mid heaven, saying with a loud voice, "Woe! Woe! Woe for those who dwell on the earth, because of the other voices of the trumpets of the three angels, who are yet to sound! 9.1. The fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from the sky fallen to the earth. The key to the pit of the abyss was given to him. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets. 11.15. The seventh angel sounded, and great voices in heaven followed, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the Kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ. He will reign forever and ever!
41. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.12, 3.14, 3.16, 4.1-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. Beware, brothers, lest perhaps there be in any one of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away from the living God; 3.14. For we have become partakers of Christ, if we hold fast the beginning of our confidence firm to the end: 3.16. For who, when they heard, rebelled? No, didn't all those who came out of Egypt by Moses? 4.1. Let us fear therefore, lest perhaps a promise being left of entering into his rest, anyone of you should seem to have come short of it. 4.2. For indeed we have had good news preached to us, even as they also did, but the word they heard didn't profit them, because it wasn't mixed with faith by those who heard. 4.3. For we who have believed do enter into that rest, even as he has said, "As I swore in my wrath, they will not enter into my rest;" although the works were finished from the foundation of the world.
42. New Testament, John, 1.10, 1.12, 1.15, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John
43. New Testament, Mark, 1.5, 9.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 9.7. A cloud came, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is my beloved Son. Listen to him.
44. New Testament, Matthew, 24.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24.31. He will send out his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.
45. Plutarch, Aemilius Paulus, 33.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33.1. On the third day, as soon as it was morning, trumpeters led the way, sounding out no marching or processional strain, but such a one as the Romans use to rouse themselves to battle.
46. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 20.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

47. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 27.4-27.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

48. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 6.15.131.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3b. בחדתי,ותיפוק ליה משום מזיקין בתרי,אי בתרי חשד נמי ליכא בתרי ופריצי.,מפני המפולת ותיפוק ליה משום חשד ומזיקין,בתרי וכשרי.,מפני המזיקין ותיפוק ליה מפני חשד ומפולת,בחורבה חדתי ובתרי וכשרי, אי בתרי מזיקין נמי ליכא,במקומן חיישינן ואי בעית אימא לעולם בחד ובחורבה חדתי דקאי בדברא דהתם משום חשד ליכא דהא אשה בדברא לא שכיחא ומשום מזיקין איכא:,תנו רבנן ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה דברי רבי רבי נתן אומר שלש,מאי טעמא דרבי נתן דכתיב (שופטים ז)ויבא גדעון ומאה איש אשר אתו בקצה המחנה ראש האשמורת התיכונה תנא אין תיכונה אלא שיש לפניה ולאחריה,ורבי מאי תיכונה אחת מן התיכונה שבתיכונות,ורבי נתן מי כתיב תיכונה שבתיכונות תיכונה כתיב,מאי טעמיה דרבי אמר רב זריקא אמר רבי אמי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כתוב אחד אומר (תהלים קיט)חצות לילה אקום להודות לך על משפטי צדקך וכתוב אחד אומר (שם)קדמו עיני אשמורות הא כיצד ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה,ורבי נתן סבר לה כרבי יהושע דתנן רבי יהושע אומר עד שלש שעות שכן דרך מלכים לעמוד בשלש שעות שית דליליא ותרתי דיממא הוו להו שתי משמרות,רב אשי אמר משמרה ופלגא נמי משמרות קרו להו:,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אין אומרין בפני המת אלא דבריו של מת,אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא לא אמרן אלא בדברי תורה אבל מילי דעלמא לית לן בה,ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא לא אמרן אלא [אפילו] בדברי תורה וכל שכן מילי דעלמא:,ודוד בפלגא דליליא הוה קאי מאורתא הוה קאי דכתיב (תהלים קיט)קדמתי בנשף ואשועה וממאי דהאי נשף אורתא הוא דכתיב (משלי ז)בנשף בערב יום באישון לילה ואפילה,אמר רב אושעיא אמר רבי אחא הכי קאמר (דוד) מעולם לא עבר עלי חצות לילה בשינה.,רבי זירא אמר עד חצות לילה היה מתנמנם כסוס מכאן ואילך היה מתגבר כארי רב אשי אמר עד חצות לילה היה עוסק בדברי תורה מכאן ואילך בשירות ותשבחות., ונשף אורתא הוא הא נשף צפרא הוא דכתיב (שמואל א ל)ויכם דוד מהנשף ועד הערב למחרתם מאי לאו מצפרא ועד ליליא,לא מאורתא ועד אורתא,אי הכי לכתוב מהנשף ועד הנשף או מהערב ועד הערב,אלא אמר רבא תרי נשפי הוו נשף ליליא ואתי יממא נשף יממא ואתי ליליא.,ודוד מי הוה ידע פלגא דליליא אימת השתא משה רבינו לא הוה ידע דכתיב (שמות יא) כחצות הלילה אני יוצא בתוך מצרים,מאי כחצות אילימא דאמר ליה קודשא בריך הוא כחצות מי איכא ספיקא קמי שמיא אלא דאמר ליה (למחר) בחצות (כי השתא) ואתא איהו ואמר כחצות אלמא מספקא ליה ודוד הוה ידע,דוד סימנא הוה ליה דאמר רב אחא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא כנור היה תלוי למעלה ממטתו של דוד וכיון שהגיע חצות לילה בא רוח צפונית ונושבת בו ומנגן מאליו מיד היה עומד ועוסק בתורה עד שעלה עמוד השחר כיון שעלה עמוד השחר נכנסו חכמי ישראל אצלו אמרו לו אדונינו המלך עמך ישראל צריכין פרנסה אמר להם לכו והתפרנסו זה מזה אמרו לו אין הקומץ משביע את הארי ואין הבור מתמלא מחוליתו אמר להם לכו ופשטו ידיכם בגדוד,מיד יועצים באחיתופל ונמלכין בסנהדרין ושואלין באורים ותומים,אמר רב יוסף מאי קרא (דכתיב) (דברי הימים א כז)ואחרי אחיתופל בניהו בן יהוידע ואביתר ושר צבא למלך יואב,אחיתופל זה יועץ וכן הוא אומר (שמואל ב טז) ועצת אחיתופל אשר יעץ בימים ההם כאשר ישאל (איש) בדבר האלהים 3b. The Gemara answers: This ihalakhaapplies even binthe case of a bnew,sturdy ruin, where there is no danger of collapse. Therefore, the reason because of suspicion is cited in order to warn one not to enter a new ruin as well.,The Gemara continues to object: bAnd let this ihalakha bbe derived because of demons?The Gemara answers: Demons are only a threat to individuals, so because of demons would not apply to a case bwhere twopeople enter a ruin together.,The Gemara objects: But bif there are twopeople entering a ruin together, then bthere is no suspicion either.There is no prohibition against two men to be alone with a woman as, in that case, there is no suspicion of untoward behavior. Consequently, if two men enter a ruin together, there is no room for suspicion. The Gemara answers: If btwo individualsknown to be bimmoralenter together, there is suspicion even though there are two of them.,The Gemara considers why bbecause of collapseis necessary. bLetthe prohibition bbe derived from suspicion and demons. /b,The Gemara responds: There are times when this reason is necessary, e.g., when btwo upstanding individualsenter a ruin together. Although there is neither concern of suspicion nor of demons, there remains concern lest the ruin collapse.,The Gemara considers the third reason, bbecause of demons.Why is it necessary to include: Because of demons? bLetthe prohibition bbe derived from suspicion and collapse. /b,The Gemara responds: There are cases where this is the only concern, for example where it is a bnewruin into which btwo upstandingindividuals enter, so there is neither concern lest it collapse nor of suspicion.,The Gemara points out, however, that bif there are two people, there is also noconcern of bdemons.As such, the question remains: In what case can demons be the sole cause not to enter a ruin?,The Gemara responds: Generally speaking, two individuals need not be concerned about demons; but, if they are bin their place,i.e., a place known to be haunted by demons (see Isaiah 13:21), bwe are concernedabout demons even with two people. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bActually,this refers btothe case of ban individualentering ba new ruin located in a field. There, there is no suspicion, asfinding ba woman in the field is uncommon;and since it is a new ruin, there is no danger of collapse. bHowever, there isstill concern of bdemons. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bThe night is comprised of four watches;this is bthe statement of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bRabbi Natan says:The night is comprised of bthreewatches.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is Rabbi Natan’s reasoning? As it is written: “And Gideon, and the one hundred men who were with him, came to the edge of camp at the beginning of the middle watch”(Judges 7:19). bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: bMiddle means nothing other thanthat bthere is one before it and one after it.From the fact that the verse refers to a middle watch, the fact that the night is comprised of three watches may be inferred., bAndwhat does bRabbiYehuda HaNasi say about this proof? He argues that it is inconclusive, as one could say: To bwhatdoes bmiddlerefer? It refers to bone of thetwo bmiddlewatches., bAndhow would bRabbi Natanrespond? He would say: Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s objection, bis: One of the middlewatches, bwrittenin the verse? bThe middlewatch bis written.This indicates that the night is comprised of only three watches., bWhat is RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s breasoning? Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s opinion is based on a comparison of two verses. bOne verse says: “At midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws”(Psalms 119:62), band the other verse says: “My eyes forestall the watches,that I will speak of Your word” (Psalms 119:148). Taken together, these verses indicate that their author, King David, rose at midnight, two watches before dawn, in order to study Torah. bHow is itpossible to reconcile these two verses? Only if bthere are four watches in the nightdoes one who rises two watches before dawn rise at midnight., bAndhow does bRabbi Natanreconcile these two verses? He bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua, for we learnedin a mishna that bRabbi Yehoshua says:One is permitted to recite the morning iShemaduring the time when people rise, buntil the third hourof the day, bas it is the custom of kings to rise during the third hour.Since it is customary for kings to rise during the third hour of the day, if David rose at midnight, he would be awake for bsix hours of the night and two hours of the day,which amounts to btwo watches.Therefore King David could say that he “forestalls the watches,” as he rose two watches before the rest of the kings in the world., bRav Ashi saidthat the verses can be reconciled in accordance with Rabbi Natan’s opinion in another way: bOne and one-half watches are still called watchesin plural. Therefore King David could rise at midnight yet maintain that he “forestalls the watches.”,Following this discussion, another ihalakhathat bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidis cited: bBefore the dead, one may speak only of matters relating to the dead,as speaking of other matters appears to be contemptuous of the deceased, underscoring that he is unable to talk while those around him can. Therefore, one must remain fully engaged in matters relating to him.,Two traditions exist with regard to the details of this ihalakhain the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana. According to one version, bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said:This ihalakha bwas only said with regard to matters of Torah.Speaking of bother matters, however, is notprohibited, since no contempt is expressed for the deceased by the fact that he is unable to speak of such topics., bOthers sayanother version of this ihalakhain the name of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: This ihalakha bwas said even with regard to matters of Torah, and all the more so with regard to other matters.If one must refrain from speaking of matters of Torah, regarding which one is commanded to speak, and limit himself to matters concerning the deceased, all the more so should he refrain from speaking of other matters, regarding which one is not commanded to speak.,Incidental to the Gemara’s mention of King David, other sources are cited that describe his actions. Regarding that which was cited above, that he would rise in the middle of the night in order to serve his Creator, the Gemara asks: bDid David rise at midnight? He rose in the evening. As it is written: “I rose with the ineshefand cried,I hoped for Your word” (Psalms 119:147). bAnd howdo we know bthat this ineshefis the evening? As it is written: “In the ineshef /i, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness”(Proverbs 7:9). Apparently, King David did indeed rise when it was still evening.,The Gemara suggests several ways to resolve this contradiction. bRabbi Oshaya saidthat bRabbi Aḥa said: David said as follows: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep.Sometimes I fulfilled the verse, “I rose with the ineshefand cried,” but I always, at least, fulfilled the verse, “At midnight I rise to give thanks for Your righteous laws.”, bRabbi Zeira said: Until midnight,David bwould doze like a horse,as a horse dozes, but never sleeps deeply. bFrommidnight bon, he would gain the strength of a lion. Rav Ashi said: Until midnight, he would study Torah,as it is written: “I rose with the ineshefand cried, I hoped for Your word,” band frommidnight bon,he would engage in bsongs and praise,as it is written: “At midnight I rise to give thanks.”,To this point, the discussion has been based on the assumption that ineshefmeans evening. The Gemara asks: bDoes ineshef /ireally bmean evening? Doesn’t ineshefmean morning? As it is written: “And David slew them from the ineshefuntil the evening of the next day”(I Samuel 30:17). bDoesn’tthis verse mean bfrom the morning until the night,in which case ineshefmust mean morning?,The Gemara responds: bNo,this verse means that David slew them bfromone bevening untilthe next bevening. /b,The Gemara rejects this response: bIf so, letthe verse bbe written: From the ineshefuntil the ineshef /i, or from the evening until the evening.Why would the verse employ two different terms for a single concept?, bRather, Rava said: There are twotimes referred to as ineshef /i,and the word can refer to either evening or morning. iNeshefmust be understood in accordance with its Aramaic root: bThe night movespast b[ineshaf] band the day arrives, and the day movespast [ ineshaf] band the night arrives. /b,When King David said: At midnight I rise, the assumption is that he rose precisely at midnight. The Gemara asks: bDid David knowexactly bwhen it was midnight? Even Moses our teacher did not knowexactly when it was midnight. How do we know this about Moses? bAs it is writtenthat he said to Pharaoh: “Thus said the Lord: bAbout midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt”(Exodus 11:4). The word about indicates that it was only an approximation.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAbout midnight?Did Moses say it or did God say it? bIf we saythat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, said: About midnight, toMoses, bis there doubt beforeGod in bheaven? Rather,this must be understood as follows: bGod toldMoses: bAt midnight, butfrom the fact that bwhenMoses bcameto Pharaoh bhe said: About midnight; apparently /b, Moses bwas uncertainabout the exact moment of midnight. Moses, the greatest of all the prophets, was uncertain, and bDavid knew? /b,The Gemara offers several answers to this question: br bDavid had a signindicating when bit was midnight.As bRav Aḥa bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: A lyre hung over David’s bed, and once midnight arrived, the northernmidnight bwind would come andcause bthe lyre to play on its own.David bwould immediately risefrom his bed band study Torah until the first rays of dawn. br bOnce dawnarrived, bthe Sages of Israel enteredto advise bhimwith regard to the various concerns of the nation and the economy. bThey said to him: Our master, the king, your nation requires sustece. br bHe said: Go and sustain one another,provide each other with whatever is lacking. brThe Sages of Israel bresponded to himwith a parable: bA single handfulof food bdoes not satisfy a lion, and a pitwill bnotbe bfilledmerely bfromthe rain that falls directly into bits mouth,but other water must be piped in ( ige’onim /i). So too, the nation cannot sustain itself using its own resources. brKing David btold them: Go and take up arms with the troopsin battle in order to expand our borders and provide our people with the opportunity to earn a livelihood.,The Sages bimmediately seek advice from Ahitophelto determine whether or not it was appropriate to go to war at that time and how they should conduct themselves, band they consult the Sanhedrinin order to receive the requisite license to wage a war under those circumstances ( iTosefot HaRosh /i). bAnd they ask the iUrim VeTummim /iwhether or not they should go to war, and whether or not they would be successful., bRav Yosef said:Upon bwhat verseis this iaggadabased? bAs it is written: “And after Ahitophel was Yehoyada son of Benayahu and Evyatar, and the general of the king’s army, Yoav”(I Chronicles 27:34).,The individuals named in this verse correspond with the roles in the iaggadaas follows: bAhitophel is the adviserwhose advice they sought first with regard to going to war, band so it says: “Now the counsel of Ahitophel, which he counseled in those days, was as a man who inquires of the word of God;so was the counsel of Ahitophel both with David and with Absalom” (II Samuel 16:23).
50. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
51. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.
52. Anon., 3 Baruch, 11.3

53. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.23

6.23. and the trumpet shall sound aloud, and when all hear it, they shall suddenly be terrified.
54. Anon., Apocalypse of Zephaniah, 10.1

55. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 46, 41

56. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 8.1, 11.1

57. Anon., Midrash On Samuel, 9.4

58. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None

2b. וסופריה שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, ט) ויאספו לאומים ואין לאום אלא מלכות שנאמר (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ ומי איכא ערבוביא קמי הקב"ה אלא כי היכי דלא ליערבבו אינהו [בהדי הדדי] דלישמעו מאי דאמר להו,[מיד] נכנסה לפניו מלכות רומי תחלה מ"ט משום דחשיבא ומנלן דחשיבא דכתי' (דניאל ז, כג) ותאכל כל ארעא ותדושינה ותדוקינה אמר רבי יוחנן זו רומי חייבת שטבעה יצא בכל העולם,ומנא לן דמאן דחשיב עייל ברישא כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא מלך וצבור מלך נכנס תחלה לדין שנאמר (מלכים א ח, נט) לעשות משפט עבדו ומשפט עמו ישראל [וגו'] וטעמא מאי איבעית אימא לאו אורח ארעא למיתב מלכא מאבראי ואיבעית אימא מקמי דליפוש חרון אף,אמר להם הקב"ה במאי עסקתם אומרים לפניו רבש"ע הרבה שווקים תקנינו הרבה מרחצאות עשינו הרבה כסף וזהב הרבינו וכולם לא עשינו אלא בשביל ישראל כדי שיתעסקו בתורה,אמר להם הקב"ה שוטים שבעולם כל מה שעשיתם לצורך עצמכם עשיתם תקנתם שווקים להושיב בהן זונות מרחצאות לעדן בהן עצמכם כסף וזהב שלי הוא שנאמר (חגי ב, ח) לי הכסף ולי הזהב נאם ה' צבאות,כלום יש בכם מגיד זאת שנאמר מי בכם יגיד זאת ואין זאת אלא תורה שנאמר (דברים ד, מד) וזאת התורה אשר שם משה מיד יצאו בפחי נפש,יצאת מלכות רומי ונכנסה מלכות פרס אחריה מ"ט דהא חשיבא בתרה ומנלן דכתיב (דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוא אחרי תנינא דמיא לדוב ותני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין [בשר] כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב,אמר להם הקב"ה במאי עסקתם אומרים לפניו רבש"ע הרבה גשרים גשרנו הרבה כרכים כבשנו הרבה מלחמות עשינו וכולם לא עשינו אלא בשביל ישראל כדי שיתעסקו בתורה,אמר להם הקב"ה כל מה שעשיתם לצורך עצמכם עשיתם תקנתם גשרים ליטול מהם מכס כרכים לעשות בהם אנגריא מלחמות אני עשיתי שנאמר (שמות טו, ג) ה' איש מלחמה כלום יש בכם מגיד זאת שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, ט) מי בכם יגיד זאת ואין זאת אלא תורה שנאמר וזאת התורה אשר שם משה מיד יצאו מלפניו בפחי נפש,וכי מאחר דחזית מלכות פרס למלכות רומי דלא מהניא ולא מידי מאי טעמא עיילא אמרי אינהו סתרי בית המקדש ואנן בנינן וכן לכל אומה ואומה,וכי מאחר דחזו לקמאי דלא מהני ולא מידי מ"ט עיילי סברי הנך אישתעבדו בהו בישראל ואנן לא שעבדנו בישראל מאי שנא הני דחשיבי ומאי שנא הני דלא חשיבי להו משום דהנך משכי במלכותייהו עד דאתי משיחא,אומרים לפניו רבש"ע כלום נתת לנו ולא קיבלנוה ומי מצי למימר הכי והכתי' (דברים לג, ב) ויאמר ה' מסיני בא וזרח משעיר למו וכתיב (חבקוק ג, ג) אלוה מתימן יבוא וגו' מאי בעי בשעיר ומאי בעי בפארן,א"ר יוחנן מלמד שהחזירה הקב"ה על כל אומה ולשון ולא קבלוה עד שבא אצל ישראל וקבלוה,אלא הכי אמרי כלום קיבלנוה ולא קיימנוה ועל דא תברתהון אמאי לא קבלתוה אלא כך אומרים לפניו רבש"ע כלום כפית עלינו הר כגיגית ולא קבלנוה כמו שעשית לישראל,דכתיב (שמות יט, יז) ויתיצבו בתחתית ההר ואמר רב דימי בר חמא מלמד שכפה הקב"ה הר כגיגית על ישראל ואמר להם אם אתם מקבלין את התורה מוטב ואם לאו שם תהא קבורתכם,מיד אומר להם הקב"ה הראשונות ישמיעונו שנא' (ישעיהו מג, ט) וראשונות ישמיענו שבע מצות שקיבלתם היכן קיימתם,ומנלן דלא קיימום דתני רב יוסף (חבקוק ג, ו) עמד וימודד ארץ ראה ויתר גוים מאי ראה ראה ז' מצות שקבלו עליהן בני נח ולא קיימום כיון שלא קיימום עמד והתירן להן איתגורי איתגור א"כ מצינו חוטא נשכר,אמר מר בריה דרבינא 2b. bwith their scholars, as it is stated: “And let the peoples [ ile’umim /i] be assembled”(Isaiah 43:9); bandthe term ile’om /imeans bnothing other than kingdom, as it is stated: “And the one kingdom [ iule’om /i] shall be stronger than the other kingdom [ imile’om /i]”(Genesis 25:23). The Gemara asks: bBut isit possible for bthereto be bintermingling before the Holy One, Blessed be He,that it should be necessary for each nation to stand and be addressed separately? bRather,the nations are instructed to stand separately bso that they will not become intermingled with each otherin order bthat they willeach bhear what He says to them. /b, bImmediately, the Roman Empire enters first before Him.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat the Roman Empire enters first? It is bbecausethe Roman Empire is the most bimportantof all of the nations. bAnd from where do wederive bthat it isthe most bimportant? As it is writtenin the book of Daniel with regard to the fourth empire that will rule over the world: b“And it shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces”(Daniel 7:23), and bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisempire that will devour the earth is bthe wicked RomanEmpire, bwhose name spread throughout the world. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat whoever ismore bimportant enters first?This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rav Ḥisda, as Rav Ḥisda says:When ba king and a communityare brought before God for judgment, the bking enters for judgment first, as it is stated: “That He make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel,as every day shall require” (I Kings 8:59). bAnd what is the reasonthat it is important for the king to enter first? bIf you wish, saythat it is bnot proper conduct for the king to stand outsideand wait for the trial of his subjects to end. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged bbeforeGod’s banger intensifiesdue to the sins of the community.,The Gemara returns to its narration of the future judgment. First, the members of the Roman Empire enter. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: With what did you occupy yourselves? They say before Himin response: bMaster of the Universe, we have established many marketplaces, we have built many bathhouses,and bwe have increased much silver and gold. And we did allof this bonly forthe sake of bthe Jewish people, so that they wouldbe free to bengage in Torahstudy., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: Fools of the world!Are you attempting to deceive Me? bEverything that you did, you did for your own needs. You established marketplaces to place prostitutes in them;you built bbathhouses for your own enjoyment;and as for the bsilver and goldthat you claim to have increased, bit is Mine, as it is stated: “Mine is the silver, and Mine the gold, said the Lord of hosts”(Haggai 2:8)., bIs there no one among you who can declarethat they have studied bthisTorah? This is the meaning of the continuation of the verse from Isaiah, bas it is stated: “Who among them can declare this?”(Isaiah 43:9). bAnd “this”is referring to bnothing other thanthe bTorah, as it is stated: “And this is the Torah that Moses setbefore the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 4:44), and whoever did not engage in its study does not receive reward. bImmediately,the members of the Roman Empire bleave disappointed. /b, bThe Roman Empire leaves, and the Persian Empire enters after it. What is the reasonthat the Persian Empire enters second? The reason is bthat afterthe Roman Empire it is the next most bimportant. And from where do wederive this? bAs it is writtenin Daniel’s vision: b“And behold another beast, a second, like a bear”(Daniel 7:5). bAnd Rav Yosef teaches: These are the Persians,who are compared to a bear, bas they eat and drinkcopious amounts basdoes ba bear, and they are fleshy like a bear, and they growtheir bhairlong basdoes ba bear, and they never rest, like a bear,which is constantly on the move from one place to another., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: With what did you occupy yourselves? They say before Himin response: bMaster of the Universe, we have built many bridges, we have conquered many cities,and bwe have fought many wars. And we did allof this bonly forthe sake of bthe Jewish people, so that they would engage in Torahstudy., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: Everything that you did, you did for your own needs. You established bridges to collect taxes fromall who pass over bthem.You conquered bcities to usetheir residents for bforced labor [ iangareya /i];and with regard to fighting the bwars, I wagewars, and your success is from Me, bas it is stated: “The Lord is a man of war”(Exodus 15:3). bIs there no one among you who can declarethat they have studied bthisTorah? bAs it is stated: “Who among them can declare this”(Isaiah 43:9), band “this”is referring to bnothing other than the Torah, as it is stated: “And this is the Torah that Moses set”(Deuteronomy 4:44). bImmediately,the members of the Persian Empire bleave from before Him disappointed. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut once the Persian Empire sees thateverything said by bthe Roman Empire is completely ineffective, what is the reasonthat they bcomeforward? The Gemara answers: They believe that their claims will be more effective, as bthey say:The Romans bdestroyed theSecond bTemple, and wehad bbuiltit, as the Second Temple was constructed under the auspices and with the encouragement of Cyrus, the king of Persia. The Gemara adds: bAnd likewise,a similar exchange occurred bwith each and every nation. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut oncethe other nations bsee thatevery-thing said by bthe first ones,Rome and Persia, bis completely ineffective, what is the reasonthat they bcomeforward? The Gemara answers that bthey think: ThoseEmpires bsubjugated the Jewish people, but we did not subjugate the Jewish people.The Gemara further asks: bWhat is differentabout bthese,Rome and Persia, bwhich were singled outexplicitly, band what is differentabout bthoseother empires that come afterward, bwhich were not singled outand mentioned by name? It is bbecausewith regard to bthese,Rome and Persia, btheir kingship extends until the coming of the Messiah. /b,The nations will bsay beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, did You give usthe Torah band we did not accept it?Since we never received the Torah, why are we being judged for not fulfilling its mitzvot? The Gemara asks: bAnd can one say thatthey were never offered the Torah? bBut isn’t it writtenin the description of the giving of the Torah: b“And he said: The Lord came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto them”(Deuteronomy 33:2), band it is written: “God comes from Teman,and the Holy One from mount Paran” (Habakkuk 3:3). And the Sages asked: bWhatdid God brequire in Seir and whatdid He brequire in Paran?The Torah was not given in those locations.,And bRabbi Yoḥa says:This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, tookthe Torah baround to every nation andthose who speak every blanguage,such as the Edomites in Seir and the Ishmaelites in Paran, bbut they did not accept it, until He came to the Jewish people and they accepted it.If the other nations all rejected the Torah, how can they excuse themselves by claiming that it was never offered to them?, bRather, thisis what bthey say: Did we acceptthe Torah bandthen bnot fulfillits mitzvot? The Gemara asks: bBut thisitself bserves as the refutation of theirown claim, as one can respond: bWhy didn’t you accept it? Rather, thisis what the nations of the world bsay before Him: Master of the Universe, did You overturn the mountain above us like a basin, and westill bdid not acceptthe Torah, bas You did for the Jewish people? /b,The Gemara provides the background for this claim: bAs it is written: “And they stood at the nether part of the mount”(Exodus 19:17), band Rav Dimi bar Ḥama says:The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, overturned the mountain,i.e., Mount Sinai, babove the Jews like a basin, andHe bsaid to them: If you accept the Torah, excellent, and if not, there,under the mountain, bwill be your burial.The nations of the world will claim that they too could have been coerced to accept the Torah., bImmediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: The firstmitzvot bwill let us hearthe truth, bas it is statedin the continuation of the same verse under discussion: b“And announce to us the first things”(Isaiah 43:9). With regard to the bsevenNoahide bmitzvotthat preceded the giving of the Torah bthateven byou accepted, whereis the proof that byou fulfilled them? /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat they did not fulfill them? As Rav Yosef teachesin explanation of the verse: b“He stands, and shakes the earth, He sees, and makes the nations tremble [ ivayater /i]”(Habakkuk 3:6): bWhat didGod bsee? He sawthe bseven mitzvot that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, andHe saw that they bdid not fulfill them. Since they did not fulfill them, He arose and nullified for them [ ivehitiran /i]the command to heed these mitzvot. The Gemara asks: Do they bgainfrom not obeying, as they are now released from the obligation to fulfill these mitzvot? bIf so, we findthat ba sinner profitsfrom his transgression., bMar, son of Ravina, said: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 424
agraphos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
amidah" '123.0_326.0@aramaic Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 75
amos Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
angel Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 143
angelomorphization Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
angels Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 283
anthropomorphism,sitting Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
anthropomorphism,sorrow Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
anthropomorphism,wrath Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
anticipation,anticipate Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
anxiety dreams and nightmares,voices Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
apostle/apostles Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
art,priests Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
art,qumran Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
art,sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 283
aschēmatistos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
attributes,divine Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
baruch Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
beit ha-midrash Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270
benedictions/blessings Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
bible Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 75
blow,trumpet,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619, 921
body Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 921
censers Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
christian responses to mountains Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
cloud Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
davidic dynasty Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
death Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
descent Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
divination,incubation Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
divine/god,,as storm god Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
divine/god,,assembly Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
divine/god,,cloud Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
divine/god,,hypostases Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
divine/god,,justice Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
divine/god,,retinue Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
divine/god,,roar Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
divine/god,,throne Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
divine immanence Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
divine voices,jewish Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,dream figures,invisible (voice only) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,form criticism/classification,prophetic symbolic dreams Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
dreams and visions,incubation,oracular Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
egypt Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
egyptian god,amo(u)n,ʾehyeh Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
elijah Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
embodiment Feder (2022), Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor, 250
epopteia Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
eschatology Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
exaltation,of the cross Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
exegesis,,and mythmaking Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
exegesis,,midrashic developments Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
exegesis Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
exodus Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 274, 282, 283
ezekiel Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
faith Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 251
feast,days Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
feast,of the holy cross Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
feast,of the theophany Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
fire,fiery,tongues as of Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67
fire,fiery Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67
fire Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
foot/feet Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
glory,divine Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 282, 283
gnōsis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
god,and Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
god,visible Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251, 274, 283
godhead; see also attributes,hierarchy Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
halakhah and custom Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 75
hands,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 921
head Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 921
healing Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
heavenly voice Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
hebrew bible,deuteronomy Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
hebrew bible,exodus Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
hebrew bible Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
high priest Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
holiness Feder (2022), Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor, 250
holy week Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
homer,iliad Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
horeb Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
hymn Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
hypostasis,voice as Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
intellect Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
interpretation,biblical Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
interpretation,hellenistic jewish Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251
interpretation,rabbinic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251
interpretation,targumic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 282, 283
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505
isaiah Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
israel,nan Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505
israel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619, 921
judgment Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
land (of israel,promised) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 251
laws Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
letters Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
liturgical expressions/elements,luke,gospel of Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 143
liturgy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
logos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
lord,referring to christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
luke,,gospel writer Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67
lyres Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah,matthew,gospel of Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 143
memra,philos logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
memra,shekhinah (and voice) related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505
moon Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 251, 270, 274, 282, 283
moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 274, 282, 283; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 251
mount nebo Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
mount sinai Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
mountains,and the divine Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
multiplicity and multiformity within,ancient near east Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
mysticism Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 282, 283
myth,,and literary considerations Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
myth,,and metaphor Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
mythmaking,response to scripture Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
nativity,feast of the Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
natural and meteorological phenomena,cloud Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
netherworld Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
nishmat Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
obedience Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 251
parallelism/repetition Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 424
patriarchs Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
pentecost Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67
persia Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
philo Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
philo of alexandria Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251
philos logos,memra and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
piyyut/poetry Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
plato/platonic/platonism Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67
prayer Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 282, 283; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505
prayers,daily Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
priesthood,priests,angelic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 270, 274
priesthood,priests,service Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 283
priesthood,priests Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274
priesthood Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
prokeimena Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
prophecy,prophetic dreams and visions Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
prophecy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
prophetologion,arabic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
prophetologion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
prophets,ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
prophets Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
qumran,angels Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
qumran,liturgy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
qumran,priesthood Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
qumran,songs Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
rabbi akiba Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251, 282
reading,lectionary Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
rejoicing Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 921
religious ideas/theology/relations with' "123.0_75.0@shema'" Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
revelation,law Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 282, 283
revelation Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 251, 270, 274, 282, 283; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
rites Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
sacrifice Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 274, 283; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619, 921
sacrificial service Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 283
scholarship,,qumran' Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 67
school/academy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 282, 283
scripture Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 274
sectarianism Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
septuagint/septuagintism Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 143
seraphim Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71
shefa,memra related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 98
shekhina,auditory Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251
shekhina,ritual Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 283
shekhina,visual Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 251
shekhina Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 282, 283
sinai,mount Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619
sinai,qumran literature Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 251, 270, 274, 282, 283; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619, 921
speech in dreams,incidental/overheard Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
spirit Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64
stoning Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 424
sunday Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
symbolical style of scripture Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
symbolikos,to symbolikon eidos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 76
synagogue Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 282
targum Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 282, 283; Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
temple,heavenly Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 225
temple Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 283
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 251
ten commandments (decalogue) Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 75, 326
theophany Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64, 270
torah,giving of Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 282, 283
torah,observance as sacrificial service Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274
torah,teaching Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270, 274, 282, 283
torah Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 143; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 505; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 921
torah and torah study Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 326
troparia Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
trumpet Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 619, 921
trumpets Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 143
viewing,from mountains Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
viewing,of mountains,from below,obstructed Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
voice portents,hierophantic (voices in temples) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
voice portents,kledonomantic (random voices) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 206
water,blessing of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 457
wilderness Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 64; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
worship Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 921
zeus Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 70
zion Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 270
ḥayyot,powers within Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 71