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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6280
Hebrew Bible, Esther, 8.15


וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּלְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת תְּכֵלֶת וָחוּר וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב גְּדוֹלָה וְתַכְרִיךְ בּוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן צָהֲלָה וְשָׂמֵחָה׃And Mordecai went forth from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a rob of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan shouted and was glad.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 6.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.2. Then the young man went down to wash himself. A fish leaped up from the river and would have swallowed the young man;
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.4, 3.15, 4.4, 6.8, 6.11, 8.2, 8.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיְהִי באמרם [כְּאָמְרָם] אֵלָיו יוֹם וָיוֹם וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם וַיַּגִּידוּ לְהָמָן לִרְאוֹת הֲיַעַמְדוּ דִּבְרֵי מָרְדֳּכַי כִּי־הִגִּיד לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יְהוּדִי׃ 3.15. הָרָצִים יָצְאוּ דְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וְהַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן יָשְׁבוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן נָבוֹכָה׃ 4.4. וַתָּבוֹאינָה נַעֲרוֹת אֶסְתֵּר וְסָרִיסֶיהָ וַיַּגִּידוּ לָהּ וַתִּתְחַלְחַל הַמַּלְכָּה מְאֹד וַתִּשְׁלַח בְּגָדִים לְהַלְבִּישׁ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַי וּלְהָסִיר שַׂקּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וְלֹא קִבֵּל׃ 6.8. יָבִיאוּ לְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת אֲשֶׁר לָבַשׁ־בּוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְסוּס אֲשֶׁר רָכַב עָלָיו הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲשֶׁר נִתַּן כֶּתֶר מַלְכוּת בְּרֹאשׁוֹ׃ 6.11. וַיִּקַּח הָמָן אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכָי וַיַּרְכִּיבֵהוּ בִּרְחוֹב הָעִיר וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הַמֶּלֶךְ חָפֵץ בִּיקָרוֹ׃ 8.2. וַיָּסַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱבִיר מֵהָמָן וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְמָרְדֳּכָי וַתָּשֶׂם אֶסְתֵּר אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַי עַל־בֵּית הָמָן׃ 8.16. לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָר׃ 3.4. Now it came to pass, when they spoke daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai’s words would stand; for he had told them that he was a Jew." 3.15. The posts went forth in haste by the king’s commandment, and the decree was given out in Shushan the castle; and the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city of Shushan was perplexed." 4.4. And Esther’s maidens and her chamberlains came and told it her; and the queen was exceedingly pained; and she sent raiment to clothe Mordecai; and to take his sackcloth from off him; but he accepted it not." 6.8. let royal apparel be brought which the king useth to wear, and the horse that the king rideth upon, and on whose head a crown royal is set;" 6.11. Then took Haman the apparel and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and caused him to ride through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him: ‘Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour.’" 8.2. And the king took off his ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it unto Mordecai. And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman." 8.16. The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honour."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 8.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.18. וְהִפְלֵיתִי בַיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־אֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר עַמִּי עֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ לְבִלְתִּי הֱיוֹת־שָׁם עָרֹב לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 8.18. And I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which My people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end that thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.16, 35.22, 38.14, 38.19, 39.10-39.13, 41.42-41.43, 49.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 35.22. וַיְהִי בִּשְׁכֹּן יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָרֶץ הַהִוא וַיֵּלֶךְ רְאוּבֵן וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֶת־בִּלְהָה פִּילֶגֶשׁ אָבִיו וַיִּשְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־יַעֲקֹב שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר׃ 38.14. וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 38.19. וַתָּקָם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ׃ 39.11. וַיְהִי כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיָּבֹא הַבַּיְתָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ וְאֵין אִישׁ מֵאַנְשֵׁי הַבַּיִת שָׁם בַּבָּיִת׃ 39.12. וַתִּתְפְּשֵׂהוּ בְּבִגְדוֹ לֵאמֹר שִׁכְבָה עִמִּי וַיַּעֲזֹב בִּגְדוֹ בְּיָדָהּ וַיָּנָס וַיֵּצֵא הַחוּצָה׃ 39.13. וַיְהִי כִּרְאוֹתָהּ כִּי־עָזַב בִּגְדוֹ בְּיָדָהּ וַיָּנָס הַחוּצָה׃ 41.42. וַיָּסַר פַּרְעֹה אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ מֵעַל יָדוֹ וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ עַל־יַד יוֹסֵף וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ בִּגְדֵי־שֵׁשׁ וַיָּשֶׂם רְבִד הַזָּהָב עַל־צַוָּארוֹ׃ 41.43. וַיַּרְכֵּב אֹתוֹ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וַיִּקְרְאוּ לְפָנָיו אַבְרֵךְ וְנָתוֹן אֹתוֹ עַל כָּל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden." 35.22. And it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:" 38.14. And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife." 38.19. And she arose, and went away, and put off her veil from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood." 39.10. And it came to pass, as she spoke to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her." 39.11. And it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work, and there was none of the men of the house there within," 39.12. that she caught him by his garment, saying: ‘Lie with me.’ And he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out." 39.13. And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth," 41.42. And Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph’s hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck." 41.43. And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him: ‘Abrech’; and he set him over all the land of Egypt." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.13, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. קוּמִי וָדוֹשִׁי בַת־צִיּוֹן כִּי־קַרְנֵךְ אָשִׂים בַּרְזֶל וּפַרְסֹתַיִךְ אָשִׂים נְחוּשָׁה וַהֲדִקּוֹת עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהַחֲרַמְתִּי לַיהוָה בִּצְעָם וְחֵילָם לַאֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 7.8. אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי אֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי כִּי־אֵשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יְהוָה אוֹר לִי׃ 4.13. Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion; For I will make thy horn iron, And I will make thy hoofs brass; And thou shalt beat in pieces many peoples; And thou shalt devote their gain unto the LORD, And their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth." 7.8. Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; Though I am fallen, I shall arise; Though I sit in darkness, the LORD is a light unto me."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 18.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם רַב־שָׁקֵה אִמְרוּ־נָא אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר מָה הַבִּטָּחוֹן הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּטָחְתָּ׃ 18.19. And Rab-shakeh said unto them: ‘Say ye now to Hezekiah: Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria: What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?"
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 11.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 3.18-3.23, 52.1-52.2, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.18. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יָסִיר אֲדֹנָי אֵת תִּפְאֶרֶת הָעֲכָסִים וְהַשְּׁבִיסִים וְהַשַּׂהֲרֹנִים׃ 3.19. הַנְּטִיפוֹת וְהַשֵּׁירוֹת וְהָרְעָלוֹת׃ 3.21. הַטַּבָּעוֹת וְנִזְמֵי הָאָף׃ 3.22. הַמַּחֲלָצוֹת וְהַמַּעֲטָפוֹת וְהַמִּטְפָּחוֹת וְהָחֲרִיטִים׃ 3.23. וְהַגִּלְיֹנִים וְהַסְּדִינִים וְהַצְּנִיפוֹת וְהָרְדִידִים׃ 52.1. חָשַׂף יְהוָה אֶת־זְרוֹעַ קָדְשׁוֹ לְעֵינֵי כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וְרָאוּ כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ אֵת יְשׁוּעַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 52.1. עוּרִי עוּרִי לִבְשִׁי עֻזֵּךְ צִיּוֹן לִבְשִׁי בִּגְדֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם עִיר הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי לֹא יוֹסִיף יָבֹא־בָךְ עוֹד עָרֵל וְטָמֵא׃ 52.2. הִתְנַעֲרִי מֵעָפָר קוּמִי שְּׁבִי יְרוּשָׁלִָם התפתחו [הִתְפַּתְּחִי] מוֹסְרֵי צַוָּארֵךְ שְׁבִיָּה בַּת־צִיּוֹן׃ 3.18. In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of their anklets, and the fillets, and the crescents;" 3.19. the pendants, and the bracelets, and the veils;" 3.20. the headtires, and the armlets, and the sashes, and the corselets, and the amulets;" 3.21. the rings, and the nose-jewels;" 3.22. the aprons, and the mantelets, and the cloaks, and the girdles;" 3.23. and the gauze robes, and the fine linen, and the turbans, and the mantles." 52.1. Awake, awake, Put on thy strength, O Zion; Put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; For henceforth there shall no more come into thee The uncircumcised and the unclean." 52.2. Shake thyself from the dust; Arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem; Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion." 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels."
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.11. הִנֵּה אֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית אֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ עֹבֵר לִפְנֵיכֶם בַּיַּרְדֵּן׃ 3.11. Behold, the ark of the covet of the Lord of all the earth passeth on before you over the Jordan."
11. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 8.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.10. Now Zevaĥ and Żalmunna were in Qarqor, and their hosts with them, about fifteen thousand men, all that were left of all the camp of the children of the east: for there fell a hundred and twenty thousand men that drew sword."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.10, 16.13, 27.7 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.13. וַתַּעְדִּי זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּמַלְבּוּשֵׁךְ ששי [שֵׁשׁ] וָמֶשִׁי וְרִקְמָה סֹלֶת וּדְבַשׁ וָשֶׁמֶן אכלתי [אָכָלְתְּ] וַתִּיפִי בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּצְלְחִי לִמְלוּכָה׃ 27.7. שֵׁשׁ־בְּרִקְמָה מִמִּצְרַיִם הָיָה מִפְרָשֵׂךְ לִהְיוֹת לָךְ לְנֵס תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן מֵאִיֵּי אֱלִישָׁה הָיָה מְכַסֵּךְ׃ 16.10. I clothed thee also with richly woven work, and shod thee with sealskin, and I wound fine linen about thy head, and covered thee with silk." 16.13. Thus wast thou decked with gold and silver; and thy raiment was of fine linen, and silk, and richly woven work; thou didst eat fine flour, and honey, and oil; and thou didst wax exceeding beautiful, and thou wast meet for royal estate." 27.7. of fine linen with richly woven work from Egypt Was thy sail, That it might be to thee for an ensign; Blue and purple from the isles of Elishah Was thine awning."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.12 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְשֹׁרֲרִים לְכֻלָּם לְאָסָף לְהֵימָן לִידֻתוּן וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם מְלֻבָּשִׁים בּוּץ בִּמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבִנְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת עֹמְדִים מִזְרָח לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעִמָּהֶם כֹּהֲנִים לְמֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים מחצררים [מַחְצְרִים] בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת׃ 5.12. also the Levites who were the singers, all of them, even Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and their sons and their brethren, arrayed in fine linen, with cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them a hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets—"
14. Herodotus, Histories, 9.32 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.32. These which I have named were the greatest of the nations set in array by Mardonius, but there was also in the army a mixture of Phrygians, Thracians, Mysians, Paeonians, and the rest, besides Ethiopians and the Egyptian swordsmen called Hermotybies and Calasiries, who are the only fighting men in Egypt. ,These had been fighters on shipboard, till Mardonius while yet at Phalerum disembarked them from their ships; for the Egyptians were not appointed to serve in the land army which Xerxes led to Athens. of the barbarians, then, there were three hundred thousand, as I have already shown. As for the Greek allies of Mardonius, no one knows the number of them (for they were not counted), I suppose them to have been mustered to the number of fifty thousand. These were the footmen that were set in array; the cavalry were separately ordered.
15. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 6.2.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Septuagint, Tobit, 6.2 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.2. Then the young man went down to wash himself. A fish leaped up from the river and would have swallowed the young man;
17. Anon., Jubilees, 33.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.2. And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth month.
18. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 3.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.5, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.5. וָאֶשָּׂא אֶת־עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ־אֶחָד לָבוּשׁ בַּדִּים וּמָתְנָיו חֲגֻרִים בְּכֶתֶם אוּפָז׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 10.5. I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz;" 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
20. Septuagint, Judith, 6.4, 10.3-10.4, 16.7, 16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

6.4. We will burn them up, and their mountains will be drunk with their blood, and their fields will be full of their dead. They cannot withstand us, but will utterly perish. So says King Nebuchadnezzar, the lord of the whole earth. For he has spoken; none of his words shall be in vain. 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.23. She became more and more famous, and grew old in her husband's house, until she was one hundred and five years old. She set her maid free. She died in Bethulia, and they buried her in the cave of her husband Manasseh
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 97 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

97. On which account Moses also committed the preparation of the sacred works of the tabernacle not only to men, but also to women, who were to aid in making them; for all "the woven works of hyacinthine colour, and of purple and of scarlet work, and of fine linen, and of goats' hair, do the women make;" and they also contribute their own ornaments without hesitation, "seals, and ear-rings, and finger-rings, and armlets, and tablets, all jewels of gold,"49--everything, in short, of which gold was the material, gladly giving up the ornaments of their person in exchange for piety;
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.84, 2.87-2.88, 2.111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.84. Moreover the architect surrounded the tabernacle with very beautiful woven work of all kinds, employing work of hyacinth colour, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen for the tapestry; for he caused to be wrought ten cloths, which in the sacred scriptures he has called curtains, of the kinds which I have just mentioned, every one of them being eight and twenty cubits in length, and extending four cubits in width, in order that the complete number of the decade, and also the number four, which is the essence of the decade, and also the number twenty-eight, which is likewise a perfect number, being equal to its parts; and also the number forty, the most prolific and productive of all numbers, in which number they say that man was fashioned in the workshop of nature. 2.87. And the outer vestibule is overshadowed by the veil; and the curtains themselves are nearly the same as veils, not only because they cover the roof and the walls, but also because they are woven and embroidered by the same figures, and with hyacinth colour, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen. And the veil, and that thing, too, which was called the covering, was made of the same things. That which was within was placed along the five pillars, that the innermost shrine might be concealed; and that which was outside being placed along the five pillars, that no one of those who were not holy men might be able from any secret or distant place to behold the holy rites and ceremonies. 2.88. Moreover, he chose the materials of this embroidery, selecting with great care what was most excellent out of an infinite quantity, choosing materials equal in number to the elements of which the world was made, and having a direct relation to them; the elements being the earth and the water, and the air and the fire. For the fine flax is produced from the earth, and the purple from the water, and the hyacinth colour is compared to the air (for, by nature, it is black 2.111. but the robe over the shoulders or mantle was a most beautiful and skilful work, and was made with most perfect skill of all the aforesaid kinds of material, of hyacinth colour, and purple, and fine linen, and scarlet, gold thread being entwined and embroidered in it. For the leaves were divided into fine hairs, and woven in with every thread
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.112-3.113, 3.153, 11.231, 11.234 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.112. These were made wholly of silver, and polished, and that all over, excepting the bases, which were of brass. Now on each side of the gates there stood three pillars, which were inserted into the concave bases of the gates, and were suited to them; and round them was drawn a curtain of fine linen; 3.113. but to the gates themselves, which were twenty cubits in extent, and five in height, the curtain was composed of purple, and scarlet, and blue, and fine linen, and embroidered with many and divers sorts of figures, excepting the figures of animals. 3.153. 2. Over this he wore a linen vestment, made of fine flax doubled: it is called Chethone, and denotes linen, for we call linen by the name of Chethone. This vestment reaches down to the feet, and sits close to the body; and has sleeves that are tied fast to the arms: 11.231. The same supplications did the multitude put up, and entreated that God would provide for their deliverance, and free the Israelites that were in all the earth from this calamity which was now coming upon them, for they had it before their eyes, and expected its coming. Accordingly, Esther made supplication to God after the manner of her country, by casting herself down upon the earth, and putting on her mourning garments 11.234. 9. When Esther had used this supplication for three days, she put off those garments, and changed her habit, and adorned herself as became a queen, and took two of her handmaids with her, the one of which supported her, as she gently leaned upon her, and the other followed after, and lifted up her large train (which swept along the ground) with the extremities of her fingers. And thus she came to the king, having a blushing redness in her countece, with a pleasant agreeableness in her behavior; yet did she go in to him with fear;
24. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.1, 87.6, 88.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 87.6. וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם (בראשית לט, י), רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין אָמַר בָּנֶיהָ שֶׁל רָחֵל נִסָּן שָׁוֶה וּגְדֻלָּתָן שָׁוָה, נִסָּן שָׁוֶה, וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם, (אסתר ג, ד): וַיְהִי כְּאָמְרָם אֵלָיו יוֹם וָיוֹם. (בראשית לט, י): וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ (אסתר ג, ד): וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם. וּגְדֻלָּתָן שָׁוָה (בראשית מא, מב): וַיָּסַר פַּרְעֹה אֶת טַבַּעְתּוֹ, (אסתר ח, ב): וַיָּסַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת טַבַּעְתּוֹ. (בראשית מא, מב): וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ עַל יַד יוֹסֵף, (אסתר ח, ב): וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְמָרְדְּכָי. (בראשית מא, מב): וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ בִּגְדֵי שֵׁשׁ, (אסתר ו, ט): וְנָתוֹן הַלְּבוּשׁ וְהַסּוּס וגו' וַיִּקַּח הָמָן וגו'. (בראשית מא, מב): וַיָּשֶׂם רְבִיד הַזָּהָב עַל צַוָּארוֹ, (אסתר ח, ב): וַתָּשֶׂם אֶסְתֵּר אֶת מָרְדְּכַי עַל בֵּית הָמָן. (בראשית מא, מג): וַיַּרְכֵּב אֹתוֹ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁר לוֹ, (אסתר ו, ט): וַיַּרְכִּבֵהוּ עַל הַסּוּס בִּרְחוֹב הָעִיר. (בראשית מא, מג): וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו אַבְרֵךְ, (אסתר ו, יא): וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו כָּכָה וגו'. וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ לִשְׁכַּב אֶצְלָהּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. לִהְיוֹת עִמָּהּ, שֶׁיִהְיֶה עִמָּהּ בַּגֵּיהִנֹּם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ, אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁכִיבָה בְּלֹא תַשְׁמִישׁ. מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמְרָה לוֹ, אֶפְשָׁר יוֹסֵף בֶּן שְׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּכָל חֻמְאוֹ וְהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, הוֹצִיא לְפָנֶיהָ סֵפֶר בְּרֵאשִׁית וְהִתְחִיל קוֹרֵא לְפָנֶיהָ מַעֲשֵׂה רְאוּבֵן וּבִלְהָה, מַעֲשֵׂה יְהוּדָה וְתָמָר, אָמַר לָהּ מָה אִם אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵם גְּדוֹלִים וּבִרְשׁוּת אֲבִיהֶן לֹא כִּסָּה עֲלֵיהֶם הַכָּתוּב, זֶה שֶׁהוּא קָטָן וּבִרְשׁוּת עַצְמוֹ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. 88.5. וַיְסַפֵּר שַׂר הַמַּשְׁקִים (בראשית מ, ט), וְהִנֵּה גֶּפֶן לְפָנָי, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פ, ט): גֶּפֶן מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּסִּיעַ. (בראשית מ, י): וּבַגֶּפֶן שְׁלשָׁה שָׂרִיגִם, משֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם. (בראשית מ, י): הִוא כְפֹרַחַת, הִפְרִיחָה גְּאֻלָּתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית מ, י): עָלְתָה נִצָּהּ, הֵנֵצָה גְּאֻלָּתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית מ, י): הִבְשִׁילוּ אַשְׁכְּלֹתֶיהָ עֲנָבִים, גֶּפֶן שֶׁהִפְרִיחָה מִיָּד הֵנֵצָה, עֲנָבִים שֶׁהֵנֵצוּ מִיָּד בָּשָׁלוּ. (בראשית מ, יא): וְכוֹס פַּרְעֹה בְּיָדִי, מִכָּאן קָבְעוּ חֲכָמִים אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל לֵילֵי פֶּסַח. אָמַר רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבַּע גְּאֻלּוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם (שמות ו, ו): וְהוֹצֵאתִי, וְהִצַּלְתִּי, וְגָאַלְתִּי, (שמות ו, ז): וְלָקַחְתִּי. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ כָּאן (בראשית מ, יא): וְכוֹס פַּרְעֹה בְּיָדִי וגו' וְנָתַתָּ כּוֹס פַּרְעֹה וגו'. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבַּע מַלְכֻיּוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל תַּרְעֵלָה שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַשְׁקֶה אֶת עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ירמיה כה, טו): כִּי כֹה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵלַי קַח אֶת כּוֹס הַיַּיִן הַחֵמָה. (ירמיה נא, ז): כּוֹס זָהָב בָּבֶל בְּיַד ה' וגו'. (תהלים יא, ו): יַמְטֵר עַל רְשָׁעִים וגו', וּכְנֶגְדָּן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַשְׁקֶה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יְשׁוּעָה לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים טז, ה): ה' מְנָת חֶלְקִי וגו', (תהלים קטז, יג): כּוֹס יְשׁוּעוֹת אֶשָֹּׂא, (תהלים כג, ה): תַּעֲרֹךְ לְפָנַי שֻׁלְחָן נֶגֶד צֹרְרָי דִּשַׁנְתָּ בַשֶּׁמֶן רֹאשִׁי כּוֹסִי רְוָיָה. כּוֹס יְשׁוּעוֹת, כּוֹס יְשׁוּעָה אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא כּוֹס יְשׁוּעוֹת, אֶחָד לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ וְאֶחָד לִימוֹת גּוֹג. אָמַר לוֹ אַתְּ בִּשַֹּׂרְתַּנִּי בְּשׂוֹרָה טוֹבָה אַף אֲנִי אֲבַשְֹּׂרֶךָ בְּשׂוֹרָה טוֹבָה, (בראשית מ, יג): בְּעוֹד שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים וגו', (בראשית מ, יד): כִּי אִם זְכַרְתַּנִּי אִתְּךָ (בראשית מ, טו): כִּי גֻּנֹּב גֻּנַבְתִּי, אָמַר רַב אַחָא מִכָּאן שֶׁנִּגְנַב שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, (בראשית מ, טו): וְגַם פֹּה לֹא עָשִׂיתִי וגו'. 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..." 87.6. And he did not listen to her to lie down with her - in this world. 'To be with her' in Gehena, in the world to come. And another opinion: 'He did not listen to her' he did not even touch her bed. A certain Roman Matron asked Rabbi Yosi: Is it really possible that Yosef, a young man of 17 resisted all his heat and did this? Rabbi Yosi took out the book of Bereshit and began reading for her the stories of Reuven and Bilhah, Yehudah and Tamar, and said: 'if with those, adults and under their father's authority the Scripture did not hide their misdeed, with this one, not an adult and by himself, all the more so it would have revealed the misdeed!"
25. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. (עזרא ט, ט) כי עבדים אנחנו ובעבדותנו לא עזבנו אלהינו ויט עלינו חסד לפני מלכי פרס אימתי בזמן המן,רבי חנינא בר פפא פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים סו, יב) הרכבת אנוש לראשנו באנו באש ובמים באש בימי נבוכדנצר הרשע ובמים בימי פרעה ותוציאנו לרויה בימי המן,רבי יוחנן פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים צח, ג) זכר חסדו ואמונתו לבית ישראל ראו כל אפסי ארץ את ישועת אלהינו אימתי ראו כל אפסי ארץ את ישועת אלהינו בימי מרדכי ואסתר,ריש לקיש פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (משלי כח, טו) ארי נוהם ודוב שוקק מושל רשע על עם דל ארי נוהם זה נבוכדנצר הרשע דכתיב ביה (ירמיהו ד, ז) עלה אריה מסובכו דוב שוקק זה אחשורוש דכתיב ביה (דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוה אחרי תניינה דמיה לדוב ותני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין בשר כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב,מושל רשע זה המן על עם דל אלו ישראל שהם דלים מן המצות,ר' אלעזר פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (קהלת י, יח) בעצלתים ימך המקרה ובשפלות ידים ידלוף הבית בשביל עצלות שהיה להם לישראל שלא עסקו בתורה נעשה שונאו של הקב"ה מך ואין מך אלא עני שנאמר (ויקרא כז, ח) ואם מך הוא מערכך ואין מקרה אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (תהלים קד, ג) המקרה במים עליותיו,רב נחמן בר יצחק פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים קכד, א) שיר המעלות לולי ה' שהיה לנו יאמר נא ישראל לולי ה' שהיה לנו בקום עלינו אדם (תהלים קכד,ב) אדם ולא מלך,רבא פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (משלי כט, ב) ברבות צדיקים ישמח העם ובמשול רשע יאנח עם ברבות צדיקים ישמח העם זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב והעיר שושן צהלה ושמחה ובמשול רשע יאנח עם זה המן דכתיב והעיר שושן נבוכה,רב מתנה אמר מהכא (דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברים ד, לד) או הנסה אלהים וגו',ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רב ויי והי הדא דכתיב (דברים כח, סח) והתמכרתם שם לאויביך לעבדים ולשפחות וגו',ושמואל אמר (ויקרא כו, מד) לא מאסתים ולא געלתים לכלותם לא מאסתים בימי יוונים ולא געלתים בימי נבוכדנצר לכלותם בימי המן להפר בריתי אתם בימי פרסיים כי אני ה' אלהיהם בימי גוג ומגוג,במתניתא תנא לא מאסתים בימי כשדים שהעמדתי להם דניאל חנניה מישאל ועזריה ולא געלתים בימי יוונים שהעמדתי להם שמעון הצדיק וחשמונאי ובניו ומתתיה כה"ג לכלותם בימי המן שהעמדתי להם מרדכי ואסתר להפר בריתי אתם בימי פרסיים שהעמדתי להם של בית רבי וחכמי דורות כי אני ה' אלהיהם לעתיד לבוא שאין כל אומה ולשון יכולה לשלוט בהם,רבי לוי אמר מהכא (במדבר לג, נה) ואם לא תורישו את יושבי הארץ,רבי חייא אמר מהכא (במדבר לג, נו) והיה כאשר דמיתי לעשות להם אעשה לכם,אחשורוש אמר רב אחיו של ראש ובן גילו של ראש אחיו של ראש אחיו של נבוכדנצר הרשע שנקרא ראש שנאמר (דניאל ב, לח) אנת הוא רישא די דהבא בן גילו של ראש הוא הרג הוא ביקש להרוג הוא החריב הוא ביקש להחריב שנאמר (עזרא ד, ו) ובמלכות אחשורוש בתחלת מלכותו כתבו שטנה על יושבי יהודה וירושלם,ושמואל אמר שהושחרו פניהם של ישראל בימיו כשולי קדרה ורבי יוחנן אמר כל שזוכרו אמר אח לראשו ורבי חנינא אמר שהכל נעשו רשין בימיו שנאמר (אסתר י, א) וישם המלך אחשורוש מס,הוא אחשורוש הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו (בראשית לו, מג) הוא עשו הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו (במדבר כו, ט) הוא דתן ואבירם הן ברשען מתחילתן ועד סופן (דברי הימים ב כח, כב) הוא המלך אחז הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו,(דברי הימים א א, כז) אברם הוא אברהם הוא בצדקו מתחילתו ועד סופו (שמות ו, כו) הוא אהרן ומשה הן בצדקן מתחילתן ועד סופן (שמואל א יז, יד) ודוד הוא הקטן הוא בקטנותו מתחילתו עד סופו כשם שבקטנותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו בתורה כך במלכותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו בחכמה,המולך אמר רב שמלך מעצמו אמרי לה לשבח ואמרי לה לגנאי אמרי לה לשבח דלא הוה איניש דחשיב למלכא כוותיה ואמרי לה לגנאי דלא הוה חזי למלכותא וממונא יתירא הוא דיהב וקם,מהודו ועד כוש רב ושמואל חד אמר הודו בסוף העולם וכוש בסוף העולם וחד אמר הודו וכוש גבי הדדי הוו קיימי כשם שמלך על הודו וכוש כך מלך מסוף העולם ועד סופו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (מלכים א ה, ד) כי הוא רודה בכל עבר הנהר מתפסח ועד עזה רב ושמואל חד אמר תפסח בסוף העולם ועזה בסוף העולם וחד אמר תפסח ועזה בהדי הדדי הוו קיימי כשם שמלך על תפסח ועל עזה כך מלך על כל העולם כולו,שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה אמר רב חסדא בתחילה מלך על שבע ולבסוף מלך על עשרים ולבסוף מלך על מאה אלא מעתה (שמות ו, כ) ושני חיי עמרם שבע ושלשים ומאת שנה מאי דרשת ביה שאני הכא דקרא יתירא הוא מכדי כתיב מהודו ועד כוש שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה למה לי ש"מ לדרשה:,תנו רבנן שלשה מלכו בכיפה ואלו הן אחאב ואחשורוש ונבוכדנצר אחאב דכתיב (מלכים א יח, י) חי ה' אלהיך אם יש גוי וממלכה אשר לא שלח אדוני שם לבקשך וגו' ואי לא דהוה מליך עלייהו היכי מצי משבע להו,נבוכדנצר דכתיב (ירמיהו כז, ח) והיה הגוי והממלכה אשר לא יתן את צוארו בעול מלך בבל אחשורוש הא דאמרן 11a. b“For we are bondmen; yet our God has not forsaken us in our bondage, but has extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia”(Ezra 9:9). bWhendid this occur? bIn the time of Haman. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa introduced this passage with an introduction from here:The verse states: b“You have caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water;but You brought us out into abundance” (Psalms 66:12). b“Through fire”;this was bin the days of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar,who cast the righteous into the furnace. b“And through water”;this was bin the days of Pharaoh,who decreed that all newborn males be cast into the water. b“But You brought us out into abundance”;this was bin the days of Haman,where abundant feasts played a pivotal role in their peril and salvation., bRabbi Yoḥa introduced this passage with an introduction from here:The verse states: b“He has remembered His mercy and His faithfulness toward the house of Israel: All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God”(Psalms 98:3). bWhen did all the ends of the earth see the salvation of our God? In the days of Mordecai and Esther,for their peril and salvation became known through the letters sent throughout the empire., bReish Lakish introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “As a roaring lion, and a ravenous bear, so is a wicked ruler over a poor people”(Proverbs 28:15). b“A roaring lion”; this is the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, as it is written about him: “The lion has come up from his thicket”(Jeremiah 4:7). b“A hungry bear”; this is Ahasuerus, as it is written about him: “And behold, another beast, a second one, like a bear”(Daniel 7:5). bAnd Rav Yosef taughtthat bthesewho are referred to as a bear in the verse bare the Persians.They are compared to a bear, bas they eat and drinkin large quantities blike a bear; and they are coated with flesh like a bear; and they grow their hairlong blike a bear; and they never rest like a bear,whose manner it is to move about from place to place., b“A wicked ruler”; this is Haman. “Over a poor people”; this is the Jewish people,who are referred to in this manner bbecause they are poor intheir observance of bthe mitzvot. /b, bRabbi Elazar introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Through laziness the rafters [ ihamekare /i] sink in [ iyimakh /i]; and through idleness of the hands the house leaks”(Ecclesiastes 10:18). Rabbi Elazar interprets the verse homiletically: bThrough the laziness of the Jewish people, who did not occupy themselves with Torahstudy, bthe enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He,a euphemism for God Himself, bbecame poor [ imakh /i],so that, as it were, He was unable to help them, bas imakh /iis bnothing other than poor, as it is stated: “But if he be too poor [ imakh /i] for the valuation”(Leviticus 27:8). bAndthe word imekare /iin the verse bis referringto bnoone bother than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Who lays the beams [ ihamekare /i] of His chambers in the waters”(Psalms 104:3)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “A song of ascentsof David. bIf not for the Lord Who was with us, let Israel now say; if not for the Lord who was with us, when a man rose up against us”(Psalms 124:1–2). The verse speaks of b“a man”who rose up against us band not a king.This occurred in the days of Haman, as he, and not King Ahasuerus, was the chief enemy of the Jewish people., bRava introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “When the righteous are on the increase, the people rejoice; but when the wicked man rules, the people mourn”(Proverbs 29:2). b“When the righteous are on the increase, the people rejoice”; this is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad”(Esther 8:15). b“But when the wicked man rules, the people mourn”; this is Haman, as it is written: “But the city of Shushan was perplexed”(Esther 3:15)., bRav Mattana saidhis introduction bfrom here: “For what nation is there so great, that has God so near to them”(Deuteronomy 4:7), as to witness the great miracles in the days of Mordecai and Esther? bRav Ashi saidhis introduction bfrom here:The verse states: b“Or has God venturedto go and take Him a nation from the midst of another nation?” (Deuteronomy 4:34), as in the times of Esther, God saved the Jewish people who were scattered throughout the Persian Empire.,§ The Gemara returns to its interpretation of the book of Esther. The verse states: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1). bRav said:The word ivayhimay be understood as if it said ivaiand ihi /i,meaning bwoe and mourning. This is as it is written: “And there you shall sell yourselves to your enemies for bondsmen and bondswomen,and no man shall buy you” (Deuteronomy 28:68). The repetitive nature of the verse, indicating that no one will be willing to buy you for servitude, but they will purchase you in order to murder you, indicates a doubly horrific situation, which is symbolized by the dual term ivayhi /i, meaning woe and mourning., bAnd Shmuel saidhis introduction from here: “And yet for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, bI will not reject them, nor will I abhor them,to destroy them utterly, and to break My covet with them; for I am the Lord their God” (Leviticus 26:44). Shmuel explains: b“I will not reject them”;this was bin the days of the Greeks. “Nor will I abhor them”;this was bin the days ofVespasian. b“To destroy them utterly”;this was bin the days of Haman. “To break My covet with them”;this was bin the days of the Persians. “For I am the Lord their God”;this is bin the days of Gog and Magog. /b,An alternative understanding bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: “I will not reject them”;this was bin the days of the Chaldeans, when I appointed for them Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariahto pray on their behalf. b“Nor will I abhor them”;this was bin the days of the Greeks, when I appointed Shimon HaTzaddik for them, andthe bHasmonean and his sons, and Mattithiah the High Priest. “To destroy them utterly”;this was bin the days of Haman, when I appointed for themthe righteous leaders bMordecai and Esther. “To break My covet with them”;this was bin the days of the Romans, when I appointed for themthe Sages of bthe house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi band the Sages ofother bgenerations. “For I am the Lord their God”;this will be bin the future, when no nation orpeople of a foreign btongue will be ableto bsubjugate themfurther., bRabbi Levi saidhis introduction bfrom here: “But if you will not drive out the inhabitants of the landfrom before you, then it shall come to pass, that those whom you allow to remain of them shall be as thorns in your eyes” (Numbers 33:55). King Saul’s failure to completely annihilate Amalek allowed for the existence of his descendant Haman, who acted as a thorn in the eyes of Israel during the Purim episode., bRabbi Ḥiyya saidhis introduction bfrom here,the continuation of the previously cited verse: b“And it shall come to pass, that as I thought to do unto them, so I shall do unto you”(Numbers 33:56). Prior to the miracle of Purim, the Jewish people were subject to the punishment that the Torah designated for its enemies, because they did not fulfill God’s commandments.,The Gemara continues with its explanation of the book of Esther, beginning with a discussion of the name bAhasuerus. Rav said:The name should be viewed as a contraction: bThe brother of the head [ iaḥiv shel rosh /i] and of the same character as the head [ iben gilo shel rosh /i].Rav explains: bThe brother of the head,i.e., bthe brother of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who is called “head,” as it is stated: “You are the head of gold”(Daniel 2:38). bof the same character as the head, for he,Nebuchadnezzar, bkilledthe Jews, and bhe,Ahasuerus, bsought to killthem. bHe destroyedthe Temple, and bhe sought to destroythe foundations for the Temple laid by Zerubbabel, bas it is stated: “And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, they wrote to him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem”(Ezra 4:6), and he ordered that the construction of the Temple cease., bAnd Shmuel said:The name Ahasuerus should be understood in the sense of black [ ishaḥor /i], as bthe face of the Jewish people was blackened in his days like the bottom of a pot. And Rabbi Yoḥa saida different explanation: bEveryone who recalled him said: “Woe upon his head” [ iaḥ lerosho /i]. And Rabbi Ḥanina said:The name alludes to the fact bthat everyone became poor[irash /i] in his days, as it is stated: “And the king Ahasuerus laid a tributeupon the land” (Esther 10:1).,The Gemara continues: b“This is [ ihu /i] Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1); the term ihu /i, this is, comes to teach that bheremained as he was bin his wickedness from beginning to end.Similarly, wherever the words “this is” appear in this manner, the verse indicates that the individual under discussion remained the same from beginning to end, for example: b“This is [ ihu /i] Esau”(Genesis 36:43); bheremained bin his wickedness from beginning to end. “This is [ ihu /i] Dathan and Abiram”(Numbers 26:9); btheyremained bin their wickedness from beginning to end. “This is [ ihu /i] the king Ahaz”(II Chronicles 28:22); bheremained bin his wickedness from beginning to end. /b,The Gemara continues: The word ihuis also used to recognize sustained righteousness. b“Abram, this is [ ihu /i] Abraham”(I Chronicles 1:27); this indicates that Abraham didn’t change, as bheremained bin his righteousness from beginning to end.Similarly, b“This is [ ihu /i] Aaron and Moses”(Exodus 6:26); bthey remained in their righteousness fromthe bbeginningof their life btothe bendof their life. Similarly, with respect to David: b“And David, this was [ ihu /i] the youngest”(I Samuel 17:14), indicates that bhe remained in his humility from beginning to end. Just as in his youth,when he was still an ordinary individual, bhe humbled himself before anyone who was greater than him in Torah, so too, in his kingship, he humbled himself before anyone who was greater than him in wisdom. /b,The next term in the opening verse: b“Who reigned”(Esther 1:1), is now interpreted. bRav said:This comes to teach bthat he reigned on his own,without having inherited the throne. bSome saythis btohis bcredit, and some say it tohis bdisgrace.The Gemara explains: bSome saythis btohis bcredit, that there was noother bman as fit as him to be king. And some say it tohis bdisgrace, that he was not fit to be king, but he distributed large amounts of money, andin that way broseto the throne.,The opening verse continues that Ahasuerus reigned b“from Hodu to Cush.” Rav and Shmueldisagreed about its meaning. bOne said: Hoduis a country bat one end of the world, and Cushis a country bat theother bend of the world. And one said: Hodu and Cush are situated next to each other,and the verse means to say as follows: bJust asAhasuerus breignedwith ease boverthe adjacent countries of bHodu and Cush, so too, he reignedwith ease bfrom one end of the world to the other. /b, bOn a similarnote, byou saywith regard to Solomon: b“For he had dominion over all the region on this side of the river, from Tiphsah even to Gaza”(I Kings 5:4), and also with regard to this bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said: Tiphsah is at one end of the world, whereas Gaza is at the other end of the world. And one said: Tiphsah and Gaza are situated next to each other,and the verse means to say as follows: bJust asSolomon breignedwith ease boverthe adjacent bTiphsah and Gaza, so too, he reignedwith ease bover the entire world. /b,The opening verse continues, stating that Ahasuerus reigned “over bseven and twenty and a hundred provinces”(Esther 1:1). bRav Ḥisda said:This verse should be understood as follows: bAt first he reigned over sevenprovinces; band then he reigned over twentymore; band finally he reigned overanother bhundred.The Gemara asks: bHowever, ifthat is bso,with regard to the similarly worded verse: b“And the years of the life of Amram were seven and thirty and a hundred years”(Exodus 6:20), bwhat would you expoundfrom bit?The Gemara answers: bIt is different here,in the book of Esther, basthis part of bthe verse isentirely bsuperfluous. Since it isalready bwritten: “From Hodu to Cush,” whythen bdo I need “Seven and twenty and a hundred provinces”?Rather, blearn from herethat these words come bforthis bexposition,to teach that Ahasuerus did not begin to reign over all of them at the same time.,§ Apropos the discussion of the kingdoms of Ahasuerus and Solomon, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught: Threemen bruled over theentire bworld, and they were Ahab, and Ahasuerus, and Nebuchadnezzar.The Gemara explains: bAhab, as it is writtenin the words of Obadiah, servant of Ahab, to Elijah: b“As the Lord your God lives, there is no nation or kingdom where my master has not sent to seek you,and they said: He is not there; and he made the kingdom and nation swear, that they had not found you” (I Kings 18:10). bAnd if he did not reign over them, how could he have made them swear?Apparently, then, he reigned over the entire world., bNebuchadnezzaralso ruled over the whole world, bas it is written: “And it shall come to pass, that the nation and the kingdomthat not serve this same Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, and that bwill not put their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylonia,that nation will I visit, says the Lord, with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand” (Jeremiah 27:8). bAhasuerusalso ruled the world, bas we have saidabove.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ahasuerus Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95, 217
aquila Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
army, assyrian, cavalry Gera, Judith (2014) 141
army, assyrian, infantry Gera, Judith (2014) 141
army, assyrian, size and strength Gera, Judith (2014) 141
army, assyrian Gera, Judith (2014) 141
asa Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95
asi Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
assyrian royal inscriptions Gera, Judith (2014) 141
babylon and babylonians Gera, Judith (2014) 141
babylonian talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
bagoas Gera, Judith (2014) 141
bathsheba Gera, Judith (2014) 331
biblical women, as symbols Gera, Judith (2014) 331
biblical women, bathe Gera, Judith (2014) 331
biblical women, seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 331
bilhah Gera, Judith (2014) 331
book of judith, exaggerated numbers Gera, Judith (2014) 141
calendar Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 53, 54, 55, 58, 61, 62, 69
changing Gera, Judith (2014) 331
chariot Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
children Gera, Judith (2014) 331
counter narrative Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
darius i Gera, Judith (2014) 141
daughters, zion, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
david Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
drink Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 61
earth, entire Gera, Judith (2014) 141
egypt Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
emden, j. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 331
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 331
eupolemus Gera, Judith (2014) 141
faces Gera, Judith (2014) 141
festival Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
genesis rabbah, lives of patriarchs reveal paradigm of israels future Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 279
god, as king Gera, Judith (2014) 141
gold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
goshen Gera, Judith (2014) 141
great king Gera, Judith (2014) 141
hair Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
haman Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95; Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
haupt, p. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 141
hezekiah Gera, Judith (2014) 141
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 141
ibn ezra, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217
isaac Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95, 218
israel, future history of, in genesis rabbah Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 279
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 141, 331
joseph Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 279
judah Gera, Judith (2014) 331
judith, symbolic figure Gera, Judith (2014) 331
judith, widow Gera, Judith (2014) 331
karim Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
karpas Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
kings, titles and epithets Gera, Judith (2014) 141
language and style, book of judith, calques and hebraicisms Gera, Judith (2014) 141
language and style, book of judith, future forms Gera, Judith (2014) 141
language and style, book of judith, imperatives Gera, Judith (2014) 141
late antique period Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
maharsha (rabbi solomon eidels) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 331
megilla Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
messiah Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 299
moon Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 55
moore, c. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217
mordecai Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95; Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229; Gera, Judith (2014) 331
mourning Gera, Judith (2014) 331
nathan ben jehiel (arukh) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
nebuchadnezzar of judith, as rival of god Gera, Judith (2014) 141
nebuchadnezzar of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 141
neck Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
palestinian talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
parallels (between books) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
passim Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
passion Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
paton, l. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217
persia and persians Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
persian traces in judith Gera, Judith (2014) 141
pharaoh Gera, Judith (2014) 141; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
priest, high Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
priest Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
proems Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95
purim Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
rabbi shimon ben ḥalafta Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
rabbi ḥiyya the great Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
rabbinic judaism, dialectical analysis in Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 299
rabshakeh Gera, Judith (2014) 141
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
rav Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217, 218
rava Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95
reuben Gera, Judith (2014) 331
rome Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 331
salamis Gera, Judith (2014) 141
samuel Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217, 218
sennacherib Gera, Judith (2014) 141
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 331
silver Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
susanna Gera, Judith (2014) 331
talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 229
talmud of the land of israel Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 299
tamar, judahs daughter in law Gera, Judith (2014) 331
tiglath-pileser iii Gera, Judith (2014) 141
toga Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
vah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95
vay Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95
water shortage Gera, Judith (2014) 331
widows, clothing of Gera, Judith (2014) 331
widows Gera, Judith (2014) 331
xenophon Gera, Judith (2014) 141
xerxes Gera, Judith (2014) 141
yefeh anaf (by rabbi samuel jaffe) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 95
yose bar ḥanina Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 218
zion Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 964
ḥur' Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 217