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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6280
Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.10-1.18


nanOn the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Bizzetha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that ministered in the presence of Ahasuerus the king


לְהָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּכֶתֶר מַלְכוּת לְהַרְאוֹת הָעַמִּים וְהַשָּׂרִים אֶת־יָפְיָהּ כִּי־טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה הִיא׃to bring Vashti the queen before the king with the crown royal, to show the peoples and the princes her beauty; for she was fair to look on.


וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him.


וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לַחֲכָמִים יֹדְעֵי הָעִתִּים כִּי־כֵן דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לִפְנֵי כָּל־יֹדְעֵי דָּת וָדִין׃Then the king said to the wise men, who knew the times—for so was the king’s manner toward all that knew law and judgment;


וְהַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו כַּרְשְׁנָא שֵׁתָר אַדְמָתָא תַרְשִׁישׁ מֶרֶס מַרְסְנָא מְמוּכָן שִׁבְעַת שָׂרֵי פָּרַס וּמָדַי רֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַיֹּשְׁבִים רִאשֹׁנָה בַּמַּלְכוּת׃and the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king’s face, and sat the first in the kingdom:


כְּדָת מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת בַּמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָשְׂתָה אֶת־מַאֲמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים׃’What shall we do unto the queen Vashti according to law, forasmuch as she hath not done the bidding of the king Ahasuerus by the chamberlains?’


וַיֹּאמֶר מומכן [מְמוּכָן] לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַשָּׂרִים לֹא עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לְבַדּוֹ עָוְתָה וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה כִּי עַל־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים וְעַל־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃And Memucan answered before the king and the princes: ‘Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the peoples, that are in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus.


כִּי־יֵצֵא דְבַר־הַמַּלְכָּה עַל־כָּל־הַנָּשִׁים לְהַבְזוֹת בַּעְלֵיהֶן בְּעֵינֵיהֶן בְּאָמְרָם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אָמַר לְהָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה לְפָנָיו וְלֹא־בָאָה׃For this deed of the queen will come abroad unto all women, to make their husbands contemptible in their eyes, when it will be said: The king Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.


וְהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה תֹּאמַרְנָה שָׂרוֹת פָּרַס־וּמָדַי אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְעוּ אֶת־דְּבַר הַמַּלְכָּה לְכֹל שָׂרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּכְדַי בִּזָּיוֹן וָקָצֶף׃And this day will the princesses of Persia and Media who have heard of the deed of the queen say the like unto all the king’s princes. So will there arise enough contempt and wrath.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

38 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.7, 2.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.47, 34.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.47. תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָבַדְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְטוּב לֵבָב מֵרֹב כֹּל׃ 34.9. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן מָלֵא רוּחַ חָכְמָה כִּי־סָמַךְ מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֵלָיו בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 28.47. because thou didst not serve the LORD thy God with joyfulness, and with gladness of heart, by reason of the abundance of all things;" 34.9. And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.1-1.9, 1.11-1.18, 2.3, 2.8-2.9, 2.14-2.15, 2.18, 2.21-2.23, 3.1, 4.5-4.16, 5.1, 5.4, 5.6, 5.9, 6.2, 6.14, 7.1-7.10, 8.16, 9.7-9.10, 9.17-9.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּטוֹב לֵב־הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּיִן אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה׃ 1.2. וְנִשְׁמַע פִּתְגָם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ כִּי רַבָּה הִיא וְכָל־הַנָּשִׁים יִתְּנוּ יְקָר לְבַעְלֵיהֶן לְמִגָּדוֹל וְעַד־קָטָן׃ 1.2. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם כְּשֶׁבֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַל כִּסֵּא מַלְכוּתוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה׃ 1.3. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמָלְכוֹ עָשָׂה מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־שָׂרָיו וַעֲבָדָיו חֵיל פָּרַס וּמָדַי הַפַּרְתְּמִים וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת לְפָנָיו׃ 1.4. בְּהַרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־עֹשֶׁר כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ וְאֶת־יְקָר תִּפְאֶרֶת גְּדוּלָּתוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים שְׁמוֹנִים וּמְאַת יוֹם׃ 1.5. וּבִמְלוֹאת הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ לְכָל־הָעָם הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה לְמִגָּדוֹל וְעַד־קָטָן מִשְׁתֶּה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּחֲצַר גִּנַּת בִּיתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. חוּר כַּרְפַּס וּתְכֵלֶת אָחוּז בְּחַבְלֵי־בוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן עַל־גְּלִילֵי כֶסֶף וְעַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מִטּוֹת זָהָב וָכֶסֶף עַל רִצְפַת בַּהַט־וָשֵׁשׁ וְדַר וְסֹחָרֶת׃ 1.7. וְהַשְׁקוֹת בִּכְלֵי זָהָב וְכֵלִים מִכֵּלִים שׁוֹנִים וְיֵין מַלְכוּת רָב כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.8. וְהַשְּׁתִיָּה כַדָּת אֵין אֹנֵס כִּי־כֵן יִסַּד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל כָּל־רַב בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כִּרְצוֹן אִישׁ־וָאִישׁ׃ 1.9. גַּם וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה עָשְׂתָה מִשְׁתֵּה נָשִׁים בֵּית הַמַּלְכוּת אֲשֶׁר לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.11. לְהָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּכֶתֶר מַלְכוּת לְהַרְאוֹת הָעַמִּים וְהַשָּׂרִים אֶת־יָפְיָהּ כִּי־טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה הִיא׃ 1.12. וַתְּמָאֵן הַמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי לָבוֹא בִּדְבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים וַיִּקְצֹף הַמֶּלֶךְ מְאֹד וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ׃ 1.13. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לַחֲכָמִים יֹדְעֵי הָעִתִּים כִּי־כֵן דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לִפְנֵי כָּל־יֹדְעֵי דָּת וָדִין׃ 1.14. וְהַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו כַּרְשְׁנָא שֵׁתָר אַדְמָתָא תַרְשִׁישׁ מֶרֶס מַרְסְנָא מְמוּכָן שִׁבְעַת שָׂרֵי פָּרַס וּמָדַי רֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַיֹּשְׁבִים רִאשֹׁנָה בַּמַּלְכוּת׃ 1.15. כְּדָת מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת בַּמַּלְכָּה וַשְׁתִּי עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָשְׂתָה אֶת־מַאֲמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.16. וַיֹּאמֶר מומכן [מְמוּכָן] לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַשָּׂרִים לֹא עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לְבַדּוֹ עָוְתָה וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה כִּי עַל־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים וְעַל־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 1.17. כִּי־יֵצֵא דְבַר־הַמַּלְכָּה עַל־כָּל־הַנָּשִׁים לְהַבְזוֹת בַּעְלֵיהֶן בְּעֵינֵיהֶן בְּאָמְרָם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אָמַר לְהָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה לְפָנָיו וְלֹא־בָאָה׃ 1.18. וְהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה תֹּאמַרְנָה שָׂרוֹת פָּרַס־וּמָדַי אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְעוּ אֶת־דְּבַר הַמַּלְכָּה לְכֹל שָׂרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּכְדַי בִּזָּיוֹן וָקָצֶף׃ 2.3. וְיַפְקֵד הַמֶּלֶךְ פְּקִידִים בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתוֹ וְיִקְבְּצוּ אֶת־כָּל־נַעֲרָה־בְתוּלָה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה אֶל־שׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה אֶל־בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים אֶל־יַד הֵגֶא סְרִיס הַמֶּלֶךְ שֹׁמֵר הַנָּשִׁים וְנָתוֹן תַּמְרוּקֵיהֶן׃ 2.8. וַיְהִי בְּהִשָּׁמַע דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ וּבְהִקָּבֵץ נְעָרוֹת רַבּוֹת אֶל־שׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה אֶל־יַד הֵגָי וַתִּלָּקַח אֶסְתֵּר אֶל־בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־יַד הֵגַי שֹׁמֵר הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.14. בָּעֶרֶב הִיא בָאָה וּבַבֹּקֶר הִיא שָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים שֵׁנִי אֶל־יַד שַׁעֲשְׁגַז סְרִיס הַמֶּלֶךְ שֹׁמֵר הַפִּילַגְשִׁים לֹא־תָבוֹא עוֹד אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי אִם־חָפֵץ בָּהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְנִקְרְאָה בְשֵׁם׃ 2.15. וּבְהַגִּיעַ תֹּר־אֶסְתֵּר בַּת־אֲבִיחַיִל דֹּד מָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר לָקַח־לוֹ לְבַת לָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לֹא בִקְשָׁה דָּבָר כִּי אִם אֶת־אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר הֵגַי סְרִיס־הַמֶּלֶךְ שֹׁמֵר הַנָּשִׁים וַתְּהִי אֶסְתֵּר נֹשֵׂאת חֵן בְּעֵינֵי כָּל־רֹאֶיהָ׃ 2.18. וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשְׁתֶּה גָדוֹל לְכָל־שָׂרָיו וַעֲבָדָיו אֵת מִשְׁתֵּה אֶסְתֵּר וַהֲנָחָה לַמְּדִינוֹת עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן מַשְׂאֵת כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 2.21. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּמָרְדֳּכַי יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ קָצַף בִּגְתָן וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי־סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף וַיְבַקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ׃ 2.22. וַיִּוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לְמָרְדֳּכַי וַיַּגֵּד לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּשֵׁם מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 2.23. וַיְבֻקַּשׁ הַדָּבָר וַיִּמָּצֵא וַיִּתָּלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עַל־עֵץ וַיִּכָּתֵב בְּסֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.1. וַיָּסַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ מֵעַל יָדוֹ וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְהָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי צֹרֵר הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 3.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אֶת־הָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי וַיְנַשְּׂאֵהוּ וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־כִּסְאוֹ מֵעַל כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 4.5. וַתִּקְרָא אֶסְתֵּר לַהֲתָךְ מִסָּרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱמִיד לְפָנֶיהָ וַתְּצַוֵּהוּ עַל־מָרְדֳּכָי לָדַעַת מַה־זֶּה וְעַל־מַה־זֶּה׃ 4.6. וַיֵּצֵא הֲתָךְ אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי אֶל־רְחוֹב הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 4.7. וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר קָרָהוּ וְאֵת פָּרָשַׁת הַכֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר אָמַר הָמָן לִשְׁקוֹל עַל־גִּנְזֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ ביהודיים [בַּיְּהוּדִים] לְאַבְּדָם׃ 4.8. וְאֶת־פַּתְשֶׁגֶן כְּתָב־הַדָּת אֲשֶׁר־נִתַּן בְּשׁוּשָׁן לְהַשְׁמִידָם נָתַן לוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת אֶת־אֶסְתֵּר וּלְהַגִּיד לָהּ וּלְצַוּוֹת עָלֶיהָ לָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהִתְחַנֶּן־לוֹ וּלְבַקֵּשׁ מִלְּפָנָיו עַל־עַמָּהּ׃ 4.9. וַיָּבוֹא הֲתָךְ וַיַּגֵּד לְאֶסְתֵּר אֵת דִּבְרֵי מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 4.11. כָּל־עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְעַם־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹדְעִים אֲשֶׁר כָּל־אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא־אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִקָּרֵא אַחַת דָּתוֹ לְהָמִית לְבַד מֵאֲשֶׁר יוֹשִׁיט־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־שַׁרְבִיט הַזָּהָב וְחָיָה וַאֲנִי לֹא נִקְרֵאתי לָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ זֶה שְׁלוֹשִׁים יוֹם׃ 4.12. וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמָרְדֳּכָי אֵת דִּבְרֵי אֶסְתֵּר׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר מָרְדֳּכַי לְהָשִׁיב אֶל־אֶסְתֵּר אַל־תְּדַמִּי בְנַפְשֵׁךְ לְהִמָּלֵט בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ מִכָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 4.14. כִּי אִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ תַּחֲרִישִׁי בָּעֵת הַזֹּאת רֶוַח וְהַצָּלָה יַעֲמוֹד לַיְּהוּדִים מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וְאַתְּ וּבֵית־אָבִיךְ תֹּאבֵדוּ וּמִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם־לְעֵת כָּזֹאת הִגַּעַתְּ לַמַּלְכוּת׃ 4.15. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לְהָשִׁיב אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 5.1. וַיִּתְאַפַּק הָמָן וַיָּבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיָּבֵא אֶת־אֹהֲבָיו וְאֶת־זֶרֶשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַתִּלְבַּשׁ אֶסְתֵּר מַלְכוּת וַתַּעֲמֹד בַּחֲצַר בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ הַפְּנִימִית נֹכַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא מַלְכוּתוֹ בְּבֵית הַמַּלְכוּת נֹכַח פֶּתַח הַבָּיִת׃ 5.4. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יָבוֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן הַיּוֹם אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ׃ 5.6. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר בְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ וְיִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עַד־חֲצִי הַמַּלְכוּת וְתֵעָשׂ׃ 5.9. וַיֵּצֵא הָמָן בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שָׂמֵחַ וְטוֹב לֵב וְכִרְאוֹת הָמָן אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַי בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְלֹא־קָם וְלֹא־זָע מִמֶּנּוּ וַיִּמָּלֵא הָמָן עַל־מָרְדֳּכַי חֵמָה׃ 6.2. וַיִּמָּצֵא כָתוּב אֲשֶׁר הִגִּיד מָרְדֳּכַי עַל־בִּגְתָנָא וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף אֲשֶׁר בִּקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃ 6.14. עוֹדָם מְדַבְּרִים עִמּוֹ וְסָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הִגִּיעוּ וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת־הָמָן אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲשֶׁר־עָשְׂתָה אֶסְתֵּר׃ 7.1. וַיִּתְלוּ אֶת־הָמָן עַל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־הֵכִין לְמָרְדֳּכָי וַחֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁכָכָה׃ 7.1. וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן לִשְׁתּוֹת עִם־אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה׃ 7.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר גַּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי בְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵךְ אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וְתִנָּתֵן לָךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵךְ עַד־חֲצִי הַמַּלְכוּת וְתֵעָשׂ׃ 7.3. וַתַּעַן אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וַתֹּאמַר אִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב תִּנָּתֶן־לִי נַפְשִׁי בִּשְׁאֵלָתִי וְעַמִּי בְּבַקָּשָׁתִי׃ 7.4. כִּי נִמְכַּרְנוּ אֲנִי וְעַמִּי לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרוֹג וּלְאַבֵּד וְאִלּוּ לַעֲבָדִים וְלִשְׁפָחוֹת נִמְכַּרְנוּ הֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי כִּי אֵין הַצָּר שֹׁוֶה בְּנֵזֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 7.5. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה מִי הוּא זֶה וְאֵי־זֶה הוּא אֲשֶׁר־מְלָאוֹ לִבּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן׃ 7.6. וַתֹּאמֶר־אֶסְתֵּר אִישׁ צַר וְאוֹיֵב הָמָן הָרָע הַזֶּה וְהָמָן נִבְעַת מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמַּלְכָּה׃ 7.7. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ קָם בַּחֲמָתוֹ מִמִּשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן אֶל־גִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן וְהָמָן עָמַד לְבַקֵּשׁ עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ מֵאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה כִּי רָאָה כִּי־כָלְתָה אֵלָיו הָרָעָה מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 7.8. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁב מִגִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן אֶל־בֵּית מִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן וְהָמָן נֹפֵל עַל־הַמִּטָּה אֲשֶׁר אֶסְתֵּר עָלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲגַם לִכְבּוֹשׁ אֶת־הַמַּלְכָּה עִמִּי בַּבָּיִת הַדָּבָר יָצָא מִפִּי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּפְנֵי הָמָן חָפוּ׃ 7.9. וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן־הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ גַּם הִנֵּה־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־טוֹב עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן גָּבֹהַּ חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו׃ 8.16. לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָר׃ 9.7. וְאֵת פַּרְשַׁנְדָּתָא וְאֵת דַּלְפוֹן וְאֵת אַסְפָּתָא׃ 9.8. וְאֵת פּוֹרָתָא וְאֵת אֲדַלְיָא וְאֵת אֲרִידָתָא׃ 9.9. וְאֵת פַּרְמַשְׁתָּא וְאֵת אֲרִיסַי וְאֵת אֲרִדַי וְאֵת וַיְזָתָא׃ 9.17. בְּיוֹם־שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וְנוֹחַ בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשֹׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה׃ 9.18. והיהודיים [וְהַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן נִקְהֲלוּ בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וּבְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְנוֹחַ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ וְעָשֹׂה אֹתוֹ יוֹם מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה׃ 9.19. עַל־כֵּן הַיְּהוּדִים הפרוזים [הַפְּרָזִים] הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי הַפְּרָזוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת יוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר שִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וּמִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ׃ 1.1. NOW IT came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus—this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces—" 1.2. that in those days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the castle," 1.3. in the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the army of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him;" 1.4. when he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty, many days, even a hundred and fourscore days." 1.5. And when these days were fulfilled, the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the castle, both great and small, seven days, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace;" 1.6. there were hangings of white, fine cotton, and blue, bordered with cords of fine linen and purple, upon silver rods and pillars of marble; the couches were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of green, and white, and shell, and onyx marble." 1.7. And they gave them drink in vessels of gold—the vessels being diverse one from another—and royal wine in abundance, according to the bounty of the king." 1.8. And the drinking was according to the law; none did compel; for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man’s pleasure." 1.9. Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women in the royal house which belonged to king Ahasuerus." 1.11. to bring Vashti the queen before the king with the crown royal, to show the peoples and the princes her beauty; for she was fair to look on." 1.12. But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s commandment by the chamberlains; therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him." 1.13. Then the king said to the wise men, who knew the times—for so was the king’s manner toward all that knew law and judgment;" 1.14. and the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king’s face, and sat the first in the kingdom:" 1.15. ’What shall we do unto the queen Vashti according to law, forasmuch as she hath not done the bidding of the king Ahasuerus by the chamberlains?’" 1.16. And Memucan answered before the king and the princes: ‘Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the peoples, that are in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus." 1.17. For this deed of the queen will come abroad unto all women, to make their husbands contemptible in their eyes, when it will be said: The king Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not." 1.18. And this day will the princesses of Persia and Media who have heard of the deed of the queen say the like unto all the king’s princes. So will there arise enough contempt and wrath." 2.3. and let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the castle, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hegai the king’s chamberlain, keeper of the women; and let their ointments be given them;" 2.8. So it came to pass, when the king’s commandment and his decree was published, and when many maidens were gathered together unto Shushan the castle, to the custody of Hegai, that Esther was taken into the king’s house, to the custody of Hegai, keeper of the women." 2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women." 2.14. In the evening she went, and on the morrow she returned into the second house of the women, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s chamberlain, who kept the concubines; she came in unto the king no more, except the king delighted in her, and she were called by name." 2.15. Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for his daughter, was come to go in unto the king, she required nothing but what Hegai the king’s chamberlain, the keeper of the women, appointed. And Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her." 2.18. Then the king made a great feast unto all his princes and his servants, even Esther’s feast; and he made a release to the provinces, and gave gifts, according to the bounty of the king." 2.21. in those days, while Mordecai sat in the king’s gate, two of the king’s chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those that kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus." 2.22. And the thing became known to Mordecai, who told it unto Esther the queen; and Esther told the king thereof in Mordecai’s name." 2.23. And when inquisition was made of the matter, and it was found to be so, they were both hanged on a tree; and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king." 3.1. After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him." 4.5. Then called Esther for Hathach, one of the king’s chamberlains, whom he had appointed to attend upon her, and charged him to go to Mordecai, to know what this was, and why it was." 4.6. So Hathach went forth to Mordecai unto the broad place of the city, which was before the king’s gate." 4.7. And Mordecai told him of all that had happened unto him, and the exact sum of the money that Haman had promised to pay to the king’s treasuries for the Jews, to destroy them." 4.8. Also he gave him the copy of the writing of the decree that was given out in Shushan to destroy them, to show it unto Esther, and to declare it unto her; and to charge her that she should go in unto the king, to make supplication unto him, and to make request before him, for her people." 4.9. And Hathach came and told Esther the words of Mordecai." 4.10. Then Esther spoke unto Hathach, and gave him a message unto Mordecai:" 4.11. ’All the king’s servants, and the people of the king’s provinces, do know, that whosoever, whether man or woman, shall come unto the king into the inner court, who is not called, there is one law for him, that he be put to death, except such to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live; but I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days.’" 4.12. And they told to Mordecai Esther’s words." 4.13. Then Mordecai bade them to return answer unto Esther: ‘Think not with thyself that thou shalt escape in the king’s house, more than all the Jews." 4.14. For if thou altogether holdest thy peace at this time, then will relief and deliverance arise to the Jews from another place, but thou and thy father’s house will perish; and who knoweth whether thou art not come to royal estate for such a time as this?’" 4.15. Then Esther bade them return answer unto Mordecai:" 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’" 5.1. Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king’s house, over against the king’s house; and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the entrance of the house." 5.4. And Esther said: ‘If it seem good unto the king, let the king and Haman come this day unto the banquet that I have prepared for him.’" 5.6. And the king said unto Esther at the banquet of wine: ‘Whatever thy petition, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request, even to the half of the kingdom, it shall be performed.’" 5.9. Then went Haman forth that day joyful and glad of heart; but when Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, Haman was filled with wrath against Mordecai." 6.2. And it was found written, that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s chamberlains, of those that kept the door, who had sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus." 6.14. While they were yet talking with him, came the king’s chamberlains, and hastened to bring Haman unto the banquet that Esther had prepared." 7.1. So the king and Haman came to banquet with Esther the queen." 7.2. And the king said again unto Esther on the second day at the banquet of wine: ‘Whatever thy petition, queen Esther, it shall be granted thee; and whatever thy request, even to the half of the kingdom, it shall be performed.’" 7.3. Then Esther the queen answered and said: ‘If I have found favour in thy sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request;" 7.4. for we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my peace, for the adversary is not worthy that the king be endamaged.’" 7.5. Then spoke the king Ahasuerus and said unto Esther the queen: ‘Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?’" 7.6. And Esther said: ‘An adversary and an enemy, even this wicked Haman.’ Then Haman was terrified before the king and the queen." 7.7. And the king arose in his wrath from the banquet of wine and went into the palace garden; but Haman remained to make request for his life to Esther the queen; for he saw that there was evil determined against him by the king." 7.8. Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the couch whereon Esther was. Then said the king: ‘Will he even force the queen before me in the house?’ As the word went out of the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face." 7.9. Then said Harbonah, one of the chamberlains that were before the king: ‘Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman hath made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman.’ And the king said: ‘Hang him thereon.’" 7.10. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath assuaged." 8.16. The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honour." 9.7. And Parshandatha, and Dalphon, and Aspatha," 9.8. and Poratha, and Adalia, and Aridatha," 9.9. and Parmashta, and Arisai, and Aridai, and Vaizatha," 9.10. the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Jews’enemy, slew they; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.17. on the thirteenth day of the month Adar, and on the fourteenth day of the same they rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness." 9.18. But the Jews that were in Shushan assembled together on the thirteenth day thereof, and on the fourteenth thereof; and on the fifteenth day of the same they rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness and they ate." 9.19. Therefore do the Jews of the villages, that dwell in the unwalled towns, make the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.20-9.24, 19.30-19.38, 37.36, 38.23, 41.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 9.23. וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃ 9.24. וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה־לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃ 19.31. וַתֹּאמֶר הַבְּכִירָה אֶל־הַצְּעִירָה אָבִינוּ זָקֵן וְאִישׁ אֵין בָּאָרֶץ לָבוֹא עָלֵינוּ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.32. לְכָה נַשְׁקֶה אֶת־אָבִינוּ יַיִן וְנִשְׁכְּבָה עִמּוֹ וּנְחַיֶּה מֵאָבִינוּ זָרַע׃ 19.33. וַתַּשְׁקֶיןָ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶן יַיִן בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא וַתָּבֹא הַבְּכִירָה וַתִּשְׁכַּב אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְלֹא־יָדַע בְּשִׁכְבָהּ וּבְקוּמָהּ׃ 19.34. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתֹּאמֶר הַבְּכִירָה אֶל־הַצְּעִירָה הֵן־שָׁכַבְתִּי אֶמֶשׁ אֶת־אָבִי נַשְׁקֶנּוּ יַיִן גַּם־הַלַּיְלָה וּבֹאִי שִׁכְבִי עִמּוֹ וּנְחַיֶּה מֵאָבִינוּ זָרַע׃ 19.35. וַתַּשְׁקֶיןָ גַּם בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא אֶת־אֲבִיהֶן יָיִן וַתָּקָם הַצְּעִירָה וַתִּשְׁכַּב עִמּוֹ וְלֹא־יָדַע בְּשִׁכְבָהּ וּבְקֻמָהּ׃ 19.36. וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת־לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן׃ 19.37. וַתֵּלֶד הַבְּכִירָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מוֹאָב הוּא אֲבִי־מוֹאָב עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 19.38. וְהַצְּעִירָה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־עַמִּי הוּא אֲבִי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 37.36. וְהַמְּדָנִים מָכְרוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מִצְרָיִם לְפוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים׃ 38.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה תִּקַּח־לָהּ פֶּן נִהְיֶה לָבוּז הִנֵּה שָׁלַחְתִּי הַגְּדִי הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא מְצָאתָהּ׃ 41.33. וְעַתָּה יֵרֶא פַרְעֹה אִישׁ נָבוֹן וְחָכָם וִישִׁיתֵהוּ עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without." 9.23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness." 9.24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him." 19.30. And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar; and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters." 19.31. And the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth." 19.32. Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.’" 19.33. And they made their father drink wine that night. And the first-born went in, and lay with her father; and he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose." 19.34. And it came to pass on the morrow, that the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Behold, I lay yesternight with my father. Let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.’" 19.35. And they made their father drink wine that night also. And the younger arose, and lay with him; and he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose." 19.36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father." 19.37. And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day." 19.38. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day." 37.36. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard." 38.23. And Judah said: ‘Let her take it, lest we be put to shame; behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.’" 41.33. Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 28.12-28.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.12. וְהַחָכְמָה מֵאַיִן תִּמָּצֵא וְאֵי זֶה מְקוֹם בִּינָה׃ 28.13. לֹא־יָדַע אֱנוֹשׁ עֶרְכָּהּ וְלֹא תִמָּצֵא בְּאֶרֶץ הַחַיִּים׃ 28.14. תְּהוֹם אָמַר לֹא בִי־הִיא וְיָם אָמַר אֵין עִמָּדִי׃ 28.15. לֹא־יֻתַּן סְגוֹר תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְלֹא יִשָּׁקֵל כֶּסֶף מְחִירָהּ׃ 28.16. לֹא־תְסֻלֶּה בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר בְּשֹׁהַם יָקָר וְסַפִּיר׃ 28.17. לֹא־יַעַרְכֶנָּה זָהָב וּזְכוֹכִית וּתְמוּרָתָהּ כְּלִי־פָז׃ 28.18. רָאמוֹת וְגָבִישׁ לֹא יִזָּכֵר וּמֶשֶׁךְ חָכְמָה מִפְּנִינִים׃ 28.19. לֹא־יַעַרְכֶנָּה פִּטְדַת־כּוּשׁ בְּכֶתֶם טָהוֹר לֹא תְסֻלֶּה׃ 28.21. וְנֶעֶלְמָה מֵעֵינֵי כָל־חָי וּמֵעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם נִסְתָּרָה׃ 28.22. אֲבַדּוֹן וָמָוֶת אָמְרוּ בְּאָזְנֵינוּ שָׁמַעְנוּ שִׁמְעָהּ׃ 28.23. אֱלֹהִים הֵבִין דַּרְכָּהּ וְהוּא יָדַע אֶת־מְקוֹמָהּ׃ 28.24. כִּי־הוּא לִקְצוֹת־הָאָרֶץ יַבִּיט תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמַיִם יִרְאֶה׃ 28.25. לַעֲשׂוֹת לָרוּחַ מִשְׁקָל וּמַיִם תִּכֵּן בְּמִדָּה׃ 28.26. בַּעֲשֹׂתוֹ לַמָּטָר חֹק וְדֶרֶךְ לַחֲזִיז קֹלוֹת׃ 28.27. אָז רָאָהּ וַיְסַפְּרָהּ הֱכִינָהּ וְגַם־חֲקָרָהּ׃ 28.28. וַיֹּאמֶר לָאָדָם הֵן יִרְאַת אֲדֹנָי הִיא חָכְמָה וְסוּר מֵרָע בִּינָה׃ 28.12. But wisdom, where shall it be found? And where is the place of understanding?" 28.13. Man knoweth not the price thereof; Neither is it found in the land of the living." 28.14. The deep saith: ‘It is not in me’; And the sea saith: ‘It is not with me.’" 28.15. It cannot be gotten for gold, Neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof." 28.16. It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, With the precious onyx, or the sapphire." 28.17. Gold and glass cannot equal it; Neither shall the exchange thereof be vessels of fine gold." 28.18. No mention shall be made of coral or of crystal; Yea, the price of wisdom is above rubies." 28.19. The topaz of Ethiopia shall not equal it, Neither shall it be valued with pure gold." 28.20. Whence then cometh wisdom? And where is the place of understanding?" 28.21. Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all living, And kept close from the fowls of the air." 28.22. Destruction and Death say: ‘We have heard a rumor thereof with our ears.’" 28.23. God understandeth the way thereof, And He knoweth the place thereof." 28.24. For He looketh to the ends of the earth, And seeth under the whole heaven;" 28.25. When He maketh a weight for the wind, And meteth out the waters by measure." 28.26. When He made a decree for the rain, And a way for the storm of thunders;" 28.27. Then did He see it, and declare it; He established it, yea, and searched it out." 28.28. And unto man He said: ‘Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; And to depart from evil is understanding.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.20-1.33, 8.1-8.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. בְּרֹאשׁ הֹמִיּוֹת תִּקְרָא בְּפִתְחֵי שְׁעָרִים בָּעִיר אֲמָרֶיהָ תֹאמֵר׃ 1.22. עַד־מָתַי פְּתָיִם תְּאֵהֲבוּ פֶתִי וְלֵצִים לָצוֹן חָמְדוּ לָהֶם וּכְסִילִים יִשְׂנְאוּ־דָעַת׃ 1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.24. יַעַן קָרָאתִי וַתְּמָאֵנוּ נָטִיתִי יָדִי וְאֵין מַקְשִׁיב׃ 1.25. וַתִּפְרְעוּ כָל־עֲצָתִי וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לֹא אֲבִיתֶם׃ 1.26. גַּם־אֲנִי בְּאֵידְכֶם אֶשְׂחָק אֶלְעַג בְּבֹא פַחְדְּכֶם׃ 1.27. בְּבֹא כשאוה [כְשׁוֹאָה ] פַּחְדְּכֶם וְאֵידְכֶם כְּסוּפָה יֶאֱתֶה בְּבֹא עֲלֵיכֶם צָרָה וְצוּקָה׃ 1.28. אָז יִקְרָאֻנְנִי וְלֹא אֶעֱנֶה יְשַׁחֲרֻנְנִי וְלֹא יִמְצָאֻנְנִי׃ 1.29. תַּחַת כִּי־שָׂנְאוּ דָעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהֹוָה לֹא בָחָרוּ׃ 1.31. וְיֹאכְלוּ מִפְּרִי דַרְכָּם וּמִמֹּעֲצֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂבָּעוּ׃ 1.32. כִּי מְשׁוּבַת פְּתָיִם תַּהַרְגֵם וְשַׁלְוַת כְּסִילִים תְּאַבְּדֵם׃ 1.33. וְשֹׁמֵעַ לִי יִשְׁכָּן־בֶּטַח וְשַׁאֲנַן מִפַּחַד רָעָה׃ 8.1. קְחוּ־מוּסָרִי וְאַל־כָּסֶף וְדַעַת מֵחָרוּץ נִבְחָר׃ 8.1. הֲלֹא־חָכְמָה תִקְרָא וּתְבוּנָה תִּתֵּן קוֹלָהּ׃ 8.2. בְּאֹרַח־צְדָקָה אֲהַלֵּך בְּתוֹךְ נְתִיבוֹת מִשְׁפָּט׃ 8.2. בְּרֹאשׁ־מְרוֹמִים עֲלֵי־דָרֶךְ בֵּית נְתִיבוֹת נִצָּבָה׃ 8.3. לְיַד־שְׁעָרִים לְפִי־קָרֶת מְבוֹא פְתָחִים תָּרֹנָּה׃ 8.3. וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשֻׁעִים יוֹם יוֹם מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 8.4. אֲלֵיכֶם אִישִׁים אֶקְרָא וְקוֹלִי אֶל־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 8.5. הָבִינוּ פְתָאיִם עָרְמָה וּכְסִילִים הָבִינוּ לֵב׃ 8.6. שִׁמְעוּ כִּי־נְגִידִים אֲדַבֵּר וּמִפְתַּח שְׂפָתַי מֵישָׁרִים׃ 8.7. כִּי־אֱמֶת יֶהְגֶּה חִכִּי וְתוֹעֲבַת שְׂפָתַי רֶשַׁע׃ 8.8. בְּצֶדֶק כָּל־אִמְרֵי־פִי אֵין בָּהֶם נִפְתָּל וְעִקֵּשׁ׃ 8.9. כֻּלָּם נְכֹחִים לַמֵּבִין וִישָׁרִים לְמֹצְאֵי דָעַת׃ 8.11. כִּי־טוֹבָה חָכְמָה מִפְּנִינִים וְכָל־חֲפָצִים לֹא יִשְׁווּ־בָהּ׃ 8.12. אֲ‍נִי־חָכְמָה שָׁכַנְתִּי עָרְמָה וְדַעַת מְזִמּוֹת אֶמְצָא׃ 8.13. יִרְאַת יְהוָה שְׂנֹאת רָע גֵּאָה וְגָאוֹן וְדֶרֶךְ רָע וּפִי תַהְפֻּכוֹת שָׂנֵאתִי׃ 8.14. לִי־עֵצָה וְתוּשִׁיָּה אֲנִי בִינָה לִי גְבוּרָה׃ 8.15. בִּי מְלָכִים יִמְלֹכוּ וְרוֹזְנִים יְחֹקְקוּ צֶדֶק׃ 8.16. בִּי שָׂרִים יָשֹׂרוּ וּנְדִיבִים כָּל־שֹׁפְטֵי צֶדֶק׃ 8.17. אֲנִי אהביה [אֹהֲבַי] אֵהָב וּמְשַׁחֲרַי יִמְצָאֻנְנִי׃ 8.18. עֹשֶׁר־וְכָבוֹד אִתִּי הוֹן עָתֵק וּצְדָקָה׃ 8.19. טוֹב פִּרְיִי מֵחָרוּץ וּמִפָּז וּתְבוּאָתִי מִכֶּסֶף נִבְחָר׃ 8.21. לְהַנְחִיל אֹהֲבַי יֵשׁ וְאֹצְרֹתֵיהֶם אֲמַלֵּא׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 8.32. וְעַתָּה בָנִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִי וְאַשְׁרֵי דְּרָכַי יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 8.33. שִׁמְעוּ מוּסָר וַחֲכָמוּ וְאַל־תִּפְרָעוּ׃ 8.34. אַשְׁרֵי אָדָם שֹׁמֵעַ לִי לִשְׁקֹד עַל־דַּלְתֹתַי יוֹם יוֹם לִשְׁמֹר מְזוּזֹת פְּתָחָי׃ 8.35. כִּי מֹצְאִי מצאי [מָצָא] חַיִּים וַיָּפֶק רָצוֹן מֵיְהוָה׃ 8.36. וְחֹטְאִי חֹמֵס נַפְשׁוֹ כָּל־מְשַׂנְאַי אָהֲבוּ מָוֶת׃ 1.20. Wisdom crieth aloud in the streets, she uttereth her voice in the broad places;" 1.21. She calleth at the head of the noisy streets, at the entrances of the gates, in the city, she uttereth her words:" 1.22. ’How long, ye thoughtless, will ye love thoughtlessness? And how long will scorners delight them in scorning, And fools hate knowledge?" 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you." 1.24. Because I have called, and ye refused, I have stretched out my hand, and no man attended," 1.25. But ye have set at nought all my counsel, and would none of my reproof;" 1.26. I also, in your calamity, will laugh, I will mock when your dread cometh;" 1.27. When your dread cometh as a storm, and your calamity cometh on as a whirlwind; When trouble and distress come upon you." 1.28. Then will they call me, but I will not answer, they will seek me earnestly, but they shall not find me." 1.29. For that they hated knowledge, and did not choose the fear of the LORD;" 1.30. They would none of my counsel, they despised all my reproof." 1.31. Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices." 1.32. For the waywardness of the thoughtless shall slay them, and the confidence of fools shall destroy them." 1.33. But whoso hearkeneth unto me shall dwell securely, and shall be quiet without fear of evil.’" 8.1. Doth not wisdom call, And understanding put forth her voice?" 8.2. In the top of high places by the way, Where the paths meet, she standeth;" 8.3. Beside the gates, at the entry of the city, At the coming in at the doors, she crieth aloud:" 8.4. ’Unto you, O men, I call, And my voice is to the sons of men." 8.5. O ye thoughtless, understand prudence, And, ye fools, be ye of an understanding heart." 8.6. Hear, for I will speak excellent things, And the opening of my lips shall be right things." 8.7. For my mouth shall utter truth, And wickedness is an abomination to my lips." 8.8. All the words of my mouth are in righteousness, There is nothing perverse or crooked in them." 8.9. They are all plain to him that understandeth, And right to them that find knowledge." 8.10. Receive my instruction, and not silver, And knowledge rather than choice gold." 8.11. For wisdom is better than rubies, And all things desirable are not to be compared unto her." 8.12. I wisdom dwell with prudence, And find out knowledge of devices." 8.13. The fear of the LORD is to hate evil; Pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, And the froward mouth, do I hate." 8.14. Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom; I am understanding, power is mine." 8.15. By me kings reign, And princes decree justice." 8.16. By me princes rule, And nobles, even all the judges of the earth." 8.17. I love them that love me, And those that seek me earnestly shall find me." 8.18. Riches and honour are with me; Yea, enduring riches and righteousness." 8.19. My fruit is better than gold, yea, than fine gold; And my produce than choice silver." 8.20. I walk in the way of righteousness, In the midst of the paths of justice;" 8.21. That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance, And that I may fill their treasuries." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 8.32. Now therefore, ye children, hearken unto me; For happy are they that keep my ways." 8.33. Hear instruction, and be wise, And refuse it not." 8.34. Happy is the man that hearkeneth to me, Watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors." 8.35. For whoso findeth me findeth life, And obtaineth favour of the LORD." 8.36. But he that misseth me wrongeth his own soul; All they that hate me love death.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 3.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.7. וַיֹּאכַל בֹּעַז וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ וַיָּבֹא לִשְׁכַּב בִּקְצֵה הָעֲרֵמָה וַתָּבֹא בַלָּט וַתְּגַל מַרְגְּלֹתָיו וַתִּשְׁכָּב׃ 3.7. And when Boaz had eaten and drunk, and his heart was merry, he went to lie down at the end of the heap of corn; and she came softly, and uncovered his feet, and laid her down."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.9, 16.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.9. וְעַתָּה אַל־תְּנַקֵּהוּ כִּי אִישׁ חָכָם אָתָּה וְיָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ וְהוֹרַדְתָּ אֶת־שֵׂיבָתוֹ בְּדָם שְׁאוֹל׃ 16.9. וַיִּקְשֹׁר עָלָיו עַבְדּוֹ זִמְרִי שַׂר מַחֲצִית הָרָכֶב וְהוּא בְתִרְצָה שֹׁתֶה שִׁכּוֹר בֵּית אַרְצָא אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַבַּיִת בְּתִרְצָה׃ 2.9. Now therefore hold him not guiltless, for thou art a wise man; and thou wilt know what thou oughtest to do unto him, and thou shalt bring his hoar head down to the grave with blood.’" 16.9. And his servant Zimri, captain of half his chariots, conspired against him; now he was in Tirzah, drinking himself drunk in the house of Arza, who was over the household in Tirzah;"
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 8.15, 16.18, 25.3, 25.33, 25.36-25.38 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.15. וְזַרְעֵיכֶם וְכַרְמֵיכֶם יַעְשֹׂר וְנָתַן לְסָרִיסָיו וְלַעֲבָדָיו׃ 16.18. וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי בֵּן לְיִשַׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי יֹדֵעַ נַגֵּן וְגִבּוֹר חַיִל וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה וּנְבוֹן דָּבָר וְאִישׁ תֹּאַר וַיהוָה עִמּוֹ׃ 25.3. וְשֵׁם הָאִישׁ נָבָל וְשֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲבִגָיִל וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת־שֶׂכֶל וִיפַת תֹּאַר וְהָאִישׁ קָשֶׁה וְרַע מַעֲלָלִים וְהוּא כלבו [כָלִבִּי׃] 25.3. וְהָיָה כִּי־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֶת־הַטּוֹבָה עָלֶיךָ וְצִוְּךָ לְנָגִיד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.36. וַתָּבֹא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶל־נָבָל וְהִנֵּה־לוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ וְלֵב נָבָל טוֹב עָלָיו וְהוּא שִׁכֹּר עַד־מְאֹד וְלֹא־הִגִּידָה לּוֹ דָּבָר קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל עַד־אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר׃ 25.37. וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר בְּצֵאת הַיַּיִן מִנָּבָל וַתַּגֶּד־לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיָּמָת לִבּוֹ בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְהוּא הָיָה לְאָבֶן׃ 25.38. וַיְהִי כַּעֲשֶׂרֶת הַיָּמִים וַיִּגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־נָבָל וַיָּמֹת׃ 8.15. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants." 16.18. Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Yishay the Bet-hallaĥmite, that knows how to play, and a fine warrior, and a man of war, and prudent in speech, and a comely person, and the Lord is with him." 25.3. Now the name of the man was Naval; and the name of his wife Avigayil: and she was a woman of good understanding, and fair of form: but the man was hardhearted and evil in his doings; and he was of the house of Kalev." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand." 25.36. And Avigayil came to Naval; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Naval’s heart was merry within him, for he was very drunk: and so she told him nothing, less or more, until the morning light." 25.37. But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Naval, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone." 25.38. And it came to pass about ten days after, that the Lord smote Naval, and he died."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 11.21, 13.3, 13.28-13.29, 14.2, 14.20, 20.16, 20.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.21. מִי־הִכָּה אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־יְרֻבֶּשֶׁת הֲלוֹא־אִשָּׁה הִשְׁלִיכָה עָלָיו פֶּלַח רֶכֶב מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמָת בְּתֵבֵץ לָמָּה נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הַחוֹמָה וְאָמַרְתָּ גַּם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת׃ 13.3. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה בַדֶּרֶךְ וְהַשְּׁמֻעָה בָאָה אֶל־דָּוִד לֵאמֹר הִכָּה אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶת־כָּל־בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְלֹא־נוֹתַר מֵהֶם אֶחָד׃ 13.3. וּלְאַמְנוֹן רֵעַ וּשְׁמוֹ יוֹנָדָב בֶּן־שִׁמְעָה אֲחִי דָוִד וְיוֹנָדָב אִישׁ חָכָם מְאֹד׃ 13.28. וַיְצַו אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶת־נְעָרָיו לֵאמֹר רְאוּ נָא כְּטוֹב לֵב־אַמְנוֹן בַּיַּיִן וְאָמַרְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם הַכּוּ אֶת־אַמְנוֹן וַהֲמִתֶּם אֹתוֹ אַל־תִּירָאוּ הֲלוֹא כִּי אָנֹכִי צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם חִזְקוּ וִהְיוּ לִבְנֵי־חָיִל׃ 13.29. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ נַעֲרֵי אַבְשָׁלוֹם לְאַמְנוֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אַבְשָׁלוֹם וַיָּקֻמוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּרְכְּבוּ אִישׁ עַל־פִּרְדּוֹ וַיָּנֻסוּ׃ 14.2. לְבַעֲבוּר סַבֵּב אֶת־פְּנֵי הַדָּבָר עָשָׂה עַבְדְּךָ יוֹאָב אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַאדֹנִי חָכָם כְּחָכְמַת מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים לָדַעַת אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 14.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב תְּקוֹעָה וַיִּקַּח מִשָּׁם אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִתְאַבְּלִי־נָא וְלִבְשִׁי־נָא בִגְדֵי־אֵבֶל וְאַל־תָּסוּכִי שֶׁמֶן וְהָיִית כְּאִשָּׁה זֶה יָמִים רַבִּים מִתְאַבֶּלֶת עַל־מֵת׃ 20.16. וַתִּקְרָא אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה מִן־הָעִיר שִׁמְעוּ שִׁמְעוּ אִמְרוּ־נָא אֶל־יוֹאָב קְרַב עַד־הֵנָּה וַאֲדַבְּרָה אֵלֶיךָ׃ 20.22. וַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם בְּחָכְמָתָהּ וַיִּכְרְתוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ שֶׁבַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִי וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶל־יוֹאָב וַיִּתְקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר וַיָּפֻצוּ מֵעַל־הָעִיר אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וְיוֹאָב שָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 11.21. Who smote Avimelekh the son of Yerubbeshet? did not a woman cast an upper millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Teveż? why did you go so near the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriyya the Ĥittite is dead also." 13.3. But Amnon had a friend, whose name was Yonadav, the son of Shim῾a David’s brother: and Yonadav was a very subtle man." 13.28. Now Avshalom had commanded his lads, saying, Mark now when Amnon’s heart is merry with wine, and I say to you, Smite Amnon; then kill him, fear not: have not I commanded you? be courageous, and be valiant." 13.29. And the servants of Avshalom did to Amnon as Avshalom had commanded. Then all the king’s sons arose, and every man rode on his mule, and fled." 14.2. And Yo᾽av sent to Teqo῾a, and fetched from there a wise woman, and said to her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and do not anoint thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead:" 14.20. to turn this matter the other way, has thy servant Yo᾽av done this thing: and my lord is wise, according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are on the earth." 20.16. Then cried a wise woman out of the city, Hear, hear; say, I pray you, to Yo᾽av, Come near here; that I may speak with thee." 20.22. Then the woman went to all the people in her wisdom. And they cut off the head of Sheva the son of Bikhri, and cast it out to Yo᾽av. And he blew on the shofar, and they retired from the city, every man to his tent. And Yo᾽av returned to Yerushalayim to the king."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 56.3-56.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

56.3. וְאַל־יֹאמַר בֶּן־הַנֵּכָר הַנִּלְוָה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הַבְדֵּל יַבְדִּילַנִי יְהוָה מֵעַל עַמּוֹ וְאַל־יֹאמַר הַסָּרִיס הֵן אֲנִי עֵץ יָבֵשׁ׃ 56.4. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה לַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְרוּ אֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתַי וּבָחֲרוּ בַּאֲשֶׁר חָפָצְתִּי וּמַחֲזִיקִים בִּבְרִיתִי׃ 56.3. Neither let the alien, That hath joined himself to the LORD, speak, saying: ‘The LORD will surely separate me from His people’; Neither let the eunuch say: ‘Behold, I am a dry tree.’" 56.4. For thus saith the LORD Concerning the eunuchs that keep My sabbaths, And choose the things that please Me, And hold fast by My covet:"
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 38.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

38.7. וַיִּשְׁמַע עֶבֶד־מֶלֶךְ הַכּוּשִׁי אִישׁ סָרִיס וְהוּא בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי־נָתְנוּ אֶת־יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר בִּנְיָמִן׃ 38.7. Now when Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, an officer, who was in the king’s house, heard that they had put Jeremiah in the pit; the king then sitting in the gate of Benjamin;"
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.16-4.22, 5.24-5.27, 9.53-9.54, 14.10, 14.14, 14.17-14.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.16. וּבָרָק רָדַף אַחֲרֵי הָרֶכֶב וְאַחֲרֵי הַמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲרֹשֶׁת הַגּוֹיִם וַיִּפֹּל כָּל־מַחֲנֵה סִיסְרָא לְפִי־חֶרֶב לֹא נִשְׁאַר עַד־אֶחָד׃ 4.17. וְסִיסְרָא נָס בְּרַגְלָיו אֶל־אֹהֶל יָעֵל אֵשֶּׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי כִּי שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יָבִין מֶלֶךְ־חָצוֹר וּבֵין בֵּית חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי׃ 4.18. וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרַאת סִיסְרָא וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו סוּרָה אֲדֹנִי סוּרָה אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא וַיָּסַר אֵלֶיהָ הָאֹהֱלָה וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָה׃ 4.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הַשְׁקִינִי־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם כִּי צָמֵאתִי וַתִּפְתַּח אֶת־נֹאוד הֶחָלָב וַתַּשְׁקֵהוּ וַתְּכַסֵּהוּ׃ 4.21. וַתִּקַּח יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת־חֶבֶר אֶת־יְתַד הָאֹהֶל וַתָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַמַּקֶּבֶת בְּיָדָהּ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו בַּלָּאט וַתִּתְקַע אֶת־הַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ וַתִּצְנַח בָּאָרֶץ וְהוּא־נִרְדָּם וַיָּעַף וַיָּמֹת׃ 4.22. וְהִנֵּה בָרָק רֹדֵף אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֵךְ וְאַרְאֶךָּ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וְהִנֵּה סִיסְרָא נֹפֵל מֵת וְהַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ׃ 5.24. תְּבֹרַךְ מִנָּשִׁים יָעֵל אֵשֶׁת חֶבֶר הַקֵּינִי מִנָּשִׁים בָּאֹהֶל תְּבֹרָךְ׃ 5.25. מַיִם שָׁאַל חָלָב נָתָנָה בְּסֵפֶל אַדִּירִים הִקְרִיבָה חֶמְאָה׃ 5.26. יָדָהּ לַיָּתֵד תִּשְׁלַחְנָה וִימִינָהּ לְהַלְמוּת עֲמֵלִים וְהָלְמָה סִיסְרָא מָחֲקָה רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָחֲצָה וְחָלְפָה רַקָּתוֹ׃ 5.27. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד׃ 9.53. וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ אִשָּׁה אַחַת פֶּלַח רֶכֶב עַל־רֹאשׁ אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וַתָּרִץ אֶת־גֻּלְגָּלְתּוֹ׃ 9.54. וַיִּקְרָא מְהֵרָה אֶל־הַנַּעַר נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁלֹף חַרְבְּךָ וּמוֹתְתֵנִי פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ לִי אִשָּׁה הֲרָגָתְהוּ וַיִּדְקְרֵהוּ נַעֲרוֹ וַיָּמֹת׃ 14.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֵהָאֹכֵל יָצָא מַאֲכָל וּמֵעַז יָצָא מָתוֹק וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לְהַגִּיד הַחִידָה שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים׃ 14.17. וַתֵּבְךְּ עָלָיו שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה לָהֶם הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיַּגֶּד־לָהּ כִּי הֱצִיקַתְהוּ וַתַּגֵּד הַחִידָה לִבְנֵי עַמָּהּ׃ 14.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַחַרְסָה מַה־מָּתוֹק מִדְּבַשׁ וּמֶה עַז מֵאֲרִי וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לוּלֵא חֲרַשְׁתֶּם בְּעֶגְלָתִי לֹא מְצָאתֶם חִידָתִי׃ 14.19. וַתִּצְלַח עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה וַיֵּרֶד אַשְׁקְלוֹן וַיַּךְ מֵהֶם שְׁלֹשִׁים אִישׁ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־חֲלִיצוֹתָם וַיִּתֵּן הַחֲלִיפוֹת לְמַגִּידֵי הַחִידָה וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ וַיַּעַל בֵּית אָבִיהוּ׃ 4.16. But Baraq pursued after the chariots, and after the host, as far as Ĥaroshet-haggoyim: and all the host of Sisera fell by the edge of the sword; there was not a man left." 4.17. But Sisera fled away by foot to the tent of Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite: for there was peace between Yavin the king of Ĥażor and the house of Ĥever the Qeni." 4.18. And Ya᾽el went out to meet Sisera, and said to him, Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not. And when he had turned in to her into the tent, she covered him with a blanket." 4.19. And he said to her, Give me, I pray thee, a little water to drink; for I am thirsty. And she opened a bottle of milk, and gave him drink, and covered him." 4.20. Then he said to her, Stand in the door of the tent, and it shall be, if any man comes and inquires of thee, and says, Is there anyone here? that thou shalt say, No." 4.21. Then Ya᾽el Ĥever’s wife took a tent peg, and took a hammer in her hand, and went softly to him, and drove the tent peg into his temple, and fastened it to the ground: for he was fast asleep and weary. So he died." 4.22. And, behold, as Baraq pursued Sisera, Ya᾽el came out to meet him, and said to him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera lay dead, and the peg in his temple." 5.24. Blessed above women is Ya᾽el the wife of Ĥever the Qenite, blessed is she more than women in the tent." 5.25. He asked water, but she gave him milk; she brought forth cream in a lordly dish." 5.26. She put her hand to the tent peg, and her right hand to the workmen’s hammer; and she hammered Sisera, she smote through his head; she crushed and pierced his temple." 5.27. At her feet he bent, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bent, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down, bereft of life." 9.53. And a woman cast an upper millstone upon Avimelekh’s head, and crushed his skull." 9.54. Then he called hastily to the lad, his armourbearer, and said to him, Draw thy sword, and slay me, so that men should not say of me, A woman slew him. And his lad pierced him, and he died." 14.10. So his father went down to the woman: and Shimshon made there a feast; for so used the young men to do." 14.14. And he said to them, Out of the eater came forth food, and out of the strong came forth sweetness. And they could not in three days expound the riddle." 14.17. And she wept before him the seven days, while their feast lasted: and it came to pass on the seventh day, that he told her, because she harassed him: and she told the riddle to the children of her people." 14.18. And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down, What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion? And he said to them, If you had not ploughed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle." 14.19. And the spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he went down to Ashqelon, and slew thirty men of them, and took their clothing, and gave the changes of garments to them who had expounded the riddle. And his anger burned, and he went up to his father’s house."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.1. רְאֵה עַתָּה כִּי־יְהוָה בָּחַר בְּךָ לִבְנוֹת־בַּיִת לַמִּקְדָּשׁ חֲזַק וַעֲשֵׂה׃ 28.1. וַיַּקְהֵל דָּוִיד אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שָׂרֵי הַשְּׁבָטִים וְשָׂרֵי הַמַּחְלְקוֹת הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׂרֵי הָאֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי הַמֵּאוֹת וְשָׂרֵי כָל־רְכוּשׁ־וּמִקְנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ וּלְבָנָיו עִם־הַסָּרִיסִים וְהַגִּבּוֹרִים וּלְכָל־גִּבּוֹר חָיִל אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 28.1. And David assembled all the princes of Israel, the princes of the tribes, and the captains of the companies that served the king by course, and the captains of thousands, and the captains of hundreds, and the rulers over all the substance and cattle of the king and of his sons, with the officers, and the mighty men, even all the mighty men of valour, unto Jerusalem."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.2, 2.17, 2.36-2.42, 2.59-2.61 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.2. בְּנֵי גִבָּר תִּשְׁעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 2.2. אֲשֶׁר־בָּאוּ עִם־זְרֻבָּבֶל יֵשׁוּעַ נְחֶמְיָה שְׂרָיָה רְעֵלָיָה מָרְדֳּכַי בִּלְשָׁן מִסְפָּר בִּגְוַי רְחוּם בַּעֲנָה מִסְפַּר אַנְשֵׁי עַם יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.17. בְּנֵי בֵצָי שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה׃ 2.36. הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי יְדַעְיָה לְבֵית יֵשׁוּעַ תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה׃ 2.37. בְּנֵי אִמֵּר אֶלֶף חֲמִשִּׁים וּשְׁנָיִם׃ 2.38. בְּנֵי פַשְׁחוּר אֶלֶף מָאתַיִם אַרְבָּעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃ 2.39. בְּנֵי חָרִם אֶלֶף וְשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר׃ 2.41. הַמְשֹׁרְרִים בְּנֵי אָסָף מֵאָה עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁמֹנָה׃ 2.42. בְּנֵי הַשֹּׁעֲרִים בְּנֵי־שַׁלּוּם בְּנֵי־אָטֵר בְּנֵי־טַלְמוֹן בְּנֵי־עַקּוּב בְּנֵי חֲטִיטָא בְּנֵי שֹׁבָי הַכֹּל מֵאָה שְׁלֹשִׁים וְתִשְׁעָה׃ 2.59. וְאֵלֶּה הָעֹלִים מִתֵּל מֶלַח תֵּל חַרְשָׁא כְּרוּב אַדָּן אִמֵּר וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לְהַגִּיד בֵּית־אֲבוֹתָם וְזַרְעָם אִם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל הֵם׃ 2.61. וּמִבְּנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי חֳבַיָּה בְּנֵי הַקּוֹץ בְּנֵי בַרְזִלַּי אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מִבְּנוֹת בַּרְזִלַּי הַגִּלְעָדִי אִשָּׁה וַיִּקָּרֵא עַל־שְׁמָם׃ 2.2. who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispar, Bigvai, Rehum, Baanah. The number of the men of the people of Israel: ." 2.17. The children of Bezai, three hundred twenty and three." 2.36. The priests: The children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three." 2.37. The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two." 2.38. The children of Pashhur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven. ." 2.39. The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen." 2.40. The Levites: the children of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the children of Hodaviah, seventy and four." 2.41. The singers: the children of Asaph, a hundred twenty and eight." 2.42. The children of the porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, in all a hundred thirty and nine." 2.59. And these were they that went up from Tel-melah, Tel-harsa, Cherub, Addan, and Immer; but they could not tell their fathers’houses, and their seed, whether they were of Israel:" 2.60. the children of Delaiah, the children of Tobiah, the children of Nekoda, six hundred fifty and two." 2.61. And of the children of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Hakkoz, the children of Barzillai, who took a wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their name."
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 7.7, 10.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.7. וּמֵרָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת נָתְנוּ לְאוֹצַר הַמְּלָאכָה זָהָב דַּרְכְּמוֹנִים שְׁתֵּי רִבּוֹת וְכֶסֶף מָנִים אַלְפַּיִם וּמָאתָיִם׃ 7.7. הַבָּאִים עִם־זְרֻבָּבֶל יֵשׁוּעַ נְחֶמְיָה עֲזַרְיָה רַעַמְיָה נַחֲמָנִי מָרְדֳּכַי בִּלְשָׁן מִסְפֶּרֶת בִּגְוַי נְחוּם בַּעֲנָה מִסְפַּר אַנְשֵׁי עַם יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.17. אֲדֹנִיָּה בִגְוַי עָדִין׃ 7.7. who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahamani, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispereth, Bigvai, Nehum, Baanah. The number of the men of the people of Israel:" 10.17. Adonijah, Bigvai, Adin;"
17. Herodotus, Histories, 1.73, 1.106, 1.118-1.119, 1.211, 2.100, 2.107, 3.32, 3.121, 5.18-5.20, 9.108-9.113 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.73. The reasons for Croesus' expedition against Cappadocia were these: he desired to gain territory in addition to his own, and (these were the chief causes) he trusted the oracle and wished to avenge Astyages on Cyrus; for Cyrus, son of Cambyses, had conquered Astyages and held him in subjection. ,Now Astyages, son of Cyaxares and the king of Media, was Croesus' brother-in-law: and this is how he came to be so. ,A tribe of wandering Scythians separated itself from the rest, and escaped into Median territory. This was then ruled by Cyaxares, son of Phraortes, son of Deioces. Cyaxares at first treated the Scythians kindly, as suppliants for his mercy; and, as he had a high regard for them, he entrusted boys to their tutelage to be taught their language and the skill of archery. ,As time went on, it happened that the Scythians, who were accustomed to go hunting and always to bring something back, once had taken nothing, and when they returned empty-handed, Cyaxares treated them very roughly and contemptuously (being, as appears from this, prone to anger). ,The Scythians, feeling themselves wronged by the treatment they had from Cyaxares, planned to take one of the boys who were their pupils and cut him in pieces; then, dressing the flesh as they were accustomed to dress the animals which they killed, to bring and give it to Cyaxares as if it were the spoils of the hunt; and after that, to make their way with all speed to Alyattes son of Sadyattes at Sardis . All this they did. ,Cyaxares and the guests who ate with him dined on the boy's flesh, and the Scythians, having done as they planned, fled to Alyattes for protection. 1.106. The Scythians, then, ruled Asia for twenty-eight years: and the whole land was ruined because of their violence and their pride, for, besides exacting from each the tribute which was assessed, they rode about the land carrying off everyone's possessions. ,Most of them were entertained and made drunk and then slain by Cyaxares and the Medes: so thus the Medes took back their empire and all that they had formerly possessed; and they took Ninus (how, I will describe in a later part of my history), and brought all Assyria except the province of Babylon under their rule. 1.118. Harpagus told the story straight, while Astyages, hiding the anger that he felt against him for what had been done, first repeated the story again to Harpagus exactly as he had heard it from the cowherd, then, after repeating it, ended by saying that the boy was alive and that the matter had turned out well. ,“For,” he said, “I was greatly afflicted by what had been done to this boy, and it weighed heavily on me that I was estranged from my daughter. Now, then, in this good turn of fortune, send your own son to this boy newly come, and (since I am about to sacrifice for the boy's safety to the gods to whom this honor is due) come here to dine with me.” 1.119. When Harpagus heard this, he bowed and went to his home, very pleased to find that his offense had turned out for the best and that he was invited to dinner in honor of this fortunate day. ,Coming in, he told his only son, a boy of about thirteen years of age, to go to Astyages' palace and do whatever the king commanded, and in his great joy he told his wife everything that had happened. ,But when Harpagus' son came, Astyages cut his throat and tore him limb from limb, roasted some of the flesh and boiled some, and kept it ready after he had prepared it. ,So when the hour for dinner came and the rest of the guests and Harpagus were present, Astyages and the others were served dishes of lamb's meat, but Harpagus that of his own son, all but the head and hands and feet, which lay apart covered up in a wicker basket. ,And when Harpagus seemed to have eaten his fill, Astyages asked him, “Did you like your meal, Harpagus?” “Exceedingly,” Harpagus answered. Then those whose job it was brought him the head of his son and hands and feet concealed in the basket, and they stood before Harpagus and told him to open and take what he liked. ,Harpagus did; he opened and saw what was left of his son: he saw this, but mastered himself and did not lose his composure. Astyages asked him, “Do you know what beast's meat you have eaten?” ,“I know,” he said, “and all that the king does is pleasing.” With that answer he took the remains of the meat and went home. There he meant, I suppose, after collecting everything, to bury it. 1.211. After having given this answer and crossed the Araxes, Hystaspes went to Persia to watch his son for Cyrus; and Cyrus, advancing a day's journey from the Araxes, acted according to Croesus' advice. ,Cyrus and the sound portion of the Persian army marched back to the Araxes, leaving behind those that were useless; a third of the Massagetae forces attacked those of the army who were left behind and destroyed them despite resistance; then, when they had overcome their enemies, seeing the banquet spread they sat down and feasted, and after they had had their fill of food and wine, they fell asleep. ,Then the Persians attacked them, killing many and taking many more alive, among whom was the son of Tomyris the queen, Spargapises by name, the leader of the Massagetae. 2.100. After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men. ,The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery. ,She built a spacious underground chamber; then, with the pretence of inaugurating it, but with quite another intent in her mind, she gave a great feast, inviting to it those Egyptians whom she knew to have had the most complicity in her brother's murder; and while they feasted, she let the river in upon them by a vast secret channel. ,This was all that the priests told of her, except that when she had done this she cast herself into a chamber full of hot ashes, to escape vengeance. 2.107. Now when this Egyptian Sesostris (so the priests said) reached Daphnae of Pelusium on his way home, leading many captives from the peoples whose lands he had subjugated, his brother, whom he had left in charge in Egypt, invited him and his sons to a banquet and then piled wood around the house and set it on fire. ,When Sesostris was aware of this, he at once consulted his wife, whom (it was said) he had with him; and she advised him to lay two of his six sons on the fire and make a bridge over the burning so that they could walk over the bodies of the two and escape. This Sesostris did; two of his sons were thus burnt but the rest escaped alive with their father. 3.32. There are two tales of her death, as there are of the death of Smerdis. The Greeks say that Cambyses had set a lion cub to fight a puppy, and that this woman was watching too; and that as the puppy was losing, its brother broke its leash and came to help, and the two dogs together got the better of the cub. ,Cambyses, they say, was pleased with the sight, but the woman wept as she sat by. Cambyses perceiving it asked why she wept, and she said that when she saw the puppy help its brother she had wept, recalling Smerdis and knowing that there would be no avenger for him. ,For saying this, according to the Greek story, she was killed by Cambyses. But the Egyptian tale is that as the two sat at table the woman took a lettuce and plucked off the leaves, then asked her husband whether he preferred the look of it with or without leaves. “With the leaves,” he said; whereupon she answered: ,“Yet you have stripped Cyrus' house as bare as this lettuce.” Angered at this, they say, he sprang upon her, who was great with child, and she miscarried and died of the hurt he gave her. 3.121. A few people, however, say that when Oroetes sent a herald to Samos with some request (it is not said what this was), the herald found Polycrates lying in the men's apartments, in the company of Anacreon of Teos ; ,and, whether on purpose to show contempt for Oroetes, or by mere chance, when Oroetes' herald entered and addressed him, Polycrates, then lying with his face to the wall, never turned or answered him. 5.18. The Persians who had been sent as envoys came to Amyntas and demanded earth and water for Darius the king. He readily gave to them what they asked and invited them to be his guests, preparing a dinner of great splendor and receiving them hospitably. ,After dinner, the Persians said to Amyntas as they sat drinking together, “Macedonian, our host, it is our custom in Persia to bring in also the concubines and wedded wives to sit by the men after the giving of any great banquet. We ask you, then, (since you have received us heartily, are entertaining us nobly and are giving Darius our king earth and water) to follow our custom.” ,To this Amyntas replied, “ We have no such custom, Persians. Among us, men and women sit apart, but since you are our masters and are making this request, it shall be as you desire.” With that, Amyntas sent for the women. Upon being called, the women entered and sat down in a row opposite the Persians. ,Then the Persians, seeing beautiful women before them, spoke to Amyntas and said that there was no sense in what he had done. It would be better if the women had never come at all than that they should come and not sit beside the men, but sit opposite them to torment their eyes. ,Amyntas, now feeling compelled to do so, bade the women sit beside them. When the women had done as they were bidden, the Persians, flushed as they were with excess of wine, at once laid hands on the women's breasts, and one or another tried to kiss them. 5.19. This Amyntas saw, but held his peace despite his anger because he greatly feared the Persians. Amyntas' son Alexander, however, because of his youth and ignorance of ill deeds, could not bear it longer and said to Amyntas in great wrath, “My father, do as your age demands. Leave us and take your rest; do not continue drinking. I will stay here and give our guests all that is needful.” ,At this Amyntas saw that Alexander had some wild deed in mind and said, “My son, you are angered, and if I guess your meaning correctly, you are sending me away so that you may do some violent deed. I for my part, for fear that you will bring about our undoing, entreat you not to act rashly against these men, but to bear patiently the sight of what they do. If you want me to leave, to that I consent.” 5.20. When Amyntas made this request and had gone his way, Alexander said to the Persians, “Sirs, you have full freedom to deal with these women, and may have intercourse with all or any of them. ,As to that, you may make your own decision, but now, since the hour of your rest is drawing near and I see that you are all completely drunk, allow these women to depart and wash, if this is your desire. When they have washed, wait for them to come to you again.” ,When he had said this and the Persians had given their consent, he sent the women out and away to their apartments. Alexander then took as many beardless men as there were women, dressed them in the women's clothes, and gave them daggers. These he brought in, and said to the Persians,,“I believe, men of Persia, that you have feasted to your hearts' content. All that we had and all besides that we could find to give you has been set before you, and now we make you a free gift of our best and most valued possession, our own mothers and sisters. Be aware that in so doing we are giving you all the honor that you deserve, and tell your king who sent you how his Greek viceroy of Macedonia has received you hospitably, providing food and bedfellows.” ,With that, Alexander seated each of his Macedonians next to a Persian, as though they were women, and when the Persians began to lay hands on them, they were killed by the Macedonians. 9.108. Now it happened that the king had been at Sardis ever since he came there in flight from Athens after his overthrow in the sea-fight. Being then at Sardis he became enamored of Masistes' wife, who was also there. But as all his messages could not bring her to yield to him, and he would not force her to his will, out of regard for his brother Masistes (which indeed counted with the woman also, for she knew well that no force would be used against her), Xerxes found no other way to accomplish his purpose than that he should make a marriage between his own son Darius and the daughter of this woman and Masistes, for he thought that by doing so he would be most likely to win her. ,So he betrothed them with all due ceremony and rode away to Susa. But when he had come and had taken Darius' bride into his house, he thought no more of Masistes' wife, but changed his mind and wooed and won this girl Artaynte, Darius' wife and Masistes' daughter. 9.109. As time went on, however, the truth came to light, and in such manner as I will show. Xerxes' wife, Amestris, wove and gave to him a great gaily-colored mantle, marvellous to see. Xerxes was pleased with it, and went to Artaynte wearing it. ,Being pleased with her too, he asked her what she wanted in return for her favors, for he would deny nothing at her asking. Thereupon—for she and all her house were doomed to evil—she said to Xerxes, “Will you give me whatever I ask of you?” He promised this, supposing that she would ask anything but that; when he had sworn, she asked boldly for his mantle. ,Xerxes tried to refuse her, for no reason except that he feared that Amestris might have clear proof of his doing what she already guessed. He accordingly offered her cities instead and gold in abundance and an army for none but herself to command. Armies are the most suitable of gifts in Persia. But as he could not move her, he gave her the mantle; and she, rejoicing greatly in the gift, went flaunting her finery. 9.110. Amestris heard that she had the mantle, but when she learned the truth, it was not the girl with whom she was angry. She supposed rather that the girl's mother was guilty and that this was her doing, and so it was Masistes' wife whom she plotted to destroy. ,She waited therefore till Xerxes her husband should be giving his royal feast. This banquet is served once a year, on the king's birthday; the Persian name for it is “tukta,” which is in the Greek language “perfect.” On that day (and none other) the king anoints his head and makes gifts to the Persians. Waiting for that day, Amestris then asked of Xerxes that Masistes' wife should be given to her. ,Xerxes considered it a terrible and wicked act to give up his brother's wife, and that too when she was innocent of the deed; for he knew the purpose of the request. 9.111. Nevertheless, since Amestris was insistent and the law compelled him (for at this royal banquet in Persia every request must of necessity be granted), he unwillingly consented, and delivered the woman to Amestris. Then, bidding her do what she wanted, he sent for his brother and spoke as follows: ,“Masistes, you are Darius' son and my brother, and a good man; hear me then. You must no longer live with her who is now your wife. I give you my daughter in her place. Take her for your own, but do away with the wife that you have, for it is not my will that you should have her.” ,At that Masistes was amazed; “Sire,” he said, “what is this evil command that you lay upon me, telling me to deal with my wife in this way? I have by her young sons and daughters, of whom you have taken a wife for your own son, and I am very content with her herself. Yet you are asking me to get rid of my wife and wed your daughter? ,Truly, O king, I consider it a great honor to be accounted worthy of your daughter, but I will do neither the one nor the other. No, rather, do not force me to consent to such a desire. You will find another husband for your daughter as good as I, but permit me to keep my own wife.” ,This was Masistes' response, but Xerxes was very angry and said: “You have come to this pass, Masistes. I will give you no daughter of mine as a wife, nor will you any longer live with her whom you now have. In this way you will learn to accept that which is offered you.” Hearing that, Masistes said “No, sire, you have not destroyed me yet!” and so departed. 9.112. In the meantime, while Xerxes talked with his brother, Amestris sent for Xerxes' guards and treated Masistes' wife very cruelly; she cut off the woman's breasts and threw them to dogs, and her nose and ears and lips also, and cut out her tongue. Then she sent her home after she had undergone this dreadful ordeal. 9.113. Knowing nothing of this as yet, but fearing evil, Masistes ran home. Seeing what had been done to his wife, he immediately took counsel with his children and set out for Bactra with his own sons (and others too), intending to raise the province of Bactra in revolt and do the king the greatest of harm. ,This he would have done, to my thinking, had he escaped to the country of the Bactrians and Sacae. They were fond of him, and he was viceroy over the Bactrians. But it was of no use, for Xerxes learned what he intended and sent against him an army which killed him on his way, and his sons and his army. Such is the story of Xerxes' love and Masistes' death.
18. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 3.82 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

19. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.7, 2.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais.
20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.7-1.10, 6.16, 6.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 6.16. בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הַרְגִּשׁוּ עַל־מַלְכָּא וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא דַּע מַלְכָּא דִּי־דָת לְמָדַי וּפָרַס דִּי־כָל־אֱסָר וּקְיָם דִּי־מַלְכָּא יְהָקֵים לָא לְהַשְׁנָיָה׃ 6.24. בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא שַׂגִּיא טְאֵב עֲלוֹהִי וּלְדָנִיֵּאל אֲמַר לְהַנְסָקָה מִן־גֻּבָּא וְהֻסַּק דָּנִיֵּאל מִן־גֻּבָּא וְכָל־חֲבָל לָא־הִשְׁתְּכַח בֵּהּ דִּי הֵימִן בֵּאלָהֵהּ׃ 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 6.16. Then these men came tumultuously unto the king, and said unto the king: ‘Know, O king, that it is a law of the Medes and Persians, that no interdict nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed.’" 6.24. Then was the king exceeding glad, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of hurt was found upon him, because he had trusted in his God."
21. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 9.8-9.9, 38.1-38.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.8. Turn away your eyes from a shapely woman,and do not look intently at beauty belonging to another;many have been misled by a womans beauty,and by it passion is kindled like a fire. 9.9. Never dine with another mans wife,nor revel with her at wine;lest your heart turn aside to her,and in blood you be plunged into destruction. 38.1. Honor the physician with the honor due him,according to your need of him, for the Lord created him; 38.1. Give up your faults and direct your hands aright,and cleanse your heart from all sin. 38.2. for healing comes from the Most High,and he will receive a gift from the king. 38.2. Do not give your heart to sorrow;drive it away, remembering the end of life. 38.3. The skill of the physician lifts up his head,and in the presence of great men he is admired. 38.3. He moulds the clay with his arm and makes it pliable with his feet;he sets his heart to finish the glazing,and he is careful to clean the furnace. 38.4. The Lord created medicines from the earth,and a sensible man will not despise them. 38.5. Was not water made sweet with a tree in order that his power might be known? 38.6. And he gave skill to men that he might be glorified in his marvelous works. 38.7. By them he heals and takes away pain; 38.8. the pharmacist makes of them a compound. His works will never be finished;and from him health is upon the face of the earth.
22. Septuagint, Judith, 5.3, 8.10, 10.3-10.5, 10.12, 11.17, 12.1-12.4, 12.11, 12.15, 12.17, 12.20, 13.9, 14.16, 14.18, 16.7-16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 8.10. she sent her maid, who was in charge of all she possessed, to summon Chabris and Charmis, the elders of her city. 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 10.12. and took her into custody, and asked her, "To what people do you belong, and where are you coming from, and where are you going?" She replied, "I am a daughter of the Hebrews, but I am fleeing from them, for they are about to be handed over to you to be devoured. 11.17. For your servant is religious, and serves the God of heaven day and night; therefore, my lord, I will remain with you, and every night your servant will go out into the valley, and I will pray to God and he will tell me when they have committed their sins. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me. 12.3. Holofernes said to her, "If your supply runs out, where can we get more like it for you? For none of your people is here with us. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 12.11. And he said to Bagoas, the eunuch who had charge of his personal affairs, "Go now and persuade the Hebrew woman who is in your care to join us and eat and drink with us. 12.15. So she got up and arrayed herself in all her woman's finery, and her maid went and spread on the ground for her before Holofernes the soft fleeces which she had received from Bagoas for her daily use, so that she might recline on them when she ate. 12.17. So Holofernes said to her. "Drink now, and be merry with us! 12.20. And Holofernes was greatly pleased with her, and drank a great quantity of wine, much more than he had ever drunk in any one day since he was born. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments. 14.18. The slaves have tricked us! One Hebrew woman has brought disgrace upon the house of King Nebuchadnezzar! For look, here is Holofernes lying on the ground, and his head is not on him! 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men.
24. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 17.5.3-17.5.5, 19.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.5.3.  As our narrative is now to treat of the kingdom of the Persians, we must go back a little to pick up the thread. While Philip was still king, Ochus ruled the Persians and oppressed his subjects cruelly and harshly. Since his savage disposition made him hated, the chiliarch Bagoas, a eunuch in physical fact but a militant rogue in disposition, killed him by poison administered by a certain physician and placed upon the throne the youngest of his sons, Arses. 17.5.4.  He similarly made away with the brothers of the new king, who were barely of age, in order that the young man might be isolated and tractable to his control. But the young king let it be known that he was offended at Bagoas's previous outrageous behaviour and was prepared to punish the author of these crimes, so Bagoas anticipated his intentions and killed Arses and his children also while he was still in the third year of his reign. 17.5.5.  The royal house was thus extinguished, and there was no one in the direct line of descent to claim the throne. Instead Bagoas selected a certain Dareius, a member of the court circle, and secured the throne for him. He was the son of Arsanes, and grandson of that Ostanes who was a brother of Artaxerxes, who had been king. 19.3. 1.  A certain Damas, who was counted among the notable men of Syracuse, fell in love with Agathocles and since in the beginning he supplied him lavishly with everything, was the cause of his accumulating a suitable property; and thereafter, when Damas had been elected general against Acragas and one of his chiliarchs died, he appointed Agathocles in his place.,2.  Even before his military service Agathocles had been much respected on account of the great size of his armour, for in military reviews he was in the habit of wearing equipment so heavy that no one of the others was able to use it handily because of the weight of the armour. When he became a chiliarch, he gained even more fame since he was venturesome and daring in battle and bold and ready in haranguing the people. When Damas died of illness and left his property to his wife, Agathocles married her and was counted among the richest men.,3.  Thereafter when the people of Croton were being besieged by the Bruttii, the Syracusans sent a strong force to their aid. Antandrus, the brother of Agathocles, was one of the generals of this army, but the commanders of the whole were Heracleides and Sostratus, men who had spent the greater part of their lives in plots, murders, and great impieties; their careers in detail are contained in the Book before this one.,4.  Agathocles also took part in that campaign with them, having been recognized for his ability by the people and assigned to the rank of chiliarch. Although he had distinguished himself at first in the battles with the barbarians, he was deprived of the award for his deeds of valour by Sostratus and his friends because of jealousy.,5.  Agathocles was deeply offended at them and denounced before the people their resolve to establish an autocratic government. As the people of Syracuse paid no attention to the charges, the cabal of Sostratus did gain control of their native city after the return from Croton.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

105. Therefore men in general have paid honours to these nine portions, and to the world which is compounded of them. But the perfect man honours only that being who is above the nine, and who is their creator, being the tenth portion, namely God. For having examined into the whole of his works, he has felt a love for the creator of them, and he has become anxious to be his suppliant and servant. On this account the priest offers up a tenth every day to the tenth, the only and everlasting God.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 69, 87, 210 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

210. Now there are three companions of and servants of the intemperate and incontinent soul, the chief baker, the chief cook, and the chief butler, whom the admirable Moses mentions in these words, "And Pharaoh was angry with the two eunuchs, with the chief butler, and with the chief baker, and he put them in prison with the chief cook;" and the chief cook is eunuch; for he says in another place, "And Joseph was brought down to Egypt, and a eunuch became his master, Pharaoh's chief Cook
27. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

91. For by the following means alone can that which is most excellent within us become adapted for and inclined to the service of him who is the most excellent of all existing beings. In the first place, if a man be resolved into soul, the body, which is akin to it as a brother, being separated and cut off from it, and also all its insatiable desires; and in the second place when the soul has, as I have already said, cast off the irrational part, which is the neighbour of the rational part; for this, like a torrent, being divided into five channels, excites the impetuosity of the passions through all the external senses, as so many aqueducts.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 124 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

124. Let us therefore pray that the mind may be in the soul like a pillar in a house, and, in like manner, that the just man may be firmly established in the human race for the relief of all diseases; for while he is in vigorous health, one must not abandon all hope of complete safety, as through the medium of him, I imagine God the Saviour extending his all-healing medicine, that is to say, his propitious and merciful power to his suppliants and worshippers, bids them employ it for the salvation of those who are sick; spreading it like a salve over the wounds of the soul, which folly, and injustice, and all the other multitude of vices, being sharpened up, have grievously inflicted upon it.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

127. In this way he also says, "The cities of the Levites are ransomed for ever, because the minister of God enjoys eternal freedom, according to the continuous revolutions of the ever-moving soul," and he admits incessant healing applications; for when he calls them ransomed, not once, but for ever, as he says, he means to convey such a meaning as this, that they are always in a state of revolution, and always in a state of freedom, the state of revolution being implanted in them because of their natural mortality, but their freedom coming to them because of their ministration to God. XXXVIII.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 186, 185 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

185. It is a very beautiful exchange and recompense for this choice on the part of man thus displaying anxiety to serve God, when God thus without any delay takes the suppliant to himself as his own, and goes forth to meet the intentions of the man who, in a genuine and sincere spirit of piety and truth, hastens to do him service. But the true servant and suppliant of God, even if by himself he be reckoned and classed as a man, still in power, as has been said in another place, is the whole people, inasmuch as he is equal in value to a whole people. And this is naturally the case in other matters also;
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 97 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

97. Very often, also, he would clothe himself with a breastplate, and march forth sword in hand, with a helmet on his head and a shield on his left arm, calling himself Mars, and on each side of him there marched with him the attendants of this new and unknown Mars, a troop of murderers and executioners who had already performed him all kinds of wicked services when he was raging and thirsting for human blood;
33. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

60. For, behold, here again, he uses the expression, "the portion and inheritance of God," meaning that disposition which is capable of seeing him, and which sincerely worships him; and he says that the children of the earth, whom he calls the sons of Adam, were scattered and dispersed, and brought together again, and that a company was formed of them, since they were unable to use right reason as their guide. For, in real truth, virtue is the cause of harmony and unity, and the opposite disposition is the cause of dissolution and disagreement.
34. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.254, 10.258, 10.262, 11.152, 11.190, 11.192-11.193, 11.212, 11.217, 11.228, 11.248, 11.281, 11.289, 11.297-11.301 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.254. 6. Whereupon the king, not being acquainted with their wicked design, nor suspecting that it was a contrivance of theirs against Daniel, said he was pleased with this decree of theirs, and he promised to confirm what they desired; he also published an edict to promulgate to the people that decree which the princes had made. 10.258. So Darius, hoping that God would deliver him, and that he would undergo nothing that was terrible by the wild beasts, bid him bear this accident cheerfully. And when he was cast into the den, he put his seal to the stone that lay upon the mouth of the den, and went his way, but he passed all the night without food and without sleep, being in great distress for Daniel; 10.262. And it appeared plain to Darius, after the princes had been cast to the wild beasts, that it was God who preserved Daniel for the lions spared none of them, but tore them all to pieces, as if they had been very hungry, and wanted food. I suppose therefore it was not their hunger, which had been a little before satisfied with abundance of flesh, but the wickedness of these men, that provoked them [to destroy the princes;] for if it so please God, that wickedness might, by even those irrational creatures, be esteemed a plain foundation for their punishment. 11.152. who had a greater regard to the observation of the law than to their natural affection, and immediately cast out their wives, and the children which were born of them. And in order to appease God, they offered sacrifices, and slew rams, as oblations to him; but it does not seem to me to be necessary to set down the names of these men. 11.192. till the king was so much irritated, that he brake up the entertainment, and rose up, and called for those seven who had the interpretation of the laws committed to them, and accused his wife, and said that he had been affronted by her, because that when she was frequently called by him to his feast, she did not obey him once. 11.193. He therefore gave order that they should inform him what could be done by the law against her. So one of them, whose name was Memucan, said that this affront was offered not to him alone, but to all the Persians, who were in danger of leading their lives very ill with their wives, if they must be thus despised by them; 11.212. Accordingly he came to the king, and accused them, saying, “There is a certain wicked nation, and it is dispersed over all the habitable earth the was under his dominion; a nation separate from others, unsociable, neither admitting the same sort of divine worship that others do, nor using laws like to the laws of others, at enmity with thy people, and with all men, both in their manners and practices. 11.217. And whereas I have been kindly informed by Haman, who, on account of his prudence and justice, is the first in my esteem, and in dignity, and only second to myself, for his fidelity and constant good-will to me, that there is an ill-natured nation intermixed with all mankind, that is averse to our laws, and not subject to kings, and of a different conduct of life from others, that hateth monarchy, and of a disposition that is pernicious to our affairs 11.228. But Esther sent the very same eunuch back to Mordecai [to desire him] to go to Shushan, and to gather the Jews that were there together to a congregation, and to fast and abstain from all sorts of food, on her account, and [to let him know that] she with her maidens would do the same: and then she promised that she would go to the king, though it were against the law, and that if she must die for it, she would not refuse it. 11.248. and as the king was not willing to lose the time of his lying awake, but to spend it in something that might be of advantage to his kingdom, he commanded the scribe to bring him the chronicles of the former kings, and the records of his own actions; 11.281. And I give you in charge, that you publicly propose a copy of this epistle through all my kingdom, that the Jews may be permitted peaceably to use their own laws, and that you assist them, that at the same season whereto their miserable estate did belong, they may defend themselves the very same day from unjust violence, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is Adar; 11.289. and when the king had told Esther the number of those that were slain in that city, but did not well know what had been done in the provinces, he asked her whether she would have any thing further done against them, for that it should be done accordingly: upon which she desired that the Jews might be permitted to treat their remaining enemies in the same manner the next day; as also that they might hang the ten sons of Haman upon the gallows. 11.297. 1. When Eliashib the high priest was dead, his son Judas succeeded in the high priesthood; and when he was dead, his son John took that dignity; on whose account it was also that Bagoses, the general of another Artaxerxes’s army, polluted the temple, and imposed tributes on the Jews, that out of the public stock, before they offered the daily sacrifices, they should pay for every lamb fifty shekels. 11.298. Now Jesus was the brother of John, and was a friend of Bagoses, who had promised to procure him the high priesthood. 11.299. In confidence of whose support, Jesus quarreled with John in the temple, and so provoked his brother, that in his anger his brother slew him. Now it was a horrible thing for John, when he was high priest, to perpetrate so great a crime, and so much the more horrible, that there never was so cruel and impious a thing done, neither by the Greeks nor Barbarians. 11.301. And as he was aiming to go into the temple, they forbade him so to do; but he said to them, “Am not I purer than he that was slain in the temple?” And when he had said these words, he went into the temple. Accordingly, Bagoses made use of this pretense, and punished the Jews seven years for the murder of Jesus.
35. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 8.2.3 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. (עזרא ט, ט) כי עבדים אנחנו ובעבדותנו לא עזבנו אלהינו ויט עלינו חסד לפני מלכי פרס אימתי בזמן המן,רבי חנינא בר פפא פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים סו, יב) הרכבת אנוש לראשנו באנו באש ובמים באש בימי נבוכדנצר הרשע ובמים בימי פרעה ותוציאנו לרויה בימי המן,רבי יוחנן פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים צח, ג) זכר חסדו ואמונתו לבית ישראל ראו כל אפסי ארץ את ישועת אלהינו אימתי ראו כל אפסי ארץ את ישועת אלהינו בימי מרדכי ואסתר,ריש לקיש פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (משלי כח, טו) ארי נוהם ודוב שוקק מושל רשע על עם דל ארי נוהם זה נבוכדנצר הרשע דכתיב ביה (ירמיהו ד, ז) עלה אריה מסובכו דוב שוקק זה אחשורוש דכתיב ביה (דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוה אחרי תניינה דמיה לדוב ותני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין בשר כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב,מושל רשע זה המן על עם דל אלו ישראל שהם דלים מן המצות,ר' אלעזר פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (קהלת י, יח) בעצלתים ימך המקרה ובשפלות ידים ידלוף הבית בשביל עצלות שהיה להם לישראל שלא עסקו בתורה נעשה שונאו של הקב"ה מך ואין מך אלא עני שנאמר (ויקרא כז, ח) ואם מך הוא מערכך ואין מקרה אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (תהלים קד, ג) המקרה במים עליותיו,רב נחמן בר יצחק פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (תהלים קכד, א) שיר המעלות לולי ה' שהיה לנו יאמר נא ישראל לולי ה' שהיה לנו בקום עלינו אדם (תהלים קכד,ב) אדם ולא מלך,רבא פתח לה פתחא להא פרשתא מהכא (משלי כט, ב) ברבות צדיקים ישמח העם ובמשול רשע יאנח עם ברבות צדיקים ישמח העם זה מרדכי ואסתר דכתיב והעיר שושן צהלה ושמחה ובמשול רשע יאנח עם זה המן דכתיב והעיר שושן נבוכה,רב מתנה אמר מהכא (דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברים ד, לד) או הנסה אלהים וגו',ויהי בימי אחשורוש אמר רב ויי והי הדא דכתיב (דברים כח, סח) והתמכרתם שם לאויביך לעבדים ולשפחות וגו',ושמואל אמר (ויקרא כו, מד) לא מאסתים ולא געלתים לכלותם לא מאסתים בימי יוונים ולא געלתים בימי נבוכדנצר לכלותם בימי המן להפר בריתי אתם בימי פרסיים כי אני ה' אלהיהם בימי גוג ומגוג,במתניתא תנא לא מאסתים בימי כשדים שהעמדתי להם דניאל חנניה מישאל ועזריה ולא געלתים בימי יוונים שהעמדתי להם שמעון הצדיק וחשמונאי ובניו ומתתיה כה"ג לכלותם בימי המן שהעמדתי להם מרדכי ואסתר להפר בריתי אתם בימי פרסיים שהעמדתי להם של בית רבי וחכמי דורות כי אני ה' אלהיהם לעתיד לבוא שאין כל אומה ולשון יכולה לשלוט בהם,רבי לוי אמר מהכא (במדבר לג, נה) ואם לא תורישו את יושבי הארץ,רבי חייא אמר מהכא (במדבר לג, נו) והיה כאשר דמיתי לעשות להם אעשה לכם,אחשורוש אמר רב אחיו של ראש ובן גילו של ראש אחיו של ראש אחיו של נבוכדנצר הרשע שנקרא ראש שנאמר (דניאל ב, לח) אנת הוא רישא די דהבא בן גילו של ראש הוא הרג הוא ביקש להרוג הוא החריב הוא ביקש להחריב שנאמר (עזרא ד, ו) ובמלכות אחשורוש בתחלת מלכותו כתבו שטנה על יושבי יהודה וירושלם,ושמואל אמר שהושחרו פניהם של ישראל בימיו כשולי קדרה ורבי יוחנן אמר כל שזוכרו אמר אח לראשו ורבי חנינא אמר שהכל נעשו רשין בימיו שנאמר (אסתר י, א) וישם המלך אחשורוש מס,הוא אחשורוש הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו (בראשית לו, מג) הוא עשו הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו (במדבר כו, ט) הוא דתן ואבירם הן ברשען מתחילתן ועד סופן (דברי הימים ב כח, כב) הוא המלך אחז הוא ברשעו מתחילתו ועד סופו,(דברי הימים א א, כז) אברם הוא אברהם הוא בצדקו מתחילתו ועד סופו (שמות ו, כו) הוא אהרן ומשה הן בצדקן מתחילתן ועד סופן (שמואל א יז, יד) ודוד הוא הקטן הוא בקטנותו מתחילתו עד סופו כשם שבקטנותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו בתורה כך במלכותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו בחכמה,המולך אמר רב שמלך מעצמו אמרי לה לשבח ואמרי לה לגנאי אמרי לה לשבח דלא הוה איניש דחשיב למלכא כוותיה ואמרי לה לגנאי דלא הוה חזי למלכותא וממונא יתירא הוא דיהב וקם,מהודו ועד כוש רב ושמואל חד אמר הודו בסוף העולם וכוש בסוף העולם וחד אמר הודו וכוש גבי הדדי הוו קיימי כשם שמלך על הודו וכוש כך מלך מסוף העולם ועד סופו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (מלכים א ה, ד) כי הוא רודה בכל עבר הנהר מתפסח ועד עזה רב ושמואל חד אמר תפסח בסוף העולם ועזה בסוף העולם וחד אמר תפסח ועזה בהדי הדדי הוו קיימי כשם שמלך על תפסח ועל עזה כך מלך על כל העולם כולו,שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה אמר רב חסדא בתחילה מלך על שבע ולבסוף מלך על עשרים ולבסוף מלך על מאה אלא מעתה (שמות ו, כ) ושני חיי עמרם שבע ושלשים ומאת שנה מאי דרשת ביה שאני הכא דקרא יתירא הוא מכדי כתיב מהודו ועד כוש שבע ועשרים ומאה מדינה למה לי ש"מ לדרשה:,תנו רבנן שלשה מלכו בכיפה ואלו הן אחאב ואחשורוש ונבוכדנצר אחאב דכתיב (מלכים א יח, י) חי ה' אלהיך אם יש גוי וממלכה אשר לא שלח אדוני שם לבקשך וגו' ואי לא דהוה מליך עלייהו היכי מצי משבע להו,נבוכדנצר דכתיב (ירמיהו כז, ח) והיה הגוי והממלכה אשר לא יתן את צוארו בעול מלך בבל אחשורוש הא דאמרן 11a. b“For we are bondmen; yet our God has not forsaken us in our bondage, but has extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia”(Ezra 9:9). bWhendid this occur? bIn the time of Haman. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa introduced this passage with an introduction from here:The verse states: b“You have caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water;but You brought us out into abundance” (Psalms 66:12). b“Through fire”;this was bin the days of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar,who cast the righteous into the furnace. b“And through water”;this was bin the days of Pharaoh,who decreed that all newborn males be cast into the water. b“But You brought us out into abundance”;this was bin the days of Haman,where abundant feasts played a pivotal role in their peril and salvation., bRabbi Yoḥa introduced this passage with an introduction from here:The verse states: b“He has remembered His mercy and His faithfulness toward the house of Israel: All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God”(Psalms 98:3). bWhen did all the ends of the earth see the salvation of our God? In the days of Mordecai and Esther,for their peril and salvation became known through the letters sent throughout the empire., bReish Lakish introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “As a roaring lion, and a ravenous bear, so is a wicked ruler over a poor people”(Proverbs 28:15). b“A roaring lion”; this is the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, as it is written about him: “The lion has come up from his thicket”(Jeremiah 4:7). b“A hungry bear”; this is Ahasuerus, as it is written about him: “And behold, another beast, a second one, like a bear”(Daniel 7:5). bAnd Rav Yosef taughtthat bthesewho are referred to as a bear in the verse bare the Persians.They are compared to a bear, bas they eat and drinkin large quantities blike a bear; and they are coated with flesh like a bear; and they grow their hairlong blike a bear; and they never rest like a bear,whose manner it is to move about from place to place., b“A wicked ruler”; this is Haman. “Over a poor people”; this is the Jewish people,who are referred to in this manner bbecause they are poor intheir observance of bthe mitzvot. /b, bRabbi Elazar introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “Through laziness the rafters [ ihamekare /i] sink in [ iyimakh /i]; and through idleness of the hands the house leaks”(Ecclesiastes 10:18). Rabbi Elazar interprets the verse homiletically: bThrough the laziness of the Jewish people, who did not occupy themselves with Torahstudy, bthe enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He,a euphemism for God Himself, bbecame poor [ imakh /i],so that, as it were, He was unable to help them, bas imakh /iis bnothing other than poor, as it is stated: “But if he be too poor [ imakh /i] for the valuation”(Leviticus 27:8). bAndthe word imekare /iin the verse bis referringto bnoone bother than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Who lays the beams [ ihamekare /i] of His chambers in the waters”(Psalms 104:3)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “A song of ascentsof David. bIf not for the Lord Who was with us, let Israel now say; if not for the Lord who was with us, when a man rose up against us”(Psalms 124:1–2). The verse speaks of b“a man”who rose up against us band not a king.This occurred in the days of Haman, as he, and not King Ahasuerus, was the chief enemy of the Jewish people., bRava introduced this passage with an introduction from here: “When the righteous are on the increase, the people rejoice; but when the wicked man rules, the people mourn”(Proverbs 29:2). b“When the righteous are on the increase, the people rejoice”; this is Mordecai and Esther, as it is written: “And the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad”(Esther 8:15). b“But when the wicked man rules, the people mourn”; this is Haman, as it is written: “But the city of Shushan was perplexed”(Esther 3:15)., bRav Mattana saidhis introduction bfrom here: “For what nation is there so great, that has God so near to them”(Deuteronomy 4:7), as to witness the great miracles in the days of Mordecai and Esther? bRav Ashi saidhis introduction bfrom here:The verse states: b“Or has God venturedto go and take Him a nation from the midst of another nation?” (Deuteronomy 4:34), as in the times of Esther, God saved the Jewish people who were scattered throughout the Persian Empire.,§ The Gemara returns to its interpretation of the book of Esther. The verse states: b“And it came to pass [ ivayhi /i] in the days of Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1). bRav said:The word ivayhimay be understood as if it said ivaiand ihi /i,meaning bwoe and mourning. This is as it is written: “And there you shall sell yourselves to your enemies for bondsmen and bondswomen,and no man shall buy you” (Deuteronomy 28:68). The repetitive nature of the verse, indicating that no one will be willing to buy you for servitude, but they will purchase you in order to murder you, indicates a doubly horrific situation, which is symbolized by the dual term ivayhi /i, meaning woe and mourning., bAnd Shmuel saidhis introduction from here: “And yet for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, bI will not reject them, nor will I abhor them,to destroy them utterly, and to break My covet with them; for I am the Lord their God” (Leviticus 26:44). Shmuel explains: b“I will not reject them”;this was bin the days of the Greeks. “Nor will I abhor them”;this was bin the days ofVespasian. b“To destroy them utterly”;this was bin the days of Haman. “To break My covet with them”;this was bin the days of the Persians. “For I am the Lord their God”;this is bin the days of Gog and Magog. /b,An alternative understanding bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: “I will not reject them”;this was bin the days of the Chaldeans, when I appointed for them Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariahto pray on their behalf. b“Nor will I abhor them”;this was bin the days of the Greeks, when I appointed Shimon HaTzaddik for them, andthe bHasmonean and his sons, and Mattithiah the High Priest. “To destroy them utterly”;this was bin the days of Haman, when I appointed for themthe righteous leaders bMordecai and Esther. “To break My covet with them”;this was bin the days of the Romans, when I appointed for themthe Sages of bthe house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi band the Sages ofother bgenerations. “For I am the Lord their God”;this will be bin the future, when no nation orpeople of a foreign btongue will be ableto bsubjugate themfurther., bRabbi Levi saidhis introduction bfrom here: “But if you will not drive out the inhabitants of the landfrom before you, then it shall come to pass, that those whom you allow to remain of them shall be as thorns in your eyes” (Numbers 33:55). King Saul’s failure to completely annihilate Amalek allowed for the existence of his descendant Haman, who acted as a thorn in the eyes of Israel during the Purim episode., bRabbi Ḥiyya saidhis introduction bfrom here,the continuation of the previously cited verse: b“And it shall come to pass, that as I thought to do unto them, so I shall do unto you”(Numbers 33:56). Prior to the miracle of Purim, the Jewish people were subject to the punishment that the Torah designated for its enemies, because they did not fulfill God’s commandments.,The Gemara continues with its explanation of the book of Esther, beginning with a discussion of the name bAhasuerus. Rav said:The name should be viewed as a contraction: bThe brother of the head [ iaḥiv shel rosh /i] and of the same character as the head [ iben gilo shel rosh /i].Rav explains: bThe brother of the head,i.e., bthe brother of the wicked Nebuchadnezzar, who is called “head,” as it is stated: “You are the head of gold”(Daniel 2:38). bof the same character as the head, for he,Nebuchadnezzar, bkilledthe Jews, and bhe,Ahasuerus, bsought to killthem. bHe destroyedthe Temple, and bhe sought to destroythe foundations for the Temple laid by Zerubbabel, bas it is stated: “And in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, they wrote to him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem”(Ezra 4:6), and he ordered that the construction of the Temple cease., bAnd Shmuel said:The name Ahasuerus should be understood in the sense of black [ ishaḥor /i], as bthe face of the Jewish people was blackened in his days like the bottom of a pot. And Rabbi Yoḥa saida different explanation: bEveryone who recalled him said: “Woe upon his head” [ iaḥ lerosho /i]. And Rabbi Ḥanina said:The name alludes to the fact bthat everyone became poor[irash /i] in his days, as it is stated: “And the king Ahasuerus laid a tributeupon the land” (Esther 10:1).,The Gemara continues: b“This is [ ihu /i] Ahasuerus”(Esther 1:1); the term ihu /i, this is, comes to teach that bheremained as he was bin his wickedness from beginning to end.Similarly, wherever the words “this is” appear in this manner, the verse indicates that the individual under discussion remained the same from beginning to end, for example: b“This is [ ihu /i] Esau”(Genesis 36:43); bheremained bin his wickedness from beginning to end. “This is [ ihu /i] Dathan and Abiram”(Numbers 26:9); btheyremained bin their wickedness from beginning to end. “This is [ ihu /i] the king Ahaz”(II Chronicles 28:22); bheremained bin his wickedness from beginning to end. /b,The Gemara continues: The word ihuis also used to recognize sustained righteousness. b“Abram, this is [ ihu /i] Abraham”(I Chronicles 1:27); this indicates that Abraham didn’t change, as bheremained bin his righteousness from beginning to end.Similarly, b“This is [ ihu /i] Aaron and Moses”(Exodus 6:26); bthey remained in their righteousness fromthe bbeginningof their life btothe bendof their life. Similarly, with respect to David: b“And David, this was [ ihu /i] the youngest”(I Samuel 17:14), indicates that bhe remained in his humility from beginning to end. Just as in his youth,when he was still an ordinary individual, bhe humbled himself before anyone who was greater than him in Torah, so too, in his kingship, he humbled himself before anyone who was greater than him in wisdom. /b,The next term in the opening verse: b“Who reigned”(Esther 1:1), is now interpreted. bRav said:This comes to teach bthat he reigned on his own,without having inherited the throne. bSome saythis btohis bcredit, and some say it tohis bdisgrace.The Gemara explains: bSome saythis btohis bcredit, that there was noother bman as fit as him to be king. And some say it tohis bdisgrace, that he was not fit to be king, but he distributed large amounts of money, andin that way broseto the throne.,The opening verse continues that Ahasuerus reigned b“from Hodu to Cush.” Rav and Shmueldisagreed about its meaning. bOne said: Hoduis a country bat one end of the world, and Cushis a country bat theother bend of the world. And one said: Hodu and Cush are situated next to each other,and the verse means to say as follows: bJust asAhasuerus breignedwith ease boverthe adjacent countries of bHodu and Cush, so too, he reignedwith ease bfrom one end of the world to the other. /b, bOn a similarnote, byou saywith regard to Solomon: b“For he had dominion over all the region on this side of the river, from Tiphsah even to Gaza”(I Kings 5:4), and also with regard to this bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said: Tiphsah is at one end of the world, whereas Gaza is at the other end of the world. And one said: Tiphsah and Gaza are situated next to each other,and the verse means to say as follows: bJust asSolomon breignedwith ease boverthe adjacent bTiphsah and Gaza, so too, he reignedwith ease bover the entire world. /b,The opening verse continues, stating that Ahasuerus reigned “over bseven and twenty and a hundred provinces”(Esther 1:1). bRav Ḥisda said:This verse should be understood as follows: bAt first he reigned over sevenprovinces; band then he reigned over twentymore; band finally he reigned overanother bhundred.The Gemara asks: bHowever, ifthat is bso,with regard to the similarly worded verse: b“And the years of the life of Amram were seven and thirty and a hundred years”(Exodus 6:20), bwhat would you expoundfrom bit?The Gemara answers: bIt is different here,in the book of Esther, basthis part of bthe verse isentirely bsuperfluous. Since it isalready bwritten: “From Hodu to Cush,” whythen bdo I need “Seven and twenty and a hundred provinces”?Rather, blearn from herethat these words come bforthis bexposition,to teach that Ahasuerus did not begin to reign over all of them at the same time.,§ Apropos the discussion of the kingdoms of Ahasuerus and Solomon, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught: Threemen bruled over theentire bworld, and they were Ahab, and Ahasuerus, and Nebuchadnezzar.The Gemara explains: bAhab, as it is writtenin the words of Obadiah, servant of Ahab, to Elijah: b“As the Lord your God lives, there is no nation or kingdom where my master has not sent to seek you,and they said: He is not there; and he made the kingdom and nation swear, that they had not found you” (I Kings 18:10). bAnd if he did not reign over them, how could he have made them swear?Apparently, then, he reigned over the entire world., bNebuchadnezzaralso ruled over the whole world, bas it is written: “And it shall come to pass, that the nation and the kingdomthat not serve this same Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, and that bwill not put their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylonia,that nation will I visit, says the Lord, with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand” (Jeremiah 27:8). bAhasuerusalso ruled the world, bas we have saidabove.
37. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24b. ושמואל מתרץ לטעמיה בן ארבעה לדקה בן שמנה לגסה הימנו ולמטה אסור במה דברים אמורים בשלא כלו לו חדשיו אבל כלו לו חדשיו מותר יצא מי שיש לו ב' גבין וב' שדראות דאע"ג דכלו לו חדשיו אם יצא לאויר העולם אסור במעי אמו שרי,תני תנא קמיה דרב המפלת בריית גוף שאינו חתוך ובריית ראש שאינו חתוך יכול תהא אמו טמאה לידה ת"ל (ויקרא יב, ב) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר וגו' וביום השמיני ימול וגו',מי שראוי לברית שמנה יצאו אלו שאינן ראויין לברית שמנה א"ל רב וסיים בה הכי ושיש לו שני גבין ושני שדראות,רבי ירמיה בר אבא סבר למעבד עובדא כוותיה דשמואל אמר ליה רב הונא מאי דעתיך לחומרא חומרא דאתי לידי קולא הוא דקיהבת לה דמי טוהר עביד מיהא כותיה דרב דקיימא לן הלכתא כרב באיסורי בין לקולא בין לחומרא,אמר רבא הרי אמרו אשה יולדת לתשעה ויולדת לשבעה בהמה גסה יולדת לתשעה יולדת לשבעה או לא ילדה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ת"ש הימנו ולמטה אסור מאי לאו אגסה לא אדקה,האי מאי אי אמרת בשלמא אגסה אצטריך סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ובאשה חיי בבהמה נמי חיי קמ"ל דלא חיי,אלא אי אמרת אדקה איתמר פשיטא בת תלתא ירחי מי קא חיי,אצטריך סד"א כל בציר תרי ירחי חיי קמ"ל,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל המפלת דמות לילית אמו טמאה לידה ולד הוא אלא שיש לו כנפים תנ"ה א"ר יוסי מעשה בסימוני באחת שהפילה דמות לילית ובא מעשה לפני חכמים ואמרו ולד הוא אלא שיש לו כנפים,המפלת דמות נחש הורה חנינא בן אחיו של רבי יהושע אמו טמאה לידה הלך ר' יוסף וספר דברים לפני ר"ג שלח לו רבי יהושע הנהג בן אחיך ובא,בהליכתן יצתה כלת (ר') חנינא לקראתו אמרה לו רבי המפלת כמין נחש מהו אמר לה אמו טהורה אמרה לו והלא משמך אמרה לי חמותי אמו טמאה ואמר לה מאיזה טעם הואיל וגלגל עינו עגול כשל אדם מתוך דבריה נזכר רבי יהושע שלח לו לרבן גמליאל מפי הורה חנינא,אמר אביי ש"מ צורבא מרבנן דאמר מילתא לימא בה טעמא דכי מדכרו ליה מדכר, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המפלת שפיר מלא מים מלא דם מלא גנונים אינה חוששת לולד ואם היה מרוקם תשב לזכר ולנקבה המפלת סנדל או שליא תשב לזכר ולנקבה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big בשלמא דם ומים לא כלום היא אלא גנונים ניחוש שמא ולד הוה ונימוח אמר אביי כמה יין חי שתת אמו של זה שנמוח עוברה בתוך מעיה,רבא אמר מלא תנן ואם איתא דאתמוחי אתמח מחסר חסר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר גוונים תנן ואם איתא דאתמוחי אתמח כולה בחד גוונא הוי קאי,תניא אבא שאול אומר קובר מתים הייתי והייתי מסתכל בעצמות של מתים השותה יין חי עצמותיו שרופין מזוג עצמותיו סכויין כראוי עצמותיו משוחין וכל מי ששתייתו מרובה מאכילתו עצמותיו שרופין אכילתו מרובה משתייתו עצמותיו סכויין כראוי עצמותיו משוחין,תניא אבא שאול אומר ואיתימא רבי יוחנן קובר מתים הייתי פעם אחת רצתי אחר צבי ונכנסתי בקולית של מת ורצתי אחריו שלש פרסאות וצבי לא הגעתי וקולית לא כלתה כשחזרתי לאחורי אמרו לי של עוג מלך הבשן היתה,תניא אבא שאול אומר קובר מתים הייתי פעם אחת נפתחה מערה תחתי ועמדתי בגלגל עינו של מת עד חוטמי כשחזרתי לאחורי אמרו עין של אבשלום היתה,ושמא תאמר אבא שאול ננס הוה אבא שאול ארוך בדורו הוה ורבי טרפון מגיע לכתפו ור' טרפון ארוך בדורו הוה ור"מ מגיע לכתפו רבי מאיר ארוך בדורו הוה ורבי מגיע לכתפו רבי ארוך בדורו הוה,ורבי חייא מגיע לכתפו ורבי חייא ארוך בדורו הוה ורב מגיע לכתפו רב ארוך בדורו הוה ורב יהודה מגיע לכתפו ורב יהודה ארוך בדורו הוה ואדא דיילא מגיע לכתפו 24b. bAnd Shmuel explainsthe ibaraita baccording to hisline of breasoning,in the following manner: If an animal fetus is bbornin the bfourthmonth of pregcy in the case bof smalldomesticated animals, or it is bbornin the beighthmonth of pregcy in the case bof largelivestock, or if it was born bfrom thisstage of the pregcy band earlier,the animal is bforbidden. In whatcase bis this statement said?In a case bwhenthe fetus’s bmonthsof gestation bwere not completed; butin a case when bits monthsof gestation bwere completed, it is permittedfor consumption even outside the womb. This bexcludesa fetus bthat has two backs and two spines, as even ina case where bits monthsof gestation bwere completed, if it emerged into the airspace of the world, it is forbidden,whereas if it is found bin the womb of its mother, it is permitted. /b, bA itannataughta ibaraita bbefore Rav:In the case of a woman bwho discharges an entitythat has ba shapeless body,i.e., it does not have the outline of limbs, bor an entitythat has ba shapeless head,one bmighthave thought that bits mother should be impurewith the impurity of a woman after bchildbirth.Therefore, bthe verse states: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male,she shall be impure seven days; as in the days of the menstruation of her sickness she shall be impure. bAnd on the eighth daythe flesh of his foreskin bshall be circumcised”(Leviticus 12:2–3).,Those verses teach that the impurity of a woman after childbirth applies only to one who gave birth to a child bthat is fit for circumcisionon the beighthday, bexcluding thesecases, bwherethe child bis not fit for circumcisionon the beighthday, as it cannot survive that long. Consequently, this woman does not have the impurity of a woman after childbirth. bRav said tothe itanna /i: bAnd concludethe ibaraita blike this:Excluding these cases, where the child is not fit for circumcision on the eighth day, bandexcluding the case of a woman who discharges a child bthat has two backs and two spines. /b, bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba thought to perform an action,i.e., to issue a ruling, bin accordance withthe opinion bof Shmuel,that a woman who gives birth to a child with two backs and two spines is impure. bRav Huna said to him: What is your thinking?That as this matter is subject to a dispute, one should rule bstringently?Your ruling bis a stringency that leads to a leniency, as you have giventhe woman a period of thirty-three days following her period of impurity when any blood that emerges is bblood of purity. In any event,you should bperform,i.e., issue your ruling, bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav, as we maintainthat bthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav with regard to ritual matters, whetherhis opinion leads bto a leniency or to a stringency. /b,§ bRava says:The Sages bsaidthat ba woman can give birthto a viable offspring bafter ninemonths of pregcy bor after sevenmonths of pregcy; but if a woman gives birth after eight months of pregcy, the child cannot survive and is stillborn. Similarly, ba large domesticated animal gives birthto a viable offspring bafter ninemonths of pregcy, and if it discharges a fetus after only eight months, the newborn animal cannot survive. With this in mind, Rava asked: Can a large domesticated animal bgive birthto a viable offspring bafter sevenmonths of pregcy, like a human, borcan such an animal bnot give birthto a viable offspring after only seven months?, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Comeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from the aforementioned ibaraita /i: If an animal discharges bfrom thisstage of the pregcy band earlier,the fetus is bforbiddenin consumption as an unslaughtered animal carcass. bWhat, is it notreferring bto largelivestock, which indicates that large livestock do not give birth to a viable offspring after only seven months of pregcy? The Gemara answers: bNo,the reference is specifically bto smalldomesticated animals, which do not give birth to a viable offspring until after five months of pregcy.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to this answer: bWhat is this? Granted, if you saythat the reference is bto largelivestock, it is bnecessaryfor the ibaraitato state that an animal does not give birth to a viable offspring after less than a complete period of pregcy, as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat bsince inthe case of ba womanwho gives birth after seven months the baby bsurvives,it is logical that binthe case of a large domesticated banimalthat gives birth after seven months the newborn balso survives,and it is therefore permitted for consumption. Consequently, the ibaraita bteaches us thatsuch an animal bdoes not survive. /b, bBut if you saythat the ruling in the ibaraita /i, that if an animal discharged a fetus before the period of gestation was completed then the fetus is prohibited, bwas stated with regard to smalldomesticated animals, isn’t it bobviousthat if a sheep or goat fetus was discharged at this stage it cannot survive? bCan it survive afteronly bthree monthsof gestation?,The Gemara answers that in fact bit is necessaryfor the ibaraitato state this ihalakhawith regard to small domesticated animals, as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat banymammal that is born btwo months lessthan its complete gestation bsurvives,just as a human born at seven months of gestation survives. Therefore, the ibaraita bteaches usthat a sheep or goat that is born at three months of gestation cannot survive and is forbidden for consumption.,§ bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:In the case of a woman bwho dischargesa fetus that has bthe form of a lilith,a female demon with wings and a human face, bits mother is impurewith the impurity of a woman after bchildbirth,as bit isa viable boffspring, only it has wings. This is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei said: An incidentoccurred bin Simoni involving a certainwoman bwho dischargeda fetus that had bthe form of a lilith, andthe bincident was brought before the Sages; and they saidthat bit isa viable boffspring, only it has wings. /b,There was a case of a woman bwho dischargedan item that had bthe form of a snake. Ḥanina,the bson of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother, ruledthat bits mother is impurewith the impurity of a woman after bchildbirth. Rabbi Yosef went and toldthis bmatter to Rabban Gamliel.Rabban Gamliel bsent to Rabbi Yehoshua: Takehold of byour nephew and cometo me, so that I may admonish him for his ruling., bWhile they were goingto Rabban Gamliel, bḤanina’s daughter-in-law went out to greetRabbi Yehoshua, and bsaid to him: My teacher, what isthe ihalakhawith regard to a woman bwho dischargesan item that looks blike a snake?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to her: Its mother is pure. She said to him: But my mother-in-law said to me in your namethat bits mother is impurein such a case, bandthat you bsaid to her: For what reasonis she impure? It is bbecause the pupil ofa snake bis round like that of a human. Due to her statement, Rabbi Yehoshua rememberedthat he had issued such a ruling. He subsequently bsenta message bto Rabban Gamliel: Ḥanina issued the ruling based on myown statement., bAbaye said: Conclude fromthis incident that ba Torah scholar [ itzurva merabba /i] who saysa halakhic bmatter should say the reasonfor his statement, bso that whenhis colleagues bremind himof his reasoning, bhe will rememberthat ruling, as happened to Rabbi Yehoshua., strongMISHNA: /strong A woman bwho discharges a gestational sac full of fluid, full of blood,or bfull ofdifferent bcolorsneed bnot be concerned thatit was ban offspring. But ifthe sac bwasone in which btissue developed,her halakhic status is that of a woman after childbirth. Since the sex of the embryo is unknown, the woman bobservesthe strictures of a woman who gave birth both bto a male and to a female;she is impure for fourteen days like a woman who gave birth to a female, but blood that she sees thereafter is pure only until forty days after birth, like a woman who gave birth to a male. A woman bwho discharges a sandalfetus, i.e., one that has the form of a sandal fish, bandone who discharges ban afterbirth observesthe strictures of a woman who gave birth both bto a male and to a female. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara raises a difficulty: bGranted,one can understand why a woman who discharges a gestational sac full of bblood or wateris pure, as such an item bis nothing,i.e., it is not an offspring. bButif the gestational sac was full of different bcolors, let us be concernedthat bperhaps it was an offspring andit bliquefied. Abaye saysin response: bHow much undiluted wine,which can be harmful to an embryo, bdid the mother of thispurported embryo bdrink, that her embryo was liquefied in her womb?In other words, there is no such concern., bRava saysthat there is a different explanation: bWe learnedin the mishna that the gestational sac was bfullof different colors, band if it is so,that there was an embryo in the sac bthat liquefied,the sac would have been blackingsome of the mass of the liquified portion. bRav Adda bar Ahava saysthat there is yet another explanation: bWe learnedin the mishna that the gestational sac is full of different bcolors, and if it is so,that there was an embryo there bthat liquefied, it would all be of one color. /b,With regard to the effect of drinking wine on a person’s body, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bAbba Shaul says: I used to be a gravedigger, and I would observe the bones of corpses.I discovered that bthe bones of one who drinkstoo much bundiluted wineduring his lifetime look bburnt, the bones ofone who drinks too much bdilutedwine bare black,and bthe bones ofone who drinks the bappropriateamount of wine bare fat,i.e., full of marrow. bAndfurthermore, I discovered that bthe bones of anyone who drinksmuch bmore than he eatslook bburnt, the bones ofone who beatsmuch bmore than he drinks are black,and bthe bones of one whoeats and drinks bappropriateamounts bare fat. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bAbba Shaul saysthe following, band some saythat bRabbi Yoḥasaid it: bI used to be a gravedigger. Once I ran after a deer, and I entered the thighbone of a corpse; andit was so large that bI ran afterthe deer for bthree parasangsinside the thighbone, bandalthough bI did not reachthe bdeer,the bthighbone did not end. When I came backand related this to the Sages, bthey said to me: It wasevidently the thighbone bof Og, king of Bashan,a known giant., bIt islikewise btaughtin a ibaraitathat bAbba Shaul says: I used to be a gravedigger. Oncea burial bcave opened up underneathwhere I was standing, band Ifound myself bstanding in the eye socket of a corpse until my nose. When I came backand told this to the Sages, bthey said to me: It wasevidently bthe eye of Absalom. /b, bAnd lest you saythat bAbba Shaul was a midget,and therefore he was capable of standing in an eye socket until his nose, bAbba Shaul was the tallestperson bin his generation. And Rabbi Tarfon reachedonly bhis shoulder, and Rabbi Tarfon was the tallestperson bin his generation. And Rabbi Meir reachedonly bthe shoulder ofRabbi Tarfon, and bRabbi Meir was the tallestperson bin his generation. And RabbiYehuda HaNasi breachedonly bthe shoulder ofRabbi Meir, and bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas the tallestperson bin his generation. /b,The Gemara continues: bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya reachedonly bthe shoulder ofRabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band Rabbi Ḥiyya was the tallestperson bin his generation. And Rav reachedonly bthe shoulder ofRabbi Ḥiyya, and bRav was the tallestperson bin his generation. And Rav Yehuda reachedonly bthe shoulder ofRav, band Rav Yehuda was the tallestperson bin his generation. And Adda the attendant [ idayyala /i] reachedonly bthe shoulder ofRav Yehuda
38. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 4.2

4.2. וְהַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו (אסתר א, יד), הֵן הִקְרִיבוּ הַפֻּרְעָנוּת לְעַצְמָן, כַּרְשְׁנָא, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַכַּרְשִׁינִין. שֵׁתָר, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַיַּיִן. אַדְמָתָא, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל אַטֻּנַס שֶׁבָּאָרֶץ. תַרְשִׁישׁ, שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻנֶּה עַל הַבַּיִת. מֶרֶס, שֶׁהָיָה מְמָרֵס אֶת הָעוֹפוֹת. מַרְסְנָה, זֶה הָיָה מְמָרֵס אֶת הַסְּלָתוֹת. מְמוּכָן, זֶה הָיָה הָאִיסְפַּקְסִיטוֹן שֶׁבְּכֻלָּם. שֶׁהָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ מְתַקֶּנֶת לָהֶן כָּל מַה שֶּׁהָיוּ צְרִיכִין. אָמְרוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אִם מִתְקַיֶּמֶת עֲצָתוֹ שֶׁל רָשָׁע זֶה, מִי מַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ. כַּרְשְׁנָא, מִי מַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ פַּר בֶּן שָׁנָה. שֵׁתָר, מִי מַקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ שְׁתֵּי תוֹרִים. אַדְמָתָא, מִי בּוֹנֶה לְפָנֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כא): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי. תַרְשִׁישׁ, מִי לוֹבֵשׁ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְפָנֶיךָ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כח, כ): תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֶה. מֶרֶס, מִי מְמָרֵס לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת הָעוֹפוֹת. מַרְסְנָא, מִי מְמָרֵס לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת הַסְּלָתוֹת. מְמוּכָן, מִי מֵכִין לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (עזרא ג, ג): וַיָּכִינוּ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל מְכוֹנֹתָו. אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בָּנַי הֵם, רֵעַי הֵם, קְרוֹבַי הֵם, אוֹהֲבַי הֵם, בְּנֵי אוֹהֲבִי הֵם, שֶׁהוּא אַבְרָהָם, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה מא, ח): זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהֲבִי. מְרוֹמֵם אֲנִי קַרְנָם, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים קמח, יד): וַיָּרֶם קֶרֶן לְעַמּוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כַּרְשְׁנָא, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹזֵק אֲנִי לִפְנֵיהֶם כַּרְשִׁינִין וּמַשִּׁירָן מִן הָעוֹלָם. שֵׁתָר, מַשְׁקֶה אֲנִי לָהֶם כּוֹס שֶׁל תַּרְעֵלָה. אַדְמָתָא תַרְשִׁישׁ, מַתִּיר אֲנִי דָּמָן כַּמַּיִם. מֶרֶס, מַרְסְנָא, מְמוּכָן, מְמָרֵס אֲנִי מְסָרֵס וּמְמַעֵךְ אֶת נַפְשָׁם בְּתוֹךְ מְעֵיהֶם, וְכִי הֵיכָן הָיְתָה אִיסְקוֹזוּת שֶׁל כֻּלָּן מְתֻקֶּנֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא מִישַׁעְיָה הַנָּבִיא, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יד, כא): הָכִינוּ לְבָנָיו מַטְבֵּחַ בַּעֲוֹן אֲבוֹתָם בַּל יָקֻמוּ וְיָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וגו'.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba saul Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 239
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 288, 384
abimelech, son of jerubbaal Gera, Judith (2014) 380
acrostics, in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 228
advice and advisers Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 380
aesclepius Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 52
ahasuerus, advisers of Gera, Judith (2014) 28
ahasuerus, eunuchs of Gera, Judith (2014) 28, 75, 379, 380
ahasuerus, josephus attitude toward Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 599
ahasuerus Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 267; Gera, Judith (2014) 384, 387
alexandrian exegesis Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
allegorical Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
amnon Gera, Judith (2014) 288, 387
aram, king of Gera, Judith (2014) 387
aramaic Gera, Judith (2014) 379
aristides, aelius Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 52
bagoas, and artaxerxes iii Gera, Judith (2014) 379
bagoas, name Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
bagoas Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379, 380, 384
beheadings and decapitations Gera, Judith (2014) 288
bethulia, elders Gera, Judith (2014) 288
biblical women, cause death Gera, Judith (2014) 384
biblical women, hospitality of Gera, Judith (2014) 384
biblical women, wise Gera, Judith (2014) 288
bigthan and teresh Gera, Judith (2014) 75
boaz Gera, Judith (2014) 387
book of esther, eunuchs Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379, 384
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 387
book of judith, chronology Gera, Judith (2014) 387
book of judith, exaggerated numbers Gera, Judith (2014) 28
book of judith, fictionality Gera, Judith (2014) 28
book of judith, geography and movement Gera, Judith (2014) 28
book of judith, irony and humor Gera, Judith (2014) 288, 380
book of judith, message Gera, Judith (2014) 28
catalogues Gera, Judith (2014) 28
chaldeans Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 267
changing Gera, Judith (2014) 384
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 559, 599
conversion Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
court tales Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
ctesias Gera, Judith (2014) 75
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 75
david, and abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 288, 384
day of death/ evil / judgment Gera, Judith (2014) 387
diet Gera, Judith (2014) 75
diodorus siculus Gera, Judith (2014) 379
dommerhausen, w. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
drink, drinking, types Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 92
drink, drinking Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 92
drunkenness Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 239
duchesne-guillemin, j. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
ecbatana Gera, Judith (2014) 28
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 384
elephantine Gera, Judith (2014) 379
esra/ezra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 384
eunuch Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
eunuchs Gera, Judith (2014) 28, 75, 379
exile, to be transformed into a flourishing diaspora' Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 228
ezekiel Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
ezra/esra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
feasting Gera, Judith (2014) 384
food Gera, Judith (2014) 384
foreigner Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
gaius caligula Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
gehman, h. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
genesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
ginzberg, l. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379, 384
harbona Gera, Judith (2014) 75
hathach Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
haupt, p. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
hegai Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 384
holophernes, admires judith Gera, Judith (2014) 288, 380
holophernes, confides in bagoas Gera, Judith (2014) 379, 380
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 384, 387
holophernes, discovery of body Gera, Judith (2014) 75
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 379, 380, 384, 387
identity Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 384
jael, of l.a.b. Gera, Judith (2014) 384
jeremiah, jeremiah, letter of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
jerusalem Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
joab Gera, Judith (2014) 288
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 288
joshua Gera, Judith (2014) 288
judah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101; Gera, Judith (2014) 380
judea/judah Gera, Judith (2014) 379
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 288, 384
judith, chastises elders Gera, Judith (2014) 288
judith, deceives and lies Gera, Judith (2014) 288
judith, geneaology Gera, Judith (2014) 28
judith, seclusion Gera, Judith (2014) 288
judith, wisdom Gera, Judith (2014) 288
language and style, book of judith, future forms Gera, Judith (2014) 380
language and style, book of judith, imperatives Gera, Judith (2014) 380, 387
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 387
language and style, book of judith, particles and connectives Gera, Judith (2014) 380, 387
language and style, book of judith, syntax Gera, Judith (2014) 380
language and style, book of judith, varied language Gera, Judith (2014) 380
levites Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
liber antiquitatum biblicarum Gera, Judith (2014) 384
lot Gera, Judith (2014) 387
maharsha (rabbi solomon eidels) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
maharzu (by rabbi z. w. einhorn) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 384, 387
mars Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
meals, dining facilities, hosting Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 92
meals, joint Gera, Judith (2014) 387
medes and media Gera, Judith (2014) 384
memphibosthe Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
memucan Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
ministering angels Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
mixed marriage Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
mordecai Gera, Judith (2014) 75
nature Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
nehemiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
noah Gera, Judith (2014) 387
oracle Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
origin Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
paton, l. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
persia and persians Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 239
persian-period/persian period Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
persian traces in judith Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
philistines Gera, Judith (2014) 384
philo of alexandria, and cities Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philo of alexandria Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes, and the temple sacrificial system Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes, lifestyle of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes, piety and holiness of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
philos essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
plato Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 31
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 228
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
rava Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 254, 267
sabbath Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 254
sacrifices Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280
samson Gera, Judith (2014) 384
segal, e. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 239
servants, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 380
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 387
shaashgaz Gera, Judith (2014) 75, 379
shame and disgrace, and ridicule Gera, Judith (2014) 380
shame and disgrace Gera, Judith (2014) 380, 384, 387
sheba, son of bichri Gera, Judith (2014) 288
sieges Gera, Judith (2014) 288
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 384
sisera, of l.a.b. Gera, Judith (2014) 384
slaves, and servants Gera, Judith (2014) 288
solomon Gera, Judith (2014) 288
song of songs, passover and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 228
stable-keeper Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 267
tamar, judahs daughter in law Gera, Judith (2014) 380
temple Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 384
tosafot Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 239
uzziah Gera, Judith (2014) 288
vashti Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 92
widows Gera, Judith (2014) 288
wine and drunkenness, drinking parties Gera, Judith (2014) 384, 387
woman of abel beth-maacah Gera, Judith (2014) 288
woman of tekoa Gera, Judith (2014) 288
woman of thebez Gera, Judith (2014) 380
xenophon Gera, Judith (2014) 75
yehud Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 101
zimri Gera, Judith (2014) 387
ḥeinemann, i. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 280