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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6281
Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.12-13.13


וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s.


וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה נָאוָה כִּירוּשָׁלִָם אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, Comely as Jerusalem, Terrible as an army with banners.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5, 5.1, 5.1-6.3, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 10.8, 11, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25, 12.27, 27.7, 32, 33.8, 33.9, 33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.8. בָּעֵת הַהִוא הִבְדִּיל יְהוָה אֶת־שֵׁבֶט הַלֵּוִי לָשֵׂאת אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה לַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁמוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 10.8. At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covet of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name, unto this day."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.43, 13.1-13.11, 13.13-13.16, 22.28-22.29, 24.5, 28.1, 29.42, 34.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.43. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 13.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 13.1. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־הַחֻקָּה הַזֹּאת לְמוֹעֲדָהּ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה׃ 13.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מִסֻּכֹּת וַיַּחֲנוּ בְאֵתָם בִּקְצֵה הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 13.2. קַדֶּשׁ־לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר כָּל־רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה לִי הוּא׃ 13.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם זָכוֹר אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיא יְהֹוָה אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל חָמֵץ׃ 13.4. הַיּוֹם אַתֶּם יֹצְאִים בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב׃ 13.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה׃ 13.6. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצֹּת וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי חַג לַיהוָה׃ 13.7. מַצּוֹת יֵאָכֵל אֵת שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ חָמֵץ וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלֶךָ׃ 13.8. וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.9. וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ כִּי בְּיָד חֲזָקָה הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃ 13.14. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ בִנְךָ מָחָר לֵאמֹר מַה־זֹּאת וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 13.15. וַיְהִי כִּי־הִקְשָׁה פַרְעֹה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ וַיַּהֲרֹג יְהֹוָה כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבְּכֹר אָדָם וְעַד־בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה עַל־כֵּן אֲנִי זֹבֵחַ לַיהוָה כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם הַזְּכָרִים וְכָל־בְּכוֹר בָּנַי אֶפְדֶּה׃ 13.16. וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 22.28. מְלֵאָתְךָ וְדִמְעֲךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר בְּכוֹר בָּנֶיךָ תִּתֶּן־לִּי׃ 22.29. כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשֹׁרְךָ לְצֹאנֶךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִהְיֶה עִם־אִמּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּתְּנוֹ־לִי׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 28.1. שִׁשָּׁה מִשְּׁמֹתָם עַל הָאֶבֶן הָאֶחָת וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַשִּׁשָּׁה הַנּוֹתָרִים עַל־הָאֶבֶן הַשֵּׁנִית כְּתוֹלְדֹתָם׃ 28.1. וְאַתָּה הַקְרֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן׃ 29.42. עֹלַת תָּמִיד לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם שָׁמָּה לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ שָׁם׃ 12.43. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘This is the ordice of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof;" 13.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 13.2. ’Sanctify unto Me all the first-born, whatsoever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast, it is Mine.’" 13.3. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place; there shall no leavened bread be eaten." 13.4. This day ye go forth in the month Abib." 13.5. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which He swore unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month." 13.6. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD." 13.7. Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee, in all thy borders." 13.8. And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt." 13.9. And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the law of the LORD may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt." 13.10. Thou shalt therefore keep this ordice in its season from year to year." 13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee," 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem." 13.14. And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying: What is this? that thou shalt say unto him: By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage;" 13.15. and it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man, and the first-born of beast; therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the womb, being males; but all the first-born of my sons I redeem." 13.16. And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between your eyes; for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.’" 22.28. Thou shalt not delay to offer of the fulness of thy harvest, and of the outflow of thy presses. The first-born of thy sons shalt thou give unto Me." 22.29. Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep; seven days it shall be with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it Me." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 28.1. And bring thou near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s sons." 29.42. It shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations at the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD, where I will meet with you, to speak there unto thee." 34.20. And the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck. All the first-born of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before Me empty."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.3, 4.5, 17.17, 18.11-18.12, 21.5, 21.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.5. וְאֶל־קַיִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָּנָיו׃ 17.17. וַיִּפֹּל אַבְרָהָם עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּצְחָק וַיֹּאמֶר בְּלִבּוֹ הַלְּבֶן מֵאָה־שָׁנָה יִוָּלֵד וְאִם־שָׂרָה הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֵד׃ 18.11. וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃ 18.12. וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃ 21.5. וְאַבְרָהָם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה בְּהִוָּלֶד לוֹ אֵת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ׃ 21.7. וַתֹּאמֶר מִי מִלֵּל לְאַבְרָהָם הֵינִיקָה בָנִים שָׂרָה כִּי־יָלַדְתִּי בֵן לִזְקֻנָיו׃ 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.5. but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell." 17.17. Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart: ‘Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?’" 18.11. Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—" 18.12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’" 21.5. And Abraham was a hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him." 21.7. And she said: ‘Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should give children suck? for I have borne him a son in his old age.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 12.6-12.8, 17.10-17.15, 19.23-19.25, 23.12-23.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.6. וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 12.7. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה׃ 12.8. וְאִם־לֹא תִמְצָא יָדָהּ דֵּי שֶׂה וְלָקְחָה שְׁתֵּי־תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 23.12. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם בְּיוֹם הֲנִיפְכֶם אֶת־הָעֹמֶר כֶּבֶשׂ תָּמִים בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה לַיהוָה׃ 23.13. וּמִנְחָתוֹ שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ וְנִסְכֹּה יַיִן רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 23.14. וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד־עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה עַד הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־קָרְבַּן אֱלֹהֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 23.15. וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת מִיּוֹם הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה׃ 23.16. עַד מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת הַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה לַיהוָה׃ 23.17. מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאּוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה שְׁתַּיִם שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת תִּהְיֶינָה חָמֵץ תֵּאָפֶינָה בִּכּוּרִים לַיהוָה׃ 23.18. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עַל־הַלֶּחֶם שִׁבְעַת כְּבָשִׂים תְּמִימִם בְּנֵי שָׁנָה וּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד וְאֵילִם שְׁנָיִם יִהְיוּ עֹלָה לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 12.6. And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest." 12.7. And he shall offer it before the LORD, and make atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the law for her that beareth, whether a male or a female." 12.8. And if her means suffice not for a lamb, then she shall take two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons: the one for a burnt-offering, and the other for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her, and she shall be clean." 17.10. And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood." 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 23.12. And in the day when ye wave the sheaf, ye shall offer a he-lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt-offering unto the LORD." 23.13. And the meal-offering thereof shall be two tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour; and the drink-offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of a hin." 23.14. And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor fresh ears, until this selfsame day, until ye have brought the offering of your God; it is a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings." 23.15. And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete;" 23.16. even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto the LORD." 23.17. Ye shall bring out of your dwellings two wave-loaves of two tenth parts of an ephah; they shall be of fine flour, they shall be baked with leaven, for first-fruits unto the LORD." 23.18. And ye shall present with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams; they shall be a burnt-offering unto the LORD, with their meal-offering, and their drink-offerings, even an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.8. וְכִי־תַגִּשׁוּן עִוֵּר לִזְבֹּחַ אֵין רָע וְכִי תַגִּישׁוּ פִּסֵּחַ וְחֹלֶה אֵין רָע הַקְרִיבֵהוּ נָא לְפֶחָתֶךָ הֲיִּרְצְךָ אוֹ הֲיִשָּׂא פָנֶיךָ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.8. And when ye offer the blind for sacrifice, is it no evil! And when ye offer the lame and sick, is it no evil! Present it now unto thy governor; will he be pleased with thee? Or will he accept thy person? Saith the LORD of hosts."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.13, 3.45, 15.4, 15.37-15.41, 18.15-18.16, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.13. כִּי לִי כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּיוֹם הַכֹּתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה לִי יִהְיוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 3.45. קַח אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֶּהֱמַת הַלְוִיִּם תַּחַת בְּהֶמְתָּם וְהָיוּ־לִי הַלְוִיִּם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 15.4. וְהִקְרִיב הַמַּקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה מִנְחָה סֹלֶת עִשָּׂרוֹן בָּלוּל בִּרְבִעִית הַהִין שָׁמֶן׃ 15.4. לְמַעַן תִּזְכְּרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָי וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.15. כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם וְאֵת בְּכוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה תִּפְדֶּה׃ 18.16. וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶּה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הוּא׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 3.13. for all the first-born are Mine: on the day that I smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto Me all the first-born in Israel, both man and beast, Mine they shall be: I am the LORD.’ ." 3.45. ’Take the Levites instead of all the first-born among the children of Israel, and the cattle of the Levites instead of their cattle; and the Levites shall be Mine, even the LORD’S." 15.4. then shall he that bringeth his offering present unto the LORD a meal-offering of a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of oil;" 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 18.15. Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which they offer unto the LORD, both of man and beast, shall be thine; howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem." 18.16. And their redemption-money—from a month old shalt thou redeem them—shall be, according to thy valuation, five shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary—the same is twenty gerahs." 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 12.1, 119.164 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־הַשְּׁמִינִית מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד׃ 119.164. שֶׁבַע בַּיּוֹם הִלַּלְתִּיךָ עַל מִשְׁפְּטֵי צִדְקֶךָ׃ 12.1. For the Leader; on the Sheminith. A Psalm of David." 119.164. Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of Thy righteous ordices."
10. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 883 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

883. οὐδὲν προτιμῶ σου. φορῶ γὰρ πριάμενος
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.15 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.15. וַיִּשְׁלַח הָאֱלֹהִים מַלְאָךְ לִירוּשָׁלִַם לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ וּכְהַשְׁחִית רָאָה יְהוָה וַיִּנָּחֶם עַל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד עִם־גֹּרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבוּסִי׃ 21.15. And God sent an angel unto Jerusalem to destroy it; and as he was about to destroy, the LORD beheld, and He repented Him of the evil, and said to the destroying angel: ‘It is enough; now stay thy hand.’ And the angel of the LORD was standing by the threshing-floor of Or the Jebusite."
12. Anon., Jubilees, 2.2, 2.19, 2.21, 15.3, 22.9, 33.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 15.3. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him: "I am God Almighty; approve thyself before Me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covet between 22.9. And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because Thou hast caused me to see this day: 33.11. And there shall be nothing unclean before our God in the nation which He hath chosen for Himself as a possession.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 10.10-10.11, 10.13-10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 50 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

50. But he acts cunningly in opposition to these principles, wishing us to take to ourselves the elder sister first, not in order that we may have her in a lasting manner, but that being attracted by the allurements of the younger, we may hereafter relax in our desire for the elder one. XIII.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 135 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

135. on which account Moses, in strict accordance with the principles of natural philosophy, represents Leah as Hated. For those whom the charms of pleasures, which are with Rachel, that is to say, with the outward sense, cannot be endured by Leah, who is situated out of the reach of the passions; on which account they repudiate and detest her. But as far as she herself is concerned, her alienation from the creature produces her a close connection with God, from whom she receives the seeds of wisdom, and conceives, and travails, and brings forth virtuous ideas, worthy of the father who begot them. If therefore, you, O my soul, imitating Leah, reject mortal things, you will of necessity turn to the incorruptible God, who will shed over you all the fountains of his good. XLI.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 14, 2, 51-52, 74, 78, 88, 111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

111. And in another passage it is said, "My gifts, and my offerings, and my sacrifices, ye will take care to offer to me at my festivals:" not taking away form them, nor dividing them, but bringing them forward full, and entire, and perfect; for the feast of the soul is cheerfulness in perfect virtues; and the perfect virtues are all those which the human race exhibits, free from all stain or spot. But the wise man alone can keep such a festival as this, and no other human being; for it is a most rare thing to find a soul which has never tasted of wickedness of passions. XXXIV.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.137-1.140 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.137. Moreover the law, going beyond all these enactments in their favour, commands the people to bring them the first fruits, not only of all their possessions of every description, but also of their own lives and bodies; for the children are separable portions of their parents as one may say; but if one must tell the plain truth, they are inseparable as being of kindred blood, [...]{18}{the above passage is quite unintelligible in the Greek, and is given up by Mangey as irremediably corrupt.} and being bound to them by the allurements of united good will, and by the indissoluble bonds of nature. 1.138. But nevertheless, he consecrates also their own first-born male children after the fashion of other first fruits, as a sort of thanks-offering for fertility, and a number of children both existing and hoped for, and wishing at the same time that their marriages should be not only free from all blame, but even very deserving of praise, the first fruit arising from which is consecrated to God; and keeping this in their minds, both husbands and wives ought to cling to modesty, and to attend to their household concerns, and to cherish uimity, agreeing with one another, so that what is called a communion and partnership may be so in solid truth, not only in word, but likewise in deed. 1.139. And with reference to the dedication of the first-born male children, in order that the parents may not be separated from their children, nor the children from their parents, he values the first fruits of them himself at a fixed price in money ordering everyone both poor and rich to contribute an equal sum, not having any reference to the ability of the contributors, nor to the vigour or beauty of the children who were born; but considering how much even a very poor man might be able to give; 1.140. for since the birth of children happens equally to the most noble and to the most obscure persons of the race, he thought it just to enact that their contribution should also be equal, aiming, as I have already said, particularly to fix a sum which should be in the power of everyone to give.XXVIII.
18. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2, 29.3 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Berachot, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. These are the breaks between the sections: between the first blessing and the second, between the second and “Shema,” between “Shema” and “And it shall come to pass if you listen” between “And it shall come to pass if you listen” and “And the Lord said” and between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” (true and firm). Rabbi Judah says: between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” one should not interrupt. Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah said: Why was the section of “Shema” placed before that of “And it shall come to pass if you listen”? So that one should first accept upon himself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and then take upon himself the yoke of the commandments. Why does the section of “And it shall come to pass if you listen” come before that of “And the Lord said”? Because “And it shall come to pass if you listen” is customary during both day and night, whereas [the section] “And the Lord said” is customary only during the day."
21. Mishnah, Eruvin, 6.1, 6.3, 6.6-6.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.1. One who lives in a courtyard with a non-Jew or with one who does not acknowledge the [principle of] eruv, behold this one restricts him [from making use of the eruv], the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: one can never restrict another [from making use of the eruv] unless there are two Jews who restrict each other." 6.3. If one of the residents of a courtyard forgot to join in the eruv, his house is forbidden both to him and to them for the taking in or for the taking out of any object. But their houses are permitted both to him and to them. If they gave their part [of the courtyard] to him, he is permitted but they are forbidden. If there were two [who forgot to join in the eruv], they restrict each other, because one may give his part and also acquire the part [of others] but two may give their parts but may not acquire the parts [of others]. 6.6. Five companies [of men] who spent Shabbat in one hall:: Bet Shammai says: an eruv for each an every company; But Bet Hillel says: one eruv for them all. They agree that where some of them occupy rooms or upper chambers, that they must make an eruv for each and every company." 6.7. Brothers or partners who were eating at their father’s table but slept in their own homes must each have an eruv. Hence, if any one of them forgot and did not [contribute] to the eruv, he must annul his right to his share in the courtyard. When does this apply? When they bring their eruv into some other place but if their eruv is deposited with them or if there are no other tets with them in the courtyard they need not prepare any eruv." 6.8. Five courtyards which were each opened into the other and into an alley, and they made an eruv for the courtyards but they did not share in a shittuf for the alley, they are permitted [the use of the] courtyards but forbidden that of the alley. If they shared in a shittuf for the alley [but not in the eruv for the courtyards], they are permitted the use of both. If they made an eruv for the courtyards and they made a shittuf for the alley, and one of the tets of a courtyard forgot to contribute to the eruv, they are permitted the use of both. If one of the residents of the alley forgot to share in the shittuf, they are permitted the use of the courtyards but forbidden that of the alley, Since an alley to its courtyards is as a courtyard to its houses." 6.9. Two courtyards, this one inside the other:If the [residents] of the inner one prepared an eruv but those of the outer one did not prepare an eruv, the inner one is permitted but the outer one is forbidden. If the [residents] of the outer one prepared an eruv but not those of the inner one, they both are forbidden. If the [residents] of each [courtyard] prepared an eruv for themselves, each is permitted on its own. Rabbi Akiva forbids the outer one because the right to walk in it prohibits it. The sages say that the right of way does not prohibit it." 6.10. If one of the [residents] of the outer courtyard forgot to participate in the eruv, the inner courtyard is permitted but the outer one is forbidden. If one of the [residents] of the inner courtyard forgot to contribute to the eruv, both courtyards are forbidden. If they gave their eruv in the same place and one [resident], whether of the inner courtyard or of the outer courtyard, forgot to contribute to the eruv, both courtyards are forbidden. If the courtyards belonged to individuals, they need not prepare any eruv."
22. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
23. Tosefta, Terumot, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 36 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 159

159. God. And upon our hands, too, he expressly orders the symbol to be fastened, clearly showing that we ought to perform every act in righteousness, remembering (our own creation), and above all the
26. Anon., Tanhuma, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
abraham, criticism of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
abraham, defense of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
aharoni, y. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
altar Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
amulets, contents of Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
amulets Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
animals Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105; Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
arius didymus Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
ass Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
athenaeus Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
banim, rabbinic interpretation of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
bar kochba tefillin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
birth, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
blood, and consumption Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
blood Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 93
buying and/or selling Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
cain Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
cattle Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
child sacrifice, in biblical israel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
child sacrifice Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
circumcision Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
clothes/garments Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
cohn, yehudah Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 170
consecration Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
consumption, permissibility of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
courtyard Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
criticism of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
dedication Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
deuteronomy Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 23
elbogen, ismar Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
eliezer b. jacob Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 41
exodus Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 23
exorcism Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
fate, ill-fated Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
festivals and fasts Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 116
fragrances, offering, for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
friendship Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
fruit Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
god, consumption by Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
hayward, robert Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
heave-offering, preparation and use by priest Avery-Peck, The priestly gift in Mishnah: a study of tractate Terumot (1981) 317
hebrew (language) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
hebrew bible Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
hubert, henri Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
instruction verses Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153, 170
isaac, as beloved Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
isaac, as legitimate Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
isaac, ashes Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
ishmael, as illegitimate Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
israel, israelites Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 93
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
kinship Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
lauterbach, jacob Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
law Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
levi, levites Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 93
love, chaste Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
love-rites Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
mauss, marcel Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
mekhilta de rabbi ishmael Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
mekhilta de rabbi shimon ben yochai Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
merit of the fathers (zecut avot) Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
mezuzah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113; Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 116
milik, j. t. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 170
mishnah, as source of information about second temple practice Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
morgenstern, m. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
nakman, david Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 170
names, angel Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
offerings Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
permission (hatarah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
phylacteries Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 23
prohibition Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
purification Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
qumran, tefillin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 170
qumran Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56; Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 116
reputation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
rothstein, david Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
sacrifice, temple Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
sacrifice Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
sacrifice of isaac, ethical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 323
second temple period, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 170
segal, m. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
septuagint, language Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 23
septuagint, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
septuagint/lxx Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 105
seth, birth of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 280
shema, in nash papyrus Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
shema, in tannaitic texts Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
shema, linked to decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153
shema, these words, Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
son, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 93
statues Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
tabory, joseph Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
tanhuma Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
tefillin, bar kochba Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
tefillin, qumran Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 170
tefillin Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113; Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 116
ten commandments (decalogue) Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 116
tov, emanuel Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
tsitsit' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
words, contexts of use Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
yadin, azzan Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
yadin, yigael Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152