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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6280
Hebrew Bible, Esther, 6.1-6.2


בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא נָדְדָה שְׁנַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר הַזִּכְרֹנוֹת דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וַיִּהְיוּ נִקְרָאִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃On that night could not the king sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king.


וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהָמָן מַהֵר קַח אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן לְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תַּפֵּל דָּבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃On that night could not the king sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king.


וַיִּמָּצֵא כָתוּב אֲשֶׁר הִגִּיד מָרְדֳּכַי עַל־בִּגְתָנָא וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף אֲשֶׁר בִּקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃And it was found written, that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s chamberlains, of those that kept the door, who had sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.22, 2.21-2.23, 3.12-3.15, 4.16, 6.2, 7.5-7.10, 8.9-8.14, 10.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְאֶל־עַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ לִהְיוֹת כָּל־אִישׁ שֹׂרֵר בְּבֵיתוֹ וּמְדַבֵּר כִּלְשׁוֹן עַמּוֹ׃ 2.21. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּמָרְדֳּכַי יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ קָצַף בִּגְתָן וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי־סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף וַיְבַקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ׃ 2.22. וַיִּוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לְמָרְדֳּכַי וַיַּגֵּד לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּשֵׁם מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 2.23. וַיְבֻקַּשׁ הַדָּבָר וַיִּמָּצֵא וַיִּתָּלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עַל־עֵץ וַיִּכָּתֵב בְּסֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.12. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הָמָן אֶל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶל־הַפַּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי עַם וָעָם מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ נִכְתָּב וְנֶחְתָּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.13. וְנִשְׁלוֹחַ סְפָרִים בְּיַד הָרָצִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים מִנַּעַר וְעַד־זָקֵן טַף וְנָשִׁים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 3.14. פַּתְשֶׁגֶן הַכְּתָב לְהִנָּתֵן דָּת בְּכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה גָּלוּי לְכָל־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת עֲתִדִים לַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 3.15. הָרָצִים יָצְאוּ דְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וְהַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן יָשְׁבוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן נָבוֹכָה׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 6.2. וַיִּמָּצֵא כָתוּב אֲשֶׁר הִגִּיד מָרְדֳּכַי עַל־בִּגְתָנָא וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף אֲשֶׁר בִּקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 7.5. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה מִי הוּא זֶה וְאֵי־זֶה הוּא אֲשֶׁר־מְלָאוֹ לִבּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן׃ 7.6. וַתֹּאמֶר־אֶסְתֵּר אִישׁ צַר וְאוֹיֵב הָמָן הָרָע הַזֶּה וְהָמָן נִבְעַת מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמַּלְכָּה׃ 7.7. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ קָם בַּחֲמָתוֹ מִמִּשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן אֶל־גִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן וְהָמָן עָמַד לְבַקֵּשׁ עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ מֵאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה כִּי רָאָה כִּי־כָלְתָה אֵלָיו הָרָעָה מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 7.8. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁב מִגִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן אֶל־בֵּית מִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן וְהָמָן נֹפֵל עַל־הַמִּטָּה אֲשֶׁר אֶסְתֵּר עָלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲגַם לִכְבּוֹשׁ אֶת־הַמַּלְכָּה עִמִּי בַּבָּיִת הַדָּבָר יָצָא מִפִּי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּפְנֵי הָמָן חָפוּ׃ 7.9. וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן־הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ גַּם הִנֵּה־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־טוֹב עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן גָּבֹהַּ חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 8.11. אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־עִיר־וָעִיר לְהִקָּהֵל וְלַעֲמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם לְהַשְׁמִיד וְלַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־חֵיל עַם וּמְדִינָה הַצָּרִים אֹתָם טַף וְנָשִׁים וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 8.12. בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר׃ 8.13. פַּתְשֶׁגֶן הַכְּתָב לְהִנָּתֵן דָּת בְּכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה גָּלוּי לְכָל־הָעַמִּים וְלִהְיוֹת היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] עתודים [עֲתִידִים] לַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְהִנָּקֵם מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם׃ 8.14. הָרָצִים רֹכְבֵי הָרֶכֶשׁ הָאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִים יָצְאוּ מְבֹהָלִים וּדְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה׃ 10.2. וְכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה תָקְפּוֹ וּגְבוּרָתוֹ וּפָרָשַׁת גְּדֻלַּת מָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר גִּדְּלוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲלוֹא־הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לְמַלְכֵי מָדַי וּפָרָס׃ 1.22. for he sent letters into all the king’s provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and speak according to the language of his people." 2.21. in those days, while Mordecai sat in the king’s gate, two of the king’s chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those that kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus." 2.22. And the thing became known to Mordecai, who told it unto Esther the queen; and Esther told the king thereof in Mordecai’s name." 2.23. And when inquisition was made of the matter, and it was found to be so, they were both hanged on a tree; and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king." 3.12. Then were the king’s scribes called in the first month, on the thirteenth day thereof, and there was written, according to all that Haman commanded, unto the king’s satraps, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the princes of every people; to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and it was sealed with the king’s ring." 3.13. And letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey." 3.14. The copy of the writing, to be given out for a decree in every province, was to be published unto all peoples, that they should be ready against that day." 3.15. The posts went forth in haste by the king’s commandment, and the decree was given out in Shushan the castle; and the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city of Shushan was perplexed." 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’" 6.2. And it was found written, that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s chamberlains, of those that kept the door, who had sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus." 7.5. Then spoke the king Ahasuerus and said unto Esther the queen: ‘Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?’" 7.6. And Esther said: ‘An adversary and an enemy, even this wicked Haman.’ Then Haman was terrified before the king and the queen." 7.7. And the king arose in his wrath from the banquet of wine and went into the palace garden; but Haman remained to make request for his life to Esther the queen; for he saw that there was evil determined against him by the king." 7.8. Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the couch whereon Esther was. Then said the king: ‘Will he even force the queen before me in the house?’ As the word went out of the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face." 7.9. Then said Harbonah, one of the chamberlains that were before the king: ‘Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman hath made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman.’ And the king said: ‘Hang him thereon.’" 7.10. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath assuaged." 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language." 8.10. And they wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king’s service, bred of the stud;" 8.11. that the king had granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, and to slay, and to cause to perish, all the forces of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey," 8.12. upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar." 8.13. The copy of the writing, to be given out for a decree in every province, was to be published unto all the peoples, and that the Jews should be ready against that day to avenge themselves on their enemies." 8.14. So the posts that rode upon swift steeds that were used in the king’s service went out, being hastened and pressed on by the king’s commandment; and the decree was given out in Shushan the castle." 10.2. And all the acts of his power and of his might, and the full account of the greatness of Mordecai, how the king advanced him, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia?"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.14, 13.9, 17.14, 28.29, 32.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.14. וְהָיָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לָכֶם לְזִכָּרוֹן וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ׃ 13.9. וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ כִּי בְּיָד חֲזָקָה הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 17.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן בַּסֵּפֶר וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 28.29. וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחֹשֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּט עַל־לִבּוֹ בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְזִכָּרֹן לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה תָּמִיד׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 12.14. And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordice for ever." 13.9. And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the law of the LORD may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt." 17.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write this for a memorial in the book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.’" 28.29. And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the LORD continually. ." 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.24. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם שַׁבָּתוֹן זִכְרוֹן תְּרוּעָה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ׃ 23.24. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you, a memorial proclaimed with the blast of horns, a holy convocation."
4. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.16. אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְהוָה אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְהוָה וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ׃ 3.16. Then they that feared the LORD Spoke one with another; and the LORD hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon His name."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 10.10, 21.30, 24.30, 31.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.16. הֵן הֵנָּה הָיוּ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְבַר בִּלְעָם לִמְסָר־מַעַל בַּיהוָה עַל־דְּבַר־פְּעוֹר וַתְּהִי הַמַּגֵּפָה בַּעֲדַת יְהוָה׃ 10.10. Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 21.30. We have shot at them—Heshbon is perished—even unto Dibon, And we have laid waste even unto Nophah, Which reacheth unto Medeba." 31.16. Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to revolt so as to break faith with the LORD in the matter of Peor, and so the plague was among the congregation of the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 69.29, 78.65, 121.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

69.29. יִמָּחוּ מִסֵּפֶר חַיִּים וְעִם צַדִּיקִים אַל־יִכָּתֵבוּ׃ 78.65. וַיִּקַץ כְּיָשֵׁן אֲדֹנָי כְּגִבּוֹר מִתְרוֹנֵן מִיָּיִן׃ 121.4. הִנֵּה לֹא־יָנוּם וְלֹא יִישָׁן שׁוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 69.29. Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, And not be written with the righteous." 78.65. Then the Lord awaked as one asleep, Like a mighty man recovering from wine." 121.4. Behold, He that keepeth Israel Doth neither slumber nor sleep."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 63.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them."
8. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 4.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.7. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר נִכְרְתוּ מֵימֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה בְּעָבְרוֹ בַּיַּרְדֵּן נִכְרְתוּ מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהָיוּ הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה לְזִכָּרוֹן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 4.7. then ye shall say unto them: Because the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the ark of the covet of the LORD; when it passed over the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off; and these stones shall be for a memorial unto the children of Israel for ever.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.5. הָיָה אֲדֹנָי כְּאוֹיֵב בִּלַּע יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלַּע כָּל־אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ שִׁחֵת מִבְצָרָיו וַיֶּרֶב בְּבַת־יְהוּדָה תַּאֲנִיָּה וַאֲנִיָּה׃ 2.5. The Lord is become as an enemy, He hath swallowed up Israel; He hath swallowed up all her palaces, He hath destroyed his strongholds; And He hath multiplied in the daughter of Judah Mourning and moaning."
10. Hesiod, Theogony, 902 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

902. Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 4.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.15. דִּי יְבַקַּר בִּסְפַר־דָּכְרָנַיָּא דִּי אֲבָהָתָךְ וּתְהַשְׁכַּח בִּסְפַר דָּכְרָנַיָּא וְתִנְדַּע דִּי קִרְיְתָא דָךְ קִרְיָא מָרָדָא וּמְהַנְזְקַת מַלְכִין וּמְדִנָן וְאֶשְׁתַּדּוּר עָבְדִין בְּגַוַּהּ מִן־יוֹמָת עָלְמָא עַל־דְּנָה קִרְיְתָא דָךְ הָחָרְבַת׃ 4.15. that search may be made in the book of the records of thy fathers; so shalt thou find in the book of the records, and know that this city is a rebellious city, and hurtful unto kings and provinces, and that they have moved sedition within the same of old time; for which cause was this city laid waste."
12. Herodotus, Histories, 2.100 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.100. After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men. ,The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery. ,She built a spacious underground chamber; then, with the pretence of inaugurating it, but with quite another intent in her mind, she gave a great feast, inviting to it those Egyptians whom she knew to have had the most complicity in her brother's murder; and while they feasted, she let the river in upon them by a vast secret channel. ,This was all that the priests told of her, except that when she had done this she cast herself into a chamber full of hot ashes, to escape vengeance.
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10.9, 10.12, 12.6, 47.3, 90.20, 97.6, 98.7-98.8, 99.3, 99.5, 104.1, 108.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.9. through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in 10.12. with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that i 12.6. of sin: and inasmuch as they delight themselves in their children, The murder of their beloved ones shall they see, and over the destruction of their children shall they lament, and shall make supplication unto eternity, but mercy and peace shall ye not attain.' 47.3. In those days I saw the Head of Days when He seated himself upon the throne of His glory, And the books of the living were opened before Him: And all His host which is in heaven above and His counselors stood before Him 97.6. And all the words of your unrighteousness shall be read out before the Great Holy One, And your faces shall be covered with shame, And He will reject every work which is grounded on unrighteousness. 98.7. And do not think in your spirit nor say in your heart that ye do not know and that ye do not see 98.8. that every sin is every day recorded in heaven in the presence of the Most High. From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith ye oppress is written down every day till the day of your judgement. 99.3. In those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as a memorial, And place them as a testimony before the angels, That they may place the sin of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High. 99.5. And in those days the destitute shall go forth and carry off their children, And they shall abandon them, so that their children shall perish through them: Yea, they shall abandon their children (that are still) sucklings, and not return to them, And shall have no pity on their beloved ones. 104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning
14. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 17.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9-7.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened."
18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.35, 4.47, 4.49, 7.14, 13.4, 13.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.35. For this reason not only Jews, but many also of other nations, were grieved and displeased at the unjust murder of the man.' 4.47. Menelaus, the cause of all the evil, he acquitted of the charges against him, while he sentenced to death those unfortunate men, who would have been freed uncondemned if they had pleaded even before Scythians.' 4.49. Therefore even the Tyrians, showing their hatred of the crime, provided magnificently for their funeral.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 13.4. But the King of kings aroused the anger of Antiochus against the scoundrel; and when Lysias informed him that this man was to blame for all the trouble, he ordered them to take him to Beroea and to put him to death by the method which is the custom in that place.' 13.12. When they had all joined in the same petition and had besought the merciful Lord with weeping and fasting and lying prostrate for three days without ceasing, Judas exhorted them and ordered them to stand ready.'
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.12, 3.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.12. Their wives are foolish, and their children evil; 3.17. Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor.
20. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.22-6.26, 7.10-7.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.22. Then the king's anger was turned to pity and tears because of the things that he had devised beforehand. 6.23. For when he heard the shouting and saw them all fallen headlong to destruction, he wept and angrily threatened his friends, saying 6.24. You are committing treason and surpassing tyrants in cruelty; and even me, your benefactor, you are now attempting to deprive of dominion and life by secretly devising acts of no advantage to the kingdom. 6.25. Who is it that has taken each man from his home and senselessly gathered here those who faithfully have held the fortresses of our country? 6.26. Who is it that has so lawlessly encompassed with outrageous treatment those who from the beginning differed from all nations in their goodwill toward us and often have accepted willingly the worst of human dangers? 7.11. For they declared that those who for the belly's sake had transgressed the divine commandments would never be favorably disposed toward the king's government. 7.12. The king then, admitting and approving the truth of what they said, granted them a general license so that freely and without royal authority or supervision they might destroy those everywhere in his kingdom who had transgressed the law of God. 7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed. 7.14. And so on their way they punished and put to a public and shameful death any whom they met of their fellow-countrymen who had become defiled. 7.15. In that day they put to death more than three hundred men; and they kept the day as a joyful festival, since they had destroyed the profaners.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.194, 11.213, 11.216, 11.248, 11.277, 11.296 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.194. for that none of their wives would have any reverence for their husbands, if they, “had such an example of arrogance in the queen towards thee, who rulest over all.” Accordingly, he exhorted him to punish her, who had been guilty of so great an affront to him, after a severe manner; and when he had so done, to publish to the nations what had been decreed about the queen. So the resolution was to put Vashti away, and to give her dignity to another woman. 11.213. Now, if thou wilt be a benefactor to thy subjects, thou wilt give order to destroy them utterly, and not leave the least remains of them, nor preserve any of them, either for slaves or for captives.” 11.216. “Artaxerxes, the great king, to the rulers of the hundred twenty and seven provinces, from India to Ethiopia, sends this writing. Whereas I have governed many nations, and obtained the dominions of all the habitable earth, according to my desire, and have not been obliged to do any thing that is insolent or cruel to my subjects by such my power, but have showed myself mild and gentle, by taking care of their peace and good order, and have sought how they might enjoy those blessings for all time to come. 11.248. and as the king was not willing to lose the time of his lying awake, but to spend it in something that might be of advantage to his kingdom, he commanded the scribe to bring him the chronicles of the former kings, and the records of his own actions; 11.277. This hath been the case of Haman, the son of Ammedatha, by birth an Amalekite, and alien from the blood of the Persians, who, when he was hospitably entertained by us, and partook of that kindness which we bear to all men to so great a degree, as to be called my father, and to be all along worshipped, and to have honor paid him by all in the second rank after the royal honor due to ourselves, he could not bear his good fortune, nor govern the magnitude of his prosperity with sound reason; 11.296. o that the affairs of the Jews were, by their means, better than they could ever have hoped for. And this was the state of the Jews under the reign of Artaxerxes.
22. Anon., Pistis Sophia, 1.33 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. בפרוזבוטי אמר רב פפא וקרו ליה עבדא דמזדבן בטלמי,וכל זה איננו שוה לי מלמד שכל גנזיו של אותו רשע חקוקין על לבו ובשעה שרואה את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה איננו שוה לי,ואמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא עתיד הקב"ה להיות עטרה בראש כל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ה) ביום ההוא יהיה ה' צבאות לעטרת צבי [וגו'] מאי לעטרת צבי ולצפירת תפארה לעושין צביונו ולמצפין תפארתו יכול לכל ת"ל לשאר עמו למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,ולרוח משפט זה הדן את יצרו וליושב על המשפט זה הדן דין אמת לאמתו ולגבורה זה המתגבר על יצרו משיבי מלחמה שנושאין ונותנין במלחמתה של תורה שערה [אלו ת"ח] שמשכימין ומעריבין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה,אמר ליה גם אלה ביין שגו ובשכר תעו פקו פליליה אין פקו אלא גיהנם שנאמר (שמואל א כה, לא) ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה ואין פליליה אלא דיינין שנאמר (שמות כא, כב) ונתן בפלילים,ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית א"ר לוי כיון שהגיעה לבית הצלמים נסתלקה הימנה שכינה אמרה (תהלים כב, ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני שמא אתה דן על שוגג כמזיד ועל אונס כרצון,או שמא על שקראתיו כלב שנאמר (תהלים כב, כא) הצילה מחרב נפשי מיד כלב יחידתי חזרה וקראתו אריה שנאמר (תהלים כב, כב) הושיעני מפי אריה,ויהי כראות המלך את אסתר המלכה אמר רבי יוחנן ג' מלאכי השרת נזדמנו לה באותה שעה אחד שהגביה את צוארה ואחד שמשך חוט של חסד עליה ואחד שמתח את השרביט,וכמה אמר רבי ירמיה שתי אמות היה והעמידו על שתים עשרה ואמרי לה על שש עשרה ואמרי לה על עשרים וארבע במתניתא תנא על ששים וכן אתה מוצא באמתה של בת פרעה וכן אתה מוצא בשיני רשעים דכתיב (תהלים ג, ח) שיני רשעים שברת ואמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי שברת אלא שריבבת רבה בר עופרן אמר משום ר"א ששמע מרבו ורבו מרבו מאתים,ויאמר לה המלך לאסתר המלכה מה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות ותעש חצי המלכות ולא כל המלכות ולא דבר שחוצץ למלכות ומאי ניהו בנין בית המקדש,יבא המלך והמן אל המשתה ת"ר מה ראתה אסתר שזימנה את המן ר"א אומר פחים טמנה לו שנאמר (תהלים סט, כג) יהי שלחנם לפניהם לפח,ר' יהושע אומר מבית אביה למדה שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שונאך האכילהו לחם וגו' ר"מ אומר כדי שלא יטול עצה וימרוד,ר' יהודה אומר כדי שלא יכירו בה שהיא יהודית ר' נחמיה אומר כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל אחות יש לנו בבית המלך ויסיחו דעתן מן הרחמים ר' יוסי אומר כדי שיהא מצוי לה בכל עת ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר אולי ירגיש המקום ויעשה לנו נס,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אסביר לו פנים כדי שיהרג הוא והיא רבן גמליאל אומר מלך הפכפכן היה אמר רבי גמליאל עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דתניא ר' אליעזר המודעי אומר קנאתו במלך קנאתו בשרים,רבה אמר (משלי טז, יח) לפני שבר גאון אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו (ירמיהו נא, לט) בחומם אשית את משתיהם וגו' אשכחיה רבה בר אבוה לאליהו א"ל כמאן חזיא אסתר ועבדא הכי א"ל ככולהו תנאי וככולהו אמוראי,ויספר להם המן את כבוד עשרו ורוב בניו וכמה רוב בניו אמר רב ל' עשרה מתו ועשרה נתלו ועשרה מחזרין על הפתחים,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמחזרין על הפתחים שבעים הויא דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ה) שבעים בלחם נשכרו אל תקרי שבעים אלא שבעים,ורמי בר אבא אמר כולן מאתים ושמונה הוו שנאמר ורוב בניו ורוב בגימטריא מאתן וארביסר הוו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ורב כתיב,בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך אמר רבי תנחום נדדה שנת מלכו של עולם ורבנן אמרי נדדו עליונים נדדו תחתונים רבא אמר שנת המלך אחשורוש ממש,נפלה ליה מילתא בדעתיה אמר מאי דקמן דזמינתיה אסתר להמן דלמא עצה קא שקלי עילויה דההוא גברא למקטליה הדר אמר אי הכי לא הוה גברא דרחים לי דהוה מודע לי הדר אמר דלמא איכא איניש דעבד בי טיבותא ולא פרעתיה משום הכי מימנעי אינשי ולא מגלו לי מיד ויאמר להביא את ספר הזכרונות דברי הימים,ויהיו נקראים מלמד שנקראים מאיליהן וימצא כתוב כתב מבעי ליה מלמד 15b. basone with the heritage of ba poor man [ iperozeboti /i],as Mordecai had been Haman’s slave master and was aware of Haman’s lowly lineage. bRav Pappa said: And he was called: The slave who was sold fora loaf of bbread. /b,Haman’s previously quoted statement: b“Yet all this avails me nothing”(Esther 5:13), bteaches that all the treasures of that wicked one were engraved on his heart, and when he saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate, he said:As long as Mordecai is around, ball thisthat I wear on my heart bavails me nothing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be a crown on the head of each and every righteous man. As it is stated: “In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory,and for a diadem of beauty, to the residue of His people” (Isaiah 28:5). bWhat isthe meaning of b“for a crown of glory [ itzevi /i], and for a diadem [ ivelitzefirat /i] of beauty”?A crown bfor those that do His will [ itzivyono /i] anda diadem bfor those that await [ ivelamtzapin /i] His glory.One bmighthave thought that this extends bto allsuch individuals. Therefore, bthe verse states: “To the residue of his people,” to whoever regards himself as a remainder,i.e., small and unimportant like residue. But whoever holds himself in high esteem will not merit this.,Apropos the quotation from Isaiah, the Gemara explains the following verse, which states: “And for a spirit of justice to him that sits in judgment and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate” (Isaiah 28:6). b“And for a spirit of justice”; thisis referring to bone who brings hisevil binclination to trialand forces himself to repent. b“To him that sits in judgment”; thisis referring to bone who judges an absolutely true judgment. “And for strength”; thisis referring to bone who triumphs over hisevil binclination. “Them that turn back the battle”;this is referring to those bthat give and takein their discussion of ihalakha bin the battle ofunderstanding bthe Torah. “To the gate”;this is referring to bthe Torah scholars who arrive early and stay lateat the darkened gates bof the synagogues and study halls. /b,The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. bThe Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how are these,referring to the Jewish people, bdifferent from those,the other nations of the world, such that God performs miracles only on behalf of the Jewish people? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toit: bThe Jewish people occupied themselves with Torah,whereas btheother bnations of the world did not occupy themselves with Torah. /b,The Attribute of Justice bsaid to Him: “These also reel through wine, and stagger through strong drink;the priest and the prophet reel through strong drink, they are confused because of wine, they stagger because of strong drink; they reel in vision, bthey stumble [ ipaku /i] in judgment [ ipeliliyya /i]”(Isaiah 28:7). The word ipaku /iin this context is referring bonly to Gehenna, as it is stated: “That this shall not be a cause of stumbling [ ipuka /i] to you”(I Samuel 25:31), bandthe word ipeliliyya /ihere is referring bonly to judges, as it is stated: “And he shall pay as the judges determine [ ibifelilim /i]”(Exodus 21:22). The response of the Attribute of Justice was essentially that the Jewish people have also sinned and are consequently liable to receive punishment.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the Megilla. The verse states with regard to Esther: b“And she stood in the inner court of the king’s house”(Esther 5:1). bRabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols,which was in the inner court, bthe Divine Presence left her. Sheimmediately bsaid: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?”(Psalms 22:2). bPerhapsit is because bYou judge an unintentional sin as oneperformed bintentionally, andan action bdone due tocircumstances bbeyond one’s control asone done bwillingly. /b, bOr perhapsYou have left me bbecausein my prayers bI calledHaman ba dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog”(Psalms 22:21). bSheat once bretracted and called himin her prayers ba lion, as it is statedin the following verse: b“Save me from the lion’s mouth”(Psalms 22:22).,The verse states: b“And so it was, that when the king saw Esther the queenstanding in the court, that she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand” (Esther 5:2). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three ministering angels happened to join her at that time: One that raised up her neck,so that she could stand erect, free of shame; bone that strung a cordof divine bgrace around her,endowing her with charm and beauty; band one that stretched theking’s bscepter. /b, bHow muchwas it stretched? bRabbi Yirmeya said:The scepter bwas two cubits, and he made it twelvecubits. bAnd some saythat he made it bsixteencubits, bandyet bothers say twenty-fourcubits. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:He made it bsixtycubits. bAnd similarly you find with the arm of Pharaoh’s daughter,which she stretched out to take Moshe. bAnd so too, you find with the teeth of the wicked, as it is written: “You have broken the teeth of the wicked”(Psalms 3:8), with regard to which bReish Lakish said: Do not readit as b“You have broken [ ishibbarta /i],” butas: bYou have enlarged [ isheribavta /i]. Rabba bar oferan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who heard it from his teacher, whoin turn heard it bfrom his teacher:The scepter was stretched btwo hundredcubits.,The verse states: b“Then the king said to her” (Esther 5:3), to Esther the queen, “What is your wish, even to half the kingdom, it shall be performed”(Esther 5:6). The Gemara comments that Ahasuerus intended only a limited offer: Only bhalf the kingdom, but not the whole kingdom, and not something that would serve as a barrier to the kingdom,as there is one thing to which the kingdom will never agree. bAnd what is that? The building of the Temple;if that shall be your wish, realize that it will not be fulfilled.,The verse states that Esther requested: “If it seem good unto the king, blet the king and Haman come this day to the banquetthat I have prepared for him” (Esther 5:4). bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat did Esther see to invite Hamanto the banquet? bRabbi Elazar says: She hid a snare for him, as it is stated: “Let their table become a snare before them”(Psalms 69:23), as she assumed that she would be able to trip up Haman during the banquet., bRabbi Yehoshua says: She learnedto do bthis fromthe Jewish teachings of bher father’s house, as it is stated: “If your enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat”(Proverbs 25:21). bRabbi Meir says:She invited him bin orderthat he be near her at all times, bso that he would not take counsel and rebelagainst Ahasuerus when he discovered that the king was angry with him., bRabbi Yehuda says:She invited Haman bso that it not be found out that she was a Jew,as had she distanced him, he would have become suspicious. bRabbi Neḥemya says:She did this bso that the Jewish people would not say: We have a sister in the king’s house, andconsequently bneglect theirprayers for divine bmercy. Rabbi Yosei says:She acted in this manner, bso thatHaman would balways be on hand for her,as that would enable her to find an opportunity to cause him to stumble before the king. bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya saidthat Esther said to herself: bPerhaps the Omnipresent will take noticethat all are supporting Haman and nobody is supporting the Jewish people, band He will perform for us a miracle. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:She said to herself: bI will act kindly toward himand thereby bring the king to suspect that we are having an affair; she did so bin order thatboth bhe and she would be killed.Essentially, Esther was willing to be killed with Haman in order that the decree would be annulled. bRabban Gamliel says:Ahasuerus bwas a fickle king,and Esther hoped that if he saw Haman on multiple occasions, eventually he would change his opinion of him. bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe words of Rabbi Eliezer bHaModa’ito understand why Esther invited Haman to her banquet. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer HaModa’i says: She made the king jealous of him and she made theother bministers jealous of him,and in this way she brought about his downfall., bRabba says:Esther invited Haman to her banquet in order to fulfill that which is stated: b“Pride goes before destruction”(Proverbs 16:18), which indicates that in order to destroy the wicked, one must first bring them to pride. It can be understood according to bAbaye and Rava, who both saythat she invited Haman in order to fulfill the verse: b“When they are heated, I will make feasts for them,and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep” (Jeremiah 51:39). The Gemara relates that bRabba bar Avuhonce bhappened upon Elijahthe Prophet and bsaid to him: In accordance with whose understanding did Esther seefit to bact in this manner?What was the true reason behind her invitation? bHe,Elijah, bsaid to him:Esther was motivated by all the reasons previously mentioned and did so bfor allthe reasons previously stated by bthe itanna’imand allthe reasons stated by bthe iamora’im /i. /b,The verse states: b“And Haman recounted to them the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his sons”(Esther 5:11). The Gemara asks: bAnd how manysons did he in fact have that are referred to as b“the multitude of his sons”? Rav said:There were bthirtysons; btenof them bdiedin childhood, bten of them were hangedas recorded in the book of Esther, band tensurvived and were forced to bbeg atother people’s bdoors. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Those that begged atother people’s bdoorsnumbered bseventy, as it is written: “Those that were full, have hired themselves out for bread”(I Samuel 2:5). bDo not read it as: “Those that were full” [ iseve’im/b]; brather,read it as bseventy [ ishivim /i],indicating that there were seventy who “hired themselves out for bread.”, bAnd Rami bar Abba said: All ofHaman’s sons together numbered btwo hundred and eight, as it is stated: “And the multitude [ iverov /i] of his sons.”The numerical value of the word iverovequals two hundred and eight, alluding to the number of his sons. The Gemara comments: bButin fact, bthe numerical value [ igimatriyya /i] ofthe word iverovequals two hundred and fourteen,not two hundred and eight. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The word iverovis writtenin the Bible without the second ivav /i, and therefore its numerical value equals two hundred and eight.,The verse states: b“On that night the sleep of the king was disturbed”(Esther 6:1). bRabbi Tanḥum said:The verse alludes to another king who could not sleep; bthe sleep of the King of the universe,the Holy One, Blessed be He, bwas disturbed. And the Sages say:The sleep of bthe higher ones,the angels, bwas disturbed, andthe sleep of bthe lower ones,the Jewish people, bwas disturbed. Rava said:This should be understood bliterally: The sleep of King Ahasueruswas disturbed.,And this was the reason Ahasuerus could not sleep: bA thought occurred to himand bhe saidto himself: bWhat is this before us that Esther has invited Haman? Perhaps they are conspiring against that man,i.e., against me, bto kill him. Hethen bsaid againto himself: bIf this is so, is there no man who loves me and would inform meof this conspiracy? bHethen bsaid againto himself: bPerhaps there is some man who has done a favor for me and I have notproperly brewarded him, and due to thatreason bpeople refrain from revealing to meinformation regarding such plots, as they see no benefit for themselves. bImmediatelyafterward, the verse states: b“And he commanded the book of remembrances of the chronicles to be brought”(Esther 6:1).,The verse states: b“And they were readbefore the king” (Esther 6:1). The Gemara explains that bthispassive form: “And they were read,” bteaches that they were readmiraculously bby themselves.It further says: b“And it was found written [ ikatuv /i]”(Esther 6:2). The Gemara asks: Why does the Megilla use the word ikatuv /i, which indicates that it was newly written? bIt should have said: A writing [ iketav /i]was found, which would indicate that it had been written in the past. The Gemara explains: This bteaches /b
24. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 15.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ahasuerus, josephus attitude toward Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 602
ahasuerus Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
angels, scribes Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
anthropomorphism, sleep Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
archives Halser, Archival Historiography in Jewish Antiquity (2020) 100
balaam Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
books, holy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
books, of life Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
books, of memorial Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
books, of the holy ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
carnival(esque), carnivalization Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
children/offspring, of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 602
commemoration Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 236
contrastive linguistics, courtier literature Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 92
cult Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 236
dead sea scrolls Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 236
deeds, books of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
deeds, of humanity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
donatists Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 92
elephantine collections, archives and Halser, Archival Historiography in Jewish Antiquity (2020) 99, 100
elephantine collections, documents and Halser, Archival Historiography in Jewish Antiquity (2020) 99
elephantine collections, empire and Halser, Archival Historiography in Jewish Antiquity (2020) 99
elephantine collections, memory and Halser, Archival Historiography in Jewish Antiquity (2020) 99
empire Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
enemy, divine Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
esther, book of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
esther Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
exegesis, allegory Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
haman Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
humor(ous) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
identity, true/hidden Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
imperial(ism) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
israel, obedience Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
israel, rebellion of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
justice, divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
king, allegory Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
life / afterlife, book of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
media Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
memorial/remembrance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
mordecai Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
myth, as allegory Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
noah, contrasted with the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
persian, book of annals Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
persian, court Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
persian, empire/rule Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
persian, law of the medes and persians Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
petitions / prayers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
reading Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 92
recitation, communal Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 236
recitation, public Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 236
record of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
refrain Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 236
shemoneh esreh Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
sins / iniquity, recording of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
subversion/subversive Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 109
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 702
will Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378
writing' Burton, Dionysus and Rome: Religion and Literature (2009) 92
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), influence on divine realms Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 378