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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6279
Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.21


מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 3.17-3.19, 5.24, 7.15, 20.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 7.15. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם מִכָּל־הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים׃ 20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 7.15. And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh wherein is the breath of life." 20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Job, 10.9, 17.16, 34.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.9. זְכָר־נָא כִּי־כַחֹמֶר עֲשִׂיתָנִי וְאֶל־עָפָר תְּשִׁיבֵנִי׃ 17.16. בַּדֵּי שְׁאֹל תֵּרַדְנָה אִם־יַחַד עַל־עָפָר נָחַת׃ 34.15. יִגְוַע כָּל־בָּשָׂר יָחַד וְאָדָם עַל־עָפָר יָשׁוּב׃ 10.9. Remember, I beseech Thee, that Thou hast fashioned me as clay; And wilt Thou bring me into dust again?" 17.16. They shall go down to the bars of the nether-world, When we are at rest together in the dust." 34.15. All flesh shall perish together, And man shall return unto dust."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 6.5, 8.6, 17.15, 30.6, 30.9, 31.5, 36.7, 49.16, 73.23-73.28, 90.3, 103.14, 104.13-104.15, 104.29, 144.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. שׁוּבָה יְהוָה חַלְּצָה נַפְשִׁי הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי לְמַעַן חַסְדֶּךָ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 17.15. אֲנִי בְּצֶדֶק אֶחֱזֶה פָנֶיךָ אֶשְׂבְּעָה בְהָקִיץ תְּמוּנָתֶךָ׃ 30.6. כִּי רֶגַע בְּאַפּוֹ חַיִּים בִּרְצוֹנוֹ בָּעֶרֶב יָלִין בֶּכִי וְלַבֹּקֶר רִנָּה׃ 30.9. אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה אֶקְרָא וְאֶל־אֲדֹנָי אֶתְחַנָּן׃ 36.7. צִדְקָתְךָ כְּהַרְרֵי־אֵל מִשְׁפָּטֶךָ תְּהוֹם רַבָּה אָדָם־וּבְהֵמָה תוֹשִׁיעַ יְהוָה׃ 49.16. אַךְ־אֱלֹהִים יִפְדֶּה נַפְשִׁי מִיַּד־שְׁאוֹל כִּי יִקָּחֵנִי סֶלָה׃ 73.23. וַאֲנִי תָמִיד עִמָּךְ אָחַזְתָּ בְּיַד־יְמִינִי׃ 73.24. בַּעֲצָתְךָ תַנְחֵנִי וְאַחַר כָּבוֹד תִּקָּחֵנִי׃ 73.25. מִי־לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם וְעִמְּךָ לֹא־חָפַצְתִּי בָאָרֶץ׃ 73.26. כָּלָה שְׁאֵרִי וּלְבָבִי צוּר־לְבָבִי וְחֶלְקִי אֱלֹהִים לְעוֹלָם׃ 73.27. כִּי־הִנֵּה רְחֵקֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ הִצְמַתָּה כָּל־זוֹנֶה מִמֶּךָּ׃ 73.28. וַאֲנִי קִרֲבַת אֱלֹהִים לִי־טוֹב שַׁתִּי בַּאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה מַחְסִי לְסַפֵּר כָּל־מַלְאֲכוֹתֶיךָ׃ 90.3. תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד־דַּכָּא וַתֹּאמֶר שׁוּבוּ בְנֵי־אָדָם׃ 103.14. כִּי־הוּא יָדַע יִצְרֵנוּ זָכוּר כִּי־עָפָר אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 104.13. מַשְׁקֶה הָרִים מֵעֲלִיּוֹתָיו מִפְּרִי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ תִּשְׂבַּע הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.14. מַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר לַבְּהֵמָה וְעֵשֶׂב לַעֲבֹדַת הָאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.15. וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ לְהַצְהִיל פָּנִים מִשָּׁמֶן וְלֶחֶם לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד׃ 104.29. תַּסְתִּיר פָּנֶיךָ יִבָּהֵלוּן תֹּסֵף רוּחָם יִגְוָעוּן וְאֶל־עֲפָרָם יְשׁוּבוּן׃ 144.4. אָדָם לַהֶבֶל דָּמָה יָמָיו כְּצֵל עוֹבֵר׃ 6.5. Return, O LORD, deliver my soul; Save me for Thy mercy's sake." 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 17.15. As for me, I shall behold Thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with Thy likeness." 30.6. For His anger is but for a moment, His favour is for a life-time; weeping may tarry for the night, but joy cometh in the morning." 30.9. Unto Thee, O LORD, did I call, And unto the LORD I made supplication:" 36.7. Thy righteousness is like the mighty mountains; Thy judgments are like the great deep; Man and beast Thou preservest, O LORD." 49.16. But God will redeem my soul from the power of the nether-world; For He shall receive me. Selah" 73.23. Nevertheless I am continually with Thee; Thou holdest my right hand." 73.24. Thou wilt guide me with Thy counsel, And afterward receive me with glory." 73.25. Whom have I in heaven but Thee? And beside Thee I desire none upon earth." 73.26. My flesh and my heart faileth; But God is the rock of my heart and my portion for ever." 73.27. For, lo, they that go far from Thee shall perish; Thou dost destroy all them that go astray from Thee." 73.28. But as for me, the nearness of God is my good; I have made the Lord GOD my refuge, That I may tell of all Thy works." 90.3. Thou turnest man to contrition; And sayest: 'Return, ye children of men.'" 103.14. For He knoweth our frame; He remembereth that we are dust." 104.13. Who waterest the mountains from Thine upper chambers; The earth is full of the fruit of Thy works." 104.14. Who causeth the grass to spring up for the cattle, And herb for the service of man; To bring forth bread out of the earth," 104.15. And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, Making the face brighter than oil, And bread that stayeth man's heart." 104.29. Thou hidest Thy face, they vanish; Thou withdrawest their breath, they perish, And return to their dust." 144.4. Man is like unto a breath; His days are as a shadow that passeth away."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 26.7, 26.14, 26.17-26.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26.7. אֹרַח לַצַּדִּיק מֵישָׁרִים יָשָׁר מַעְגַּל צַדִּיק תְּפַלֵּס׃ 26.14. מֵתִים בַּל־יִחְיוּ רְפָאִים בַּל־יָקֻמוּ לָכֵן פָּקַדְתָּ וַתַּשְׁמִידֵם וַתְּאַבֵּד כָּל־זֵכֶר לָמוֹ׃ 26.17. כְּמוֹ הָרָה תַּקְרִיב לָלֶדֶת תָּחִיל תִּזְעַק בַּחֲבָלֶיהָ כֵּן הָיִינוּ מִפָּנֶיךָ יְהוָה׃ 26.18. הָרִינוּ חַלְנוּ כְּמוֹ יָלַדְנוּ רוּחַ יְשׁוּעֹת בַּל־נַעֲשֶׂה אֶרֶץ וּבַל־יִפְּלוּ יֹשְׁבֵי תֵבֵל׃ 26.19. יִחְיוּ מֵתֶיךָ נְבֵלָתִי יְקוּמוּן הָקִיצוּ וְרַנְּנוּ שֹׁכְנֵי עָפָר כִּי טַל אוֹרֹת טַלֶּךָ וָאָרֶץ רְפָאִים תַּפִּיל׃ 26.21. כִּי־הִנֵּה יְהוָה יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ לִפְקֹד עֲוֺן יֹשֵׁב־הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו וְגִלְּתָה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־דָּמֶיהָ וְלֹא־תְכַסֶּה עוֹד עַל־הֲרוּגֶיהָ׃ 26.7. The way of the just is straight; Thou, Most Upright, makest plain the path of the just." 26.14. The dead live not, the shades rise not; To that end hast Thou punished and destroyed them, And made all their memory to perish." 26.17. Like as a woman with child, that draweth near the time of her delivery, Is in pain and crieth out in her pangs; So have we been at Thy presence, O LORD." 26.18. We have been with child, we have been in pain, We have as it were brought forth wind; We have not wrought any deliverance in the land; Neither are the inhabitants of the world come to life." 26.19. Thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall arise— Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust— For Thy dew is as the dew of light, And the earth shall bring to life the shades." 26.20. Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, And shut thy doors about thee; Hide thyself for a little moment, Until the indignation be overpast." 26.21. For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place To visit upon the inhabitants of the earth their iniquity; The earth also shall disclose her blood, And shall no more cover her slain."
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.1, 32.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.1. בָּעֵת הַהִיא נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לֵאלֹהִים לְכֹל מִשְׁפְּחוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.1. שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה גּוֹיִם וְהַגִּידוּ בָאִיִּים מִמֶּרְחָק וְאִמְרוּ מְזָרֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל יְקַבְּצֶנּוּ וּשְׁמָרוֹ כְּרֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ׃ 32.27. הִנֵּה אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי כָּל־בָּשָׂר הֲ‍מִמֶּנִּי יִפָּלֵא כָּל־דָּבָר׃ 31.1. In those days, the word of the LORD, I will be unto thee a God, for all families of Israel, and they will be unto me a people." 32.27. ’Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh; is there any thing too hard for Me?"
7. Homer, Odyssey, 17.217-17.218 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

8. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.14, 2.24-2.26, 3.9-3.20, 3.22, 4.1-4.3, 5.18, 7.2, 8.12, 8.14-8.17, 9.7, 9.9-9.10, 11.2, 11.7, 12.1, 12.6-12.7, 12.13 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. הֶחָכָם עֵינָיו בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וְהַכְּסִיל בַּחֹשֶׁךְ הוֹלֵךְ וְיָדַעְתִּי גַם־אָנִי שֶׁמִּקְרֶה אֶחָד יִקְרֶה אֶת־כֻּלָּם׃ 2.24. אֵין־טוֹב בָּאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל וְשָׁתָה וְהֶרְאָה אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ טוֹב בַּעֲמָלוֹ גַּם־זֹה רָאִיתִי אָנִי כִּי מִיַּד הָאֱלֹהִים הִיא׃ 2.25. כִּי מִי יֹאכַל וּמִי יָחוּשׁ חוּץ מִמֶּנִּי׃ 2.26. כִּי לְאָדָם שֶׁטּוֹב לְפָנָיו נָתַן חָכְמָה וְדַעַת וְשִׂמְחָה וְלַחוֹטֶא נָתַן עִנְיָן לֶאֱסוֹף וְלִכְנוֹס לָתֵת לְטוֹב לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים גַּם־זֶה הֶבֶל וּרְעוּת רוּחַ׃ 3.9. מַה־יִּתְרוֹן הָעוֹשֶׂה בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא עָמֵל׃ 3.11. אֶת־הַכֹּל עָשָׂה יָפֶה בְעִתּוֹ גַּם אֶת־הָעֹלָם נָתַן בְּלִבָּם מִבְּלִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמְצָא הָאָדָם אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָאֱלֹהִים מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד־סוֹף׃ 3.12. יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אֵין טוֹב בָּם כִּי אִם־לִשְׂמוֹחַ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹב בְּחַיָּיו׃ 3.13. וְגַם כָּל־הָאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל וְשָׁתָה וְרָאָה טוֹב בְּכָל־עֲמָלוֹ מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃ 3.14. יָדַעְתִּי כִּי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה הָאֱלֹהִים הוּא יִהְיֶה לְעוֹלָם עָלָיו אֵין לְהוֹסִיף וּמִמֶּנּוּ אֵין לִגְרֹעַ וְהָאֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה שֶׁיִּרְאוּ מִלְּפָנָיו׃ 3.15. מַה־שֶּׁהָיָה כְּבָר הוּא וַאֲשֶׁר לִהְיוֹת כְּבָר הָיָה וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נִרְדָּף׃ 3.16. וְעוֹד רָאִיתִי תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע וּמְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע׃ 3.17. אָמַרְתִּי אֲנִי בְּלִבִּי אֶת־הַצַּדִּיק וְאֶת־הָרָשָׁע יִשְׁפֹּט הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־עֵת לְכָל־חֵפֶץ וְעַל כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה שָׁם׃ 3.18. אָמַרְתִּי אֲנִי בְּלִבִּי עַל־דִּבְרַת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם לְבָרָם הָאֱלֹהִים וְלִרְאוֹת שְׁהֶם־בְּהֵמָה הֵמָּה לָהֶם׃ 3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃ 3.22. וְרָאִיתִי כִּי אֵין טוֹב מֵאֲשֶׁר יִשְׂמַח הָאָדָם בְּמַעֲשָׂיו כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ כִּי מִי יְבִיאֶנּוּ לִרְאוֹת בְּמֶה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַחֲרָיו׃ 4.1. כִּי אִם־יִפֹּלוּ הָאֶחָד יָקִים אֶת־חֲבֵרוֹ וְאִילוֹ הָאֶחָד שֶׁיִּפּוֹל וְאֵין שֵׁנִי לַהֲקִימוֹ׃ 4.1. וְשַׁבְתִּי אֲנִי וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־כָּל־הָעֲשֻׁקִים אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשִׂים תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנֵּה דִּמְעַת הָעֲשֻׁקִים וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנַחֵם וּמִיַּד עֹשְׁקֵיהֶם כֹּחַ וְאֵין לָהֶם מְנַחֵם׃ 4.2. וְשַׁבֵּחַ אֲנִי אֶת־הַמֵּתִים שֶׁכְּבָר מֵתוּ מִן־הַחַיִּים אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה חַיִּים עֲדֶנָה׃ 4.3. וְטוֹב מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עֲדֶן לֹא הָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־רָאָה אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה הָרָע אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 5.18. גַּם כָּל־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׁר וּנְכָסִים וְהִשְׁלִיטוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ וְלָשֵׂאת אֶת־חֶלְקוֹ וְלִשְׂמֹחַ בַּעֲמָלוֹ זֹה מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃ 7.2. טוֹב לָלֶכֶת אֶל־בֵּית־אֵבֶל מִלֶּכֶת אֶל־בֵּית מִשְׁתֶּה בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא סוֹף כָּל־הָאָדָם וְהַחַי יִתֵּן אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 7.2. כִּי אָדָם אֵין צַדִּיק בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה־טּוֹב וְלֹא יֶחֱטָא׃ 8.12. אֲשֶׁר חֹטֶא עֹשֶׂה רָע מְאַת וּמַאֲרִיךְ לוֹ כִּי גַּם־יוֹדֵעַ אָנִי אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה־טּוֹב לְיִרְאֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יִירְאוּ מִלְּפָנָיו׃ 8.14. יֶשׁ־הֶבֶל אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יֵשׁ צַדִּיקִים אֲשֶׁר מַגִּיעַ אֲלֵהֶם כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הָרְשָׁעִים וְיֵשׁ רְשָׁעִים שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ אֲלֵהֶם כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַצַּדִּיקִים אָמַרְתִּי שֶׁגַּם־זֶה הָבֶל׃ 8.15. וְשִׁבַּחְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־הַשִּׂמְחָה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־טוֹב לָאָדָם תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כִּי אִם־לֶאֱכוֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׂמוֹחַ וְהוּא יִלְוֶנּוּ בַעֲמָלוֹ יְמֵי חַיָּיו אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 8.16. כַּאֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי אֶת־לִבִּי לָדַעַת חָכְמָה וְלִרְאוֹת אֶת־הָעִנְיָן אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה עַל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי גַם בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה שֵׁנָה בְּעֵינָיו אֵינֶנּוּ רֹאֶה׃ 8.17. וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂה הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי לֹא יוּכַל הָאָדָם לִמְצוֹא אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַחַת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בְּשֶׁל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲמֹל הָאָדָם לְבַקֵּשׁ וְלֹא יִמְצָא וְגַם אִם־יֹאמַר הֶחָכָם לָדַעַת לֹא יוּכַל לִמְצֹא׃ 9.7. לֵךְ אֱכֹל בְּשִׂמְחָה לַחְמֶךָ וּשֲׁתֵה בְלֶב־טוֹב יֵינֶךָ כִּי כְבָר רָצָה הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־מַעֲשֶׂיךָ׃ 9.9. רְאֵה חַיִּים עִם־אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֵּי הֶבְלֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כֹּל יְמֵי הֶבְלֶךָ כִּי הוּא חֶלְקְךָ בַּחַיִּים וּבַעֲמָלְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה עָמֵל תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 11.2. תֶּן־חֵלֶק לְשִׁבְעָה וְגַם לִשְׁמוֹנָה כִּי לֹא תֵדַע מַה־יִּהְיֶה רָעָה עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.7. וּמָתוֹק הָאוֹר וְטוֹב לַעֵינַיִם לִרְאוֹת אֶת־הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 12.1. בִּקֵּשׁ קֹהֶלֶת לִמְצֹא דִּבְרֵי־חֵפֶץ וְכָתוּב יֹשֶׁר דִּבְרֵי אֱמֶת׃ 12.1. וּזְכֹר אֶת־בּוֹרְאֶיךָ בִּימֵי בְּחוּרֹתֶיךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבֹאוּ יְמֵי הָרָעָה וְהִגִּיעוּ שָׁנִים אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵין־לִי בָהֶם חֵפֶץ׃ 12.6. עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־ירחק [יֵרָתֵק] חֶבֶל הַכֶּסֶף וְתָרֻץ גֻּלַּת הַזָּהָב וְתִשָּׁבֶר כַּד עַל־הַמַּבּוּעַ וְנָרֹץ הַגַּלְגַּל אֶל־הַבּוֹר׃ 12.7. וְיָשֹׁב הֶעָפָר עַל־הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה וְהָרוּחַ תָּשׁוּב אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נְתָנָהּ׃ 12.13. סוֹף דָּבָר הַכֹּל נִשְׁמָע אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים יְרָא וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתָיו שְׁמוֹר כִּי־זֶה כָּל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.14. The wise man, his eyes are in his head; But the fool walketh in darkness. And I also perceived that one event happeneth to them all." 2.24. There is nothing better for a man than that he should eat and drink, and make his soul enjoy pleasure for his labour. This also I saw, that it is from the hand of God." 2.25. For who will eat, or who will enjoy, if not I?" 2.26. For to the man that is good in His sight He giveth wisdom, and knowledge, and joy; but to the sinner He giveth the task, to gather and to heap up, that he may leave to him that is good in the sight of God. This also is vanity and a striving after wind." 3.9. What profit hath he that worketh in that he laboureth?" 3.10. I have seen the task which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised therewith." 3.11. He hath made every thing beautiful in its time; also He hath set the world in their heart, yet so that man cannot find out the work that God hath done from the beginning even to the end." 3.12. I know that there is nothing better for them, than to rejoice, and to get pleasure so long as they live." 3.13. But also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy pleasure for all his labour, is the gift of God." 3.14. I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever; nothing can be added to it, nor any thing taken from it; and God hath so made it, that men should fear before Him." 3.15. That which is hath been long ago, and that which is to be hath already been; and God seeketh that which is pursued." 3.16. And moreover I saw under the sun, in the place of justice, that wickedness was there; and in the place of righteousness, that wickedness was there." 3.17. I said in my heart: ‘The righteous and the wicked God will judge; for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.’" 3.18. I said in my heart: ‘It is because of the sons of men, that God may sift them, and that they may see that they themselves are but as beasts.’" 3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity." 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust." 3.22. Wherefore I perceived that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his works; for that is his portion; for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?" 4.1. But I returned and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun; and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors there was power, but they had no comforter." 4.2. Wherefore I praised the dead that are already dead more than the living that are yet alive;" 4.3. but better than they both is he that hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun." 5.18. Every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him power to eat thereof, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labour—this is the gift of God." 7.2. It is better to go to the house of mourning, Than to go to the house of feasting; For that is the end of all men, And the living will lay it to his heart." 8.12. because a sinner doeth evil a hundred times, and prolongeth his days—though yet I know that it shall be well with them that fear God, that fear before Him;" 8.14. There is a vanity which is done upon the earth: that there are righteous men, unto whom it happeneth according to the work of the wicked; again, there are wicked men, to whom it happeneth according to the work of the righteous—I said that this also is vanity." 8.15. So I commended mirth, that a man hath no better thing under the sun, than to eat, and to drink, and to be merry, and that this should accompany him in his labour all the days of his life which God hath given him under the sun." 8.16. When I applied my heart to know wisdom, and to see the business that is done upon the earth—for neither day nor night do men see sleep with their eyes—" 8.17. then I beheld all the work of God, that man cannot find out the work that is done under the sun; because though a man labour to seek it out, yet he shall not find it; yea further, though a wise man think to know it, yet shall he not be able to find it." 9.7. Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, And drink thy wine with a merry heart; For God hath already accepted thy works." 9.9. Enjoy life with the wife whom thou lovest all the days of the life of thy vanity, which He hath given thee under the sun, all the days of thy vanity; for that is thy portion in life, and in thy labour wherein thou labourest under the sun." 9.10. Whatsoever thy hand attaineth to do by thy strength, that do; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest." 11.2. Divide a portion into seven, yea, even into eight; For thou knowest not what evil shall be upon the earth." 11.7. And the light is sweet, And a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun." 12.1. Remember then thy Creator in the days of thy youth, and the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say: 'I have no pleasure in them';" 12.6. Before the silver cord is snapped asunder, and the golden bowl is shattered, And the pitcher is broken at the fountain, and the wheel falleth shattered, into the pit;" 12.7. And the dust returneth to the earth as it was, and the spirit returneth unto God who gave it." 12.13. The end of the matter, all having been heard: fear God, and keep His commandments; for this is the whole man."
10. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

510b. Call. Do you note, Socrates, how ready I am to praise, when you say a good thing? This seems to me excellently spoken. Soc. Then see if this next statement of mine strikes you as a good one too. It seems to me that the closest possible friendship between man and man is that mentioned by the sages of old time as like to like. Do you not agree? Call. I do. Soc. So where you have a savage, uneducated ruler as despot, if there were some one in the city far better than he, I suppose the despot would be afraid of him
11. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

195b. clear evidence of this; for he flies and flees from old age—a swift thing obviously, since it gains on us too quickly for our liking. Love hates it by nature, and refuses to come within any distance of it. He is ever consorting with the young, and such also is he: well says the old saw, Like and like together strike. And though in much else I agree with Phaedrus, in this I agree not, that Love by his account is more ancient than Cronos and Iapetus:
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 20.14-20.15, 21.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever."
14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 7.23, 14.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.23. And Judas saw all the evil that Alcimus and those with him had done among the sons of Israel; it was more than the Gentiles had done. 14.46. And all the people agreed to grant Simon the right to act in accord with these decisions.
15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1, 17.4, 30.19, 34.15, 41.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 30.19. of what use to an idol is an offering of fruit?For it can neither eat nor smell. So is he who is afflicted by the Lord; 34.15. Blessed is the soul of the man who fears the Lord!To whom does he look? And who is his support? 41.11. The mourning of men is about their bodies,but the evil name of sinners will be blotted out.
16. Septuagint, Judith, 9.14, 13.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone! 13.4. So every one went out, and no one, either small or great, was left in the bedchamber. Then Judith, standing beside his bed, said in her heart, "O Lord God of all might, look in this hour upon the work of my hands for the exaltation of Jerusalem.
17. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.8-15.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit.
18. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 29.2, 43.1 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. New Testament, Acts, 7.59 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit!
20. New Testament, Hebrews, 11.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.5. By faith, Enoch was taken away, so that he wouldn't see death, and he was not found, because God translated him. For he has had testimony given to him that before his translation he had been well pleasing to God.
21. New Testament, Luke, 23.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.46. Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!" Having said this, he breathed his last.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 25.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam/adam, and dust Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
afterlife Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 34
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, humanity, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047, 1048
animal Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
animal imagery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
antiochus iv epiphanes Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
aristotle Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
ascent, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
ascent, soul, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047, 1048
body, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
bones Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
burial, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
celebration Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
christian, conception of the spirit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
church, as mother Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
creation Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 30, 32, 34
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
culture, hellenistic Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
culture, jewish Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 783
death, and paradise Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
death, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 30, 31, 32, 34; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
deliverance Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 30, 31, 32, 34; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 783, 1047
earth, and heaven Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
earth, as witness Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
ecclesiastes, book of Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
elihu Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
eternal life Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 34
eve, fate of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
evil, and paradise/new kingdom Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
evil Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
excrement Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
fate, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
fate Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
flood, story of the Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
fox, michael Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
futility Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 32, 34
god, all, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
god, gift of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
goodness, and paradise Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 783, 1048
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
heaven, and earth Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
heaven, as witness Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
hebel Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
hope Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
human, existence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 34
human, life Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 32
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 32
immortality Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
israel, as mother Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
israel, mothers of Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
israel, people of/gods people Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
jerusalem Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
jew/jewish, mysticism, hellenistic-jewish Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
judaism, hellenistic Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
judgement Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
judgment Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 30
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
kingdom, of jerusalem Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
kugel, james Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
like seeking like Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
lot Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
martyr Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
meaningless Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
meaninglessness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
metaphor/metaphorical network Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
metaphor Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047, 1048
mocking Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
mortality/immortality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
mother, as church Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
mother, as israel Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
mother Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
mystery Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
paradise, vicinity of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
paradise Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
parallelism Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
passover Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
pessimism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 32
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
pharisees Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
phronēsis Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
prayers, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047, 1048
prayers, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
preacher, the Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
priestly tradition Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
repentance, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047, 1048
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
sheol Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
sin, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
socrates Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
sons, of adamlmzw Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
soul, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 34
spirit, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 783, 1047, 1048
spirit, characterizations as, and the shadow of death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
spirit, characterizations as, life principle/ power of life Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
spirit, characterizations as, superadditum Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 21
spirit, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047, 1048
spirit, of man Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 32, 34; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 783, 1047, 1048
sword Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 783
temple, second Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 143
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
tool, adam as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
tool Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1048
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 30, 32, 34
torah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
wicked Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 30
wisdom, in ecclesiastes Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 77
wisdom Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1047
women' Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31
word-pairs Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 131
zoroastrianism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 31