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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 18.1-18.22


וַיִּשְׁמַע יִתְרוֹ כֹהֵן מִדְיָן חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֱלֹהִים לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ כִּי־הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם׃Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, how that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.


וַיֹּאמֶר יִתְרוֹ בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הִצִּיל אֶתְכֶם מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּמִיַּד פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר הִצִּיל אֶת־הָעָם מִתַּחַת יַד־מִצְרָיִם׃Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, how that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.


nanAnd Jethro said: ‘Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians.


עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־גָדוֹל יְהוָה מִכָּל־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי בַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר זָדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם׃Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods; yea, for that they dealt proudly against them.’


וַיִּקַּח יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה עֹלָה וּזְבָחִים לֵאלֹהִים וַיָּבֹא אַהֲרֹן וְכֹל זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם עִם־חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’father-in-law before God.


וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיֵּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־הָעָם וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה מִן־הַבֹּקֶר עַד־הָעָרֶב׃And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood about Moses from the morning unto the evening.


וַיַּרְא חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־הוּא עֹשֶׂה לָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר מָה־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹשֶׂה לָעָם מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב לְבַדֶּךָ וְכָל־הָעָם נִצָּב עָלֶיךָ מִן־בֹּקֶר עַד־עָרֶב׃And when Moses’father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, he said: ‘What is this thing that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand about thee from morning unto even?’


וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה לְחֹתְנוֹ כִּי־יָבֹא אֵלַי הָעָם לִדְרֹשׁ אֱלֹהִים׃And Moses said unto his father-in-law: ‘Because the people come unto me to inquire of God;


כִּי־יִהְיֶה לָהֶם דָּבָר בָּא אֵלַי וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין רֵעֵהוּ וְהוֹדַעְתִּי אֶת־חֻקֵּי הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־תּוֹרֹתָיו׃when they have a matter, it cometh unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and I make them know the statutes of God, and His laws.’


וַיֹּאמֶר חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֵלָיו לֹא־טוֹב הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹשֶׂה׃And Moses’father-in-law said unto him: ‘The thing that thou doest is not good.


נָבֹל תִּבֹּל גַּם־אַתָּה גַּם־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עִמָּךְ כִּי־כָבֵד מִמְּךָ הַדָּבָר לֹא־תוּכַל עֲשֹׂהוּ לְבַדֶּךָ׃Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee; for the thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone.


עַתָּה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי אִיעָצְךָ וִיהִי אֱלֹהִים עִמָּךְ הֱיֵה אַתָּה לָעָם מוּל הָאֱלֹהִים וְהֵבֵאתָ אַתָּה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God be with thee: be thou for the people before God, and bring thou the causes unto God.


וְהִזְהַרְתָּה אֶתְהֶם אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַתּוֹרֹת וְהוֹדַעְתָּ לָהֶם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ יֵלְכוּ בָהּ וְאֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּן׃And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’wife, after he had sent her away


וַיִּקַּח יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֶת־צִפֹּרָה אֵשֶׁת מֹשֶׁה אַחַר שִׁלּוּחֶיהָ׃And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’wife, after he had sent her away


nanAnd thou shalt teach them the statutes and the laws, and shalt show them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do.


וְאַתָּה תֶחֱזֶה מִכָּל־הָעָם אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל יִרְאֵי אֱלֹהִים אַנְשֵׁי אֱמֶת שֹׂנְאֵי בָצַע וְשַׂמְתָּ עֲלֵהֶם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת שָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת׃Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating unjust gain; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.


וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּכָל־עֵת וְהָיָה כָּל־הַדָּבָר הַגָּדֹל יָבִיאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְכָל־הַדָּבָר הַקָּטֹן יִשְׁפְּטוּ־הֵם וְהָקֵל מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָשְׂאוּ אִתָּךְ׃And let them judge the people at all seasons; and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge themselves; so shall they make it easier for thee and bear the burden with thee.


וְאֵת שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאֶחָד גֵּרְשֹׁם כִּי אָמַר גֵּר הָיִיתִי בְּאֶרֶץ נָכְרִיָּה׃and her two sons; of whom the name of the one was Gershom; for he said: ‘I have been a stranger in a strange land’;


וְשֵׁם הָאֶחָד אֱלִיעֶזֶר כִּי־אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי בְּעֶזְרִי וַיַּצִּלֵנִי מֵחֶרֶב פַּרְעֹה׃and the name of the other was Eliezer: ‘for the God of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh.’


וַיָּבֹא יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר־הוּא חֹנֶה שָׁם הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife unto Moses into the wilderness where he was encamped, at the mount of God;


וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֲנִי חֹתֶנְךָ יִתְרוֹ בָּא אֵלֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּשְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ עִמָּהּ׃and he said unto Moses: ‘I thy father-in-law Jethro am coming unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her.’


וַיֵּצֵא מֹשֶׁה לִקְרַאת חֹתְנוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ וַיִּשַּׁק־לוֹ וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ אִישׁ־לְרֵעֵהוּ לְשָׁלוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ הָאֹהֱלָה׃And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed down and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare; and they came into the tent.


וַיְסַפֵּר מֹשֶׁה לְחֹתְנוֹ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְפַרְעֹה וּלְמִצְרַיִם עַל אוֹדֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הַתְּלָאָה אֲשֶׁר מְצָאָתַם בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיַּצִּלֵם יְהוָה׃And Moses told his father-in-law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them.


וַיִּחַדְּ יִתְרוֹ עַל כָּל־הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הִצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרָיִם׃And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which the LORD had done to Israel, in that He had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 34.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. וַיֹּאמֶר הָמָן לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם־אֶחָד מְפֻזָּר וּמְפֹרָד בֵּין הָעַמִּים בְּכֹל מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתֶךָ וְדָתֵיהֶם שֹׁנוֹת מִכָּל־עָם וְאֶת־דָּתֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵינָם עֹשִׂים וְלַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין־שֹׁוֶה לְהַנִּיחָם׃ 3.8. And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus: ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws are diverse from those of every people; neither keep they the king’s laws; therefore it profiteth not the king to suffer them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.16-2.22, 18.2-18.12, 18.17-18.26, 19.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.16. וּלְכֹהֵן מִדְיָן שֶׁבַע בָּנוֹת וַתָּבֹאנָה וַתִּדְלֶנָה וַתְּמַלֶּאנָה אֶת־הָרְהָטִים לְהַשְׁקוֹת צֹאן אֲבִיהֶן׃ 2.17. וַיָּבֹאוּ הָרֹעִים וַיְגָרְשׁוּם וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹשִׁעָן וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־צֹאנָם׃ 2.18. וַתָּבֹאנָה אֶל־רְעוּאֵל אֲבִיהֶן וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ מִהַרְתֶּן בֹּא הַיּוֹם׃ 2.19. וַתֹּאמַרְןָ אִישׁ מִצְרִי הִצִּילָנוּ מִיַּד הָרֹעִים וְגַם־דָּלֹה דָלָה לָנוּ וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־הַצֹּאן׃ 2.21. וַיּוֹאֶל מֹשֶׁה לָשֶׁבֶת אֶת־הָאִישׁ וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־צִפֹּרָה בִתּוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה׃ 2.22. וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ גֵּרְשֹׁם כִּי אָמַר גֵּר הָיִיתִי בְּאֶרֶץ נָכְרִיָּה׃ 18.2. וְהִזְהַרְתָּה אֶתְהֶם אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַתּוֹרֹת וְהוֹדַעְתָּ לָהֶם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ יֵלְכוּ בָהּ וְאֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּן׃ 18.2. וַיִּקַּח יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֶת־צִפֹּרָה אֵשֶׁת מֹשֶׁה אַחַר שִׁלּוּחֶיהָ׃ 18.3. וְאֵת שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאֶחָד גֵּרְשֹׁם כִּי אָמַר גֵּר הָיִיתִי בְּאֶרֶץ נָכְרִיָּה׃ 18.4. וְשֵׁם הָאֶחָד אֱלִיעֶזֶר כִּי־אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי בְּעֶזְרִי וַיַּצִּלֵנִי מֵחֶרֶב פַּרְעֹה׃ 18.5. וַיָּבֹא יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר־הוּא חֹנֶה שָׁם הַר הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 18.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֲנִי חֹתֶנְךָ יִתְרוֹ בָּא אֵלֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּשְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ עִמָּהּ׃ 18.7. וַיֵּצֵא מֹשֶׁה לִקְרַאת חֹתְנוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ וַיִּשַּׁק־לוֹ וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ אִישׁ־לְרֵעֵהוּ לְשָׁלוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ הָאֹהֱלָה׃ 18.8. וַיְסַפֵּר מֹשֶׁה לְחֹתְנוֹ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְפַרְעֹה וּלְמִצְרַיִם עַל אוֹדֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הַתְּלָאָה אֲשֶׁר מְצָאָתַם בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיַּצִּלֵם יְהוָה׃ 18.9. וַיִּחַדְּ יִתְרוֹ עַל כָּל־הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הִצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרָיִם׃ 18.11. עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־גָדוֹל יְהוָה מִכָּל־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי בַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר זָדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 18.12. וַיִּקַּח יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה עֹלָה וּזְבָחִים לֵאלֹהִים וַיָּבֹא אַהֲרֹן וְכֹל זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם עִם־חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 18.17. וַיֹּאמֶר חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֵלָיו לֹא־טוֹב הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹשֶׂה׃ 18.18. נָבֹל תִּבֹּל גַּם־אַתָּה גַּם־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עִמָּךְ כִּי־כָבֵד מִמְּךָ הַדָּבָר לֹא־תוּכַל עֲשֹׂהוּ לְבַדֶּךָ׃ 18.19. עַתָּה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלִי אִיעָצְךָ וִיהִי אֱלֹהִים עִמָּךְ הֱיֵה אַתָּה לָעָם מוּל הָאֱלֹהִים וְהֵבֵאתָ אַתָּה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 18.21. וְאַתָּה תֶחֱזֶה מִכָּל־הָעָם אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל יִרְאֵי אֱלֹהִים אַנְשֵׁי אֱמֶת שֹׂנְאֵי בָצַע וְשַׂמְתָּ עֲלֵהֶם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת שָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת׃ 18.22. וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּכָל־עֵת וְהָיָה כָּל־הַדָּבָר הַגָּדֹל יָבִיאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְכָל־הַדָּבָר הַקָּטֹן יִשְׁפְּטוּ־הֵם וְהָקֵל מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָשְׂאוּ אִתָּךְ׃ 18.23. אִם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה תַּעֲשֶׂה וְצִוְּךָ אֱלֹהִים וְיָכָלְתָּ עֲמֹד וְגַם כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה עַל־מְקֹמוֹ יָבֹא בְשָׁלוֹם׃ 18.24. וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה לְקוֹל חֹתְנוֹ וַיַּעַשׂ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמָר׃ 18.25. וַיִּבְחַר מֹשֶׁה אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם רָאשִׁים עַל־הָעָם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת שָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת׃ 18.26. וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּכָל־עֵת אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַקָּשֶׁה יְבִיאוּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְכָל־הַדָּבָר הַקָּטֹן יִשְׁפּוּטוּ הֵם׃ 19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.16. Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock." 2.17. And the shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock." 2.18. And when they came to Reuel their father, he said: ‘How is it that ye are come so soon to-day?’" 2.19. And they said: ‘An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and moreover he drew water for us, and watered the flock.’" 2.20. And he said unto his daughters: ‘And where is he? Why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.’" 2.21. And Moses was content to dwell with the man; and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter." 2.22. And she bore a son, and he called his name Gershom; for he said: ‘I have been a stranger in a strange land.’" 18.2. And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’wife, after he had sent her away," 18.3. and her two sons; of whom the name of the one was Gershom; for he said: ‘I have been a stranger in a strange land’;" 18.4. and the name of the other was Eliezer: ‘for the God of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh.’" 18.5. And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife unto Moses into the wilderness where he was encamped, at the mount of God;" 18.6. and he said unto Moses: ‘I thy father-in-law Jethro am coming unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her.’" 18.7. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed down and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare; and they came into the tent." 18.8. And Moses told his father-in-law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them." 18.9. And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which the LORD had done to Israel, in that He had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians." 18.10. And Jethro said: ‘Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians." 18.11. Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods; yea, for that they dealt proudly against them.’" 18.12. And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’father-in-law before God." 18.17. And Moses’father-in-law said unto him: ‘The thing that thou doest is not good." 18.18. Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee; for the thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone." 18.19. Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God be with thee: be thou for the people before God, and bring thou the causes unto God." 18.20. And thou shalt teach them the statutes and the laws, and shalt show them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do." 18.21. Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating unjust gain; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens." 18.22. And let them judge the people at all seasons; and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge themselves; so shall they make it easier for thee and bear the burden with thee." 18.23. If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people also shall go to their place in peace.’" 18.24. So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said." 18.25. And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens." 18.26. And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves." 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.4-5.27, 35.16-35.19, 41.41-41.49 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.4. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־אָדָם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֵׁת שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.5. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי אָדָם אֲשֶׁר־חַי תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.6. וַיְחִי־שֵׁת חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אֱנוֹשׁ׃ 5.7. וַיְחִי־שֵׁת אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־אֱנוֹשׁ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.8. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־שֵׁת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.9. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־קֵינָן׃ 5.11. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי אֱנוֹשׁ חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.12. וַיְחִי קֵינָן שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מַהֲלַלְאֵל׃ 5.13. וַיְחִי קֵינָן אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מַהֲלַלְאֵל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.14. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי קֵינָן עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.15. וַיְחִי מַהֲלַלְאֵל חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־יָרֶד׃ 5.16. וַיְחִי מַהֲלַלְאֵל אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־יֶרֶד שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.17. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי מַהֲלַלְאֵל חָמֵשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.18. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ׃ 5.19. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 5.25. וַיְחִי מְתוּשֶׁלַח שֶׁבַע וּשְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃ 5.26. וַיְחִי מְתוּשֶׁלַח אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־לֶמֶךְ שְׁתַּיִם וּשְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.27. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי מְתוּשֶׁלַח תֵּשַׁע וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 35.16. וַיִּסְעוּ מִבֵּית אֵל וַיְהִי־עוֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ לָבוֹא אֶפְרָתָה וַתֵּלֶד רָחֵל וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ׃ 35.17. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃ 35.18. וַיְהִי בְּצֵאת נַפְשָׁהּ כִּי מֵתָה וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־אוֹנִי וְאָבִיו קָרָא־לוֹ בִנְיָמִין׃ 35.19. וַתָּמָת רָחֵל וַתִּקָּבֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶפְרָתָה הִוא בֵּית לָחֶם׃ 41.41. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף רְאֵה נָתַתִּי אֹתְךָ עַל כָּל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.42. וַיָּסַר פַּרְעֹה אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ מֵעַל יָדוֹ וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ עַל־יַד יוֹסֵף וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ בִּגְדֵי־שֵׁשׁ וַיָּשֶׂם רְבִד הַזָּהָב עַל־צַוָּארוֹ׃ 41.43. וַיַּרְכֵּב אֹתוֹ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וַיִּקְרְאוּ לְפָנָיו אַבְרֵךְ וְנָתוֹן אֹתוֹ עַל כָּל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.44. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה אֶל־יוֹסֵף אֲנִי פַרְעֹה וּבִלְעָדֶיךָ לֹא־יָרִים אִישׁ אֶת־יָדוֹ וְאֶת־רַגְלוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.45. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה שֵׁם־יוֹסֵף צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אֹן לְאִשָּׁה וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.46. וְיוֹסֵף בֶּן־שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה בְּעָמְדוֹ לִפְנֵי פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף מִלִּפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיַּעְבֹר בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 41.47. וַתַּעַשׂ הָאָרֶץ בְּשֶׁבַע שְׁנֵי הַשָּׂבָע לִקְמָצִים׃ 41.48. וַיִּקְבֹּץ אֶת־כָּל־אֹכֶל שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיִּתֶּן־אֹכֶל בֶּעָרִים אֹכֶל שְׂדֵה־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֶיהָ נָתַן בְּתוֹכָהּ׃ 41.49. וַיִּצְבֹּר יוֹסֵף בָּר כְּחוֹל הַיָּם הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד עַד כִּי־חָדַל לִסְפֹּר כִּי־אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 5.4. And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters." 5.5. And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died." 5.6. And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh." 5.7. And Seth lived after he begot Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.8. And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years; and he died." 5.9. And Enosh lived ninety years, and begot Ke." 5.10. And Enosh lived after he begot Ke eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.11. And all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years; and he died." 5.12. And Ke lived seventy years, and begot Mahalalel." 5.13. And Ke lived after he begot Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.14. And all the days of Ke were nine hundred and ten years; and he died." 5.15. And Mahalalel lived sixty and five years, and begot Jared." 5.16. And Mahalalel lived after he begot Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.17. And all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred ninety and five years; and he died." 5.18. And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begot Enoch." 5.19. And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.20. And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years; and he died. ." 5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah." 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 5.25. And Methuselah lived a hundred eighty and seven years, and begot Lamech." 5.26. And Methuselah lived after he begot Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.27. And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years; and he died." 35.16. And they journeyed from Beth-el; and there was still some way to come to Ephrath; and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour." 35.17. And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’" 35.18. And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing—for she died—that she called his name Ben-oni; but his father called him Benjamin." 35.19. And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath—the same is Beth-lehem." 41.41. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph: ‘See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt.’" 41.42. And Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph’s hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck." 41.43. And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him: ‘Abrech’; and he set him over all the land of Egypt." 41.44. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph: ‘I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.’" 41.45. And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.—" 41.46. And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt.—And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt." 41.47. And in the seven years of plenty the earth brought forth in heaps." 41.48. And he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities; the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same." 41.49. And Joseph laid up corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until they left off numbering; for it was without number."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.2, 4.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה יוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל כְּשַׁחַר פָּרֻשׂ עַל־הֶהָרִים עַם רַב וְעָצוּם כָּמֹהוּ לֹא נִהְיָה מִן־הָעוֹלָם וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא יוֹסֵף עַד־שְׁנֵי דּוֹר וָדוֹר׃ 2.2. וְאֶת־הַצְּפוֹנִי אַרְחִיק מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וְהִדַּחְתִּיו אֶל־אֶרֶץ צִיָּה וּשְׁמָמָה אֶת־פָּנָיו אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמֹנִי וְסֹפוֹ אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן וְעָלָה בָאְשׁוֹ וְתַעַל צַחֲנָתוֹ כִּי הִגְדִּיל לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 4.12. יֵעוֹרוּ וְיַעֲלוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֶל־עֵמֶק יְהוֹשָׁפָט כִּי שָׁם אֵשֵׁב לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם מִסָּבִיב׃ 2.2. A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness, As blackness spread upon the mountains; A great people and a mighty, There hath not been ever the like, Neither shall be any more after them, Even to the years of many generations." 4.12. Let the nations be stirred up, and come up To the valley of Jehoshaphat; For there will I sit to judge All the nations round about."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman."
7. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.15. יוֹם עֶבְרָה הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יוֹם צָרָה וּמְצוּקָה יוֹם שֹׁאָה וּמְשׁוֹאָה יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה יוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 1.15. That day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress, A day of wasteness and desolation, A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness,"
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 5.1-5.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנַעֲמָן שַׂר־צְבָא מֶלֶךְ־אֲרָם הָיָה אִישׁ גָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנָיו וּנְשֻׂא פָנִים כִּי־בוֹ נָתַן־יְהוָה תְּשׁוּעָה לַאֲרָם וְהָאִישׁ הָיָה גִּבּוֹר חַיִל מְצֹרָע׃ 5.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֵלָיו אֱלִישָׁע מַלְאָךְ לֵאמֹר הָלוֹךְ וְרָחַצְתָּ שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים בַּיַּרְדֵּן וְיָשֹׁב בְּשָׂרְךָ לְךָ וּטְהָר׃ 5.2. וַיֹּאמֶר גֵּיחֲזִי נַעַר אֱלִישָׁע אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים הִנֵּה חָשַׂךְ אֲדֹנִי אֶת־נַעֲמָן הָאֲרַמִּי הַזֶּה מִקַּחַת מִיָּדוֹ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא חַי־יְהוָה כִּי־אִם־רַצְתִּי אַחֲרָיו וְלָקַחְתִּי מֵאִתּוֹ מְאוּמָה׃ 5.2. וַאֲרָם יָצְאוּ גְדוּדִים וַיִּשְׁבּוּ מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל נַעֲרָה קְטַנָּה וַתְּהִי לִפְנֵי אֵשֶׁת נַעֲמָן׃ 5.3. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־גְּבִרְתָּהּ אַחֲלֵי אֲדֹנִי לִפְנֵי הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן אָז יֶאֱסֹף אֹתוֹ מִצָּרַעְתּוֹ׃ 5.4. וַיָּבֹא וַיַּגֵּד לַאדֹנָיו לֵאמֹר כָּזֹאת וְכָזֹאת דִּבְּרָה הַנַּעֲרָה אֲשֶׁר מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.5. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ־אֲרָם לֶךְ־בֹּא וְאֶשְׁלְחָה סֵפֶר אֶל־מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ עֶשֶׂר כִּכְּרֵי־כֶסֶף וְשֵׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים זָהָב וְעֶשֶׂר חֲלִיפוֹת בְּגָדִים׃ 5.6. וַיָּבֵא הַסֵּפֶר אֶל־מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר וְעַתָּה כְּבוֹא הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה אֵלֶיךָ הִנֵּה שָׁלַחְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־נַעֲמָן עַבְדִּי וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ מִצָּרַעְתּוֹ׃ 5.7. וַיְהִי כִּקְרֹא מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַסֵּפֶר וַיִּקְרַע בְּגָדָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הַאֱלֹהִים אָנִי לְהָמִית וּלְהַחֲיוֹת כִּי־זֶה שֹׁלֵחַ אֵלַי לֶאֱסֹף אִישׁ מִצָּרַעְתּוֹ כִּי אַךְ־דְּעוּ־נָא וּרְאוּ כִּי־מִתְאַנֶּה הוּא לִי׃ 5.8. וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ אֱלִישָׁע אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־קָרַע מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לֵאמֹר לָמָּה קָרַעְתָּ בְּגָדֶיךָ יָבֹא־נָא אֵלַי וְיֵדַע כִּי יֵשׁ נָבִיא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.9. וַיָּבֹא נַעֲמָן בסוסו [בְּסוּסָיו] וּבְרִכְבּוֹ וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח־הַבַּיִת לֶאֱלִישָׁע׃ 5.11. וַיִּקְצֹף נַעֲמָן וַיֵּלַךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָמַרְתִּי אֵלַי יֵצֵא יָצוֹא וְעָמַד וְקָרָא בְּשֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וְהֵנִיף יָדוֹ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם וְאָסַף הַמְּצֹרָע׃ 5.12. הֲלֹא טוֹב אבנה [אֲמָנָה] וּפַרְפַּר נַהֲרוֹת דַּמֶּשֶׂק מִכֹּל מֵימֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲלֹא־אֶרְחַץ בָּהֶם וְטָהָרְתִּי וַיִּפֶן וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּחֵמָה׃ 5.13. וַיִּגְּשׁוּ עֲבָדָיו וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ אָבִי דָּבָר גָּדוֹל הַנָּבִיא דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיךָ הֲלוֹא תַעֲשֶׂה וְאַף כִּי־אָמַר אֵלֶיךָ רְחַץ וּטְהָר׃ 5.14. וַיֵּרֶד וַיִּטְבֹּל בַּיַּרְדֵּן שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים כִּדְבַר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיָּשָׁב בְּשָׂרוֹ כִּבְשַׂר נַעַר קָטֹן וַיִּטְהָר׃ 5.15. וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים הוּא וְכָל־מַחֲנֵהוּ וַיָּבֹא וַיַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אֵין אֱלֹהִים בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי אִם־בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַתָּה קַח־נָא בְרָכָה מֵאֵת עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 5.1. Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Aram, was a great man with his master, and held in esteem, because by him the LORD had given victory unto Aram; he was also a mighty man of valour, but he was a leper." 5.2. And the Arameans had gone out in bands, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited on Naaman’s wife." 5.3. And she said unto her mistress: ‘Would that my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! then would he recover him of his leprosy.’" 5.4. And he went in, and told his lord, saying: ‘Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel.’" 5.5. And the king of Aram said: ‘Go now, and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel.’ And he departed, and took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of raiment." 5.6. And he brought the letter to the king of Israel, saying: ‘And now when this letter is come unto thee, behold, I have sent Naaman my servant to thee, that thou mayest recover him of his leprosy.’" 5.7. And it came to pass, when the king of Israel had read the letter, that he rent his clothes, and said: ‘Am I God, to kill and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? but consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh an occasion against me.’" 5.8. And it was so, when Elisha the man of God heard that the king of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying: ‘Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me, and he shall know that there is a prophet in Israel.’" 5.9. So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariots, and stood at the door of the house of Elisha." 5.10. And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying: ‘Go and wash in the Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come back to thee, and thou shalt be clean.’" 5.11. But Naaman was wroth, and went away, and said: ‘Behold, I thought: He will surely come out to me, and stand, and call on the name of the LORD his God, and wave his hand over the place, and recover the leper." 5.12. Are not Amanah and Pharpar, the rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them, and be clean?’ So he turned, and went away in a rage." 5.13. And his servants came near, and spoke unto him, and said: ‘My father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee: Wash, and be clean?’" 5.14. Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God; and his flesh came back like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean." 5.15. And he returned to the man of God, he and all his company, and came, and stood before him; and he said: ‘Behold now, I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel; now therefore, I pray thee, take a present of thy servant.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.6. מֵעִם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּפָּקֵד בְּרַעַם וּבְרַעַשׁ וְקוֹל גָּדוֹל סוּפָה וּסְעָרָה וְלַהַב אֵשׁ אוֹכֵלָה׃ 29.6. There shall be a visitation from the LORD of hosts With thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, With whirlwind and tempest, and the flame of a devouring fire."
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 2.9-2.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁים יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־נָתַן יְהוָה לָכֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִי־נָפְלָה אֵימַתְכֶם עָלֵינוּ וְכִי נָמֹגוּ כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ מִפְּנֵיכֶם׃ 2.11. וַנִּשְׁמַע וַיִּמַּס לְבָבֵנוּ וְלֹא־קָמָה עוֹד רוּחַ בְּאִישׁ מִפְּנֵיכֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת׃ 2.9. and she said unto the men: ‘I know that the LORD hath given you the land, and that your terror is fallen upon us, and that all the inhabitants of the land melt away before you." 2.10. For we have heard how the LORD dried up the water of the Red Sea before you, when ye came out of Egypt; and what ye did unto the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond the Jordan, unto Sihon and to Og, whom ye utterly destroyed." 2.11. And as soon as we had heard it, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more spirit in any man, because of you; for the LORD your God, He is God in heaven above, and on earth beneath."
11. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 9.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south."
12. Anon., Jubilees, 5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.12. And He said "Thy spirit will not always abide on man; for they also are flesh and their days shall be one hundred and twenty years.
13. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.46-2.47, 3.28-3.33, 6.26-6.28, 7.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.46. בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר נְפַל עַל־אַנְפּוֹהִי וּלְדָנִיֵּאל סְגִד וּמִנְחָה וְנִיחֹחִין אֲמַר לְנַסָּכָה לֵהּ׃ 2.47. עָנֵה מַלְכָּא לְדָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר מִן־קְשֹׁט דִּי אֱלָהֲכוֹן הוּא אֱלָהּ אֱלָהִין וּמָרֵא מַלְכִין וְגָלֵה רָזִין דִּי יְכֵלְתָּ לְמִגְלֵא רָזָה דְנָה׃ 3.28. עָנֵה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר בְּרִיךְ אֱלָהֲהוֹן דִּי־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ דִּי־שְׁלַח מַלְאֲכֵהּ וְשֵׁיזִב לְעַבְדוֹהִי דִּי הִתְרְחִצוּ עֲלוֹהִי וּמִלַּת מַלְכָּא שַׁנִּיו וִיהַבוּ גשמיהון [גֶשְׁמְהוֹן] דִּי לָא־יִפְלְחוּן וְלָא־יִסְגְּדוּן לְכָל־אֱלָהּ לָהֵן לֵאלָהֲהוֹן׃ 3.29. וּמִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי כָל־עַם אֻמָּה וְלִשָּׁן דִּי־יֵאמַר שלה [שָׁלוּ] עַל אֱלָהֲהוֹן דִּי־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹא הַדָּמִין יִתְעֲבֵד וּבַיְתֵהּ נְוָלִי יִשְׁתַּוֵּה כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי לָא אִיתַי אֱלָה אָחֳרָן דִּי־יִכֻּל לְהַצָּלָה כִּדְנָה׃ 3.31. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא לְכָל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא דִּי־דארין [דָיְרִין] בְּכָל־אַרְעָא שְׁלָמְכוֹן יִשְׂגֵּא׃ 3.32. אָתַיָּא וְתִמְהַיָּא דִּי עֲבַד עִמִּי אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] שְׁפַר קָדָמַי לְהַחֲוָיָה׃ 3.33. אָתוֹהִי כְּמָה רַבְרְבִין וְתִמְהוֹהִי כְּמָה תַקִּיפִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 6.26. בֵּאדַיִן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ מַלְכָּא כְּתַב לְכָל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא דִּי־דארין [דָיְרִין] בְּכָל־אַרְעָא שְׁלָמְכוֹן יִשְׂגֵּא׃ 6.27. מִן־קֳדָמַי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי בְּכָל־שָׁלְטָן מַלְכוּתִי לֶהֱוֺן זאעין [זָיְעִין] וְדָחֲלִין מִן־קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ דִּי־דָנִיֵּאל דִּי־הוּא אֱלָהָא חַיָּא וְקַיָּם לְעָלְמִין וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ עַד־סוֹפָא׃ 6.28. מְשֵׁיזִב וּמַצִּל וְעָבֵד אָתִין וְתִמְהִין בִּשְׁמַיָּא וּבְאַרְעָא דִּי שֵׁיזִיב לְדָנִיֵּאל מִן־יַד אַרְיָוָתָא׃ 7.26. וְדִינָא יִתִּב וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ יְהַעְדּוֹן לְהַשְׁמָדָה וּלְהוֹבָדָה עַד־סוֹפָא׃ 2.46. Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an offering and sweet odours unto him." 2.47. The king spoke unto Daniel, and said: ‘of a truth it is, that your God is the God of gods, and the Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing thou hast been able to reveal this secret.’" 3.28. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said: ‘Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, who hath sent His angel, and delivered His servants that trusted in Him, and have changed the king’s word, and have yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God." 3.29. Therefore I make a decree, that every people, nation, and language, which speak any thing amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill; because there is no other god that is able to deliver after this sort.’" 3.30. Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the province of Babylon." 3.31. ‘Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all peoples, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; peace be multiplied unto you." 3.32. It hath seemed good unto me to declare the signs and wonders that God Most High hath wrought toward me." 3.33. How great are His signs! And how mighty are His wonders! His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, And His dominion is from generation to generation." 6.26. Then king Darius wrote unto all the peoples, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth: ‘Peace be multiplied unto you." 6.27. I make a decree, that in all the dominion of my kingdom men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel; For He is the living God, And stedfast for ever, And His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, And His dominion shall be even unto the end;" 6.28. He delivereth and rescueth, And He worketh signs and wonders In heaven and in earth; Who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the lions.’" 7.26. But the judgment shall sit, and his dominions shall be taken away, to be consumed and to be destroy unto the end."
14. Septuagint, Judith, 2.6, 11.12-11.13, 11.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

2.6. Go and attack the whole west country, because they disobeyed my orders. 11.12. Since their food supply is exhausted and their water has almost given out, they have planned to kill their cattle and have determined to use all that God by his laws has forbidden them to eat. 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 11.17. For your servant is religious, and serves the God of heaven day and night; therefore, my lord, I will remain with you, and every night your servant will go out into the valley, and I will pray to God and he will tell me when they have committed their sins.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.263 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.263. He gave a second instance of his prophetical inspiration not long afterwards in the oracle which he delivered about the sacred seventh day. For though it had had a natural precedence over all other days, not only from the time that the world was created, but even before the origination of the heaven and all the objects perceptible to the outward senses, men still knew it not, perhaps because, by reason of the continued and uninterrupted destructions which had taken place by water and fire, succeeding generations had not been able to receive from former ones any traditions of the arrangement and order which had been established in the connection of preceding times, which, as it was not known, Moses, now being inspired, declared to his people in an oracle which was borne testimony to by a visible sign from heaven.
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.70-1.71, 3.63-3.65, 3.67, 3.74-3.76, 3.78, 3.81, 3.83-3.88, 3.90-3.91, 3.93 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.71. that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day. 3.63. Now when Raguel, Moses’s father-in-law, understood in what a prosperous condition his affairs were, he willingly came to meet him. And Moses took Zipporah, his wife, and his children, and pleased himself with his coming. And when he had offered sacrifice, he made a feast for the multitude, near the Bush he had formerly seen; 3.64. which multitude, every one according to their families, partook of the feast. But Aaron and his family took Raguel, and sung hymns to God, as to him who had been the author and procurer of their deliverance and their freedom. 3.65. They also praised their conductor, as him by whose virtue it was that all things had succeeded so well with them. Raguel also, in his eucharistical oration to Moses, made great encomiums upon the whole multitude; and he could not but admire Moses for his fortitude, and that humanity he had shewn in the delivery of his friends. 3.67. and those that lost their causes thought it no harm, while they thought they lost them justly, and not by partiality. Raguel however said nothing to him at that time, as not desirous to be any hinderance to such as had a mind to make use of the virtue of their conductor. But afterward he took him to himself, and when he had him alone, he instructed him in what he ought to do; 3.74. nay, he has named Raguel in the books he wrote, as the person who invented this ordering of the people, as thinking it right to give a true testimony to worthy persons, although he might have gotten reputation by ascribing to himself the inventions of other men; whence we may learn the virtuous disposition of Moses: but of such his disposition, we shall have proper occasion to speak in other places of these books. 3.75. 1. Now Moses called the multitude together, and told them that he was going from them unto mount Sinai to converse with God; to receive from him, and to bring back with him, a certain oracle; but he enjoined them to pitch their tents near the mountain, and prefer the habitation that was nearest to God, before one more remote. 3.76. When he had said this, he ascended up to Mount Sinai, which is the highest of all the mountains that are in that country and is not only very difficult to be ascended by men, on account of its vast altitude, but because of the sharpness of its precipices also; nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at without pain of the eyes: and besides this, it was terrible and inaccessible, on account of the rumor that passed about, that God dwelt there. 3.78. So they feasted and waited for their conductor, and kept themselves pure as in other respects, and not accompanying with their wives for three days, as he had before ordered them to do. And they prayed to God that he would favorably receive Moses in his conversing with him, and bestow some such gift upon them by which they might live well. They also lived more plentifully as to their diet; and put on their wives and children more ornamental and decent clothing than they usually wore. 3.81. Now, as to these matters, every one of my readers may think as he pleases; but I am under a necessity of relating this history as it is described in the sacred books. This sight, and the amazing sound that came to their ears, disturbed the Hebrews to a prodigious degree 3.83. 3. When they were under these apprehensions, Moses appeared as joyful and greatly exalted. When they saw him, they were freed from their fear, and admitted of more comfortable hopes as to what was to come. The air also was become clear and pure of its former disorders, upon the appearance of Moses; 3.84. whereupon he called together the people to a congregation, in order to their hearing what God would say to them: and when they were gathered together, he stood on an eminence whence they might all hear him, and said, “God has received me graciously, O Hebrews, as he has formerly done; and has suggested a happy method of living for you, and an order of political government, and is now present in the camp: 3.85. I therefore charge you, for his sake and the sake of his works, and what we have done by his means, that you do not put a low value on what I am going to say, because the commands have been given by me that now deliver them to you, nor because it is the tongue of a man that delivers them to you; but if you have a due regard to the great importance of the things themselves, you will understand the greatness of Him whose institutions they are, and who has not disdained to communicate them to me for our common advantage; 3.86. for it is not to be supposed that the author of these institutions is barely Moses, the son of Amram and Jochebed, but He who obliged the Nile to run bloody for your sakes, and tamed the haughtiness of the Egyptians by various sorts of judgments; he who provided a way through the sea for us; he who contrived a method of sending us food from heaven, when we were distressed for want of it; he who made the water to issue out of a rock, when we had very little of it before; 3.87. he by whose means Adam was made to partake of the fruits both of the land and of the sea; he by whose means Noah escaped the deluge; he by whose means our forefather Abraham, of a wandering pilgrim, was made the heir of the land of Canaan; he by whose means Isaac was born of parents that were very old; he by whose means Jacob was adorned with twelve virtuous sons; he by whose means Joseph became a potent lord over the Egyptians; he it is who conveys these instructions to you by me as his interpreter. 3.88. And let them be to you venerable, and contended for more earnestly by you than your own children and your own wives; for if you will follow them, you will lead a happy life you will enjoy the land fruitful, the sea calm, and the fruit of the womb born complete, as nature requires; you will be also terrible to your enemies for I have been admitted into the presence of God and been made a hearer of his incorruptible voice so great is his concern for your nation, and its duration.” 3.91. 5. The first commandment teaches us that there is but one God, and that we ought to worship him only. The second commands us not to make the image of any living creature to worship it. The third, that we must not swear by God in a false matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, by resting from all sorts of work. 3.93. 6. Now when the multitude had heard God himself giving those precepts which Moses had discoursed of, they rejoiced at what was said; and the congregation was dissolved: but on the following days they came to his tent, and desired him to bring them, besides, other laws from God.
17. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

116a. זכרים ונקבות תמימין ובעלי מומין (דאמר מר תמות וזכרות בבהמה ואין תמות וזכרות בעופות,ואיתקש בהמה לעוף,תמימין ובעלי מומין) לאפוקי מחוסר אבר דלא א"ר אלעזר מנין למחוסר אבר שנאסר לבני נח ת"ל (בראשית ו, יט) ומכל החי מכל בשר אמרה תורה הבא בהמה שחיין ראשי איברין שלה,ודילמא למעוטי טריפה ההוא מלחיות זרע נפקא,הניחא למ"ד טריפה אינה יולדת אלא למ"ד טריפה יולדת מאי איכא למימר האמר קרא אתך בדומין לך,ודילמא נח גופיה טריפה הוה תמים כתיב ביה ודילמא תמים בדרכיו צדיק כתיב ביה,ודילמא תמים בדרכיו צדיק במעשיו אי סלקא דעתך דנח גופיה טריפה הוה מי קאמר ליה לנח דכוותך עייל שלמים לא תעייל,ומאחר דנפקא לן מאתך לחיות זרע למה לי מהו דתימא אתך לצותא בעלמא אפי' זקן אפילו סריס קמשמע לן:,טהורין אבל לא טמאין: ומי הוו טמאין וטהורין בההיא שעתא א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאותן שלא נעבדה בהן עבירה,מנא הוו ידעי כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא העבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתן בידוע שהוא טהור אין התיבה קולטתן בידוע שהן טמאין,רבי אבהו אמר אמר קרא (בראשית ז, טז) והבאים זכר ונקבה הבאין מאיליהן,אמר מר והכל קרבו עולות עולות אין שלמים לא והא כתיב (שמות כד, ה) ויזבחו זבחים שלמים לה' פרים אלא אימא הכל קרבו עולות [ושלמים,והתניא אבל שלמים לא כי אם עולות] עולות אין שלמים לא כמ"ד לא קרבו שלמים בני נח דאיתמר ר"א ור' יוסי בר חנינא חד אמר קרבו [שלמים בני נח] וחד אמר לא קרבו,מ"ט דמ"ד קרבו שלמים בני נח דכתיב (בראשית ד, ד) והבל הביא גם הוא מבכורות צאנו ומחלביהן איזהו דבר שחלבו קרב לגבי מזבח ואין כולו קרב לגבי מזבח הוי אומר זה שלמים,מ"ט דמ"ד לא קרבו דכתיב (שיר השירים ד, טז) עורי צפון ובואי תימן תתנער אומה שמעשיה בצפון ותבוא אומה שמעשיה בצפון ובדרום,ומר נמי הכתיב ומחלביהן משמניהן [דידהו],ומר נמי הכתיב עורי צפון [ההוא] בקיבוץ גליות הוא דכתיב,והא כתיב (שמות י, כה) ויאמר משה גם אתה תתן בידינו זבחים ועולות ועשינו לה' אלהינו זבחים לאכילה ועולות להקרבה,והא כתיב (שמות יח, יב) ויקח יתרו [חותן משה] עולה וזבחים ההוא לאחר מתן תורה הוא דכתיב,הניחא למ"ד [יתרו] אחר מתן תורה היה אלא למ"ד [יתרו] קודם מתן תורה היה מאי איכא למימר דאיתמר בני ר' חייא ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר יתרו קודם מתן תורה היה וחד אמר יתרו אחר מתן תורה היה למ"ד יתרו קודם מתן תורה היה קסבר שלמים הקריבו בני נח,כתנאי (שמות יח, א) וישמע יתרו כהן מדין מה שמועה שמע ובא ונתגייר ר' יהושע אומר מלחמת עמלק שמע שהרי כתיב בצדו (שמות יז, יג) ויחלש יהושע את עמלק ואת עמו לפי חרב,ר"א המודעי אומר מתן תורה שמע [ובא] שכשניתנה תורה לישראל היה קולו הולך מסוף העולם ועד סופו וכל [מלכי] עובדי כוכבים אחזתן רעדה בהיכליהן ואמרו שירה שנאמר (תהלים כט, ט) ובהיכלו כולו אומר כבוד,נתקבצו כולם אצל בלעם הרשע ואמרו לו מה קול ההמון אשר שמענו שמא מבול בא לעולם (אמר להם) (תהלים כט, י) ה' למבול ישב [אמר להם] וישב ה' מלך לעולם כבר נשבע הקב"ה שאינו מביא מבול לעולם,אמרו לו מבול של מים אינו מביא אבל מבול של אש מביא שנא' (ישעיהו סו, טז) כי (הנה) באש ה' נשפט אמר להן כבר נשבע שאינו משחית כל בשר,ומה קול ההמון הזה ששמענו אמר להם חמדה טובה יש לו בבית גנזיו שהיתה גנוזה אצלו תתקע"ד דורות קודם שנברא העולם וביקש ליתנה לבניו שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' עוז לעמו יתן [מיד] פתחו כולם ואמרו (תהלים כט, יא) ה' יברך את עמו בשלום,ר"א אומר קריעת ים סוף שמע ובא שנא' (יהושע ה, א) ויהי כשמוע כל מלכי האמורי ואף רחב הזונה אמרה לשלוחי יהושע (יהושע ב, י) כי שמענו את אשר הוביש ה' את מי ים סוף,מאי שנא התם דאמר (ליה) (יהושע ה, א) ולא היה בם עוד רוח ומ"ש הכא דקאמר (יהושע ב, יא) ולא קמה עוד רוח באיש 116a. That which was taught in the ibaraita /i: All animals were fit to be sacrificed: bMales and females, unblemished and blemishedanimals, pertains to bthatwhich bthe Master saidas a principle concerning the ihalakhotof sacrifices: The requirements that an offering must have bunblemished status andthat a burnt offering must have bmale statusapply bto animalofferings, bbutthe requirements of bunblemished status and male statusdo bnotapply bto birds. /b, bAndin the verses that recount Noah’s sacrifices upon exiting the ark, ba domesticated animal is juxtaposed with a bird,in the verse: “of every pure animal, and of every pure fowl” (Genesis 8:20), which teaches that kosher animals had a status identical to that of birds, and could be sacrificed whether male or female, unblemished or blemished.,The Gemara adds: That which was taught in the ibaraita /i: bUnblemished and blemishedanimals, serves bto excludeanimals that are blacking a limb, whichwere bnotfit for sacrifice. As bRabbi Elazar says: From whereis it derived bthatan animal that is blacking a limb is forbidden to the descendants of Noah,i.e., gentiles, to be used as a sacrifice? bThe verse stateswith regard to Noah: b“And of every living being of all flesh,two of every sort shall you bring into the ark” (Genesis 6:19). With regard to the phrase: “And of every living being,” which is superfluous, bthe Torah stated: Bring an animal whose limbs areall bliving,not one lacking a limb, as that animal is disqualified from sacrifice.,The Gemara challenges: bBut perhapsthis phrase: “And of every living being,” serves bto exclude an animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifa /i]from being fit as a sacrifice. The Gemara explains: The disqualification of a itereifa bis derived fromthe phrase: b“To keep seed alive”(Genesis 7:3), as a itereifacannot propagate.,The Gemara challenges: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat ba itereifacannot give birth.In this case the disqualification of the itereifais derived from the verse: “To keep seed alive,” while the disqualification of the animal lacking a limb is derived from the verse: “And of every living being.” bBut according to the one who saysthat ba itereifacan give birth, what can be said?According to this opinion, a itereifacannot be excluded by the phrase: “To keep seed alive.” The Gemara explains: bDoesn’t the verse statewith regard to the animals that were brought by Noah into the ark: “You shall bring into the ark, to keep them alive bwith you”(Genesis 6:19)? The term “with you” indicates that the verse is stated bwith regard toanimals that are bsimilar to you,not a itereifa /i.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps Noah himself was a itereifa /i.If so, one cannot exclude a itereifafrom the comparison of animals to Noah. The Gemara answers: bIt is written aboutNoah that he was b“complete”(Genesis 6:9), which indicates that he was physically whole and unblemished. The Gemara challenges: bBut perhapsthe verse means that bhis ways were complete,and it is not referring to Noah’s physical attributes. The Gemara explains: bIt isalready bwritten about himthat he was b“righteous”(Genesis 6:9), which means that his actions were perfect. Consequently, when the verse says that he was also complete, it must be referring to his body.,The Gemara challenges: bBut perhapsthe verse means that Noah was bcomplete in his manner,and he was brighteous in hisgood bdeeds.Accordingly, the verse would not exclude the possibility that Noah himself was a itereifa /i. The Gemara responds: bIf it enters your mindto say bthat Noah himself was a itereifa /i, would the Merciful One have said to him: Bring in itereifot blike youto the ark, but bdo not bring in wholeand perfect animals? It is not reasonable to say that there would be a preference for him to bring itereifot /i. Rather, Noah was certainly not a itereifa /i, and the fact that a itereifais disqualified for sacrifice is derived from “with you.”,The Gemara asks: bAnd once we derivethe disqualification of a itereifa bfromthe term b“with you,” why do Ineed the phrase b“to keep seed alive”?The Gemara answers: If one could derive only from b“with you,” you would saythat Noah brought the animals to the ark bonly forthe purpose of bcompanionship,and therefore bevenan animal that is boldor beven one who is castratedcan come into the ark, provided that it is not a itereifa /i. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: “To keep seed alive,” which bteaches usthat only animals that can bear offspring were allowed to be brought into the ark.,§ The ibaraitaalso teaches that before the Tabernacle was constructed, sacrifices were brought from animals and birds that were bkosher, but notfrom bnon-kosherspecies. This is based on the verse that describes what Noah sacrificed when he exited the ark: “And he took of every pure animal and of every pure fowl and offered burnt offerings on the altar” (Genesis 8:20). The Gemara asks: bAnd were there pure and impurespecies bat that time,during the period of Noah? The distinction between pure, i.e., kosher species, and impure, i.e., non-kosher species, was introduced only after the Torah was given (see Leviticus, chapter 11). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:The pure animals that Noah took were bfrom those that had not been used in the performance of sin. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where didNoah and his sons bknowwhich animals had been used in the performance of a sin, in order to prevent them from entering the ark? The Gemara answers that it is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rav Ḥisda. As Rav Ḥisda says:Noah caused all of the animals to bpass before the ark. Allanimals bthat the ark accepted,i.e., drew in, was bknown to be pure;if bthe ark did not accept them,it was bknown that theywere bimpure. /b, bRabbi Abbahu saysthere is a different explanation as to how Noah knew which animals were pure or impure. bThe verse states: “And they that went in,went in bmale and femaleof all flesh” (Genesis 7:16), which means: Those bthat went in on their own.Consequently, Noah did not need to distinguish between pure and impure animals, as only the pure ones approached.,§ In describing the sacrificial service before the Tabernacle was constructed, bthe Master said: And allofferings brought before the construction of the Tabernacle were bsacrificedas bburnt offerings.The Gemara infers: bBurnt offerings, yes,were sacrificed, but bpeace offeringswere bnotsacrificed. The Gemara challenges: bButwith regard to the offerings that were sacrificed at Mount Sinai at the time of the giving of the Torah, bit is written:“And they offered burnt offerings, band sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord”(Exodus 24:5). This event occurred prior to the construction of the Tabernacle. bRather, saythat the ibaraitameans: bAllofferings bsacrificedwere either bburnt offerings or peace offerings. /b,The Gemara challenges: bAnd isn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i: bBut peace offeringswere bnotsacrificed before the construction of the Tabernacle; brather, only burnt offeringswere sacrificed? Clearly, bburnt offerings, yes,were sacrificed, but bpeace offeringswere bnotsacrificed. The Gemara answers that this ibaraitais bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who saysthat bpeace offerings were not sacrificedby the bdescendants of Noah. As it was statedthat there is a dispute between bRabbi Elazar and Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥaninawith regard to this: bOne saysthat bthe descendants of Noah sacrificed peace offerings, and one saysthat bthey did not sacrificepeace offerings.,The Gemara explains the two opinions: bWhat is the reasoning of the one who saysthat bthe descendants of Noah sacrificed peace offerings? As it is written: “And Abel, he also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of the fat thereof”(Genesis 4:4). Abel, like all gentiles, is categorized as a descendant of Noah. The verse emphasizes that the fat was sacrificed. The Gemara analyzes: bWhat is an item,i.e., an offering, bthe fat of which is sacrificed upon the altar, butthat bis not sacrificed in its entirety upon the altar? You must say: This is the peace offering,the meat of which is consumed., bWhat is the reasoning of the one who saysthat bthey did not sacrificepeace offerings? bAs it is written: “Awake [ iuri /i], O north; and come, south… /bLet my beloved come into his garden, and eat his precious fruits” (Song of Songs 4:16). The Gemara interprets this homiletically: The bnation,i.e., the nations of the world, who are the descendants of Noah, bwhose acts,i.e., sacrifices, are only bin the north,i.e., they sacrifice only burnt offerings, which are slaughtered and their blood collected in the north of the Temple courtyard, bshall be removed [ ititna’er /i], andin its place bshall comethe Jewish bnation, whose acts,i.e., sacrifices, are bin the north and in the south,as they sacrifice burnt offerings, whose rites are performed in the north, and peace offerings, whose rites may also be performed in the south, as the entire courtyard is fit for their rites.,The Gemara asks: bAnd alsoaccording to bthe Masterwho holds that the descendants of Noah did not sacrifice peace offerings, bisn’t it written: “And of the fat thereof,”from which it may be derived that Abel sacrificed a peace offering? The Gemara answers: “The fat thereof,” does not mean that Abel sacrificed only the fats of his offerings; rather, it means that he sacrificed bthe fattest of them,i.e., the fattest and choicest of his animals.,The Gemara asks: bAnd alsoaccording to bthe Masterwho holds that the descendants of Noah did sacrifice peace offerings, bisn’t it written: “Awake, O north,”from which it may be derived that the nations of the world do not sacrifice peace offerings? The Gemara answers: In his opinion, bthatverse bis written with regard to the ingathering of the exiles,i.e., the Jewish exiles will come from the north and the south.,With regard to the opinion that the descendants of Noah did not sacrifice peace offerings, the Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “And Moses said: You must also give into our hand sacrifices [ izevaḥim /i] and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God”(Exodus 10:25)? This indicates that sacrifices [ izevaḥim /i], i.e., peace offerings, were sacrificed before the Torah was given. The Gemara answers: In this context, b“ izevaḥim /i”is referring to animals to be used bfor consumption,as the word izevaḥcan also be translated as an animal for slaughter, band “burnt offerings”is referring to animals to be used bfor sacrifice. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenbefore the giving of the Torah: b“And Yitro, Moses’ father-in-law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices [ izevaḥim /i]for God” (Exodus 18:12)? Since the word izevaḥimthere is referring to sacrifices, as the verse clearly states that Yitro took them for God, evidently peace offerings were sacrificed before the giving of the Torah. The Gemara answers: bThatverse bwas writtenwith regard to the period bafter the giving of the Torah,when the Jewish people were permitted to sacrifice peace offerings.,The Gemara notes: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat the episode with bYitro was after the giving of the Torah. But according to the one who saysthat the episode with bYitro was before the giving of the Torah, what can be said? As it was stated: The sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviengage in a dispute concerning this issue. bOne saysthat the episode with bYitro was before the giving of the Torah, and one saysthat the episode with bYitro was after the giving of the Torah.The Gemara answers: bThe one who saysthat the episode with bYitro was before the giving of the Torah maintainsthat bthe descendants of Noah did sacrifice peace offerings. /b,§ The Gemara notes that the disagreement between iamora’imwith regard to when Yitro came to Mount Sinai is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states with regard to Yitro, before he came to Mount Sinai: b“Now Yitro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heardof all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, how the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt” (Exodus 18:1). bWhat tiding did he hear that he came and converted? Rabbi Yehoshua says: He heardabout bthe war with Amalek, as it is written adjacent tothe verses that state that Yitro came: b“And Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword”(Exodus 17:13)., bRabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: He heardabout bthe giving of the Torah and came. As when the Torah was given to the Jewish people, the voice ofthe Holy One, Blessed be He, bwent fromone bend of the world to theother bend, and all of the kings of the nations of the world were overcome with trembling in their palaces and recited a songof praise, bas it is stated:“The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve… band in his palace all say: Glory”(Psalms 29:9), i.e., each king in his own palace recited songs of praise to God.,At that time, ball ofthe kings bgathered around Balaam the wicked,who was the greatest gentile prophet, band said to him: What is the tumultuous sound,i.e., the loud noise, bthat we have heard? Perhaps a flood is coming todestroy bthe world, as it is stated: “The Lord sat enthroned at the flood”(Psalms 29:10)? Balaam bsaid to them: “The Lord sits as King forever”(Psalms 29:10), which means that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, already took an oathafter the flood bnever to bring a flood to the world,as it is stated: “And the waters shall no more become a flood” (Genesis 9:15).,The kings bsaid to him: He will not bring a flood of water,as he vowed, bbutperhaps bHe will bring a flood of fire,as in the future the Lord will punish the nations with fire, bas it is stated: “For by fire will the Lord contend,and by His sword with all flesh; and the slain of the Lord shall be many” (Isaiah 66:16). Balaam bsaid to them: He already took an oath that He will not destroy all fleshin any manner, as it is stated: “To destroy all flesh” (Genesis 9:15). Therefore, there will not be a flood of fire.,They asked: bAndif so, bwhat is this tumultuous sound that we have heard?Balaam bsaid to them: He has a goodand bprecious item in His treasury, that was hidden away with Himfor b974 generations before the world was created, and He seeks to give it to his children, as it is stated: “The Lord will give strength to His people”(Psalms 29:11). “Strength” is a reference to the Torah, which is the strength of the Jewish people. bImmediately, they all began to say: “The Lord will bless His people with peace”(Psalms 29:11).,The Gemara offers another explanation of what Yitro heard: bRabbi Eliezer says: He heardabout bthe splitting of the Red Sea and came, as it is statedin a similar context with regard to the splitting of the Jordan in the days of Joshua: b“And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites,that were beyond the Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, that were by the sea, bheardhow that the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan from before the children of Israel, until they were passed over, that their heart melted, neither was there spirit in them anymore, because of the children of Israel” (Joshua 5:1). bAnd even Rahab the prostitute said to Joshua’s messengers: “For we have heard how the Lord dried up the water of the Red Seabefore you” (Joshua 2:10).,The Gemara asks: bWhat is different there,i.e., with regard to the splitting of the Jordan, bwherethe verse bstates: “Neither was there spirit in them anymore,” and what is different here,i.e., in the statement of Rahab, bwherethe verse bstates: “Neither did there remain [ ikama /i] any more spirit in any man”(Joshua 2:11)?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
achior, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 199
achior, conversion Gera, Judith (2014) 199
achior, manhandled Gera, Judith (2014) 199
achior, talks to holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 199
achior Gera, Judith (2014) 199
ahasuerus Gera, Judith (2014) 199
allegory/allegoresis Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
augustine Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 83
balaam Gera, Judith (2014) 199
canaan and canaanites Gera, Judith (2014) 199
circumcision Gera, Judith (2014) 199
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 382, 586
coastal cities and people, submissive Gera, Judith (2014) 199
councils and conferences Gera, Judith (2014) 199
daniel, book, mt Gera, Judith (2014) 199
darius of daniel Gera, Judith (2014) 199
depicting flood using elements of the biblical descriptions of day of the lord Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
eschatology Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 199
god, might Gera, Judith (2014) 199
gods graciousness, index of references Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 103
gods graciousness, nan Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 103
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 199
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
israel, nation/people Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
jethro Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323; Gera, Judith (2014) 199
joseph Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
law Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 103
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 300
moses Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 83; Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 103
naaman Gera, Judith (2014) 199
names, change of Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 199
nineveh Gera, Judith (2014) 199
onomasticon Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
peaceful attitudes Gera, Judith (2014) 199
promises, divine Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 323
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 199
rahab Gera, Judith (2014) 199
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
zipporah' Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 83