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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6280
Hebrew Bible, Esther, 7.6


וַתֹּאמֶר־אֶסְתֵּר אִישׁ צַר וְאוֹיֵב הָמָן הָרָע הַזֶּה וְהָמָן נִבְעַת מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמַּלְכָּה׃And Esther said: ‘An adversary and an enemy, even this wicked Haman.’ Then Haman was terrified before the king and the queen.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 25.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.7. וְאִם־לֹא יַחְפֹּץ הָאִישׁ לָקַחַת אֶת־יְבִמְתּוֹ וְעָלְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ הַשַּׁעְרָה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים וְאָמְרָה מֵאֵין יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי׃ 25.7. And if the man like not to take his brother’s wife, then his brother’s wife shall go up to the gate unto the elders, and say: ‘My husband’s brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel; he will not perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto me.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.7-1.8, 1.10-1.12, 2.5, 3.8-3.11, 4.16, 5.1, 5.4, 5.6, 5.9, 6.1, 7.1-7.5, 7.7-7.10, 8.16, 9.5-9.16, 9.24, 10.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. וְהַשְׁקוֹת בִּכְלֵי זָהָב וְכֵלִים מִכֵּלִים שׁוֹנִים וְיֵין מַלְכוּת רָב כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.8. וְהַשְּׁתִיָּה כַדָּת אֵין אֹנֵס כִּי־כֵן יִסַּד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל כָּל־רַב בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כִּרְצוֹן אִישׁ־וָאִישׁ׃ 1.11. לְהָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּכֶתֶר מַלְכוּת לְהַרְאוֹת הָעַמִּים וְהַשָּׂרִים אֶת־יָפְיָהּ כִּי־טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה הִיא׃ 1.12. וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃ 2.5. אִישׁ יְהוּדִי הָיָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי בֶּן יָאִיר בֶּן־שִׁמְעִי בֶּן־קִישׁ אִישׁ יְמִינִי׃ 3.8. וַיֹּאמֶר הָמָן לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם־אֶחָד מְפֻזָּר וּמְפֹרָד בֵּין הָעַמִּים בְּכֹל מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתֶךָ וְדָתֵיהֶם שֹׁנוֹת מִכָּל־עָם וְאֶת־דָּתֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵינָם עֹשִׂים וְלַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין־שֹׁוֶה לְהַנִּיחָם׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 5.1. וַיִּתְאַפַּק הָמָן וַיָּבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיָּבֵא אֶת־אֹהֲבָיו וְאֶת־זֶרֶשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַתִּלְבַּשׁ אֶסְתֵּר מַלְכוּת וַתַּעֲמֹד בַּחֲצַר בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ הַפְּנִימִית נֹכַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא מַלְכוּתוֹ בְּבֵית הַמַּלְכוּת נֹכַח פֶּתַח הַבָּיִת׃ 5.4. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יָבוֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן הַיּוֹם אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ׃ 5.6. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר בְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ וְיִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עַד־חֲצִי הַמַּלְכוּת וְתֵעָשׂ׃ 5.9. וַיֵּצֵא הָמָן בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שָׂמֵחַ וְטוֹב לֵב וְכִרְאוֹת הָמָן אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַי בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְלֹא־קָם וְלֹא־זָע מִמֶּנּוּ וַיִּמָּלֵא הָמָן עַל־מָרְדֳּכַי חֵמָה׃ 6.1. בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא נָדְדָה שְׁנַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר הַזִּכְרֹנוֹת דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וַיִּהְיוּ נִקְרָאִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 6.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהָמָן מַהֵר קַח אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן לְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תַּפֵּל דָּבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 7.1. וַיִּתְלוּ אֶת־הָמָן עַל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־הֵכִין לְמָרְדֳּכָי וַחֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁכָכָה׃ 7.1. וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן לִשְׁתּוֹת עִם־אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה׃ 7.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר גַּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי בְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וְתִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עַד־חֲצִי הַמַּלְכוּת וְתֵעָשׂ׃ 7.3. וַתַּעַן אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וַתֹּאמַר אִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב תִּנָּתֶן־לִי נַפְשִׁי בִּשְׁאֵלָתִי וְעַמִּי בְּבַקָּשָׁתִי׃ 7.4. כִּי נִמְכַּרְנוּ אֲנִי וְעַמִּי לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרוֹג וּלְאַבֵּד וְאִלּוּ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת נִמְכַּרְנוּ הֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי כִּי אֵין הַצָּר שֹׁוֶה בְּנֵזֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 7.5. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה מִי הוּא זֶה וְאֵי־זֶה הוּא אֲשֶׁר־מְלָאוֹ לִבּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן׃ 7.7. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ קָם בַּחֲמָתוֹ מִמִּשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן אֶל־גִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן וְהָמָן עָמַד לְבַקֵּשׁ עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ מֵאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה כִּי רָאָה כִּי־כָלְתָה אֵלָיו הָרָעָה מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 7.8. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁב מִגִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן אֶל־בֵּית מִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן וְהָמָן נֹפֵל עַל־הַמִּטָּה אֲשֶׁר אֶסְתֵּר עָלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲגַם לִכְבּוֹשׁ אֶת־הַמַּלְכָּה עִמִּי בַּבָּיִת הַדָּבָר יָצָא מִפִּי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּפְנֵי הָמָן חָפוּ׃ 7.9. וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן־הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ גַּם הִנֵּה־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־טוֹב עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן גָּבֹהַּ חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו׃ 8.16. לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָר׃ 9.5. וַיַּכּוּ הַיְּהוּדִים בְּכָל־אֹיְבֵיהֶם מַכַּת־חֶרֶב וְהֶרֶג וְאַבְדָן וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם כִּרְצוֹנָם׃ 9.6. וּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ׃ 9.7. וְאֵת פַּרְשַׁנְדָּתָא וְאֵת דַּלְפוֹן וְאֵת אַסְפָּתָא׃ 9.8. וְאֵת פּוֹרָתָא וְאֵת אֲדַלְיָא וְאֵת אֲרִידָתָא׃ 9.9. וְאֵת פַּרְמַשְׁתָּא וְאֵת אֲרִיסַי וְאֵת אֲרִדַי וְאֵת וַיְזָתָא׃ 9.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא בָּא מִסְפַּר הַהֲרוּגִים בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן בִּשְׁאָר מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ מֶה עָשׂוּ וּמַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ וְיִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עוֹד וְתֵעָשׂ׃ 9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.14. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן תָּלוּ׃ 9.15. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָם׃ 9.16. וּשְׁאָר הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בִּמְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ נִקְהֲלוּ וְעָמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם וְנוֹחַ מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהָרֹג בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁבְעִים אָלֶף וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָם׃ 9.24. כִּי הָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים לְאַבְּדָם וְהִפִּיל פּוּר הוּא הַגּוֹרָל לְהֻמָּם וּלְאַבְּדָם׃ 10.3. כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי מִשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וְגָדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְרָצוּי לְרֹב אֶחָיו דֹּרֵשׁ טוֹב לְעַמּוֹ וְדֹבֵר שָׁלוֹם לְכָל־זַרְעוֹ׃ 1.7. And they gave them drink in vessels of gold—the vessels being diverse one from another—and royal wine in abundance, according to the bounty of the king." 1.8. And the drinking was according to the law; none did compel; for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man’s pleasure." 1.10. On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Bizzetha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that ministered in the presence of Ahasuerus the king," 1.11. to bring Vashti the queen before the king with the crown royal, to show the peoples and the princes her beauty; for she was fair to look on." 1.12. But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him." 2.5. There was a certain Jew in Shushan the castle, whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish, a Benjamite," 3.8. And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus: ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws are diverse from those of every people; neither keep they the king’s laws; therefore it profiteth not the king to suffer them." 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’" 5.1. Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king’s house, over against the king’s house; and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the entrance of the house." 5.4. And Esther said: ‘If it seem good unto the king, let the king and Haman come this day unto the banquet that I have prepared for him.’" 5.6. And the king said unto Esther at the banquet of wine: ‘Whatever thy petition, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request, even to the half of the kingdom, it shall be performed.’" 5.9. Then went Haman forth that day joyful and glad of heart; but when Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, Haman was filled with wrath against Mordecai." 6.1. On that night could not the king sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king." 7.1. So the king and Haman came to banquet with Esther the queen." 7.2. And the king said again unto Esther on the second day at the banquet of wine: ‘Whatever thy petition, queen Esther, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request, even to the half of the kingdom, it shall be performed.’" 7.3. Then Esther the queen answered and said: ‘If I have found favour in thy sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request;" 7.4. for we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my peace, for the adversary is not worthy that the king be endamaged.’" 7.5. Then spoke the king Ahasuerus and said unto Esther the queen: ‘Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?’" 7.7. And the king arose in his wrath from the banquet of wine and went into the palace garden; but Haman remained to make request for his life to Esther the queen; for he saw that there was evil determined against him by the king." 7.8. Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the couch whereon Esther was. Then said the king: ‘Will he even force the queen before me in the house?’ As the word went out of the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face." 7.9. Then said Harbonah, one of the chamberlains that were before the king: ‘Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman hath made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman.’ And the king said: ‘Hang him thereon.’" 7.10. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath assuaged." 8.16. The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honour." 9.5. And the Jews smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword, and with slaughter and destruction, and did what they would unto them that hated them." 9.6. And in Shushan the castle the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men." 9.7. And Parshandatha, and Dalphon, and Aspatha," 9.8. and Poratha, and Adalia, and Aridatha," 9.9. and Parmashta, and Arisai, and Aridai, and Vaizatha," 9.10. the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Jews’enemy, slew they; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.11. On that day the number of those that were slain in Shushan the castle was brought before the king." 9.12. And the king said unto Esther the queen: ‘The Jews have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the castle, and the ten sons of Haman; what then have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces! Now whatever thy petition, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request further, it shall be done.’" 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’" 9.14. And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons." 9.15. And the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men in Shushan; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.16. And the other Jews that were in the king’s provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of them that hated them seventy and five thousand—but on the spoil they laid not their hand—. 9.24. because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had cast pur, that is, the lot, to discomfit them, and to destroy them;" 10.3. For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren; seeking the good of his people and speaking peace to all his seed."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 24.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.11. וַיִּקֹּב בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית אֶת־הַשֵּׁם וַיְקַלֵּל וַיָּבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ שְׁלֹמִית בַּת־דִּבְרִי לְמַטֵּה־דָן׃ 24.11. And the son of the Israelitish woman blasphemed the Name, and cursed; and they brought him unto Moses. And his mother’s name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan."
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 17.12, 25.36-25.38 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.12. וְדָוִד בֶּן־אִישׁ אֶפְרָתִי הַזֶּה מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה וּשְׁמוֹ יִשַׁי וְלוֹ שְׁמֹנָה בָנִים וְהָאִישׁ בִּימֵי שָׁאוּל זָקֵן בָּא בַאֲנָשִׁים׃ 25.36. וַתָּבֹא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶל־נָבָל וְהִנֵּה־לוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ וְלֵב נָבָל טוֹב עָלָיו וְהוּא שִׁכֹּר עַד־מְאֹד וְלֹא־הִגִּידָה לּוֹ דָּבָר קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל עַד־אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר׃ 25.37. וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר בְּצֵאת הַיַּיִן מִנָּבָל וַתַּגֶּד־לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיָּמָת לִבּוֹ בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְהוּא הָיָה לְאָבֶן׃ 25.38. וַיְהִי כַּעֲשֶׂרֶת הַיָּמִים וַיִּגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־נָבָל וַיָּמֹת׃ 17.12. Now David was the son of that Efrati of Bet-leĥem-yehuda, whose name was Yishay; and he had eight sons: and the man was old in the days of Sha᾽ul, an aged man." 25.36. And Avigayil came to Naval; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Naval’s heart was merry within him, for he was very drunk: and so she told him nothing, less or more, until the morning light." 25.37. But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Naval, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone." 25.38. And it came to pass about ten days after, that the Lord smote Naval, and he died."
5. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.16-4.22, 5.24-5.27, 14.10, 14.14, 14.17-14.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.16. וּבָרָק רָדַף אַחֲרֵי הָרֶכֶב וְאַחֲרֵי הַמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲרֹשֶׁת הַגּוֹיִם וַיִּפֹּל כָּל־מַחֲנֵה סִיסְרָא לְפִי־חֶרֶב לֹא נִשְׁאַר עַד־אֶחָד׃ 4.17. וְסִיסְרָא נָס בְּרַגְלָיו אֶל־אֹהֶל יָעֵל אֵשֶּׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי כִּי שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יָבִין מֶלֶךְ־חָצוֹר וּבֵין בֵּית חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי׃ 4.18. וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרַאת סִיסְרָא וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו סוּרָה אֲדֹנִי סוּרָה אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא וַיָּסַר אֵלֶיהָ הָאֹהֱלָה וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָה׃ 4.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הַשְׁקִינִי־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם כִּי צָמֵאתִי וַתִּפְתַּח אֶת־נֹאוד הֶחָלָב וַתַּשְׁקֵהוּ וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ׃ 4.21. וַתִּקַּח יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת־חֶבֶר אֶת־יְתַד הָאֹהֶל וַתָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַמַּקֶּבֶת בְּיָדָהּ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו בַּלָּאט וַתִּתְקַע אֶת־הַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ וַתִּצְנַח בָּאָרֶץ וְהוּא־נִרְדָּם וַיָּעַף וַיָּמֹת׃ 4.22. וְהִנֵּה בָרָק רֹדֵף אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֵךְ וְאַרְאֶךָּ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וְהִנֵּה סִיסְרָא נֹפֵל מֵת וְהַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ׃ 5.24. תְּבֹרַךְ מִנָּשִׁים יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי מִנָּשִׁים בָּאֹהֶל תְּבֹרָךְ׃ 5.25. מַיִם שָׁאַל חָלָב נָתָנָה בְּסֵפֶל אַדִּירִים הִקְרִיבָה חֶמְאָה׃ 5.26. יָדָהּ לַיָּתֵד תִּשְׁלַחְנָה וִימִינָהּ לְהַלְמוּת עֲמֵלִים וְהָלְמָה סִיסְרָא מָחֲקָה רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָחֲצָה וְחָלְפָה רַקָּתוֹ׃ 5.27. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד׃ 14.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֵהָאֹכֵל יָצָא מַאֲכָל וּמֵעַז יָצָא מָתוֹק וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לְהַגִּיד הַחִידָה שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים׃ 14.17. וַתֵּבְךְּ עָלָיו שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה לָהֶם הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיַּגֶּד־לָהּ כִּי הֱצִיקַתְהוּ וַתַּגֵּד הַחִידָה לִבְנֵי עַמָּהּ׃ 14.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַחַרְסָה מַה־מָּתוֹק מִדְּבַשׁ וּמֶה עַז מֵאֲרִי וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לוּלֵא חֲרַשְׁתֶּם בְּעֶגְלָתִי לֹא מְצָאתֶם חִידָתִי׃ 14.19. וַתִּצְלַח עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה וַיֵּרֶד אַשְׁקְלוֹן וַיַּךְ מֵהֶם שְׁלֹשִׁים אִישׁ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־חֲלִיצוֹתָם וַיִּתֵּן הַחֲלִיפוֹת לְמַגִּידֵי הַחִידָה וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ וַיַּעַל בֵּית אָבִיהוּ׃ 4.16. But Baraq pursued after the chariots, and after the host, as far as Ĥaroshet-haggoyim: and all the host of Sisera fell by the edge of the sword; there was not a man left." 4.17. But Sisera fled away by foot to the tent of Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite: for there was peace between Yavin the king of Ĥażor and the house of Ĥever the Qeni." 4.18. And Ya᾽el went out to meet Sisera, and said to him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in to her into the tent, she covered him with a blanket." 4.19. And he said to her, Give me, I pray thee, a little water to drink; for I am thirsty. And she opened a bottle of milk, and gave him drink, and covered him." 4.20. Then he said to her, Stand in the door of the tent, and it shall be, if any man comes and inquires of thee, and says, Is there anyone here? that thou shalt say, No." 4.21. Then Ya᾽el Ĥever’s wife took a tent peg, and took a hammer in her hand, and went softly to him, and drove the tent peg into his temple, and fastened it to the ground: for he was fast asleep and weary. So he died." 4.22. And, behold, as Baraq pursued Sisera, Ya᾽el came out to meet him, and said to him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera lay dead, and the peg in his temple." 5.24. Blessed above women is Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite, blessed is she more than women in the tent." 5.25. He asked water, but she gave him milk; she brought forth cream in a lordly dish." 5.26. She put her hand to the tent peg, and her right hand to the workmen’s hammer; and she hammered Sisera, she smote through his head; she crushed and pierced his temple." 5.27. At her feet he bent, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bent, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down, bereft of life." 14.10. So his father went down to the woman: and Shimshon made there a feast; for so used the young men to do." 14.14. And he said to them, Out of the eater came forth food, and out of the strong came forth sweetness. And they could not in three days expound the riddle." 14.17. And she wept before him the seven days, while their feast lasted: and it came to pass on the seventh day, that he told her, because she harassed him: and she told the riddle to the children of her people." 14.18. And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down, What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion? And he said to them, If you had not ploughed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle." 14.19. And the spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he went down to Ashqelon, and slew thirty men of them, and took their clothing, and gave the changes of garments to them who had expounded the riddle. And his anger burned, and he went up to his father’s house."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 6.2 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.2. אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִתֶּן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׁר וּנְכָסִים וְכָבוֹד וְאֵינֶנּוּ חָסֵר לְנַפְשׁוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִתְאַוֶּה וְלֹא־יַשְׁלִיטֶנּוּ הָאֱלֹהִים לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי אִישׁ נָכְרִי יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ זֶה הֶבֶל וָחֳלִי רָע הוּא׃ 6.2. a man to whom God giveth riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it; this is vanity, and it is an evil disease."
7. Herodotus, Histories, 1.73, 1.106, 1.118-1.119, 1.211, 2.100, 2.107, 3.32, 3.121, 5.18-5.20, 9.108-9.113 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.73. The reasons for Croesus' expedition against Cappadocia were these: he desired to gain territory in addition to his own, and (these were the chief causes) he trusted the oracle and wished to avenge Astyages on Cyrus; for Cyrus, son of Cambyses, had conquered Astyages and held him in subjection. ,Now Astyages, son of Cyaxares and the king of Media, was Croesus' brother-in-law: and this is how he came to be so. ,A tribe of wandering Scythians separated itself from the rest, and escaped into Median territory. This was then ruled by Cyaxares, son of Phraortes, son of Deioces. Cyaxares at first treated the Scythians kindly, as suppliants for his mercy; and, as he had a high regard for them, he entrusted boys to their tutelage to be taught their language and the skill of archery. ,As time went on, it happened that the Scythians, who were accustomed to go hunting and always to bring something back, once had taken nothing, and when they returned empty-handed, Cyaxares treated them very roughly and contemptuously (being, as appears from this, prone to anger). ,The Scythians, feeling themselves wronged by the treatment they had from Cyaxares, planned to take one of the boys who were their pupils and cut him in pieces; then, dressing the flesh as they were accustomed to dress the animals which they killed, to bring and give it to Cyaxares as if it were the spoils of the hunt; and after that, to make their way with all speed to Alyattes son of Sadyattes at Sardis . All this they did. ,Cyaxares and the guests who ate with him dined on the boy's flesh, and the Scythians, having done as they planned, fled to Alyattes for protection. 1.106. The Scythians, then, ruled Asia for twenty-eight years: and the whole land was ruined because of their violence and their pride, for, besides exacting from each the tribute which was assessed, they rode about the land carrying off everyone's possessions. ,Most of them were entertained and made drunk and then slain by Cyaxares and the Medes: so thus the Medes took back their empire and all that they had formerly possessed; and they took Ninus (how, I will describe in a later part of my history), and brought all Assyria except the province of Babylon under their rule. 1.118. Harpagus told the story straight, while Astyages, hiding the anger that he felt against him for what had been done, first repeated the story again to Harpagus exactly as he had heard it from the cowherd, then, after repeating it, ended by saying that the boy was alive and that the matter had turned out well. ,“For,” he said, “I was greatly afflicted by what had been done to this boy, and it weighed heavily on me that I was estranged from my daughter. Now, then, in this good turn of fortune, send your own son to this boy newly come, and (since I am about to sacrifice for the boy's safety to the gods to whom this honor is due) come here to dine with me.” 1.119. When Harpagus heard this, he bowed and went to his home, very pleased to find that his offense had turned out for the best and that he was invited to dinner in honor of this fortunate day. ,Coming in, he told his only son, a boy of about thirteen years of age, to go to Astyages' palace and do whatever the king commanded, and in his great joy he told his wife everything that had happened. ,But when Harpagus' son came, Astyages cut his throat and tore him limb from limb, roasted some of the flesh and boiled some, and kept it ready after he had prepared it. ,So when the hour for dinner came and the rest of the guests and Harpagus were present, Astyages and the others were served dishes of lamb's meat, but Harpagus that of his own son, all but the head and hands and feet, which lay apart covered up in a wicker basket. ,And when Harpagus seemed to have eaten his fill, Astyages asked him, “Did you like your meal, Harpagus?” “Exceedingly,” Harpagus answered. Then those whose job it was brought him the head of his son and hands and feet concealed in the basket, and they stood before Harpagus and told him to open and take what he liked. ,Harpagus did; he opened and saw what was left of his son: he saw this, but mastered himself and did not lose his composure. Astyages asked him, “Do you know what beast's meat you have eaten?” ,“I know,” he said, “and all that the king does is pleasing.” With that answer he took the remains of the meat and went home. There he meant, I suppose, after collecting everything, to bury it. 1.211. After having given this answer and crossed the Araxes, Hystaspes went to Persia to watch his son for Cyrus; and Cyrus, advancing a day's journey from the Araxes, acted according to Croesus' advice. ,Cyrus and the sound portion of the Persian army marched back to the Araxes, leaving behind those that were useless; a third of the Massagetae forces attacked those of the army who were left behind and destroyed them despite resistance; then, when they had overcome their enemies, seeing the banquet spread they sat down and feasted, and after they had had their fill of food and wine, they fell asleep. ,Then the Persians attacked them, killing many and taking many more alive, among whom was the son of Tomyris the queen, Spargapises by name, the leader of the Massagetae. 2.100. After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men. ,The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery. ,She built a spacious underground chamber; then, with the pretence of inaugurating it, but with quite another intent in her mind, she gave a great feast, inviting to it those Egyptians whom she knew to have had the most complicity in her brother's murder; and while they feasted, she let the river in upon them by a vast secret channel. ,This was all that the priests told of her, except that when she had done this she cast herself into a chamber full of hot ashes, to escape vengeance. 2.107. Now when this Egyptian Sesostris (so the priests said) reached Daphnae of Pelusium on his way home, leading many captives from the peoples whose lands he had subjugated, his brother, whom he had left in charge in Egypt, invited him and his sons to a banquet and then piled wood around the house and set it on fire. ,When Sesostris was aware of this, he at once consulted his wife, whom (it was said) he had with him; and she advised him to lay two of his six sons on the fire and make a bridge over the burning so that they could walk over the bodies of the two and escape. This Sesostris did; two of his sons were thus burnt but the rest escaped alive with their father. 3.32. There are two tales of her death, as there are of the death of Smerdis. The Greeks say that Cambyses had set a lion cub to fight a puppy, and that this woman was watching too; and that as the puppy was losing, its brother broke its leash and came to help, and the two dogs together got the better of the cub. ,Cambyses, they say, was pleased with the sight, but the woman wept as she sat by. Cambyses perceiving it asked why she wept, and she said that when she saw the puppy help its brother she had wept, recalling Smerdis and knowing that there would be no avenger for him. ,For saying this, according to the Greek story, she was killed by Cambyses. But the Egyptian tale is that as the two sat at table the woman took a lettuce and plucked off the leaves, then asked her husband whether he preferred the look of it with or without leaves. “With the leaves,” he said; whereupon she answered: ,“Yet you have stripped Cyrus' house as bare as this lettuce.” Angered at this, they say, he sprang upon her, who was great with child, and she miscarried and died of the hurt he gave her. 3.121. A few people, however, say that when Oroetes sent a herald to Samos with some request (it is not said what this was), the herald found Polycrates lying in the men's apartments, in the company of Anacreon of Teos ; ,and, whether on purpose to show contempt for Oroetes, or by mere chance, when Oroetes' herald entered and addressed him, Polycrates, then lying with his face to the wall, never turned or answered him. 5.18. The Persians who had been sent as envoys came to Amyntas and demanded earth and water for Darius the king. He readily gave to them what they asked and invited them to be his guests, preparing a dinner of great splendor and receiving them hospitably. ,After dinner, the Persians said to Amyntas as they sat drinking together, “Macedonian, our host, it is our custom in Persia to bring in also the concubines and wedded wives to sit by the men after the giving of any great banquet. We ask you, then, (since you have received us heartily, are entertaining us nobly and are giving Darius our king earth and water) to follow our custom.” ,To this Amyntas replied, “ We have no such custom, Persians. Among us, men and women sit apart, but since you are our masters and are making this request, it shall be as you desire.” With that, Amyntas sent for the women. Upon being called, the women entered and sat down in a row opposite the Persians. ,Then the Persians, seeing beautiful women before them, spoke to Amyntas and said that there was no sense in what he had done. It would be better if the women had never come at all than that they should come and not sit beside the men, but sit opposite them to torment their eyes. ,Amyntas, now feeling compelled to do so, bade the women sit beside them. When the women had done as they were bidden, the Persians, flushed as they were with excess of wine, at once laid hands on the women's breasts, and one or another tried to kiss them. 5.19. This Amyntas saw, but held his peace despite his anger because he greatly feared the Persians. Amyntas' son Alexander, however, because of his youth and ignorance of ill deeds, could not bear it longer and said to Amyntas in great wrath, “My father, do as your age demands. Leave us and take your rest; do not continue drinking. I will stay here and give our guests all that is needful.” ,At this Amyntas saw that Alexander had some wild deed in mind and said, “My son, you are angered, and if I guess your meaning correctly, you are sending me away so that you may do some violent deed. I for my part, for fear that you will bring about our undoing, entreat you not to act rashly against these men, but to bear patiently the sight of what they do. If you want me to leave, to that I consent.” 5.20. When Amyntas made this request and had gone his way, Alexander said to the Persians, “Sirs, you have full freedom to deal with these women, and may have intercourse with all or any of them. ,As to that, you may make your own decision, but now, since the hour of your rest is drawing near and I see that you are all completely drunk, allow these women to depart and wash, if this is your desire. When they have washed, wait for them to come to you again.” ,When he had said this and the Persians had given their consent, he sent the women out and away to their apartments. Alexander then took as many beardless men as there were women, dressed them in the women's clothes, and gave them daggers. These he brought in, and said to the Persians,,“I believe, men of Persia, that you have feasted to your hearts' content. All that we had and all besides that we could find to give you has been set before you, and now we make you a free gift of our best and most valued possession, our own mothers and sisters. Be aware that in so doing we are giving you all the honor that you deserve, and tell your king who sent you how his Greek viceroy of Macedonia has received you hospitably, providing food and bedfellows.” ,With that, Alexander seated each of his Macedonians next to a Persian, as though they were women, and when the Persians began to lay hands on them, they were killed by the Macedonians. 9.108. Now it happened that the king had been at Sardis ever since he came there in flight from Athens after his overthrow in the sea-fight. Being then at Sardis he became enamored of Masistes' wife, who was also there. But as all his messages could not bring her to yield to him, and he would not force her to his will, out of regard for his brother Masistes (which indeed counted with the woman also, for she knew well that no force would be used against her), Xerxes found no other way to accomplish his purpose than that he should make a marriage between his own son Darius and the daughter of this woman and Masistes, for he thought that by doing so he would be most likely to win her. ,So he betrothed them with all due ceremony and rode away to Susa. But when he had come and had taken Darius' bride into his house, he thought no more of Masistes' wife, but changed his mind and wooed and won this girl Artaynte, Darius' wife and Masistes' daughter. 9.109. As time went on, however, the truth came to light, and in such manner as I will show. Xerxes' wife, Amestris, wove and gave to him a great gaily-colored mantle, marvellous to see. Xerxes was pleased with it, and went to Artaynte wearing it. ,Being pleased with her too, he asked her what she wanted in return for her favors, for he would deny nothing at her asking. Thereupon—for she and all her house were doomed to evil—she said to Xerxes, “Will you give me whatever I ask of you?” He promised this, supposing that she would ask anything but that; when he had sworn, she asked boldly for his mantle. ,Xerxes tried to refuse her, for no reason except that he feared that Amestris might have clear proof of his doing what she already guessed. He accordingly offered her cities instead and gold in abundance and an army for none but herself to command. Armies are the most suitable of gifts in Persia. But as he could not move her, he gave her the mantle; and she, rejoicing greatly in the gift, went flaunting her finery. 9.110. Amestris heard that she had the mantle, but when she learned the truth, it was not the girl with whom she was angry. She supposed rather that the girl's mother was guilty and that this was her doing, and so it was Masistes' wife whom she plotted to destroy. ,She waited therefore till Xerxes her husband should be giving his royal feast. This banquet is served once a year, on the king's birthday; the Persian name for it is “tukta,” which is in the Greek language “perfect.” On that day (and none other) the king anoints his head and makes gifts to the Persians. Waiting for that day, Amestris then asked of Xerxes that Masistes' wife should be given to her. ,Xerxes considered it a terrible and wicked act to give up his brother's wife, and that too when she was innocent of the deed; for he knew the purpose of the request. 9.111. Nevertheless, since Amestris was insistent and the law compelled him (for at this royal banquet in Persia every request must of necessity be granted), he unwillingly consented, and delivered the woman to Amestris. Then, bidding her do what she wanted, he sent for his brother and spoke as follows: ,“Masistes, you are Darius' son and my brother, and a good man; hear me then. You must no longer live with her who is now your wife. I give you my daughter in her place. Take her for your own, but do away with the wife that you have, for it is not my will that you should have her.” ,At that Masistes was amazed; “Sire,” he said, “what is this evil command that you lay upon me, telling me to deal with my wife in this way? I have by her young sons and daughters, of whom you have taken a wife for your own son, and I am very content with her herself. Yet you are asking me to get rid of my wife and wed your daughter? ,Truly, O king, I consider it a great honor to be accounted worthy of your daughter, but I will do neither the one nor the other. No, rather, do not force me to consent to such a desire. You will find another husband for your daughter as good as I, but permit me to keep my own wife.” ,This was Masistes' response, but Xerxes was very angry and said: “You have come to this pass, Masistes. I will give you no daughter of mine as a wife, nor will you any longer live with her whom you now have. In this way you will learn to accept that which is offered you.” Hearing that, Masistes said “No, sire, you have not destroyed me yet!” and so departed. 9.112. In the meantime, while Xerxes talked with his brother, Amestris sent for Xerxes' guards and treated Masistes' wife very cruelly; she cut off the woman's breasts and threw them to dogs, and her nose and ears and lips also, and cut out her tongue. Then she sent her home after she had undergone this dreadful ordeal. 9.113. Knowing nothing of this as yet, but fearing evil, Masistes ran home. Seeing what had been done to his wife, he immediately took counsel with his children and set out for Bactra with his own sons (and others too), intending to raise the province of Bactra in revolt and do the king the greatest of harm. ,This he would have done, to my thinking, had he escaped to the country of the Bactrians and Sacae. They were fond of him, and he was viceroy over the Bactrians. But it was of no use, for Xerxes learned what he intended and sent against him an army which killed him on his way, and his sons and his army. Such is the story of Xerxes' love and Masistes' death.
8. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.20, 5.2-5.27, 7.26, 7.46, 12.53, 13.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.20. They come against us in great pride and lawlessness to destroy us and our wives and our children, and to despoil us; 5.2. and they determined to destroy the descendants of Jacob who lived among them. So they began to kill and destroy among the people. 5.3. But Judas made war on the sons of Esau in Idumea, at Akrabattene, because they kept lying in wait for Israel. He dealt them a heavy blow and humbled them and despoiled them. 5.4. He also remembered the wickedness of the sons of Baean, who were a trap and a snare to the people and ambushed them on the highways. 5.5. They were shut up by him in their towers; and he encamped against them, vowed their complete destruction, and burned with fire their towers and all who were in them. 5.6. Then he crossed over to attack the Ammonites, where he found a strong band and many people with Timothy as their leader. 5.7. He engaged in many battles with them and they were crushed before him; he struck them down. 5.8. He also took Jazer and its villages; then he returned to Judea. 5.9. Now the Gentiles in Gilead gathered together against the Israelites who lived in their territory, and planned to destroy them. But they fled to the stronghold of Dathema 5.10. and sent to Judas and his brothers a letter which said, "The Gentiles around us have gathered together against us to destroy us. 5.11. They are preparing to come and capture the stronghold to which we have fled, and Timothy is leading their forces. 5.12. Now then come and rescue us from their hands, for many of us have fallen 5.13. and all our brethren who were in the land of Tob have been killed; the enemy have captured their wives and children and goods, and have destroyed about a thousand men there. 5.14. While the letter was still being read, behold, other messengers, with their garments rent, came from Galilee and made a similar report; 5.15. they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, "to annihilate us. 5.16. When Judas and the people heard these messages, a great assembly was called to determine what they should do for their brethren who were in distress and were being attacked by enemies. 5.17. Then Judas said to Simon his brother, "Choose your men and go and rescue your brethren in Galilee; I and Jonathan my brother will go to Gilead. 5.18. But he left Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, a leader of the people, with the rest of the forces, in Judea to guard it; 5.19. and he gave them this command, "Take charge of this people, but do not engage in battle with the Gentiles until we return. 5.20. Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead. 5.21. o Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him. 5.22. He pursued them to the gate of Ptolemais, and as many as three thousand of the Gentiles fell, and he despoiled them. 5.23. Then he took the Jews of Galilee and Arbatta, with their wives and children, and all they possessed, and led them to Judea with great rejoicing. 5.24. Judas Maccabeus and Jonathan his brother crossed the Jordan and went three days journey into the wilderness. 5.25. They encountered the Nabateans, who met them peaceably and told them all that had happened to their brethren in Gilead: 5.26. Many of them have been shut up in Bozrah and Bosor, in Alema and Chaspho, Maked and Carnaim" -- all these cities were strong and large-- 5.27. and some have been shut up in the other cities of Gilead; the enemy are getting ready to attack the strongholds tomorrow and take and destroy all these men in one day. 7.26. Then the king sent Nicanor, one of his honored princes, who hated and detested Israel, and he commanded him to destroy the people. 7.46. And men came out of all the villages of Judea round about, and they out-flanked the enemy and drove them back to their pursuers, so that they all fell by the sword; not even one of them was left. 12.53. And all the nations round about them tried to destroy them, for they said, "They have no leader or helper. Now therefore let us make war on them and blot out the memory of them from among men. 13.1. Simon heard that Trypho had assembled a large army to invade the land of Judah and destroy it
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.35, 4.47, 4.49, 6.8, 7.14, 13.4, 13.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.35. For this reason not only Jews, but many also of other nations, were grieved and displeased at the unjust murder of the man.' 4.47. Menelaus, the cause of all the evil, he acquitted of the charges against him, while he sentenced to death those unfortunate men, who would have been freed uncondemned if they had pleaded even before Scythians.' 4.49. Therefore even the Tyrians, showing their hatred of the crime, provided magnificently for their funeral.' 6.8. At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 13.4. But the King of kings aroused the anger of Antiochus against the scoundrel; and when Lysias informed him that this man was to blame for all the trouble, he ordered them to take him to Beroea and to put him to death by the method which is the custom in that place.' 13.12. When they had all joined in the same petition and had besought the merciful Lord with weeping and fasting and lying prostrate for three days without ceasing, Judas exhorted them and ordered them to stand ready.'
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 9.8-9.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.8. Turn away your eyes from a shapely woman,and do not look intently at beauty belonging to another;many have been misled by a womans beauty,and by it passion is kindled like a fire. 9.9. Never dine with another mans wife,nor revel with her at wine;lest your heart turn aside to her,and in blood you be plunged into destruction.
11. Septuagint, Judith, 10.3-10.4, 12.20, 16.7-16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 12.20. And Holofernes was greatly pleased with her, and drank a great quantity of wine, much more than he had ever drunk in any one day since he was born. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck.
12. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.22-6.26, 7.10-7.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.22. Then the king's anger was turned to pity and tears because of the things that he had devised beforehand. 6.23. For when he heard the shouting and saw them all fallen headlong to destruction, he wept and angrily threatened his friends, saying 6.24. You are committing treason and surpassing tyrants in cruelty; and even me, your benefactor, you are now attempting to deprive of dominion and life by secretly devising acts of no advantage to the kingdom. 6.25. Who is it that has taken each man from his home and senselessly gathered here those who faithfully have held the fortresses of our country? 6.26. Who is it that has so lawlessly encompassed with outrageous treatment those who from the beginning differed from all nations in their goodwill toward us and often have accepted willingly the worst of human dangers? 7.11. For they declared that those who for the belly's sake had transgressed the divine commandments would never be favorably disposed toward the king's government. 7.12. The king then, admitting and approving the truth of what they said, granted them a general license so that freely and without royal authority or supervision they might destroy those everywhere in his kingdom who had transgressed the law of God. 7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed. 7.14. And so on their way they punished and put to a public and shameful death any whom they met of their fellow-countrymen who had become defiled. 7.15. In that day they put to death more than three hundred men; and they kept the day as a joyful festival, since they had destroyed the profaners.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.332 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.332. who used a voice, and spake to him in words, exhorting him to be pleased with what had happened to him, and not to suppose that his victory was a small one, but that he had overcome a divine angel, and to esteem the victory as a sign of great blessings that should come to him, and that his offspring should never fall, and that no man should be too hard for his power.
14. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. תניא נמי הכי ועוד שנה אחרת לבבל ועמד דריוש והשלימה,אמר רבא אף דניאל טעה בהאי חושבנא דכתיב (דניאל ט, ב) בשנת אחת למלכו אני דניאל בינותי בספרים מדקאמר בינותי מכלל דטעה,מ"מ קשו קראי אהדדי כתיב (ירמיהו כט, י) מלאות לבבל וכתיב (דניאל ט, ב) לחרבות ירושלם,אמר רבא לפקידה בעלמא והיינו דכתיב (עזרא א, ב) כה אמר כורש מלך פרס כל ממלכות הארץ נתן לי ה' אלהי השמים והוא פקד עלי לבנות לו בית בירושלם,דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו מה, א) כה אמר ה' למשיחו לכורש אשר החזקתי בימינו וכי כורש משיח היה אלא א"ל הקב"ה למשיח קובל אני לך על כורש אני אמרתי הוא יבנה ביתי ויקבץ גליותי והוא אמר (עזרא א, ג) מי בכם מכל עמו ויעל:,(אסתר א, ג) חיל פרס ומדי הפרתמים וכתיב למלכי מדי ופרס אמר רבא אתנויי אתנו בהדדי אי מינן מלכי מינייכו איפרכי ואי מינייכו מלכי מינן איפרכי,(שם, ד) בהראותו את עושר כבוד מלכותו א"ר יוסי בר חנינא מלמד שלבש בגדי כהונה כתיב הכא יקר תפארת גדולתו וכתיב התם (שמות כח, ב) לכבוד ולתפארת,(שם, ה) ובמלאות הימים האלה וגו' רב ושמואל חד אמר מלך פיקח היה וחד אמר מלך טיפש היה מאן דאמר מלך פיקח היה שפיר עבד דקריב רחיקא ברישא דבני מאתיה כל אימת דבעי מפייס להו ומאן דאמר טיפש היה דאיבעי ליה לקרובי בני מאתיה ברישא דאי מרדו ביה הנך הני הוו קיימי בהדיה,שאלו תלמידיו את רשב"י מפני מה נתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שבאותו הדור כליה אמר להם אמרו אתם אמרו לו מפני שנהנו מסעודתו של אותו רשע אם כן שבשושן יהרגו שבכל העולם כולו אל יהרגו אמרו לו אמור אתה אמר להם מפני שהשתחוו לצלם,אמרו לו וכי משוא פנים יש בדבר אמר להם הם לא עשו אלא לפנים אף הקב"ה לא עשה עמהן אלא לפנים והיינו דכתיב (איכה ג, לג) כי לא ענה מלבו:,(שם) בחצר גנת ביתן המלך רב ושמואל חד אמר הראוי לחצר לחצר הראוי לגינה לגינה הראוי לביתן לביתן וחד אמר הושיבן בחצר ולא החזיקתן בגינה ולא החזיקתן עד שהכניסן לביתן והחזיקתן במתניתא תנא הושיבן בחצר ופתח להם שני פתחים אחד לגינה ואחד לביתן,(שם, ו) חור כרפס ותכלת מאי חור רב אמר חרי חרי ושמואל אמר מילת לבנה הציע להם כרפס אמר ר' יוסי בר חנינא כרים של פסים,על גלילי כסף ועמודי שש מטות זהב וכסף תניא ר' יהודה אומר הראוי לכסף לכסף הראוי לזהב לזהב אמר לו ר' נחמיה א"כ אתה מטיל קנאה בסעודה אלא הם של כסף ורגליהן של זהב,בהט ושש א"ר אסי אבנים שמתחוטטות על בעליהן וכן הוא אומר (זכריה ט, טז) אבני נזר מתנוססות על אדמתו,ודר וסוחרת רב אמר דרי דרי ושמואל אמר אבן טובה יש בכרכי הים ודרה שמה הושיבה באמצע סעודה ומאירה להם כצהרים דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא שקרא דרור לכל בעלי סחורה,(שם, ז) והשקות בכלי זהב וכלים מכלים שונים משונים מיבעי ליה אמר רבא יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם ראשונים כלו מפני כלים ואתם שונים בהם ויין מלכות רב אמר רב מלמד שכל אחד ואחד השקהו יין שגדול הימנו בשנים,(שם, ח) והשתיה כדת (אין אונס) מאי כדת א"ר חנן משום ר"מ כדת של תורה מה דת של תורה אכילה מרובה משתיה אף סעודתו של אותו רשע אכילה מרובה משתיה,אין אונס אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שכל אחד ואחד השקהו מיין מדינתו לעשות כרצון איש ואיש אמר רבא לעשות כרצון מרדכי והמן, מרדכי דכתיב איש יהודי המן איש צר ואויב,(שם, ט) גם ושתי המלכה עשתה משתה נשים בית המלכות בית הנשים מיבעי ליה אמר רבא שניהן לדבר עבירה נתכוונו היינו דאמרי אינשי איהו בקרי ואתתיה 12a. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i, as an indication that the years counted were only partial years: bAndwhen Belshazzar was killed, bthere was still another yearleft bfor Babyloniabefore the reckoning of the seventy years was completed. bAndthen bDarius arose and completed it.Although seventy years were previously counted according to Belshazzar’s count, from the exile of Jehoiakim, because the years were only partial, there was still one year left in order to complete those seventy years., bRava said: Daniel also erred in this calculation, as it is written: “In the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, meditated in the booksover the number of the years, whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years” (Daniel 9:2). bFromthe fact bthat he said “I meditated,”a term indicating recounting and calculating, bit can be inferred that he hadpreviously berred. /b,The Gemara comments: bIn any case, the verses contradict each otherwith regard to how the seventy years should be calculated. In one verse bit is written:“After seventy years bare accomplished for BabyloniaI will remember [ iefkod /i] you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place” (Jeremiah 29:10), which indicates that the seventy years should be counted from the Babylonian exile. bAndin another verse bit is written:“That he would accomplish bfor the desolations of Jerusalemseventy years” (Daniel 9:2), indicating that the seventy years are calculated from the destruction of Jerusalem., bRava saidin response: The seventy years that “are accomplished for Babylonia” were bonly for being remembered [ ilifekida /i],as mentioned in the verse, allowing the Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael but not to build the Temple. bAnd this is as it is writtenwith regard to Cyrus’s proclamation permitting the Jewish people’s return to Eretz Yisrael, in the seventieth year of the Babylonian exile: b“Thus says Cyrus king of Persia: The Lord, God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and He has charged [ ipakad /i] me to build Him a house in Jerusalem”(Ezra 1:2). The verse makes use of the same root, ipeh-kuf-dalet /i, heralding the return to Jerusalem to build the Temple, but not its actual completion.,Apropos its mention of Cyrus, the Gemara states that bRav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda interpreted homileticallya verse concerning Cyrus: bWhat isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Thus says the Lord to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have held”(Isaiah 45:1), which seemingly is referring to Cyrus as God’s anointed? bNow was CyrusGod’s anointed one, i.e., the bMessiah,that the verse should refer to him in this manner? bRather,the verse should be understood as God speaking to the Messiah with regard to Cyrus: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Messiah: I am complaining to you about Cyrus,who is not acting in accordance with what he is intended to do. bI had said: “He shall build My House and gather My exiles”(see Isaiah 45:13), but he did not carry this out. bRather, he said: “Whoever is among you of all His people…let him go upto Jerusalem” (Ezra 1:3). He gave permission to return to Israel, but he did no more than that.,§ The Gemara returns to its interpretations of verses in the Megilla. The Megilla mentions that among those invited to the king’s feast were: b“The army of Persia and Media, the noblesand princes of the provinces” (Esther 1:3), band it is writtennear the conclusion of the Megilla: “In the book of chronicles bof the kings of Media and Persia”(Esther 10:2). Why is Persia mentioned first at the beginning of the Megilla, while later in the Megilla, Media is mentioned first? bRava saidin response: These two peoples, the Persians and the Medes, bstipulated with each other,saying: bIf the kingswill come bfrom us, the ministerswill come bfrom you; and if the kingswill come bfrom you, the ministerswill come bfrom us.Therefore, in reference to kings, Media is mentioned first, whereas in connection with nobles and princes, Persia is given priority.,The verse states: b“When he showed the riches of his glorious [ ikevod /i] kingdomand the honor of his majestic [ itiferet /i] greatness” (Esther 1:4). bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: This teaches thatAhasuerus bwore the priestly vestments.Proof for this assertion may be adduced from the fact that the same terms are written with regard to the priestly vestments, as bit is written here:“The riches of his glorious [ ikevod /i] kingdom and bthe honor of his majestic [ itiferet /i] greatness.” And it is written there,with regard to the priestly garments: b“For glory [ ikavod /i] and for majesty [ itiferet /i]”(Exodus 28:2).,The verse states: b“And when these days were fulfilled,the king made a feast for all the people that were present in Shushan the capital” (Esther 1:5). bRav and Shmueldisagreed as to whether this was a wise decision. bOne said:Ahasuerus arranged a feast for the residents of Shushan, the capital, after the feast for foreign dignitaries that preceded it, as mentioned in the earlier verses, indicating that bhe was a clever king. Andthe other bone said:It is precisely this that indicates that bhe was a foolish king. The one who saidthat this proves that bhe was a clever kingmaintains bthat he acted well when he first brought close thosemore bdistantsubjects by inviting them to the earlier celebration, bas he could appease the residents of hisown bcity whenever he wished. And the one who saidthat bhe was foolishmaintains bthat he should have invited the residents of his city first, so that if thosefaraway subjects brebelled against him, thesewho lived close by bwould have stood with him. /b, bThe students of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai asked him: For whatreason bwere the enemies of Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves when exhibiting behavior that is not in their best interests, bin that generation deserving of annihilation? He,Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to them: Saythe answer to your question byourselves. They said to him: It is because they partook of the feast of that wicked one,Ahasuerus, and they partook there of forbidden foods. Rabbi Shimon responded: bIf so, those in Shushan should have been killedas punishment, but bthose in the rest of the world,who did not participate in the feast, bshould not have been killed. They said to him:Then byou sayyour response to our question. bHe said to them: It is because they prostrated before the idolthat Nebuchadnezzar had made, as is recorded that the entire world bowed down before it, except for Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah., bThey said to him:But if it is true that they worshipped idols and therefore deserved to be destroyed, why was a miracle performed on their behalf? bIs there favoritismexpressed by God bhere? He said to them: They did notreally worship the idol, but pretended to bdoso bonly for appearance,acting as if they were carrying out the king’s command to bow before the idol. bSo too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, did notdestroy them but bdidact angry bwith them only for appearance.He too merely pretended to desire to destroy them, as all He did was issue a threat, but in the end the decree was annulled. bAnd this is as it is written: “For He does not afflict from His heartwillingly” (Lamentations 3:33), but only for appearances’ sake.,The verse states: b“In the court of the garden of the king’s palace”(Esther 1:5). bRav and Shmueldisagreed with regard to how to understand the relationship between these three places: Court, garden, and palace: bOne said:The guests were received in different places. bOnewho, according to his stature, was bfit for the courtyardwas brought bto the courtyard; onewho was bfit for the gardenwas brought bto the garden;and bonewho was bfit for the palacewas brought bto the palace. Andthe other bone said: Hefirst bsat them in the courtyard, but it did not hold them,as they were too numerous. He then sat them bin the garden, but it did not hold themeither, buntil he brought them into the palace and it held them.A third understanding bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: He sat them in the courtyard and opened two entranceways for them, one to the garden and one to the palace. /b,The verse states: “There were hangings of iḥur /i, ikarpas /i, and sky blue”(Esther 1:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat is iḥur /i? Rav said:A fabric fashioned with bmany holes [ iḥarei ḥarei /i],similar to lace. bAnd Shmuel said: He spread out for themcarpets of bwhite wool,as the word iḥavarmeans white. And what is ikarpas /i? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: Cushions [ ikarim /i] of velvet [ ipasim /i]. /b,The verse states: b“On silver rods and pillars of marble; the couches were of gold and silver”(Esther 1:6). bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda says:Some couches were of gold and others of silver. bOnewho, according to his stature, was bfit for silversat on a couch of bsilver,and bonewho was bfit for goldsat on one of bgold. Rabbi Neḥemya said to him:This was not done. bIf so, youwould bcast jealousy into the feast,for the guests would be envious of each other. bRather,the couches bthemselveswere made bof silver, and their feetwere made bof gold. /b,The verse continues: “Upon a pavement of ibahatand marble”(Esther 1:6). bRabbi Asi saidwith regard to the definition of ibahat /i: These are bstones that ingratiate themselves with their owners,as they are precious stones that people are willing to spend large amounts of money to acquire. bAnd similarly, it stateselsewhere that the Jewish people will be likened to precious stones: “And the Lord their God shall save them in that day as the flock of His people; for they shall be as b“the stones of a crown, glittering over His land”(Zechariah 9:16).,The verse concludes: b“And idarand isoḥaret /i”(Esther 1:6). bRav said: iDarmeans bmany rows [ idarei darei /i]around. Similarly, isoḥaretis derived from iseḥor seḥor /i, around and around, meaning that the floor was surrounded with numerous rows of ibahatand marble stones. bAnd Shmuel said:There is ba precious stone in the seaports, and its name is idara /i,and Ahasuerus bplaced it in the center ofthe bfeast, and it illuminatedthe festivities bfor them asthe sun illuminates the world bat midday.He explains that the word isoḥaretis derived from itzohar /i, a light. A scholar from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughta ibaraita /i: This means bthat he proclaimed a remission for all the merchants,absolving them from paying their taxes, understanding that the word idarderives from ideror /i, freedom, and isoḥaretfrom isoḥer /i, merchant.,The verse states: b“And they gave them drink in vessels of gold, the vessels being diverse [ ishonim /i] from one another”(Esther 1:7). The Gemara asks: Why does the verse use the term ishonimto express that they are different? bIt should have saidthe more proper term imeshunim /i. Rava said: A Divine Voice issued forth and said to them: The early ones,referring to Belshazzar and his people, bwere destroyed becausethey used bthese vessels,the vessels of the Temple, bandyet byou use them again [ ishonim /i]?The verse continues: b“And royal wine in abundance [ irav /i]”(Esther 1:7). bRav said: This teaches that each and everyguest at the feast bwas pouredwell-aged bwine that was older [ irav /i] than himself in years. /b,The verse states: b“And the drinking was according to the law; none did compel”(Esther 1:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“according to the law”? Rabbi Ḥa said in the name of Rabbi Meir:The drinking was baccording to the law of the Torah. Just as,according to bthe law of the Torah,with regard to offerings, bthe foodsacrificed on the altar bis greaterin quantity bthan the drink,for the wine libation is quantitatively much smaller than the sacrificial offerings it accompanies, bso too,at the bfeast of that wicked man, the food was greaterin quantity bthan the drink. /b,The verse states: b“None did compel”(Esther 1:8). bRabbi Elazar said: This teaches that each and everyguest at the feast bwas poureda drink bfrom wine of hisown bcountry,so that he would feel entirely free, as if he were in his home country. The verse continues: b“That they should do according to every man’s pleasure”(Esther 1:8). bRavacommented on the literal meaning of the verse, which is referring to two men, a man and a man [ iish va’ish /i], and bsaid:The man and man whom they should follow indicates bthat they should do according to the wishes of Mordecai and Haman.The two of them served as butlers at the feast, and they were in charge of distributing the wine. Why is the verse interpreted in this way? bMordecaiis called “man,” bas it is written:“There was a certain bJewish man [ iish /i]in Shushan the castle, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair” (Esther 2:5). bAnd Hamanis also called man, as it states: b“A man [ iish /i] who is an adversary and an enemy,this evil Haman” (Esther 7:6).,The verse states: b“Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women, in the royal house,which belonged to King Ahasuerus” (Esther 1:9). The Gemara questions why she held the feast in the royal house, a place of men, rather than in bthe women’s house,where it bshould have been. Rava saidin response: bThe two of them had sinful intentions.Ahasuerus wished to fornicate with the women, and Vashti wished to fornicate with the men. bThisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: He with pumpkins and his wife /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69a. וסיפא איצטריכא ליה פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין תחת ראשיהם,פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין אותן תחת ראשיהן שמעת מינה בגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן אמר רב פפא לא תימא תחת ראשיהן אלא אימא כנגד ראשיהן אמר רב משרשיא שמעת מינה תפילין מן הצד שפיר דמי,הכי נמי מסתברא דכנגד ראשיהן דאי סלקא דעתך תחת ראשיהן ותיפוק לי משום כלאים דהא איכא אבנט ונהי נמי דניתנו ליהנות בהן הא מתהני מכלאים,הניחא למ"ד אבנטו של כהן גדול (בשאר ימות השנה) זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט אלא למאן דאמר אבנטו של כ"ג לא זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט מאי איכא למימר,וכי תימא כלאים בלבישה והעלאה הוא דאסור בהצעה שרי והתניא (ויקרא יט, יט) לא יעלה עליך אבל אתה מותר להציעו תחתיך אבל אמרו חכמים אסור לעשות כן שמא תיכרך נימא אחת על בשרו,וכ"ת דמפסיק ליה מידי ביני ביני והאמר ר"ש בן פזי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר רבי משום קהלא קדישא שבירושלים אפי' עשר מצעות זו על גב זו וכלאים תחתיהן אסור לישן עליהן אלא לאו שמע מינה כנגד ראשיהן שמע מינה,רב אשי אמר לעולם תחת ראשיהן והא קא מתהני מכלאים בגדי כהונה קשין הן כי הא דאמר רב הונא בריה דר' יהושע האי נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא,ת"ש בגדי כהונה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור ובמקדש בין בשעת עבודה בין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן ש"מ,ובמדינה לא והתניא בעשרים וחמשה [בטבת] יום הר גרזים [הוא] דלא למספד,יום שבקשו כותיים את בית אלהינו מאלכסנדרוס מוקדון להחריבו ונתנו להם באו והודיעו את שמעון הצדיק מה עשה לבש בגדי כהונה ונתעטף בבגדי כהונה ומיקירי ישראל עמו ואבוקות של אור בידיהן וכל הלילה הללו הולכים מצד זה והללו הולכים מצד זה עד שעלה עמוד השחר,כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו יהודים שמרדו בך כיון שהגיע לאנטיפטרס זרחה חמה ופגעו זה בזה כיון שראה לשמעון הצדיק ירד ממרכבתו והשתחוה לפניו אמרו לו מלך גדול כמותך ישתחוה ליהודי זה אמר להם דמות דיוקנו של זה מנצחת לפני בבית מלחמתי,אמר להם למה באתם אמרו אפשר בית שמתפללים בו עליך ועל מלכותך שלא תחרב יתעוך עובדי כוכבים להחריבו אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו כותיים הללו שעומדים לפניך אמר להם הרי הם מסורין בידיכם,מיד נקבום בעקביהם ותלאום בזנבי סוסיהם והיו מגררין אותן על הקוצים ועל הברקנים עד שהגיעו להר גרזים כיון שהגיעו להר גריזים חרשוהו וזרעוהו כרשינין כדרך שבקשו לעשות לבית אלהינו ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט,אי בעית אימא ראויין לבגדי כהונה ואי בעית אימא (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,חזן הכנסת נוטל ספר תורה ש"מ חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דכ"ג היא,וכהן גדול עומד מכלל שהוא יושב והא אנן תנן 69a. That mishna’s teaching highlighting the prohibition to sleep in priestly vestments bis needed for the latter clauseof that mishna, which states: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.Since they are allowed to sleep on them, it must be emphasized that they may not sleep while wearing them.,The Gemara considers resolving the dilemma from the latter clause: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.The Gemara suggests: bLearn from thisthat bit is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Rav Pappa said: Do not saythat the mishna means they may actually place the vestments bunder their headsas a pillow; brather, saythat the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads. Rav Mesharshiyya said:Given this understanding of that mishna, one can blearn from herethat one who places bphylacteries to the sideof his head when he sleeps has done bwell;there is no concern that he will turn over in his sleep and lie upon them., bSo too, it is reasonableto say bthatthe mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their headsand not under their heads; bas, if it could enter your mindto say that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed bunder their heads, and I would derivethat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact the priestly vestments contain a forbidden mixture of bdiverse kinds, asamong them bthere isthe bbelt,which is woven from a mixture of wool and linen. bAnd even ifit is assumed bthat it is permitted to derive benefit frompriestly vestments, it would still be prohibited to lie upon them because by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kinds. /b,The Gemara elaborates on the preceding argument: If one claims that the mishna permits priests to sleep upon their vestments, bit works out well according to the one who said: The belt of the High Priestworn on Yom Kippur, which does not contain diverse kinds, bis the same as the belt of a common priest.According to this view, the common priest’s belt does not contain diverse kinds, and therefore it may be permitted for a priest to sleep upon it. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat bthe High Priest’s belton Yom Kippur bis not the same as the belt of a common priest,and that the belt of the common priest is made of diverse kinds, bwhat is there to say?How could the mishna possibly permit priests to sleep upon their vestments?, bAnd if you saythat with regard to the prohibition of bdiverse kindsonly bwearingor bplacingthe garment bupon oneself is prohibited, but spreading them outand lying upon them on bis permitted,and as such it should be permitted for the priests to sleep upon their vestments, this is incorrect. As, bwasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“Neither shall there come upon youa garment of diverse kinds”(Leviticus 19:19), which implies: bBut you are permitted to spread it beneath youto lie upon. This is true according to Torah law, bbut the Sages said: It is prohibited to do so, lest a fiber wrap upon his flesh,which would lead to the transgression of the Torah prohibition., bAnd if you saythat a priest could still avoid the prohibition of diverse kinds by bplacing a separation betweenhimself and the belt containing diverse kinds, bdidn’t Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem: Evenif there are bten mattressespiled bone atop the other anda garment of bdiverse kindsis placed bunderneath themall, bit is prohibited to sleep upon them?This is because the rabbinic decree is applied equally to all cases irrespective of whether the original concern exists. Therefore, there can be no way for the priests to sleep upon the vestments without transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds. bRather,must one bnot conclude fromthe preceding discussion that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads?The Gemara concludes: bLearn from itthat this is indeed so., bRav Ashi said: Actually,the mishna may be understood as permitting the vestments to be placed bunder their heads.One should not object that by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kindsbecause bpriestly vestments,and specifically the belt, bare stiff,and therefore the prohibition of diverse kinds does not apply to them. This is bin accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna, son of Rabbi Yehoshua, said: This stiff felt [ inamta /i],made of diverse kinds, that is produced binthe city of bNeresh, is permitted,since a stiff object does not wrap around the body to provide warmth, and therefore the person wearing is not considered to have derived benefit from it.,Since the mishna’s intention is uncertain, it cannot provide a clear proof for the dilemma of whether it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. The Gemara therefore suggests another proof: bComeand bhearan explicit ibaraitaconcerning this issue: With regard to bpriestly vestments, it is prohibited to go out to the country,i.e., outside the Temple, while bwearing them, but in the Temple it is permittedfor the priests to wear them, bwhether during theTemple bservice or not during the service, due tothe fact bthat it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Learn from thisthat it is indeed permitted.,§ The ibaraitataught that the priestly vestments may not be worn outside the Temple. The Gemara challenges this: Is it really bnotpermitted to wear priestly vestments bin the country? Wasn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i, in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bThe twenty-fifth of Tevetis known as bthe day of Mount Gerizim,which was established as a joyful day, and therefore beulogizingis bnotpermitted.,What occurred on that date? It was on that bday that the Samaritans [ ikutim /i] requested the House of our Lord from Alexander the Macedonian in order to destroy it, and he gave it to them,i.e., he gave them permission to destroy it. People bcame and informedthe High Priest, bShimon HaTzaddik,of what had transpired. bWhat did he do? He donned the priestly vestments and wrapped himself in the priestly vestments. And the nobles of the Jewish Peoplewere bwith him,with btorches of fire in their hands. And all that night, these,the representatives of the Jewish people, bapproached from this side, and those,the armies of Alexander and the Samaritans, bapproached from that side, until dawn,when they finally saw one another., bWhen dawn arrived,Alexander bsaid tothe Samaritans: bWho are thesepeople coming to meet us? bThey said to him:These are the bJews who rebelled against you. When he reached Antipatris, the sun shone andthe two camps bmet each other. WhenAlexander bsaw Shimon HaTzaddik, he descended from his chariot and bowed before him.His escorts bsaid to him:Should ban important king such as you bow to this Jew?He bsaid to them:I do so because bthe image of this man’s face is victorious before me on my battlefields,i.e., when I fight I see his image going before me as a sign of victory, and therefore I know that he has supreme sanctity., bHe saidto the representatives of the Jewish people: bWhy have you come? They saidto him: bIs it possible thatthe Temple, the bhouse in which we pray for you and for your kingdom not to be destroyed, gentiles willtry to bmislead you into destroying it,and we would remain silent and not tell you? bHe said to them: Who are thesepeople who want to destroy it? The Jews bsaid to him:They are bthese Samaritans who stand before you. He said to them:If so, bthey are delivered into your handsto deal with them as you please., bImmediately, they stabbedthe Samaritans bin their heels and hung them from their horses’ tails and continued to drag them over the thorns and thistles until they reached Mount Gerizim. When they arrived at Mount Gerizim,where the Samaritans had their temple, bthey plowed it over and seededthe area bwith leeks,a symbol of total destruction. This was bjust as they had sought to do to the House of our Lord. And they made that day a festivalto celebrate the salvation of the Temple and the defeat of the Samaritans.,It is apparent from the ibaraitathat Shimon HaTzaddik wore the priestly vestments even outside the Temple. This would seem to be in contravention of the ruling of the other ibaraitaprohibiting this. The Gemara resolves the contradiction: bIf you wish, sayShimon HaTzaddik did not wear a set of genuine, sanctified priestly vestments; rather, he wore garments that were bfitting to be priestly vestmentsin that they were made of the same material and design. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that he indeed wore a set of genuine priestly vestments, but in times of great need, such as when one seeks to prevent the destruction of the Temple, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord, they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126).,§ It was taught in the mishna: bThe synagogue attendant takes a Torah scrolland gives it to the head of the synagogue, who gives it to the deputy High Priest, who gives it to the High Priest. The Gemara suggests: bLearn from herethat bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher.Although the High Priest is considered everyone’s teacher and master, honor was nevertheless extended to other individuals without fear of impugning the High Priest’s honor. bAbaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here because bthe entireprocess bis for the honor of the High Priest.The passing of the Torah scroll to people of increasing importance demonstrates that the High Priest is considered the most important of all those present.,§ It was further taught in the mishna: bThe High Priest standsand receives the scroll from the Deputy. bBy inference,until that point bhehad been bsitting. But didn’t we learnin a mishna:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 384
acahn Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
adventus Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
agagite Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
ahasuerus Gera, Judith (2014) 384; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192; Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
ahisamach Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
alexander the great Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
amalek Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
aqedat yisḥaq (by rabbis isaac and meir aramah) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
artaxerxes Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
babemesis (betis) Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
bagoas Gera, Judith (2014) 384
battle Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
bendavid, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
bezalel Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
biblical women, cause death Gera, Judith (2014) 384
biblical women, hospitality of Gera, Judith (2014) 384
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 384
carmi Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
chaldeans Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
changing Gera, Judith (2014) 384
curse Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
david, and abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 384
david Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
day of atonement Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
dibri Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
drink, drinking, types Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 94
drink, drinking, vessels Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 94
drink, drinking Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 94
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 384
elazar, rabbi Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192
eli Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
eliezer Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
elkanah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
essenes, esther, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192
esther, book of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
esther, greek/septuagint Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 384
esther Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
feasting Gera, Judith (2014) 384
food Gera, Judith (2014) 384
gaza Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
geiger, b. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
gender, women Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
genocide Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
gentiles, non-jews (christians, muslims) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192
gezerah shavah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
god Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
greece Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
haman Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241; Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54; Gera, Judith (2014) 384; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450; Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
hammedatha Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 384
holofernes Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 384
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 384
hur Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
ideology Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
israel Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 384
jael, of l.a.b. Gera, Judith (2014) 384
jeroboam Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
judah, tribe of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
judea Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 384
legitimacy Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
liber antiquitatum biblicarum Gera, Judith (2014) 384
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 384
meals, dining facilities, hosting Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 94
medes and media Gera, Judith (2014) 384
micah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
military Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
miriam Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
mordecai Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241; Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
mother Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
narrative Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
nebat Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
persecution, of jews in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192
philistines Gera, Judith (2014) 384
pinhas (rabbi) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
ptolemy iv philopator Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 192
rava Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
relationships Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
retaliation Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
righteous Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
samaritans Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 151
samson Gera, Judith (2014) 384
sarah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
school of rabbi akivah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
segal, m. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 241
shame and disgrace Gera, Judith (2014) 384
shelomith Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
shiloh Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
simeon Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 384
sisera, of l.a.b. Gera, Judith (2014) 384
susa Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 384
threat of violence Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 84
tobit Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
tribe of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
uri Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
wine and drunkenness, drinking parties Gera, Judith (2014) 384
women' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 237
zabdi Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54
zerah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 54