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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6280
Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.2


וְכָל־עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ כֹּרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לְהָמָן כִּי־כֵן צִוָּה־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמָרְדֳּכַי לֹא יִכְרַע וְלֹא יִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה׃And all the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, bowed down, and prostrated themselves before Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor prostrated himself before him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.12, 2.1, 2.14, 2.17, 2.21-2.23, 3.1, 3.3-3.15, 7.2, 8.3, 8.7-8.14, 9.13-9.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.12. וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃ 2.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כְּשֹׁךְ חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ זָכַר אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂתָה וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־נִגְזַר עָלֶיהָ׃ 2.1. לֹא־הִגִּידָה אֶסְתֵּר אֶת־עַמָּהּ וְאֶת־מוֹלַדְתָּהּ כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי צִוָּה עָלֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תַגִּיד׃ 2.14. בָּעֶרֶב הִיא בָאָה וּבַבֹּקֶר הִיא שָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים שֵׁנִי אֶל־יַד שַׁעֲשְׁגַז סְרִיס הַמֶּלֶךְ שֹׁמֵר הַפִּילַגְשִׁים לֹא־תָבוֹא עוֹד אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי אִם־חָפֵץ בָּהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְנִקְרְאָה בְשֵׁם׃ 2.17. וַיֶּאֱהַב הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־אֶסְתֵּר מִכָּל־הַנָּשִׁים וַתִּשָּׂא־חֵן וָחֶסֶד לְפָנָיו מִכָּל־הַבְּתוּלֹת וַיָּשֶׂם כֶּתֶר־מַלְכוּת בְּרֹאשָׁהּ וַיַּמְלִיכֶהָ תַּחַת וַשְׁתִּי׃ 2.21. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּמָרְדֳּכַי יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ קָצַף בִּגְתָן וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי־סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף וַיְבַקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ׃ 2.22. וַיִּוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לְמָרְדֳּכַי וַיַּגֵּד לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּשֵׁם מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 2.23. וַיְבֻקַּשׁ הַדָּבָר וַיִּמָּצֵא וַיִּתָּלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עַל־עֵץ וַיִּכָּתֵב בְּסֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.1. וַיָּסַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ מֵעַל יָדוֹ וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְהָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 3.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אֶת־הָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי וַיְנַשְּׂאֵהוּ וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־כִּסְאוֹ מֵעַל כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 3.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְמָרְדֳּכָי מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה עוֹבֵר אֵת מִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.4. וַיְהִי באמרם [כְּאָמְרָם] אֵלָיו יוֹם וָיוֹם וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם וַיַּגִּידוּ לְהָמָן לִרְאוֹת הֲיַעַמְדוּ דִּבְרֵי מָרְדֳּכַי כִּי־הִגִּיד לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יְהוּדִי׃ 3.7. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הִפִּיל פּוּר הוּא הַגּוֹרָל לִפְנֵי הָמָן מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם וּמֵחֹדֶשׁ לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר׃ 3.8. וַיֹּאמֶר הָמָן לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם־אֶחָד מְפֻזָּר וּמְפֹרָד בֵּין הָעַמִּים בְּכֹל מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתֶךָ וְדָתֵיהֶם שֹׁנוֹת מִכָּל־עָם וְאֶת־דָּתֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵינָם עֹשִׂים וְלַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין־שֹׁוֶה לְהַנִּיחָם׃ 3.12. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הָמָן אֶל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶל־הַפַּחוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי עַם וָעָם מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ נִכְתָּב וְנֶחְתָּם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.13. וְנִשְׁלוֹחַ סְפָרִים בְּיַד הָרָצִים אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים מִנַּעַר וְעַד־זָקֵן טַף וְנָשִׁים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 3.14. פַּתְשֶׁגֶן הַכְּתָב לְהִנָּתֵן דָּת בְּכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה גָּלוּי לְכָל־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת עֲתִדִים לַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 3.15. הָרָצִים יָצְאוּ דְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וְהַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן יָשְׁבוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן נָבוֹכָה׃ 7.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר גַּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי בְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וְתִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עַד־חֲצִי הַמַּלְכוּת וְתֵעָשׂ׃ 8.3. וַתּוֹסֶף אֶסְתֵּר וַתְּדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתִּפֹּל לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו וַתֵּבְךְּ וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־לוֹ לְהַעֲבִיר אֶת־רָעַת הָמָן הָאֲגָגִי וְאֵת מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 8.7. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וּלְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הִנֵּה בֵית־הָמָן נָתַתִּי לְאֶסְתֵּר וְאֹתוֹ תָּלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ עַל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח יָדוֹ ביהודיים [בַּיְּהוּדִים׃] 8.8. וְאַתֶּם כִּתְבוּ עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים כַּטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶם בְּשֵׁם הַמֶּלֶךְ וְחִתְמוּ בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי־כְתָב אֲשֶׁר־נִכְתָּב בְּשֵׁם־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְנַחְתּוֹם בְּטַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין לְהָשִׁיב׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 8.11. אֲשֶׁר נָתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־עִיר־וָעִיר לְהִקָּהֵל וְלַעֲמֹד עַל־נַפְשָׁם לְהַשְׁמִיד וְלַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד אֶת־כָּל־חֵיל עַם וּמְדִינָה הַצָּרִים אֹתָם טַף וְנָשִׁים וּשְׁלָלָם לָבוֹז׃ 8.12. בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר׃ 8.13. פַּתְשֶׁגֶן הַכְּתָב לְהִנָּתֵן דָּת בְּכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה גָּלוּי לְכָל־הָעַמִּים וְלִהְיוֹת היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] עתודים [עֲתִידִים] לַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְהִנָּקֵם מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶם׃ 8.14. הָרָצִים רֹכְבֵי הָרֶכֶשׁ הָאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִים יָצְאוּ מְבֹהָלִים וּדְחוּפִים בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַדָּת נִתְּנָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה׃ 9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.14. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן תָּלוּ׃ 9.15. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָם׃ 1.12. But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him." 2.1. After these things, when the wrath of king Ahasuerus was assuaged, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her." 2.14. In the evening she went, and on the morrow she returned into the second house of the women, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s chamberlain, who kept the concubines; she came in unto the king no more, except the king delighted in her, and she were called by name." 2.17. And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti." 2.21. in those days, while Mordecai sat in the king’s gate, two of the king’s chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those that kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus." 2.22. And the thing became known to Mordecai, who told it unto Esther the queen; and Esther told the king thereof in Mordecai’s name." 2.23. And when inquisition was made of the matter, and it was found to be so, they were both hanged on a tree; and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king." 3.1. After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him." 3.3. Then the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai: ‘Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment?’" 3.4. Now it came to pass, when they spoke daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai’s words would stand; for he had told them that he was a Jew." 3.7. In the first month, which is the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, which is the month Adar." 3.8. And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus: ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws are diverse from those of every people; neither keep they the king’s laws; therefore it profiteth not the king to suffer them." 3.12. Then were the king’s scribes called in the first month, on the thirteenth day thereof, and there was written, according to all that Haman commanded, unto the king’s satraps, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the princes of every people; to every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and it was sealed with the king’s ring." 3.13. And letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey." 3.14. The copy of the writing, to be given out for a decree in every province, was to be published unto all peoples, that they should be ready against that day." 3.15. The posts went forth in haste by the king’s commandment, and the decree was given out in Shushan the castle; and the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city of Shushan was perplexed." 7.2. And the king said again unto Esther on the second day at the banquet of wine: ‘Whatever thy petition, queen Esther, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request, even to the half of the kingdom, it shall be performed.’" 8.3. And Esther spoke yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Jews." 8.7. Then the king Ahasuerus said unto Esther the queen and to Mordecai the Jew: ‘Behold, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and him they have hanged upon the gallows, because he laid his hand upon the Jews." 8.8. Write ye also concerning the Jews, as it liketh you, in the king’s name, and seal it with the king’s ring; for the writing which is written in the king’s name, and sealed with the king’s ring, may no man reverse.’" 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language." 8.10. And they wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king’s ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, riding on swift steeds that were used in the king’s service, bred of the stud;" 8.11. that the king had granted the Jews that were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, and to slay, and to cause to perish, all the forces of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey," 8.12. upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar." 8.13. The copy of the writing, to be given out for a decree in every province, was to be published unto all the peoples, and that the Jews should be ready against that day to avenge themselves on their enemies." 8.14. So the posts that rode upon swift steeds that were used in the king’s service went out, being hastened and pressed on by the king’s commandment; and the decree was given out in Shushan the castle." 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’" 9.14. And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons." 9.15. And the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men in Shushan; but on the spoil they laid not their hand."
2. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.10. Then she fell on her face, and bowed down to the ground, and said unto him: ‘Why have I found favour in thy sight, that thou shouldest take cognizance of me, seeing I am a foreigner?’"
3. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.23. וַיַּגִּידוּ לַמֶּלֶךְ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וַיָּבֹא לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־אַפָּיו אָרְצָה׃ 1.23. And they told the king, saying: ‘Behold Nathan the prophet.’ And when he was come in before the king, he bowed down before the king with his face to the ground."
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 20.41, 25.23-25.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.41. הַנַּעַר בָּא וְדָוִד קָם מֵאֵצֶל הַנֶּגֶב וַיִּפֹּל לְאַפָּיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וַיִּשְּׁקוּ אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ עַד־דָּוִד הִגְדִּיל׃ 25.23. וַתֵּרֶא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶת־דָּוִד וַתְּמַהֵר וַתֵּרֶד מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַתִּפֹּל לְאַפֵּי דָוִד עַל־פָּנֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרֶץ׃ 25.24. וַתִּפֹּל עַל־רַגְלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי־אֲנִי אֲדֹנִי הֶעָוֺן וּתְדַבֶּר־נָא אֲמָתְךָ בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּשְׁמַע אֵת דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 20.41. And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded." 25.23. And when Avigayil saw David, she hastened, and descended from the ass, and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground," 25.24. and fell at his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be: and let thy handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thy ears, and hear the words of thy handmaid."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 9.6, 14.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.6. וַיָּבֹא מְפִיבֹשֶׁת בֶּן־יְהוֹנָתָן בֶּן־שָׁאוּל אֶל־דָּוִד וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד מְפִיבֹשֶׁת וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 14.4. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַתְּקֹעִית אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתִּפֹּל עַל־אַפֶּיהָ אַרְצָה וַתִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַתֹּאמֶר הוֹשִׁעָה הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 9.6. Now when Mefivoshet, the son of Yehonatan, the son of Sha᾽ul, was come to David, he fell on his face, and bowed down to the ground. And David said, Mefivoshet. And he answered, Behold thy servant!" 14.4. And when the woman of Teqo῾a spoke to the king, she fell on her face to the ground, and bowed herself, and said, Help, O king."
6. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר־צְבָא־יְהוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ׃ 5.14. And he said: ‘Nay, but I am captain of the host of the LORD; I am now come.’ And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down, and said unto him: ‘What saith my lord unto his servant?’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.17-4.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.17. וְסִיסְרָא נָס בְּרַגְלָיו אֶל־אֹהֶל יָעֵל אֵשֶּׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי כִּי שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יָבִין מֶלֶךְ־חָצוֹר וּבֵין בֵּית חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי׃ 4.18. וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרַאת סִיסְרָא וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו סוּרָה אֲדֹנִי סוּרָה אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא וַיָּסַר אֵלֶיהָ הָאֹהֱלָה וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָה׃ 4.17. But Sisera fled away by foot to the tent of Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite: for there was peace between Yavin the king of Ĥażor and the house of Ĥever the Qeni." 4.18. And Ya᾽el went out to meet Sisera, and said to him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in to her into the tent, she covered him with a blanket."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.18. וַיִּקֹּד יְהוֹשָׁפָט אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה וְכָל־יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם נָפְלוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַיהוָה׃ 20.18. And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground; and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell down before the LORD, worshipping the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.46, 3.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.46. בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר נְפַל עַל־אַנְפּוֹהִי וּלְדָנִיֵּאל סְגִד וּמִנְחָה וְנִיחֹחִין אֲמַר לְנַסָּכָה לֵהּ׃ 3.12. אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן דִּי־מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא־שָׂמוּ עליך [עֲלָךְ] מַלְכָּא טְעֵם לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין׃ 2.46. Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an offering and sweet odours unto him." 3.12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’"
10. Septuagint, Judith, 6.18, 8.33, 10.7, 11.3, 11.23, 14.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

6.18. Then the people fell down and worshiped God, and cried out to him, and said 8.33. Stand at the city gate tonight, and I will go out with my maid; and within the days after which you have promised to surrender the city to our enemies, the Lord will deliver Israel by my hand. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her 11.3. And now tell me why you have fled from them and have come over to us -- since you have come to safety. 11.23. You are not only beautiful in appearance, but wise in speech; and if you do as you have said, your God shall be my God, and you shall live in the house of King Nebuchadnezzar and be renowned throughout the whole world. 14.7. And when they raised him up he fell at Judith's feet, and knelt before her, and said, "Blessed are you in every tent of Judah! In every nation those who hear your name will be alarmed.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.191-11.194, 11.202 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.191. But she, out of regard to the laws of the Persians, which forbid the wives to be seen by strangers, did not go to the king and though he oftentimes sent the eunuchs to her, she did nevertheless stay away, and refused to come 11.192. till the king was so much irritated, that he brake up the entertainment, and rose up, and called for those seven who had the interpretation of the laws committed to them, and accused his wife, and said that he had been affronted by her, because that when she was frequently called by him to his feast, she did not obey him once. 11.193. He therefore gave order that they should inform him what could be done by the law against her. So one of them, whose name was Memucan, said that this affront was offered not to him alone, but to all the Persians, who were in danger of leading their lives very ill with their wives, if they must be thus despised by them; 11.194. for that none of their wives would have any reverence for their husbands, if they, “had such an example of arrogance in the queen towards thee, who rulest over all.” Accordingly, he exhorted him to punish her, who had been guilty of so great an affront to him, after a severe manner; and when he had so done, to publish to the nations what had been decreed about the queen. So the resolution was to put Vashti away, and to give her dignity to another woman. 11.202. and when Esther had come to him, he was pleased with her, and fell in love with the damsel, and married her, and made her his lawful wife, and kept a wedding feast for her on the twelfth month of the seventh year of his reign, which was called Adar.
12. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 67.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

67.4. כִּשְׁמֹעַ עֵשָׂו אֶת דִּבְרֵי אָבִיו (בראשית כז, לד), אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וַתְּרָן הוּא יִתְוַתְּרוּן בְּנֵי מְעוֹהִי, אֶלָּא מַאֲרִיךְ אַפֵּיהּ וְגָבֵי דִּילֵיהּ, זְעָקָה אַחַת הִזְעִיק יַעֲקֹב לְעֵשָׂו, דִּכְתִיב: כִּשְׁמֹעַ עֵשָׂו אֶת דִּבְרֵי אָבִיו וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה, וְהֵיכָן נִפְרַע לוֹ בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ד, א): וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדוֹלָה וּמָרָה עַד מְאֹד. (בראשית כז, לה): בָּא אָחִיךָ בְּמִרְמָה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בָּא בְּחָכְמַת תּוֹרָתוֹ. (בראשית כז, לו): וַיֹּאמֶר הֲכִי קָרָא שְׁמוֹ יַעֲקֹב וַיַּעְקְבֵנִי, רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר הִתְחִיל מְחַכֵּךְ בִּגְרוֹנוֹ כְּמַאן דִּמְחַיֵּיךְ וְזוֹרֵק רֹק מִפִּיו. וַיֹּאמֶר הֲכִי, וַיַּעְקְבֵנִי, אֶת בְּכֹרָתִי לָקָח וְשָׁתַקְתִּי לוֹ, וְהִנֵּה עַתָּה לָקַח בִּרְכָתִי וְשָׁתַקְתִּי לוֹ, הֲלֹא אָצַלְתָּ לִּי בְּרָכָה, מִן הַנִּצֹּלֶת.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

36b. (מלאכי ג, ט) במארה אתם נארים ואותי אתם קובעים הגוי כולו אי איכא גוי כולו אין אי לא לא,גופא אמר באלי אמר אבימי נותאה משמיה דרב פיתן ושמנן יינן ובנותיהן כולן משמונה עשר דבר הן בנותיהן מאי היא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גזרו על בנותיהן נידות מעריסותן,וגניבא משמיה דרב אמר כולן משום עבודת כוכבים גזרו בהן דכי אתא רב אחא בר אדא א"ר יצחק גזרו על פיתן משום שמנן מאי אולמיה דשמן מפת,אלא על פיתן ושמנן משום יינן ועל יינן משום בנותיהן ועל בנותיהן משום דבר אחר ועל דבר אחר משום ד"א,בנותיהן דאורייתא היא דכתיב (דברים ז, ג) לא תתחתן בם דאורייתא ז' אומות אבל שאר עובדי כוכבים לא ואתו אינהו וגזור אפילו דשאר עובדי כוכבים,ולר"ש בן יוחי דאמר (דברים ז, ד) כי יסיר את בנך מאחרי לרבות כל המסירות מאי איכא למימר אלא דאורייתא אישות דרך חתנות ואתו אינהו גזור אפילו דרך זנות,זנות נמי בבית דינו של שם גזרו דכתיב (בראשית לח, כד) ויאמר יהודה הוציאוה ותשרף,אלא דאורייתא עובד כוכבים הבא על בת ישראל דמשכה בתריה אבל ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים לא ואתו אינהו גזור אפי' ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים,ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים הלכה למשה מסיני היא דאמר מר הבועל ארמית קנאין פוגעין בו,א"ל דאורייתא בפרהסיא וכמעשה שהיה ואתו אינהו גזור אפילו בצינעא בצינעא נמי בית דינו של חשמונאי גזרו,[דכי אתא רב דימי אמר ב"ד של חשמונאי גזרו] ישראל הבא על העובדת כוכבים חייב משום נשג"א,כי אתא רבין אמר משום נשג"ז,כי גזרו בית דינו של חשמונאי ביאה אבל ייחוד לא ואתו אינהו גזור אפי' ייחוד ייחוד נמי בית דינו של דוד גזרו,דאמר רב יהודה באותה שעה גזרו על ייחוד אמרי התם ייחוד דבת ישראל אבל ייחוד דעובדת כוכבים לא ואתו אינהו גזרו אפי' אייחוד דעובדת כוכבים,ייחוד דבת ישראל דאורייתא היא דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק רמז לייחוד מן התורה מנין שנאמר (דברים יג, ז) כי יסיתך אחיך בן אמך וכי בן אם מסית בן אב אינו מסית,אלא בן מתייחד עם אמו ואין אחר מתייחד עם כל עריות שבתורה,ייחוד דאורייתא דאשת איש ואתא דוד וגזר אפי' אייחוד דפנויה ואתו תלמידי בית שמאי ובית הלל גזור אפי' אייחוד דעובדת כוכבים,מאי על ד"א משום ד"א אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גזרו על תינוק עובד כוכבים שיטמא בזיבה שלא יהא תינוק ישראל רגיל אצלו במשכב זכור,דא"ר זירא צער גדול היה לי אצל ר' אסי ור' אסי אצל ר' יוחנן ור' יוחנן אצל ר' ינאי ור' ינאי אצל רבי נתן בן עמרם ור"נ בן עמרם אצל רבי תינוק עובד כוכבים מאימתי מטמא בזיבה ואמר לי בן יומו וכשבאתי אצל ר' חייא אמר לי בן ט' שנים ויום אחד,וכשבאתי והרציתי דברי לפני רבי אמר לי הנח דברי ואחוז דברי רבי חייא דאמר תינוק עובד כוכבים אימתי מטמא בזיבה בן תשע שנים ויום אחד 36b. It is the verse: b“You are cursed with the curse, yet you rob Me, even this whole nation”(Malachi 3:9). This teaches that bif there isthe acceptance of bthe whole nation, yes,an ordice may be instituted, but bif not, no,the ordice may not be instituted.,§ The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself: Balei saysthat bAvimi of Nota says in the name of Rav:The prohibitions with regard to gentiles’ bbread and their oil, their wine and their daughters, are all from the eighteen mattersissued in a single day in the time of the students of Shammai and Hillel. The Gemara asks: With regard to btheir daughters, what isthe decree? bRabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: They decreed upon their daughtersthat they should be classified as bmenstruating women fromthe time they are in btheir cradle,i.e., they decreed that from when they are young, gentile women are always considered to be menstruating.,The Gemara presents another opinion. bAnd Geneiva says in the name of Rav:Gentiles’ bread, oil, wine, and daughters were ball decreed upon due tothe concern that Jews might participate in bidol worshipwith gentiles as a result of intermingling with them. bAs, when Rav Aḥa bar Adda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yitzḥak says: They decreeda prohibition bupon their bread due to their oil.The Gemara asks: In bwhatway bis theprohibition with regard to boil stronger thanthe prohibition with regard to bbread?That is, why does the primary concern relate to the oil of gentiles rather than their bread?,The Gemara offers a different interpretation: bRather,they issued a decree prohibiting btheir bread and their oil due to their wine. Andthey issued the decree prohibiting btheir wine due tothe fact that this leads to familiarity, and Jews will come to marry btheir daughters. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir daughters due to something else,idolatry. bAndthey further issued a decree bon something else due to something else,which will be explained by the Gemara.,It was stated that the prohibition against marrying the daughters of gentiles was decreed on account of idolatry. The Gemara raises an objection: But the prohibition against marrying btheir daughters isprescribed bby Torah law, as it is written: “Neither shall you make marriages with them”(Deuteronomy 7:3). The Gemara explains: bBy Torah lawintermarriage is prohibited only with the bsevenCanaanite bnations, butintermarriage with bthe other nationsof the world is bnotprohibited, bandthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcame and decreedthat intermarriage is prohibited bevenwith bthe other nations. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd according tothe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, who saysthat the subsequent verse: b“For he will turn away your son from following Me”(Deuteronomy 7:4) serves bto include all who turn awayone’s son from God, i.e., all gentiles, bwhat is there to say? Rather, by Torah lawonly bsexual relations by way of marriageare prohibited, band they cameand bdecreedthat sexual relations are prohibited beven by way of licentiousness. /b,The Gemara raises an objection: bLicentioussexual intercourse was balsoprohibited earlier, as bthey decreeda prohibition in this regard bin the court of Shem, as it is written:“It was told to Judah, saying: Tamar your daughter-in-law has played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by harlotry. bAnd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burned”(Genesis 38:24). This proves that the prohibition against licentious intercourse with a gentile was in force long before the time of the students of Shammai and Hillel.,The Gemara explains: bRather,the prohibition prescribed bby Torah lawapplies to the case of ba gentile who engaged in intercourse with a Jewish woman, as she is drawn after himtoward idolatry, bbutthe case of ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile womanis bnotincluded in the prohibition by Torah law. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreedthat the prohibition applies bevento ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile woman. /b,The Gemara rejects this: The prohibition concerning ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile woman is a ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai,not a rabbinic ordice. bAs the Master said:With regard to bone who engages in intercourse with an Aramean woman, zealots may attack him,as Pinehas did to Zimri in the wilderness (see Numbers 25:6–8)., bHe said to him: By Torah lawintercourse with a gentile is prohibited bin public, andonly in situations blike the incident that occurred,as described in Numbers, chapter 25. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreedthat the prohibition applies beven in private.The Gemara raises another difficulty: This was balsoprohibited bin private,as bthe court of the Hasmoneans decreedthat it is prohibited., bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid: The court of the Hasmoneans decreedthat ba Jew who engaged in intercourse with a gentile woman bearsliability bfortransgressing four prohibitions, represented by the mnemonic: iNun /i, ishin /i, igimmel /i, ialef /i.These letters stands for: Menstruating woman [ inidda /i], maidservant [ ishifḥa /i], gentile [ igoya /i], and married woman [ ieshet ish /i]. By rabbinic law, a man who engages in intercourse with a gentile woman is considered to have violated the prohibitions involved in having intercourse with all four of these women.,And bwhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid:He bears liability bforfour prohibitions represented by the mnemonic: iNun /i, ishin /i, igimmel /i, izayin /i,which stands for: Menstruating woman [ inidda /i], maidservant [ ishifḥa /i], gentile [ igoya /i], and prostitute [ izona /i]. In any case, it is apparent that this decree was in force before the time of the students of Shammai and Hillel.,The Gemara answers: bWhen the court of the Hasmoneans decreed,they prohibited only bsexual intercourse, butwith regard to bseclusionwith a gentile woman, bno,they did not prohibit that. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreedthat beven seclusionwith a gentile woman is prohibited. The Gemara raises an objection: bSeclusionwas balsoprohibited earlier, as bthe court ofKing bDavid decreedthat with regard to this matter., bAs Rav Yehuda says: At that time,after the incident involving Amnon and Tamar (see II Samuel 13:1–19), bthey decreed with regard to seclusion.The Sages bsaidin response to the objection: bThere,in David’s court, bseclusion with a Jewish womanwas prohibited, bbut seclusion with a gentile womanwas bnotprohibited. bAndthe students of Shammai and Hillel bcameand bdecreeda prohibition beven with regard to seclusion with a gentile woman. /b,The Gemara raises yet another difficulty: bSeclusion with a Jewish woman isprohibited bby Torah law, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Where is there an allusion in the Torah tothe prohibition against bseclusion? As it is stated: “If your brother, the son of your mother, entices you”(Deuteronomy 13:7). bAnd does onlya half brother who is bthe son of a mother enticeone to sin, whereas bthe son of a father does not entice? /b, bRather,there is a greater concern that a maternal half brother might entice one to sin, as ba son secludes himself with his mother, and no other may seclude himself with anyof bthose with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah.Since an individual and his maternal half brother both seclude themselves with their shared mother, they are frequently together in private, and this facilitates enticement. In any case, it is clear that the prohibition against seclusion with a Jewish woman preceded King David.,The Gemara explains: The prohibition against bseclusionprescribed bby Torah lawapplies specifically to ba married woman, and David came and decreeda prohibition beven with regard to seclusion with an unmarried woman. Andlater bthe students of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel cameand bdecreed even with regard to seclusion with a gentile woman. /b,§ It was stated above that they issued a decree prohibiting the daughters of gentiles due to something else, idolatry. And they further issued a decree on something else due to something else. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: And they further issued a decree bon something else due to something else? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: They decreed upona male bgentile child that he imparts ritual impurity asthough he were a Jew who experienced a gonorrhea-like bdischarge [ iziva /i],so bthat a Jewish child will not become familiar with him,leading bto homosexual intercourse.The Sages employed a euphemism when referring to this decree., bAs Rabbi Zeira says: I had great trouble with Rabbi Asiwhen I asked him the following question, bandlikewise bRabbi Asiexperienced trouble bwith Rabbi Yoḥawhen he posed it to him. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥahad trouble bwith Rabbi Yannai, and Rabbi Yannaihad trouble bwith Rabbi Natan ben Amram, and Rabbi Natan ben Amramhad trouble bwith RabbiYehuda HaNasi. The inquiry was as follows: With regard to a male bgentile child, from when,i.e., from what age, does he bimpart ritual impurity asone who experiences iziva /i? AndRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to me:From when he is bone day old. And when I came to Rabbi Ḥiyya, he said to me:From when he is bnine years and one day old. /b, bAnd when I cameback band relayedRabbi Ḥiyya’s bstatement before RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bhe said to me: Discard my statement, and grasp the statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya, who says:From bwhendoes ba gentile child impart ritual impurity asone who experiences iziva /i?From when he is bnine years and one day old. /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

93a. גדולים צדיקים יותר ממלאכי השרת שנאמר (דניאל ג, כה) ענה ואמר הא אנא חזי גוברין ארבעה שריין מהלכין בגו נורא וחבל לא איתי בהון ורויה די רביעאה דמה לבר אלהין,אמר ר' תנחום בר חנילאי בשעה שיצאו חנניה מישאל ועזריה מכבשן האש באו כל אומות העולם וטפחו לשונאיהן של ישראל על פניהם אמרו להם יש לכם אלוה כזה ואתם משתחוים לצלם מיד פתחו ואמרו (דניאל ט, ז) לך ה' הצדקה ולנו בושת הפנים כיום הזה,אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ט) אמרתי אעלה בתמר אוחזה בסנסניו אמרתי אעלה בתמר אלו ישראל ועכשיו לא עלה בידי אלא סנסן אחד של חנניה מישאל ועזריה,אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (זכריה א, ח) ראיתי הלילה והנה איש רוכב על סוס אדום והוא עומד בין ההדסים אשר במצולה [וגו'] מאי ראיתי הלילה ביקש הקב"ה להפוך את כל העולם כולו ללילה והנה איש רוכב אין איש אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (שמות טו, ג) ה' איש מלחמה ה' שמו על סוס אדום ביקש הקב"ה להפוך את העולם כולו לדם,כיון שנסתכל בחנניה מישאל ועזריה נתקררה דעתו שנאמר (זכריה א, ח) והוא עומד בין ההדסים אשר במצולה ואין הדסים אלא צדיקים שנאמר (אסתר ב, ז) ויהי אומן את הדסה ואין מצולה אלא בבל שנאמר (ישעיהו מד, כז) האומר לצולה חרבי ונהרותיך אוביש מיד מלאים רוגז נעשים שרוקים ואדומים נעשו לבנים אמר רב פפא שמע מינה סוסיא חיורא מעלי לחלמא:,ורבנן להיכא (אזול) [אזלו] אמר רב בעין [הרע] מתו ושמואל אמר ברוק טבעו ור' יוחנן אמר עלו לארץ ישראל ונשאו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות,כתנאי ר' אליעזר אומר בעין [הרע] מתו ר' יהושע אומר ברוק טבעו וחכ"א עלו לא"י ונשאו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות שנאמר (זכריה ג, ח) שמע נא יהושע הכהן הגדול אתה ורעיך היושבים לפניך כי אנשי מופת המה איזו הם אנשים שנעשה להן מופת הוי אומר זה חנניה מישאל ועזריה,ודניאל להיכן אזל אמר רב למיכרא נהרא רבא בטבריא ושמואל אמר לאתויי ביזרא דאספסתא ור' יוחנן אמר לאתויי חזירי דאלכסנדריא של מצרים איני והתניא תודוס הרופא אמר אין פרה וחזירה יוצא מאלכסנדריא של מצרים שאין חותכין האם שלה בשביל שלא תלד זוטרי אייתי בלא דעתייהו,ת"ר שלשה היו באותה עצה הקב"ה ודניאל ונבוכדנצר הקב"ה אמר ניזיל דניאל מהכא דלא לימרו בזכותיה איתנצל,ודניאל אמר איזיל מהכא דלא ליקיים בי (דברים ז, כה) פסילי אלהיהם תשרפון באש,ונבוכדנצר אמר יזיל דניאל מהכא דלא לימרו קלייה לאלהיה בנורא ומניין דסגיד ליה דכתיב (דניאל ב, מו) באדין מלכא נבוכדנצר נפל על אנפוהי ולדניאל סגיד וגו':,(ירמיהו כט, כא) כה אמר ה' צבאות אלהי ישראל אל אחאב בן קוליה ואל צדקיה בן מעשיה הנבאים לכם בשמי לשקר וגו' וכתיב (ירמיהו כט, כב) ולוקח מהם קללה לכל גלות יהודה אשר בבבל לאמר ישימך ה' כצדקיהו וכאחאב אשר קלם מלך בבל באש אשר שרפם לא נאמר אלא אשר קלם אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי מלמד שעשאן כקליות,(ירמיהו כט, כג) יען אשר עשו נבלה בישראל וינאפו את נשי רעיהם מאי עבוד אזול לגבי ברתיה דנבוכדנצר אחאב אמר לה כה אמר ה' השמיעי אל צדקיה וצדקיה אמר כה אמר ה' השמיעי אל אחאב אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה אמר לה אלהיהם של אלו שונא זימה הוא כי אתו לגבך שדרינהו לגבאי,כי אתו לגבה שדרתנהו לגבי אבוה אמר להו מאן אמר לכון אמרו הקדוש ברוך הוא והא חנניה מישאל ועזריה שאלתינהו ואמרו לי אסור אמרו ליה אנן נמי נביאי כוותייהו לדידהו לא אמר להו לדידן אמר לן אמר להו אנא בעינא דאיבדקינכו כי היכי דבדקתינהו לחנניה מישאל ועזריה,אמרו ליה אינון תלתא הוו ואנן תרין אמר להו בחרו לכון מאן דבעיתו בהדייכו אמרו יהושע כהן גדול סברי ליתי יהושע דנפיש זכותיה ומגנא עלן,אחתיוהו שדינהו אינהו איקלו יהושע כהן גדול איחרוכי מאניה שנאמר (זכריה ג, א) ויראני את יהושע הכהן הגדול עומד לפני מלאך ה' וגו' וכתיב (זכריה ג, ב) ויאמר ה' אל השטן יגער ה' בך וגו',א"ל ידענא דצדיקא את אלא מאי טעמא אהניא בך פורתא נורא חנניה מישאל ועזריה לא אהניא בהו כלל א"ל אינהו תלתא הוו ואנא חד א"ל והא אברהם יחיד הוה התם לא הוו רשעים בהדיה ולא אתיהיב רשותא לנורא הכא הוו רשעים בהדי ואתיהיב רשותא לנורא היינו דאמרי אינשי תרי אודי יבישי וחד רטיבא אוקדן יבישי לרטיבא,מאי טעמא איענש אמר רב פפא שהיו בניו נושאין נשים שאינן הגונות לכהונה ולא מיחה בהן שנאמר (זכריה ג, ג) ויהושע היה לבוש בגדים צואים וכי דרכו של יהושע ללבוש בגדים צואים אלא מלמד שהיו בניו נושאים נשים שאינן הגונות לכהונה ולא מיחה בהן,אמר רבי תנחום דרש בר קפרא בציפורי מאי דכתיב (רות ג, יז) שש השעורים האלה נתן לי מאי שש השעורים אילימא שש שעורים ממש וכי דרכו של בועז ליתן מתנה שש שעורים 93a. bThe righteous are greater than the ministering angels, as it is stated: “He answered and said: I see four men unbound, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods”(Daniel 3:25). Nebuchadnezzar saw three righteous people and an angel in the fire of the furnace and noted the presence of the righteous people before noting the presence of the angel.,§ bRabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: At the moment that Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah emerged from the fiery furnace, all the nations of the world came and struck the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for the Jewish people, bin the faceand bsaid to them: You have a Godwith capabilities blike that and you bow to the graven image? ImmediatelyHaiah, Mishael, and Azariah bbegan and said: “Lord, righteousness is Yours, but we are shamefaced, as of this day”(Daniel 9:7)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan sayson a similar note: bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I said: I will climb into the palm tree; I will grasp its boughs”(Song of Songs 7:9)? b“I said: I will climb into the palm tree”; this isa reference to bthe Jewish people,who are likened to a palm tree, as they are upright and have one heart directed toward their Father in Heaven. God continues: bAnd nowthat I have tested them by means of the decrees of Nebuchadnezzar, bI have succeededin grasping bin My hand onlythe bone bough of Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah,as only they were willing to give their lives., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I saw the night, and behold, a man riding upon a red horse, and he stood among the myrtle bushes that were in the depths”(Zechariah 1:8)? bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“I saw the night”? The Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to transform the entire world into nightand destroy it, as there were no righteous people. b“And behold, a man riding”;the word b“man”is referring to bnoone bbut the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is a man of war, The Lord is His name”(Exodus 15:3). b“Upon a red horse”alludes to the fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to transform the whole world into blood. /b, bOnce He looked at Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah He was placated, as it is stated: “And he stood among the myrtle bushes [ ihadassim /i] that were in the depths [ ibametzula /i].” And ihadassim /iis referring to bnoone bbut the righteous, as it is stated: “And he raised Hadassah,that is Esther, his uncle’s daughter” (Esther 2:7). Hadassah is an appellation for the righteous Esther. bAnd imetzula /iis referring to bnoplace bbut Babylonia, as it is statedwith regard to the downfall of Babylonia: b“That says to the deep [ ilatzula /i]: Be dry, and I will dry up your rivers”(Isaiah 44:27). bImmediatelythose messengers, in the form of horses, bfilled with angerand bbecame gray, andthose who were bred became white. Rav Pappa says: Conclude from itthat seeing ba white horsein a dream bis a goodportent bforthat bdream,as it presages peace and quiet.,The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bthe Sages,Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, bwhere did they goafter their miraculous deliverance, as there is no further mention of them? bRav says: They diedas the result bof the evil eye,as everyone was jealous of their deliverance. bAnd Shmuel says: They drowned in the spittleof the nations of the world who held the Jewish people in contempt due to their failure to serve God in the appropriate manner. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: They ascended to Eretz Yisrael and married women and fathered sons and daughters. /b,The Gemara comments: This amoraic dispute is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i. Rabbi Eliezer says: They diedas the result bof the evil eye. Rabbi Yehoshua says: They drowned in the spittle. And the Rabbis say: They ascended to Eretz Yisrael and married women and fathered sons and daughters, as it is stated: “Hear now, Joshua the High Priest, you and your fellows who sit before you, for they are men of wonder”(Zechariah 3:8). bWho are the people who had a wonder performed for themin that generation? bYou must say thatit is bHaiah, Mishael, and Azariah. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd where did Daniel go?He certainly did not bow to the graven image, and he was not cast into the furnace. Apparently, he was elsewhere. bRav says:He went bto dig the great river in Tiberias. And Shmuel says:Daniel went bto bringchoice balfalfa seedfrom a distance, and therefore he was not in Babylonia. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:He went bto bring thehigh-quality bpigs of Alexandria of Egypt.The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat he went to bring the pigs? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bTheodosius the doctor says: No cow or sow emerges from Alexandria of Egypt whose womb is not severed so that it will not give birth?The Gemara answers: They were bsmallpigs that bhe brought without the knowledge ofthe people of Alexandria., bThe Sages taught: Three werepartners bin that planto ensure that Daniel would not be in Babylonia when the decree of persecution was in effect: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He; Daniel; and Nebuchadnezzar. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Let Daniel go from here, so thatpeople bwould not saythat Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bwere deliveredfrom the fiery furnace bdue to the virtue ofDaniel, rather than due to their own righteousness., bAnd Daniel saidto himself: bI will goaway bfrom here sothat this verse bwill not be fulfilled in myregard: b“The graven images of their gods shall you burn with fire”(Deuteronomy 7:25). Daniel was concerned that because Nebuchadnezzar worshipped him like a deity, his legal status was that of an idol, and he would be burned., bAnd Nebuchadnezzar said: Daniel should goaway bfrom here so thatthe people bwill not say:Nebuchadnezzar bburned his god in fire. And from whereis it derived bthatNebuchadnezzar bworshippedDaniel? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face and worshipped Danieland commanded that they should offer an offering and pleasing aromas to him” (Daniel 2:46).,§ Apropos the deliverance of Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, the Gemara cites the verses: b“So says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, concerning Ahab, son of Kolaiah, and of Zedekiah, son of Maaseiah, who prophesy to you a lie in My name:Behold, I will deliver them into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylonia; and he shall slay them before your eyes” (Jeremiah 29:21). bAnd it is written: “And of them shall be taken a curse by all the captivity of Judea, who are in Babylonia, saying: May the Lord make you like Zedekiah and like Ahab, whom the king of Babylonia toasted in the fire”(Jeremiah 29:22). It bis not stated: Whomthe king of Babylonia bburned, but “whomthe king of Babylonia btoasted.” Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: This teaches that he rendered them like toasted wheat,which is toasted on all sides.,The verse states: b“Because they have committed baseness in Israel, and have committed adultery with the wives of their neighbors”(Jeremiah 29:23). bWhat did they do?The Gemara relates: bThey went to the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar. Ahab said to her: So says the Lord: Submit to Zedekiahand engage in intercourse with him. bAnd Zedekiah saidto her: bSo says the Lord: Submit to Ahaband engage in intercourse with him. bShe went and said to her fatherwhat they said to her. Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to her: The God of thesepeople babhors lewdness,so this is likely a false prophecy. bWhen they come to you, send them to me. /b, bWhen they came to her, she sent them to her father.Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to them: Who told youto do this? bThey said:It was bthe Holy One, Blessed be He.Nebuchadnezzar said: bBut haven’t I have asked Haiah, Mishael, and Azariahabout this band they said to me: It is prohibited? They said to him: We too are prophets like they are.God bdid not saythis prophecy bto them; He saidit bto us.Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to them:If so, bI wish to put you to the testto determine if you are righteous, bjust as I put Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah to the test. /b,Ahab and Zedekiah bsaid toNebuchadnezzar: bThey were three and we areonly btwo,and our merit is not great enough to save us from the fire. Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to them: Choose for yourselvesa third person, bwhomever you wish,to be put to the test bwith you. They saidto him: We choose bJoshua the High Priest.They chose him because bthey thought: Let Joshuathe High Priest bcomewith us, bsince his merit is great and it will protect us. /b, bThey tookthe three of bthem downand bcast theminto the furnace. bThey were burned,and as for bJoshua the High Priest, his garments were singed, as it is stated: “And He showed me Joshua the High Priest, standing before the angel of the Lord,and Satan was standing at his right to thwart him” (Zechariah 3:1). bAnd it is written: “And the Lord said to Satan, the Lord shall rebuke you,Satan, the Lord Who has chosen Jerusalem shall rebuke you; is this man not a firebrand plucked from fire?” (Zechariah 3:2). This is an allusion to the fact that he was delivered from the fiery furnace, although he was slightly singed.,Nebuchadnezzar bsaid toJoshua the High Priest: bI know you are righteousbecause you were delivered from the fire, bbut what is the reasonthat bthe fire was slightly effective concerning you,and for bHaiah, Mishael, and Azariahthe fire bwas not effective concerning them at all,and their garments were not singed? Joshua the High Priest bsaid to him: They were threerighteous people, band I am one.Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to him: But wasn’t Abraham oneperson, and when he was cast into the furnace the fire had no effect? Joshua answered him: bThere,in the case of Abraham, bthere were no wicked people with him, and licenseto cause damage bwas not given to the fire. Here,in this case, bthere were wickedpeople bwith me, and licenseto cause damage bwas given to the fire.The Gemara adds that bthisexplains the adage bthat people say:If there are btwo dry firebrands and one moist onein a fire, bthe dryfirebrands bburn the moist one. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat Joshua the High Priest bwas punishedand was cast into the furnace? bRav Pappa says:It was due to the fact bthat his sons would marry women who were not fit formarriage into the bpriesthood, and he did not reprimand them, as it is stated: “And Joshua was clothed in filthy garments,and he stood before the angel” (Zechariah 3:3). bAnd was it thetypical bmanner of Joshua to wear filthy garments? Ratherthis verse bteachesan allusion bthat his sons would marry women who were not fit formarriage into the bpriesthood, and he did not reprimand them.That is why he appeared with soiled garments in the vision of the prophet Zechariah.,§ Apropos Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, the Gemara cites that which bRabbi Tanḥum saysthat bbar Kappara taught in Tzippori: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenwith regard to the statement of Ruth to Naomi concerning Boaz: b“These sixgrains of bbarley he gave me”(Ruth 3:17). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“sixgrains of bbarley”? If we saythat the reference is to bsix actualgrains of bbarley, is it thetypical bmanner of Boaz to givea minimal bgift of sixgrains of bbarley? /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. טבי רישבא אמר שמואל אף גידולי תרומה תרומה בו ביום גזרו מ"ט א"ר חנינא גזירה משום תרומה טהורה ביד ישראל,אמר רבא אי דחשידי להכי אפרושי נמי לא ליפרשו (אלא אמר רבא ישראל) כיון דאפשר למעבד חטה אחת כדשמואל ולא קעביד הימוני מהימני אלא גזירה משום תרומה טמאה ביד כהן דילמא משהי לה גביה ואתי לידי תקלה:,ואידך אמר ר' חייא בר אמי משמיה דעולא אף מי שהחשיך לו בדרך נותן כיסו לנכרי בו ביום גזרו:,ואידך אמר באלי אמר אבימי סנוותאה פתן ושמנן ויינן ובנותיהן כולן מי"ח דבר הן הניחא לרבי מאיר אלא לר' יוסי שבסרי הויין איכא הא דרב אחא בר אדא דאמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר ר' יצחק גזרו על פתן משום שמנן ועל שמנן משום יינן,על פתן משום שמנן מאי אולמיה דשמן מפת אלא גזרו על פתן ושמנן משום יינן ועל יינן משום בנותיהן ועל בנותיהן משום דבר אחר ועל דבר אחר משום דבר אחר מאי דבר אחר אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גזרו על תינוק נכרי שמטמא בזיבה שלא יהא תינוק ישראל רגיל אצלו במשכב זכור אי הכי לר"מ נמי תשסרי הויין אוכלין וכלים שנטמאו במשקין בחדא חשיב להו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ב"ש אומרים אין שורין דיו וסמנים וכרשינין אלא כדי שישורו מבעוד יום וב"ה מתירין ב"ש אומרים אין נותנין אונין של פשתן לתוך התנור אלא כדי שיהבילו מבעוד יום ולא את הצמר ליורה אלא כדי שיקלוט העין וב"ה מתירין,ב"ש אומרים אין פורסין מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים אלא כדי שיצודו מבעוד יום וב"ה מתירין ב"ש אומרים אין מוכרין לנכרי ואין טוענין עמו ואין מגביהין עליו אלא כדי שיגיע למקום קרוב ובית הלל מתירין ב"ש אומרים אין נותנין עורות לעבדן ולא כלים לכובס נכרי אלא כדי שיעשו מבעוד יום ובכולן בית הלל מתירין עם 17b. bTavi the bird hunter [ irishba /i]that bShmuel said:The decree that bgrowths of iteruma /i,i.e., produce that grows from iterumathat was planted in the ground, are considered iteruma /i, the Sages balso issued on that day.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this decree? bRabbi Ḥanina said: A decree due to pure iterumain the hand of anon b- /bpriest bIsraelite.One who seeks to avoid giving iterumato a priest would plant it in the ground and thereby negate its iterumastatus. To prevent him from doing so, the Sages decreed that that which grows from the iterumais also considered iteruma /i. Consequently, one would gain nothing by replanting the iteruma /i., bRava said: If they are suspected of that, let them refrain from separating iteruma /ialtogether. bRather, Rava said:We know that with regard to ban Israelite,as opposed to a Levite, fundamentally bit is possible to performthe mitzva of iterumaby separating merely bone grain of wheat, inaccordance with the opinion of bShmuel,who said that by Torah law there is no fixed measure for iteruma /i. By separating one grain of wheat as iterumafor all the wheat on the threshing floor, one fulfills his obligation. bSince henevertheless bdid nottake advantage of that possibility to exempt himself from the obligation of separating iteruma /i, bhe is trustworthy,and there is no reason to suspect that he will seek to avoid giving iterumato the priest by planting it. bRather,the reason for bthe decreeis bdue to impure iterumain the hand of a priest.A priest is forbidden to eat impure iterumaand he is required to burn it. However, the priest is permitted to derive benefit from its burning. The Sages were concerned blest he keepthe impure iteruma bwith himuntil the season of sowing and sow his field with it, band,as a result, bhe encounter a stumbling-blockbecause over time he is liable to forget that the iterumais impure and eat it.,With regard to the total of eighteen decrees, the Gemara asks: bAndwhat is bthe otherdecree? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla:In a case of bone whowas carrying a purse with money in it on Shabbat eve, and bit got darkfor him bon the way,the Torah law permitted him to carry the purse in increments, each of which is less than four cubits. However, the Sages issued the following decree: It is prohibited to carry in increments; bheshould bgive his purse to a gentileaccompanying him. This decree was balso issued on that day. /b, bAnd the otherdecree: The Sage bBali saidthat bAvimi of Sanvata said:The decrees with regard to gentiles that prohibit btheir bread, and their oil, and their wine, and their daughters are allone decree bof the eighteen matters.The Gemara asks: bThis works out wellaccording bto Rabbi Meir,as according to his opinion the Gemara already enumerated eighteen decrees. bHowever,according bto Rabbi Yosei,who holds that the dispute remains with regard to the matter of vessels in the courtyard, bthey areonly bseventeen.The Gemara answers: bThere isalso bthatstatement of bRav Aḥa bar Adda, as Rav Aḥa bar Adda saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The Sages bissued a decreeprohibiting eating btheir bread due to their oil. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir oil due to their wine.Consequently, there are two separate decrees.,The Gemara wonders: They issued a decree bon their bread because of their oil.In bwhatway bis theprohibition on boil stronger thanthe prohibition on bbread? Rather,say that bthey issued a decreeprohibiting btheir bread and their oil due to their wine. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir wine due tothe fact that it leads to familiarity, and people will come to marry btheir daughters. Andthey issued a decree prohibiting btheir daughters due to something else,idolatry. bAndthey further issued a decree bon something else,idolatry, bdue to something else.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe bsomething elsealluded to here? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: They issued a decree on a gentile baby,according him the legal status bthat he transmits impurityas one bwith thelegal status bof agreat izav /i,who experienced three emissions, even though he did not experience an emission. This was in order to distance Jewish children from gentile children so bthat a Jewish boy should not be accustomed to be witha gentile bin homosexual relations.The Gemara asks: bIf so,according bto Rabbi Meirit is difficult bas well,as bthey arenow bnineteendecrees. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir bcountsthe decrees of bfooditems band vessels that became impurethrough contact bwith liquids as one.Consequently, according to Rabbi Meir, too, there are only eighteen decrees., strongMISHNA: /strong In this mishna there is a fundamental dispute between Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai: Must one begin refraining from actions prohibited on Shabbat on Shabbat eve? Or, may one initiate an action prior to Shabbat, even if he knows that it will continue on its own on Shabbat itself? These are the details of that dispute: bBeit Shammai say: One may only soakdry binkin water banddry plants, which produce bdyes,in water band vetchfor animal food to soften them in water on Shabbat eve, adjacent to Shabbat, bifthere is clearly bsufficient time for them to soakfor their designated purpose bwhile it is still day,before Shabbat begins, and their continued soaking on Shabbat will have no effect. bAnd Beit Hillel permitdoing so. bBeit Shammai say: One may only place bundles ofcombed bflax inside the ovenon Shabbat eve if there is sufficient time bso that they will be heated while it is still day. Andone may bonlyplace bwool into thedyer’s bkettle ifthere is bsufficient time forthe wool bto absorb the dyewhile it is still day. bAnd Beit Hillel permitdoing so., bBeit Shammai say: One may spread trapsfor an banimal and birds and fish onlyif there is sufficient time remaining in the day bfor them to be trappedin them bwhile it is still day, and Beit Hillel permitdoing so even if there is not sufficient time remaining in the day. bBeit Shammai say: One may only sellan item bto a gentileon Shabbat eve, bandone bmay only loada burden on his donkey bwith him, andone bmay only lifta burden bon him ifthere remains bsufficient time forthe gentile bto arrive to a near placeprior to Shabbat, and the Jew will play no role in the performance of a prohibited labor by the gentile on Shabbat. bAnd Beit Hillel permitdoing so. bBeit Shammai say: One may not give skins to agentile btanner, nor clothes to a gentile launderer, unlessthere is bsufficient time forwork on bthem to be completed while it is still day,before Shabbat begins. bAnd in all of them Beit Hillel permitdoing so bwith /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 347
achior, as humble servant Gera, Judith (2014) 347
ahasuerus, josephus attitude toward Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 600
ahasuerus Gera, Judith (2014) 347
anaf yosef (by rabbi henokh zundel b. joseph)' Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
asceticism Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
bathsheba Gera, Judith (2014) 347
beheadings and decapitations Gera, Judith (2014) 347
biblical women, bow Gera, Judith (2014) 347
boase, elizabeth Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81
boaz Gera, Judith (2014) 347
book of judith, irony and humor Gera, Judith (2014) 347
canopy, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 347
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 600
daniel Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
david, and abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 347
diet Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
emotion Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 347
faces Gera, Judith (2014) 347
fear Gera, Judith (2014) 347
fraade, s. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
frechette, christopher g. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81
funerary, context Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
genocide Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
gentile food Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
greece Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
haman Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81; Gera, Judith (2014) 347; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
herman, judith Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81
history (as a discursive practice) Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 347
honor Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
ibn ezra, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
jael, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 347
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 347
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 347
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 347
language and style, book of judith, genitive absolute Gera, Judith (2014) 347
language and style, book of judith, nominatives and subjects Gera, Judith (2014) 347
language and style, book of judith, participles Gera, Judith (2014) 347
language and style, book of judith, wordplay Gera, Judith (2014) 347
lazarus, resurrection of Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
legitimacy Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
maharsha (rabbi solomon eidels) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
mardochaios (see mordechai) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81
masoretic text Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
melamed, e. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
mordecai Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88; Gera, Judith (2014) 347; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
mordechai Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81
narrative Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
nebuchadnezzar Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
origen Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
persia Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
pinto, josiah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
portrait, emperors Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
praise, motif of, separation as ideal Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
praise, motif of, septuagint version of Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
prayer of esther, and esthers diet Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
prostration and bowing Gera, Judith (2014) 347
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
revenge Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
rooms, inner/ closed Gera, Judith (2014) 347
ruth Gera, Judith (2014) 347
schiff, m. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
self, communal self Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 88
simeon ben yoḥai Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 347
status Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 74
temple, vessels Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 347
tents Gera, Judith (2014) 347
tertullian Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
tombs Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 307
trauma Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 81
woman of tekoa Gera, Judith (2014) 347
ḥanina bar pappa Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 211