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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.21


וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

56 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.18 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.7-32.9, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.7. זְכֹר יְמוֹת עוֹלָם בִּינוּ שְׁנוֹת דּוֹר־וָדוֹר שְׁאַל אָבִיךָ וְיַגֵּדְךָ זְקֵנֶיךָ וְיֹאמְרוּ לָךְ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 32.7. Remember the days of old, Consider the years of many generations; Ask thy father, and he will declare unto thee, Thine elders, and they will tell thee." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance." 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.12. וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה וְהִכֵּיתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 12.12. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.20, 15.13-15.14, 24.61, 24.64, 31.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לְאַבְרָם יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי־גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 15.14. וְגַם אֶת־הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹדוּ דָּן אָנֹכִי וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יֵצְאוּ בִּרְכֻשׁ גָּדוֹל׃ 24.61. וַתָּקָם רִבְקָה וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ וַתִּרְכַּבְנָה עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים וַתֵּלַכְנָה אַחֲרֵי הָאִישׁ וַיִּקַּח הָעֶבֶד אֶת־רִבְקָה וַיֵּלַךְ׃ 24.64. וַתִּשָּׂא רִבְקָה אֶת־עֵינֶיהָ וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־יִצְחָק וַתִּפֹּל מֵעַל הַגָּמָל׃ 31.34. וְרָחֵל לָקְחָה אֶת־הַתְּרָפִים וַתְּשִׂמֵם בְּכַר הַגָּמָל וַתֵּשֶׁב עֲלֵיהֶם וַיְמַשֵּׁשׁ לָבָן אֶת־כָּל־הָאֹהֶל וְלֹא מָצָא׃ 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 15.13. And He said unto Abram: ‘Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;" 15.14. and also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge; and afterward shall they come out with great substance." 24.61. And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man. And the servant took Rebekah, and went his way." 24.64. And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she alighted from the camel." 31.34. Now Rachel had taken the teraphim, and put them in the saddle of the camel, and sat upon them. And Laban felt about all the tent, but found them not."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. עַל־רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים יְזַבֵּחוּ וְעַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת יְקַטֵּרוּ תַּחַת אַלּוֹן וְלִבְנֶה וְאֵלָה כִּי טוֹב צִלָּהּ עַל־כֵּן תִּזְנֶינָה בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם וְכַלּוֹתֵיכֶם תְּנָאַפְנָה׃ 4.13. They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, And offer upon the hills, Under oaks and poplars and terebinths, Because the shadow thereof is good; Therefore your daughters commit harlotry, And your daughters-in-law commit adultery. ."
6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.20, 2.28, 4.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.18. וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַהוּא יִטְּפוּ הֶהָרִים עָסִיס וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תֵּלַכְנָה חָלָב וְכָל־אֲפִיקֵי יְהוּדָה יֵלְכוּ מָיִם וּמַעְיָן מִבֵּית יְהוָה יֵצֵא וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־נַחַל הַשִּׁטִּים׃ 2.20. But I will remove far off from you the northern one, And will drive him into a land barren and desolate, With his face toward the eastern sea, And his hinder part toward the western sea; that his foulness may come up, and his ill savour may come up, because he hath done great things.’" 4.18. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the mountains shall drop down sweet wine, And the hills shall flow with milk, And all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters; And a fountain shall come forth of the house of the LORD, And shall water the valley of Shittim."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.10. But I will sacrifice unto Thee With the voice of thanksgiving; That which I have vowed I will pay. Salvation is of the LORD."
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הוּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד וַיִּדֹּם אַהֲרֹן׃ 10.3. Then Moses said unto Aaron: ‘This is it that the LORD spoke, saying: Through them that are nigh unto Me I will be sanctified, and before all the people I will be glorified.’ And Aaron held his peace."
9. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. כִּי הֶעֱלִתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וּמִבֵּית עֲבָדִים פְּדִיתִיךָ וָאֶשְׁלַח לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת־מֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם׃ 6.4. For I brought thee up out of the land of Egypt, And redeemed thee out of the house of bondage, And I sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and Miriam."
10. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. הָרִים רָעֲשׁוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת הִתְמֹגָגוּ וַתִּשָּׂא הָאָרֶץ מִפָּנָיו וְתֵבֵל וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ׃ 1.5. The mountains quake at Him, And the hills melt; And the earth is upheaved at His presence, Yea, the world, and all that dwell therein."
11. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 20.1-20.2, 21.17-21.18, 26.59, 31.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.1. וַיַּקְהִלוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַקָּהָל אֶל־פְּנֵי הַסָּלַע וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם שִׁמְעוּ־נָא הַמֹּרִים הֲמִן־הַסֶּלַע הַזֶּה נוֹצִיא לָכֶם מָיִם׃ 20.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִדְבַּר־צִן בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם בְּקָדֵשׁ וַתָּמָת שָׁם מִרְיָם וַתִּקָּבֵר שָׁם׃ 20.2. וְלֹא־הָיָה מַיִם לָעֵדָה וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן׃ 20.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תַעֲבֹר וַיֵּצֵא אֱדוֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ בְּעַם כָּבֵד וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 21.17. אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 26.59. וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת עַמְרָם יוֹכֶבֶד בַּת־לֵוִי אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֹתָהּ לְלֵוִי בְּמִצְרָיִם וַתֵּלֶד לְעַמְרָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֵת מִרְיָם אֲחֹתָם׃ 31.16. הֵן הֵנָּה הָיוּ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְבַר בִּלְעָם לִמְסָר־מַעַל בַּיהוָה עַל־דְּבַר־פְּעוֹר וַתְּהִי הַמַּגֵּפָה בַּעֲדַת יְהוָה׃ 20.1. And the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, came into the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people abode in Kadesh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there." 20.2. And there was no water for the congregation; and they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron." 21.17. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;" 26.59. And the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt; and she bore unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister." 31.16. Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to revolt so as to break faith with the LORD in the matter of Peor, and so the plague was among the congregation of the LORD."
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.9, 33.16-33.18, 40.4, 51.10, 91.13, 98.1, 104.1, 105.1, 106.1, 110.1, 111.1, 112.1, 114.1, 116.1, 147.5, 148.1, 148.5, 149.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.9. כִּי הוּא אָמַר וַיֶּהִי הוּא־צִוָּה וַיַּעֲמֹד׃ 33.16. אֵין־הַמֶּלֶךְ נוֹשָׁע בְּרָב־חָיִל גִּבּוֹר לֹא־יִנָּצֵל בְּרָב־כֹּחַ׃ 33.17. שֶׁקֶר הַסּוּס לִתְשׁוּעָה וּבְרֹב חֵילוֹ לֹא יְמַלֵּט׃ 33.18. הִנֵּה עֵין יְהוָה אֶל־יְרֵאָיו לַמְיַחֲלִים לְחַסְדּוֹ׃ 40.4. וַיִּתֵּן בְּפִי שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ יִרְאוּ רַבִּים וְיִירָאוּ וְיִבְטְחוּ בַּיהוָה׃ 91.13. עַל־שַׁחַל וָפֶתֶן תִּדְרֹךְ תִּרְמֹס כְּפִיר וְתַנִּין׃ 98.1. מִזְמוֹר שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ כִּי־נִפְלָאוֹת עָשָׂה הוֹשִׁיעָה־לּוֹ יְמִינוֹ וּזְרוֹעַ קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 105.1. וַיַּעֲמִידֶהָ לְיַעֲקֹב לְחֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 105.1. הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה קִרְאוּ בִּשְׁמוֹ הוֹדִיעוּ בָעַמִּים עֲלִילוֹתָיו׃ 106.1. וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם מִיַּד שׂוֹנֵא וַיִּגְאָלֵם מִיַּד אוֹיֵב׃ 106.1. הַלְלוּיָהּ הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 111.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ אוֹדֶה יְהוָה בְּכָל־לֵבָב בְּסוֹד יְשָׁרִים וְעֵדָה׃ 111.1. רֵאשִׁית חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה שֵׂכֶל טוֹב לְכָל־עֹשֵׂיהֶם תְּהִלָּתוֹ עֹמֶדֶת לָעַד׃ 112.1. רָשָׁע יִרְאֶה וְכָעָס שִׁנָּיו יַחֲרֹק וְנָמָס תַּאֲוַת רְשָׁעִים תֹּאבֵד׃ 112.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ אַשְׁרֵי־אִישׁ יָרֵא אֶת־יְהוָה בְּמִצְוֺתָיו חָפֵץ מְאֹד׃ 114.1. בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם בֵּית יַעֲקֹב מֵעַם לֹעֵז׃ 116.1. הֶאֱמַנְתִּי כִּי אֲדַבֵּר אֲנִי עָנִיתִי מְאֹד׃ 116.1. אָהַבְתִּי כִּי־יִשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹלִי תַּחֲנוּנָי׃ 147.5. גָּדוֹל אֲדוֹנֵינוּ וְרַב־כֹּחַ לִתְבוּנָתוֹ אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 148.1. הַחַיָּה וְכָל־בְּהֵמָה רֶמֶשׂ וְצִפּוֹר כָּנָף׃ 148.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ הַלְלוּ אֶת־יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם הַלְלוּהוּ בַּמְּרוֹמִים׃ 148.5. יְהַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה כִּי הוּא צִוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ׃ 149.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ בִּקְהַל חֲסִידִים׃ 33.9. For He spoke, and it was; He commanded, and it stood." 33.16. A king is not saved by the multitude of a host; A mighty man is not delivered by great strength." 33.17. A horse is a vain thing for safety; Neither doth it afford escape by its great strength." 33.18. Behold, the eye of the LORD is toward them that fear Him, Toward them that wait for His mercy;" 40.4. And He hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our God; many shall see, and fear, and shall trust in the LORD." 51.10. Make me to hear joy and gladness; that the bones which Thou hast crushed may rejoice." 91.13. Thou shalt tread upon the lion and asp; The young lion and the serpent shalt thou trample under feet." 98.1. A Psalm. O sing unto the LORD a new song; For He hath done marvellous things; His right hand, and His holy arm, hath wrought salvation for Him." 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty." 105.1. O give thanks unto the LORD, call upon His name; Make known His doings among the peoples." 106.1. Hallelujah. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; for His mercy endureth for ever." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 111.1. Hallelujah. I will give thanks unto the LORD with my whole heart, . In the council of the upright, and in the congregation." 112.1. Hallelujah. Happy is the man that feareth the LORD, That delighteth greatly in His commandments." 114.1. When Israel came forth out of Egypt, The house of Jacob from a people of strange language;" 116.1. I love that the LORD should hear my voice and my supplications." 147.5. Great is our Lord, and mighty in power; His understanding is infinite." 148.1. Hallelujah. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens; Praise Him in the heights." 148.5. Let them praise the name of the LORD; For He commanded, and they were created." 149.1. Hallelujah. Sing unto the LORD a new song, And His praise in the assembly of the saints."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.40 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.40. And all the people came up after him, and the people piped with pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound of them."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1-2.10, 18.6-18.7, 21.12, 25.20, 25.42, 29.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו [מְרִיבָיו] עלו [עָלָיו] בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃ 2.2. אֵין־קָדוֹשׁ כַּיהוָה כִּי אֵין בִּלְתֶּךָ וְאֵין צוּר כֵּאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 2.2. וּבֵרַךְ עֵלִי אֶת־אֶלְקָנָה וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאָמַר יָשֵׂם יְהוָה לְךָ זֶרַע מִן־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת תַּחַת הַשְּׁאֵלָה אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַל לַיהוָה וְהָלְכוּ לִמְקֹמוֹ׃ 2.3. לָכֵן נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר אָמַרְתִּי בֵּיתְךָ וּבֵית אָבִיךָ יִתְהַלְּכוּ לְפָנַי עַד־עוֹלָם וְעַתָּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה חָלִילָה לִּי כִּי־מְכַבְּדַי אֲכַבֵּד וּבֹזַי יֵקָלּוּ׃ 2.3. אַל־תַּרְבּוּ תְדַבְּרוּ גְּבֹהָה גְבֹהָה יֵצֵא עָתָק מִפִּיכֶם כִּי אֵל דֵּעוֹת יְהוָה ולא [וְלוֹ] נִתְכְּנוּ עֲלִלוֹת׃ 2.4. קֶשֶׁת גִּבֹּרִים חַתִּים וְנִכְשָׁלִים אָזְרוּ חָיִל׃ 2.5. שְׂבֵעִים בַּלֶּחֶם נִשְׂכָּרוּ וּרְעֵבִים חָדֵלּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה יָלְדָה שִׁבְעָה וְרַבַּת בָּנִים אֻמְלָלָה׃ 2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 2.7. יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃ 2.8. מֵקִים מֵעָפָר דָּל מֵאַשְׁפֹּת יָרִים אֶבְיוֹן לְהוֹשִׁיב עִם־נְדִיבִים וְכִסֵּא כָבוֹד יַנְחִלֵם כִּי לַיהוָה מְצֻקֵי אֶרֶץ וַיָּשֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶם תֵּבֵל׃ 2.9. רַגְלֵי חסידו [חֲסִידָיו] יִשְׁמֹר וּרְשָׁעִים בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יִדָּמּוּ כִּי־לֹא בְכֹחַ יִגְבַּר־אִישׁ׃ 18.6. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם בְּשׁוּב דָּוִד מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַתֵּצֶאנָה הַנָּשִׁים מִכָּל־עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לשור [לָשִׁיר] וְהַמְּחֹלוֹת לִקְרַאת שָׁאוּל הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּתֻפִּים בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשָׁלִשִׁים׃ 18.7. וַתַּעֲנֶינָה הַנָּשִׁים הַמְשַׂחֲקוֹת וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הִכָּה שָׁאוּל באלפו [בַּאֲלָפָיו] וְדָוִד בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃ 21.12. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי אָכִישׁ אֵלָיו הֲלוֹא־זֶה דָוִד מֶלֶךְ הָאָרֶץ הֲלוֹא לָזֶה יַעֲנוּ בַמְּחֹלוֹת לֵאמֹר הִכָּה שָׁאוּל באלפו [בַּאֲלָפָיו] וְדָוִד ברבבתו [בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃] 25.42. וַתְּמַהֵר וַתָּקָם אֲבִיגַיִל וַתִּרְכַּב עַל־הַחֲמוֹר וְחָמֵשׁ נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הַהֹלְכוֹת לְרַגְלָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי דָוִד וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 29.5. הֲלוֹא־זֶה דָוִד אֲשֶׁר יַעֲנוּ־לוֹ בַּמְּחֹלוֹת לֵאמֹר הִכָּה שָׁאוּל בַּאֲלָפָיו וְדָוִד ברבבתו [בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃] 2.1. And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation." 2.2. There is none holy as the Lord: for there is none beside Thee: neither is there any rock like our God." 2.3. Talk no more so very proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed." 2.4. The bows of the mighty men are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with strength." 2.5. They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry have ceased: while the barren has born seven; and she that has many children has become wretched." 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up." 2.7. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up." 2.8. He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he has set the world upon them." 2.9. He will keep the feet of his pious ones, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; for it is not by strength that man prevails." 2.10. The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken in pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the Lord shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength to his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed." 18.6. And it came to pass on their return, when David returned from slaying the Pelishtian, that the women came out of all the cities of Yisra᾽el, singing and dancing, to meet king Sha᾽ul, with timbrels, and a joyful song, and with lutes." 18.7. And the women answered one another as they danced, and said, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands." 21.12. And the servants of Akhish said to him, Is not this David the king of the land? did they not sing one to another of him in dances, saying, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, but David his ten thousands?" 25.20. And it was so, as she rode on the ass, that she came down by the covert of the hill, and, behold, David and his men came down against her; and she met them." 25.42. And Avigayil hastened, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five girls of hers that went after her; and she went after the messengers of David, and became his wife." 29.5. Is not this David, of whom they sang one to another in dances, saying, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands?"
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.14-6.16, 6.19, 19.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.14. וְדָוִד מְכַרְכֵּר בְּכָל־עֹז לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד׃ 6.15. וְדָוִד וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲלִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר׃ 6.16. וְהָיָה אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בָּא עִיר דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל נִשְׁקְפָה בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד מְפַזֵּז וּמְכַרְכֵּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתִּבֶז לוֹ בְּלִבָּהּ׃ 6.19. וַיְחַלֵּק לְכָל־הָעָם לְכָל־הֲמוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה לְאִישׁ חַלַּת לֶחֶם אַחַת וְאֶשְׁפָּר אֶחָד וַאֲשִׁישָׁה אֶחָת וַיֵּלֶךְ כָּל־הָעָם אִישׁ לְבֵיתוֹ׃ 19.36. בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם הַאֵדַע בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע אִם־יִטְעַם עַבְדְּךָ אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֹכַל וְאֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁתֶּה אִם־אֶשְׁמַע עוֹד בְּקוֹל שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְלָמָּה יִהְיֶה עַבְדְּךָ עוֹד לְמַשָּׂא אֶל־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 6.14. And David leaped about before the Lord with all his might; and David was girded with a linen efod." 6.15. So David and all the house of Yisra᾽el brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting, and with the sound of the shofar." 6.16. And as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, Mikhal, Sha᾽ul’s daughter looked through a window, and saw king David dancing and leaping before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart." 6.19. And he made a distribution among all the people, among the whole multitude of Yisra᾽el, both men and women, to everyone a cake of bread, and a good piece of meat, and a cake of raisins. So all the people departed everyone to his house." 19.36. I am this day eighty years old: and can I discern between good and evil? can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? why then should thy servant be a further burden to my lord the king?"
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 19.14-19.15, 19.18, 28.9, 30.29, 33.18-33.19, 42.10, 48.14, 51.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 19.14. יְהוָה מָסַךְ בְּקִרְבָּהּ רוּחַ עִוְעִים וְהִתְעוּ אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּהִתָּעוֹת שִׁכּוֹר בְּקִיאוֹ׃ 19.15. וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה לְמִצְרַיִם מַעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה רֹאשׁ וְזָנָב כִּפָּה וְאַגְמוֹן׃ 19.18. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיוּ חָמֵשׁ עָרִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מְדַבְּרוֹת שְׂפַת כְּנַעַן וְנִשְׁבָּעוֹת לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת עִיר הַהֶרֶס יֵאָמֵר לְאֶחָת׃ 28.9. אֶת־מִי יוֹרֶה דֵעָה וְאֶת־מִי יָבִין שְׁמוּעָה גְּמוּלֵי מֵחָלָב עַתִּיקֵי מִשָּׁדָיִם׃ 30.29. הַשִּׁיר יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כְּלֵיל הִתְקַדֶּשׁ־חָג וְשִׂמְחַת לֵבָב כַּהוֹלֵךְ בֶּחָלִיל לָבוֹא בְהַר־יְהוָה אֶל־צוּר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.18. לִבְּךָ יֶהְגֶּה אֵימָה אַיֵּה סֹפֵר אַיֵּה שֹׁקֵל אַיֵּה סֹפֵר אֶת־הַמִּגְדָּלִים׃ 33.19. אֶת־עַם נוֹעָז לֹא תִרְאֶה עַם עִמְקֵי שָׂפָה מִשְּׁמוֹעַ נִלְעַג לָשׁוֹן אֵין בִּינָה׃ 48.14. הִקָּבְצוּ כֻלְּכֶם וּשֲׁמָעוּ מִי בָהֶם הִגִּיד אֶת־אֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֲהֵבוֹ יַעֲשֶׂה חֶפְצוֹ בְּבָבֶל וּזְרֹעוֹ כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 51.3. כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה צִיּוֹן נִחַם כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶיהָ וַיָּשֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ כְּעֵדֶן וְעַרְבָתָהּ כְּגַן־יְהוָה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יִמָּצֵא בָהּ תּוֹדָה וְקוֹל זִמְרָה׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 19.14. The LORD hath mingled within her A spirit of dizziness; And they have caused Egypt to stagger in every work thereof, As a drunken man staggereth in his vomit." 19.15. Neither shall there be for Egypt any work, Which head or tail, palm-branch or rush, may do." 19.18. In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the LORD of hosts; one shall be called The city of destruction." 28.9. Whom shall one teach knowledge? And whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk, Them that are drawn from the breasts?" 30.29. Ye shall have a song As in the night when a feast is hallowed; And gladness of heart, as when one goeth with the pipe To come into the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel." 33.18. Thy heart shall muse on the terror: ‘Where is he that counted, where is he that weighed? Where is he that counted the towers?’" 33.19. Thou shalt not see the fierce people; A people of a deep speech that thou canst not perceive, of a stammering tongue that thou canst not understand." 42.10. Sing unto the LORD a new song, And His praise from the end of the earth; Ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein, The isles, and the inhabitants thereof." 48.14. Assemble yourselves, all ye, and hear; Which among them hath declared these things? He whom the LORD loveth shall perform His pleasure on Babylon, And show His arm on the Chaldeans." 51.3. For the LORD hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all her waste places, And hath made her wilderness like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness shall be found therein, Thanksgiving, and the voice of melody."
17. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1.14, 5.3-5.5, 5.13, 5.19-5.21, 5.24-5.27, 5.30, 11.34, 15.16, 21.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.14. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָהּ וַתְּסִיתֵהוּ לִשְׁאוֹל מֵאֵת־אָבִיהָ הַשָּׂדֶה וַתִּצְנַח מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַיֹּאמֶר־לָהּ כָּלֵב מַה־לָּךְ׃ 5.3. שִׁמְעוּ מְלָכִים הַאֲזִינוּ רֹזְנִים אָנֹכִי לַיהוָה אָנֹכִי אָשִׁירָה אֲזַמֵּר לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.3. הֲלֹא יִמְצְאוּ יְחַלְּקוּ שָׁלָל רַחַם רַחֲמָתַיִם לְרֹאשׁ גֶּבֶר שְׁלַל צְבָעִים לְסִיסְרָא שְׁלַל צְבָעִים רִקְמָה צֶבַע רִקְמָתַיִם לְצַוְּארֵי שָׁלָל׃ 5.4. יְהוָה בְּצֵאתְךָ מִשֵּׂעִיר בְּצַעְדְּךָ מִשְּׂדֵה אֱדוֹם אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה גַּם־שָׁמַיִם נָטָפוּ גַּם־עָבִים נָטְפוּ מָיִם׃ 5.5. הָרִים נָזְלוּ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה זֶה סִינַי מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.13. אָז יְרַד שָׂרִיד לְאַדִּירִים עָם יְהוָה יְרַד־לִי בַּגִּבּוֹרִים׃ 5.19. בָּאוּ מְלָכִים נִלְחָמוּ אָז נִלְחֲמוּ מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן בְּתַעְנַךְ עַל־מֵי מְגִדּוֹ בֶּצַע כֶּסֶף לֹא לָקָחוּ׃ 5.21. נַחַל קִישׁוֹן גְּרָפָם נַחַל קְדוּמִים נַחַל קִישׁוֹן תִּדְרְכִי נַפְשִׁי עֹז׃ 5.24. תְּבֹרַךְ מִנָּשִׁים יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי מִנָּשִׁים בָּאֹהֶל תְּבֹרָךְ׃ 5.25. מַיִם שָׁאַל חָלָב נָתָנָה בְּסֵפֶל אַדִּירִים הִקְרִיבָה חֶמְאָה׃ 5.26. יָדָהּ לַיָּתֵד תִּשְׁלַחְנָה וִימִינָהּ לְהַלְמוּת עֲמֵלִים וְהָלְמָה סִיסְרָא מָחֲקָה רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָחֲצָה וְחָלְפָה רַקָּתוֹ׃ 5.27. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד׃ 11.34. וַיָּבֹא יִפְתָּח הַמִּצְפָּה אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וְהִנֵּה בִתּוֹ יֹצֵאת לִקְרָאתוֹ בְתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלוֹת וְרַק הִיא יְחִידָה אֵין־לוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בֵּן אוֹ־בַת׃ 15.16. וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְשׁוֹן בִּלְחִי הַחֲמוֹר חֲמוֹר חֲמֹרָתָיִם בִּלְחִי הַחֲמוֹר הִכֵּיתִי אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 21.21. וּרְאִיתֶם וְהִנֵּה אִם־יֵצְאוּ בְנוֹת־שִׁילוֹ לָחוּל בַּמְּחֹלוֹת וִיצָאתֶם מִן־הַכְּרָמִים וַחֲטַפְתֶּם לָכֶם אִישׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ מִבְּנוֹת שִׁילוֹ וַהֲלַכְתֶּם אֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן׃ 1.14. And it came to pass, when she came to him, that she moved him to ask of her father a field: and she alighted from her ass; and Kalev said to her, What wilt thou?" 5.3. Hear, O kings; give ear, O princes; I will sing to the Lord; I will intone a melody to the God of Yisra᾽el." 5.4. Lord, when Thou didst go out of Se῾ir, when Thou didst march out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water." 5.5. The mountains melted from before the Lord, that Sinay before the Lord God of Yisra᾽el." 5.13. Then he made a remt have dominion over the nobles of the people: the Lord made me have dominion over the mighty ones." 5.19. The kings came and fought, then fought the kings of Kena῾an in Ta῾nakh by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of silver." 5.20. They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera." 5.21. The wadi of Qishon swept them away, that ancient brook, the brook of Qishon. O my soul, march on in strength." 5.24. Blessed above women is Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite, blessed is she more than women in the tent." 5.25. He asked water, but she gave him milk; she brought forth cream in a lordly dish." 5.26. She put her hand to the tent peg, and her right hand to the workmen’s hammer; and she hammered Sisera, she smote through his head; she crushed and pierced his temple." 5.27. At her feet he bent, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bent, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down, bereft of life." 5.30. Have they not found booty? have they not divided the prey; to every man a damsel or two; to Sisera a booty of divers colours, a plunder of many coloured needlework, dyed double worked garments for the necks of the spoilers." 11.34. And Yiftaĥ came to Miżpe to his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter." 15.16. And Shimshon said, With the jawbone of an ass, heaps upon heaps; with the jaw of an ass have I slain a thousand men." 21.21. and see, and, behold, if the daughters of Shilo come out to dance in the dances, then come out of the vineyards, and catch you every man his wife of the daughters of Shilo, and go to the land of Binyamin."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.3, 34.6, 39.2 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לֶהָרִים וְלַגְּבָעוֹת לָאֲפִיקִים ולגאית [וְלַגֵּאָיוֹת] הִנְנִי אֲנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב וְאִבַּדְתִּי בָּמוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 34.6. יִשְׁגּוּ צֹאנִי בְּכָל־הֶהָרִים וְעַל כָּל־גִּבְעָה רָמָה וְעַל כָּל־פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ נָפֹצוּ צֹאנִי וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ׃ 39.2. וְשֹׁבַבְתִּיךָ וְשִׁשֵּׁאתִיךָ וְהַעֲלִיתִיךָ מִיַּרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן וַהֲבִאוֹתִךָ עַל־הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 39.2. וּשְׂבַעְתֶּם עַל־שֻׁלְחָנִי סוּס וָרֶכֶב גִּבּוֹר וְכָל־אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 6.3. and say: Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord GOD: Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning the mountains and concerning the hills, concerning the ravines and concerning the valleys: Behold, I, even I, will bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places." 34.6. My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill, yea, upon all the face of the earth were My sheep scattered, and there was none that did search or seek." 39.2. and I will turn thee about and lead thee on, and will cause thee to come up from the uttermost parts of the north; and I will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel;"
19. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 6.3, 25.3 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.3. וּבְנֵי קְהָת עַמְרָם וְיִצְהָר וְחֶבְרוֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵל׃ 6.3. בֶּן־חֲשַׁבְיָה בֶן־אֲמַצְיָה בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּה׃ 25.3. לִידוּתוּן בְּנֵי יְדוּתוּן גְּדַלְיָהוּ וּצְרִי וִישַׁעְיָהוּ חֲשַׁבְיָהוּ וּמַתִּתְיָהוּ שִׁשָּׁה עַל יְדֵי אֲבִיהֶם יְדוּתוּן בַּכִּנּוֹר הַנִּבָּא עַל־הֹדוֹת וְהַלֵּל לַיהוָה׃ 25.3. לִשְׁלֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים לְמַחֲזִיאוֹת בָּנָיו וְאֶחָיו שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר׃ 6.3. And the sons of Kohath were Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel." 25.3. of Jeduthun: the sons of Jeduthun: Gedaliah, and Zeri, and Jeshaiah, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, six; under the hands of their father Jeduthun with the harp, who prophesied in giving thanks and praising the LORD."
20. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.22, 35.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.22. וּבְעֵת הֵחֵלּוּ בְרִנָּה וּתְהִלָּה נָתַן יְהוָה מְאָרְבִים עַל־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן מוֹאָב וְהַר־שֵׂעִיר הַבָּאִים לִיהוּדָה וַיִּנָּגֵפוּ׃ 35.25. וַיְקוֹנֵן יִרְמְיָהוּ עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הַשָּׁרִים וְהַשָּׁרוֹת בְּקִינוֹתֵיהֶם עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ עַד־הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְּנוּם לְחֹק עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־הַקִּינוֹת׃ 20.22. And when they began to sing and to praise, the LORD set liers-in-wait against the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir, that were come against Judah; and they were smitten." 35.25. And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah; and all the singing men and singing women spoke of Josiah in their lamentations, unto this day; and they made them an ordice in Israel; and, behold, they are written in the lamentations."
21. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.8. כָּנַסְתִּי לִי גַּם־כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּסְגֻלַּת מְלָכִים וְהַמְּדִינוֹת עָשִׂיתִי לִי שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְתַעֲנוּגֹת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת׃ 2.8. I gathered me also silver and gold, and treasure such as kings and the provinces have as their own; I got me men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, women very many."
22. Herodotus, Histories, 8.124 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.124. The Greeks were too jealous to assign the prize and sailed away each to his own place, leaving the matter undecided; nevertheless, Themistocles was lauded, and throughout all of Hellas was deemed the wisest man by far of the Greeks. ,However, because he had not received from those that fought at Salamis the honor due to his preeminence, he immediately afterwards went to Lacedaemon in order that he might receive honor there. The Lacedaemonians welcomed him and paid him high honor. They bestowed on Eurybiades a crown of olive as the reward of excellence and another such crown on Themistocles for his wisdom and cleverness. They also gave him the finest chariot in Sparta, ,and with many words of praise, they sent him home with the three hundred picked men of Sparta who are called Knights to escort him as far as the borders of Tegea. Themistocles was the only man of whom we know to whom the Spartans gave this escort.
23. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.18 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever.
24. Theocritus, Idylls, 17.1-17.8, 17.11-17.13 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25. Anon., 1 Enoch, 39.12-39.13 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

39.12. generation unto generation. Those who sleep not bless Thee: they stand before Thy glory and bless, praise, and extol, saying: 'Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Spirits: He filleth the earth with spirits.' And here my eyes saw all those who sleep not: they stand before Him and bless and say: 'Blessed be Thou, and blessed be the name of the Lord for ever and ever.' And my face was changed; for I could no longer behold.
26. Anon., Testament of Job, 49-50, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 28.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Bibpar, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 28.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.57-3.58 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

31. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.23. And while the sacrifice was being consumed, the priests offered prayer -- the priests and every one. Jonathan led, and the rest responded, as did Nehemiah.'
32. Septuagint, Judith, 1.12, 2.5, 2.7-2.9, 5.3, 5.23, 7.18, 8.14, 9.1-9.14, 10.21-10.22, 11.7, 12.1, 12.12, 12.17-12.20, 13.1-13.9, 13.18, 15.9, 15.12-15.13, 16.1-16.9, 16.11-16.12, 16.14-16.15, 16.17, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.12. Then Nebuchadnezzar was very angry with this whole region, and swore by his throne and kingdom that he would surely take revenge on the whole territory of Cilicia and Damascus and Syria, that he would kill them by the sword, and also all the inhabitants of the land of Moab, and the people of Ammon, and all Judea, and every one in Egypt, as far as the coasts of the two seas. 2.5. Thus says the Great King, the lord of the whole earth: When you leave my presence, take with you men confident in their strength, to the number of one hundred and twenty thousand foot soldiers and twelve thousand cavalry. 2.7. Tell them to prepare earth and water, for I am coming against them in my anger, and will cover the whole face of the earth with the feet of my armies, and will hand them over to be plundered by my troops 2.8. till their wounded shall fill their valleys, and every brook and river shall be filled with their dead, and overflow; 2.9. and I will lead them away captive to the ends of the whole earth. 5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 5.23. For," they said, "we will not be afraid of the Israelites; they are a people with no strength or power for making war. 7.18. And the sons of Esau and the sons of Ammon went up and encamped in the hill country opposite Dothan; and they sent some of their men toward the south and the east, toward Acraba, which is near Chusi beside the brook Mochmur. The rest of the Assyrian army encamped in the plain, and covered the whole face of the land, and their tents and supply trains spread out in great number, and they formed a vast multitude. 8.14. You cannot plumb the depths of the human heart, nor find out what a man is thinking; how do you expect to search out God, who made all these things, and find out his mind or comprehend his thought? No, my brethren, do not provoke the Lord our God to anger. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.4. and thou gavest their wives for a prey and their daughters to captivity, and all their booty to be divided among thy beloved sons, who were zealous for thee, and abhorred the pollution of their blood, and called on thee for help -- O God, my God, hear me also, a widow. 9.5. For thou hast done these things and those that went before and those that followed; thou hast designed the things that are now, and those that are to come. Yea, the things thou didst intend came to pass 9.6. and the things thou didst will presented themselves and said, `Lo, we are here'; for all they ways are prepared in advance, and thy judgment is with foreknowledge. 9.7. Behold now, the Assyrians are increased in their might; they are exalted, with their horses and riders; they glory in the strength of their foot soldiers; they trust in shield and spear, in bow and sling, and know not that thou art the Lord who crushest wars; the Lord is thy name. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 9.11. For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope. 9.12. Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer! 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone! 10.21. Holofernes was resting on his bed, under a canopy which was woven with purple and gold and emeralds and precious stones. 10.22. When they told him of her he came forward to the front of the tent, with silver lamps carried before him. 11.7. Nebuchadnezzar the king of the whole earth lives, and as his power endures, who had sent you to direct every living soul, not only do men serve him because of you, but also the beasts of the field and the cattle and the birds of the air will live by your power under Nebuchadnezzar and all his house. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.12. For it will be a disgrace if we let such a woman go without enjoying her company, for if we do not embrace her she will laugh at us. 12.17. So Holofernes said to her. "Drink now, and be merry with us! 12.18. Judith said, "I will drink now, my lord, because my life means more to me today than in all the days since I was born. 12.19. Then she took and ate and drank before him what her maid had prepared. 12.20. And Holofernes was greatly pleased with her, and drank a great quantity of wine, much more than he had ever drunk in any one day since he was born. 13.1. When evening came, his slaves quickly withdrew, and Bagoas closed the tent from outside and shut out the attendants from his master's presence; and they went to bed, for they all were weary because the banquet had lasted long. 13.2. So Judith was left alone in the tent, with Holofernes stretched out on his bed, for he was overcome with wine. 13.3. Now Judith had told her maid to stand outside the bedchamber and to wait for her to come out, as she did every day; for she said she would be going out for her prayers. And she had said the same thing to Bagoas. 13.4. So every one went out, and no one, either small or great, was left in the bedchamber. Then Judith, standing beside his bed, said in her heart, "O Lord God of all might, look in this hour upon the work of my hands for the exaltation of Jerusalem. 13.5. For now is the time to help thy inheritance, and to carry out my undertaking for the destruction of the enemies who have risen up against us. 13.6. She went up to the post at the end of the bed, above Holofernes' head, and took down his sword that hung there. 13.7. She came close to his bed and took hold of the hair of his head, and said, "Give me strength this day, O Lord God of Israel! 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid 13.18. And Uzziah said to her, "O daughter, you are blessed by the Most High God above all women on earth; and blessed be the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who has guided you to strike the head of the leader of our enemies. 15.9. And when they met her they all blessed her with one accord and said to her, "You are the exaltation of Jerusalem, you are the great glory of Israel, you are the great pride of our nation! 15.12. Then all the women of Israel gathered to see her, and blessed her, and some of them performed a dance for her; and she took branches in her hands and gave them to the women who were with her; 15.13. and they crowned themselves with olive wreaths, she and those who were with her; and she went before all the people in the dance, leading all the women, while all the men of Israel followed, bearing their arms and wearing garlands and with songs on their lips. 16.1. Then Judith began this thanksgiving before all Israel, and all the people loudly sang this song of praise. 16.2. And Judith said, Begin a song to my God with tambourines, sing to my Lord with cymbals. Raise to him a new psalm; exalt him, and call upon his name. 16.3. For God is the Lord who crushes wars; for he has delivered me out of the hands of my pursuers, and brought me to his camp, in the midst of the people. 16.4. The Assyrian came down from the mountains of the north; he came with myriads of his warriors; their multitude blocked up the valleys, their cavalry covered the hills. 16.5. He boasted that he would burn up my territory, and kill my young men with the sword, and dash my infants to the ground and seize my children as prey, and take my virgins as booty. 16.6. But the Lord Almighty has foiled them by the hand of a woman. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck. 16.11. Then my oppressed people shouted for joy; my weak people shouted and the enemy trembled; they lifted up their voices, and the enemy were turned back. 16.12. The sons of maidservants have pierced them through; they were wounded like the children of fugitives, they perished before the army of my Lord. 16.14. Let all thy creatures serve thee, for thou didst speak, and they were made. Thou didst send forth thy Spirit, and it formed them; there is none that can resist thy voice. 16.15. For the mountains shall be shaken to their foundations with the waters; at thy presence the rocks shall melt like wax, but to those who fear thee thou wilt continue to show mercy. 16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever. 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord.
33. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.4, 6.31-6.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.4. Pharaoh with his abundance of chariots, the former ruler of this Egypt, exalted with lawless insolence and boastful tongue, you destroyed together with his arrogant army by drowning them in the sea, manifesting the light of your mercy upon the nation of Israel. 6.4. Then they feasted, provided with everything by the king, until the fourteenth day, on which also they made the petition for their dismissal. 6.31. Accordingly those disgracefully treated and near to death, or rather, who stood at its gates, arranged for a banquet of deliverance instead of a bitter and lamentable death, and full of joy they apportioned to celebrants the place which had been prepared for their destruction and burial. 6.32. They ceased their chanting of dirges and took up the song of their fathers, praising God, their Savior and worker of wonders. Putting an end to all mourning and wailing, they formed choruses as a sign of peaceful joy.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 80-82, 79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 104 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

104. For the world had nine portions assigned to it, eight in heaven, namely the portion of the fixed stars and the seven planets which are all borne forward in the same arrangement, and the ninth being the earth in conjunction with the air and water. For of these things there is only one bond and connection, though they admit all kinds of various changes and alterations.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 156-157, 155 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

155. When he led us forth out of Egypt, that is to say, out of the passions which excite the body, we, travelling in the desert, that is to say, in the path of pleasure, encamped in the place called Marah, a place which had no drinkable water, but where all the water was Bitter. For still the pleasures which are brought into action by means of the eyes, and ears, and belly, and the parts adjacent to the belly, were tempting to us, and charmed us exceedingly, sounding close to us.
38. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.269 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.269. What, then, is the good? The passion which is attacking us is dead, and is thrown out on its face without burial. Let us not delay, but standing still, let us sing that most sacred and becoming hymn, feeling that we are command to say to all men, "Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the Sea.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 2, 21, 28-29, 68, 80, 83-88, 13 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Then, because of their anxious desire for an immortal and blessed existence, thinking that their mortal life has already come to an end, they leave their possessions to their sons or daughters, or perhaps to other relations, giving them up their inheritance with willing cheerfulness; and those who know no relations give their property to their companions or friends, for it followed of necessity that those who have acquired the wealth which sees, as if ready prepared for them, should be willing to surrender that wealth which is blind to those who themselves also are still blind in their minds.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.180, 2.255-2.257 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.180. Then the Hebrews, being amazed at this great and wonderful event, gained a victory which they had never hoped for without bloodshed or loss; and, seeing the instantaneous and complete destruction of the enemy, formed two choruses, one of men and the other of women, on the sea shore, and sang hymns of gratitude to God, Moses leading the song of the men, and his sister that of the women; for these two persons were the leaders of the choruses. 2.255. and an utter destruction of the enemy, whom the walls the sea, which had been congealed and which now turned back again, overwhelmed, and the sea pouring down and hurrying into what had just been a road, as if into some deep ravine, washed away every thing, and there was evidence of the completeness of the destruction in the bodies which floated on the waters, and which strewed the surface of the sea; and a great agitation of the waves, by which all the dead were cast up into a heap on the opposite shore, becoming a necessary spectacle to those who had been delivered, and to whom it had been granted not merely to escape from their dangers, but also to behold their enemies punished, in a manner too marvellous for description, by no human but by a divine power. 2.256. For this mercy Moses very naturally honoured his Benefactor with hymns of gratitude. For having divided the host into two choruses, one of men and one of women, he himself became the leader of that of the men, and appointed his sister to be the chief of that of the women, that they might sing hymns to their father and Creator, joining in harmonies responsive to one another, by a combination of dispositions and melody, the former being eager to offer the same requital for the mercies which they had received, and the latter consisting of a symphony of the deep male with the high female voices, for the tones of men are deep and those of women are high; and when there is a perfect and harmonious combination of the two a most delightful and thoroughly harmonious melody is effected. 2.257. And he persuaded all those myriads of men and women to be of one mind, and to sing in concert the same hymn at the same time in praise of those marvellous and mighty works which they had beheld, and which I have been just now relating. At which the prophet rejoicing, and seeing also the exceeding joy of his nation, and being himself too unable to contain his delight, began the song. And they who heard him being divided into two choruses, sang with him, taking the words which he uttered.
41. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And Moses very appropriately says that the fruit of education is not only holy but also praised; for every one of the virtues is a holy thing, but most especially is gratitude holy; but it is impossible to show gratitude to God in a genuine manner, by those means which people in general think the only ones, namely offerings and sacrifices; for the whole world could not be a temple worthy to be raised to his honour, except by means of praises and hymns, and those too must be such as are sung, not by loud voices, but by the invisible and pure mind, which shall raise the shout and song to him.
42. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

43. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.346 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.346. And now these Hebrews having escaped the danger they were in, after this manner, and besides that, seeing their enemies punished in such a way as is never recorded of any other men whomsoever, were all the night employed in singing of hymns, and in mirth. Moses also composed a song unto God, containing his praises, and a thanksgiving for his kindness, in hexameter verse.
44. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.1-10.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
45. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrong-doing;
46. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

47. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.14, 19.1, 19.3-19.4, 19.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God: 19.3. A second said, "Hallelujah! Her smoke goes up forever and ever. 19.4. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne, saying, "Amen! Hallelujah! 19.6. I heard something like the voice of a great multitude, and like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of mighty thunders, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns!
48. New Testament, Jude, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

49. New Testament, Galatians, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire.
50. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.5-2.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.13. Again, "I will put my trust in him." Again, "Behold, here am I and the children whom God has given me. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted.
51. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 40.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Tosefta, Sotah, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 102 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 7.12.79.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Tertullian, On Baptism, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(n. van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
aaron Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 87
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 443
abraham/abram Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
adam, sons of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
against apion (contra apionem, josephus) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
akinakes, holophernes sword Gera, Judith (2014) 443
alexandria Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 87
allelujah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
amphilochius of iconium, biblical narratives disseminated via sermons of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
amphilochius of iconium, contra haereticus Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
amphilochius of iconium, de recens baptizatis Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
amphilochius of iconium, pater si possible est Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
animals, fish, and birds Gera, Judith (2014) 465
antiochus iv epiphanes (seleucid ruler) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
apatheia Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
apocalypticism Gera, Judith (2014) 465
apocrypha Gera, Judith (2014) 297
army, assyrian, cavalry Gera, Judith (2014) 314, 449
army, assyrian, infantry Gera, Judith (2014) 314
army, assyrian, size and strength Gera, Judith (2014) 314, 456
ascent, angels, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
assyrians, court talesnan Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 314, 456
atonement, as defeat of the devil nan
atonement, as means of deliverance from death nan
balaam Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 114
baptism, amphilocius of iconium on Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
barak Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 448
basilides Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
benedictions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
bethlehem van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
bible, biblical narratives Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
bible, homilies, dissemination through Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
biblical women, celebrate victors Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 447
biblical women, ride Gera, Judith (2014) 443
blessing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
bnai yisrael Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 87
boehm y. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 212
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 449
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 449
book of judith, message Gera, Judith (2014) 465
booty and plundering Gera, Judith (2014) 443
clement of alexandria, liberal tolerance of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
colson, f. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85
creation Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 465
crush/ shatter enemy Gera, Judith (2014) 297
david, and goliath Gera, Judith (2014) 443
david Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220; Gera, Judith (2014) 447
dead sea scrolls Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
deborah, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 448
deborah, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 448
dedications, temple Gera, Judith (2014) 443
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 297
earth, edges of Gera, Judith (2014) 456
earth, face of Gera, Judith (2014) 456
earth Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
engberg-pedersen, t. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 83
eustochium van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
exegesis, allegorical Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
exemplum/example van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
exhortations Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
exile, captivity, and return, exodus, story of Gera, Judith (2014) 314
exodus, choirs Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 103
exodus, exegesis of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 101, 105
exodus, exodus, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
exodus, in greek text Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 87
exodus, in hebrew text Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85, 87
exodus, life of moses, philos treatment in Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 101
exodus, metaphors Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 93
exodus, miriams actions Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85, 87
exodus, on agriculture, philos treatment in Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 93
exodus, on the contemplative life, philos treatment in Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 108
exodus, philos accounts of song and singers Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 93, 101, 105
exodus, verbs in Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 87, 93
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
fasting van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
fiscus iudaicus, five cities of the plain (genesis) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
furia van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
furnishings, dishes and equipmentnan Gera, Judith (2014) 443
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
gnosticism, orthodox appropriation of gnosis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
god, and Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
god, celebrated Gera, Judith (2014) 448, 449, 456, 465
god, foreknowledge of Gera, Judith (2014) 297
god, glory Gera, Judith (2014) 465
god, limited role in book Gera, Judith (2014) 465
god, might Gera, Judith (2014) 314, 465
god, shatters/crushes foes Gera, Judith (2014) 297
god, wise and wondrous Gera, Judith (2014) 465
god Gera, Judith (2014) 314
goliath Gera, Judith (2014) 443
hand, of a woman Gera, Judith (2014) 449
hand, of god Gera, Judith (2014) 449
hannah Gera, Judith (2014) 443
happiness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
ha᾽azinu (song of moses) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
heliopolis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
hellenistic, institutions and practices Gera, Judith (2014) 447
hellenistic, writings Gera, Judith (2014) 297
heracleon (gnostic) Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 447
highlands, mountains, and hills Gera, Judith (2014) 456
hoi alloi Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 108
homer Gera, Judith (2014) 448
homilies, biblical narratives, dissemination of Ayres Champion and Crawford, The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions (2023) 322
hymns Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
isaiah, book of, city of destruction Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
isaiah, book of, city of righteousness Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
isaiah, book of, city of the sun Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
isaiah, book of, great isaiah scroll Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
isaiah, book of, isaiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
isaiah, vision of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
israel, biblical, and egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
israel, biblical, slaves in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
israel Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
israelites, celebrate Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 447, 448
israelites, prayers and blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 297
jacobs, renamed israel Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 449
jeffery, p. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 105, 108
jephthah, daughter of Gera, Judith (2014) 443
jephthah Gera, Judith (2014) 443
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 443
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), repository of holy writings, temple as Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), second temple period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
jewish antiquities Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
jewish antiquities (josephus) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
joakim of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 447
job, daughters of Gera, Judith (2014) 297
jonathan, brother of judas Gera, Judith (2014) 448
jones, h. s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 87
josephus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
josephus (flavius josephus), contra apionem (against apion) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
josephus (flavius josephus), on jerusalem temple and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
judean contemplatives Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 108
judith, and god Gera, Judith (2014) 297
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 297
judith, moral stature Gera, Judith (2014) 297
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 314, 449
knowledge / foreknowledge Gera, Judith (2014) 297
language and style, book of judith, calques and hebraicisms Gera, Judith (2014) 447
language and style, book of judith, future forms Gera, Judith (2014) 456
language and style, book of judith, imperatives Gera, Judith (2014) 314
language and style, book of judith, indirect speech Gera, Judith (2014) 456
language and style, book of judith, infinitives Gera, Judith (2014) 456
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 449, 456
language and style, book of judith, nominatives and subjects Gera, Judith (2014) 456
language and style, book of judith, particles and connectives Gera, Judith (2014) 314
language and style, book of judith, prepositions Gera, Judith (2014) 456
language and style, book of judith, pronouns Gera, Judith (2014) 456
language and style, book of judith, septuagint influence Gera, Judith (2014) 314, 449
language and style, book of judith, varied language Gera, Judith (2014) 448
leadership van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
leonhardt, j. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85
levi Gera, Judith (2014) 297
logos of god, portion of the Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
lord see god, armies (hosts), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
lord see god, spirits, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 443
mareotic feast of fifty Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 83
men, therapeutic singing Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 108
mezuzot Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 249
midianite women Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 114
midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
mind, miriam Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
miriam, positive and negative portrayals of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 224
miriam, priestly genealogy of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 224
miriam, sister of moses, song of miriam Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
miriam, sister of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
miriam, song of Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 443, 447, 465
miriam Gera, Judith (2014) 448; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 114; van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
miriam the prophetess, in life of moses 2 and agriculture Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 102, 103
miriam the prophetess, in philos accounts Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 101
miriam the prophetess, on the contemplative life Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 102, 103, 104
miriam the prophetess, use of exarchein Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 102, 103
miriam the prophetess Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85, 87
miriams well Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 224
moses, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 448
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
moses, ha᾽azinu (song of moses) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
moses, passover instructions Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
moses, perfect intellect Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
moses, song of the sea Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
moses Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 447, 448; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
multitudes Gera, Judith (2014) 456
music Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 212
musical instruments Gera, Judith (2014) 447
nature, overturned Gera, Judith (2014) 449
nebuchadnezzar of judith, as rival of god Gera, Judith (2014) 465
nebuchadnezzar of judith, vengeful Gera, Judith (2014) 456
olyan, s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85, 87
on the contemplative life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by red sea Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 108
on the contemplative life, miriam and moses, portrayal of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 102, 103, 104
on the contemplative life, unspecified hymns Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 105
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 59, 175
passover Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
penitence and sins Gera, Judith (2014) 465
perfection van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
phaedrus Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 114
pharaoh Gera, Judith (2014) 314
philistines Gera, Judith (2014) 443
philo of alexandria, accounts of song and singers Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 93, 101, 105
philo of alexandria, choirs, characterization of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 101
philo of alexandria, exegesis of exodus Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 83, 85, 87, 101
philo of alexandria, therapeutae, representation of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 101
philo of alexandria, therapeutae Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
philo of alexandria Gera, Judith (2014) 447; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
philosophy, positive invocation and use of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
pleasure Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 114
poetry in judith, and biblical poetry Gera, Judith (2014) 314, 448, 449
poetry in judith, parallels prose account Gera, Judith (2014) 449
poetry in judith Gera, Judith (2014) 448, 449
portion of god/the lord Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
prayer Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
prayers and praying, in bible Gera, Judith (2014) 297
prayers and praying, in post-biblical literature Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 448
prayers and praying, womens Gera, Judith (2014) 297
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 297, 314
processions, victory Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 447
purity Gera, Judith (2014) 443
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 249
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 314
qumran Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
rabbis Gera, Judith (2014) 448
rachel Gera, Judith (2014) 443
rahit, rehitim, in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 249
rain and rainmakers Gera, Judith (2014) 297
rape Gera, Judith (2014) 297
rebecca Gera, Judith (2014) 443
red sea Gera, Judith (2014) 443; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
responsibility van 't Westeinde, Roman Nobilitas in Jerome's Letters: Roman Values and Christian Asceticism for Socialites (2021) 105
revelation, law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
right reason Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
rivers and streams Gera, Judith (2014) 456
royse, j. Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 175
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 443
scribal practice Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
scribes Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 94
sendrey a. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 212
sense-perception Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
seraphim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
shame and disgrace, and ridicule Gera, Judith (2014) 449
shechem, city and people Gera, Judith (2014) 297
shekhina Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
simeon, and levi Gera, Judith (2014) 297
simeon, attacks shechem Gera, Judith (2014) 297
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
slavery, of hebrews in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
song and dance Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 447, 448
song of deborah Gera, Judith (2014) 448
song of moses (ha᾽azinu) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342
song of the sea Gera, Judith (2014) 314, 448, 449, 456, 465
soul' Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 59
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 175
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
strength Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
swords Gera, Judith (2014) 456
tamar, amnons sister Gera, Judith (2014) 297
taylor, j. e., analysis of the therapeutrides Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 83, 85, 104, 105, 108
taylor, j. e., interpretation of exodus Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 85
taylor, j. e., philos description of singing of therapeutae Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 105
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 443
thanksgiving, song and prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 448
themistocles Gera, Judith (2014) 447
therapeutae Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 342; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93
torah, righteousness Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
torah, study Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 220
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 93, 94
trible, p. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 102
trisagion Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
valentinians, patristic appropriation of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
valleys Gera, Judith (2014) 456
victory celebrations Gera, Judith (2014) 443, 447, 448, 449, 456, 465
victory song, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 448, 449, 456, 465
vision, ezekiel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
vision, isaiah, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
vulgate judith Gera, Judith (2014) 447
werner e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 212
wine and drunkenness Gera, Judith (2014) 443
women, conflicting views of, in biblical and rabbinic tradition Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 224
women, therapeutic singing Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 108
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 212
worship Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1066
wreaths and crowns, victory Gera, Judith (2014) 447
zeal and zealots Gera, Judith (2014) 297
προσφυής Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343
προσάρτημα Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 343