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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12-5.13


שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָObserve the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee.


שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1, 2, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42, 4.43, 4.44, 4.46, 5, 5.1, 5.1-6.3, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 6, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 11, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 12, 13, 13.1, 14, 15, 16, 16.7, 17, 18, 18.15, 18.16, 18.17, 18.18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 23.24, 24, 24.8, 25, 25.17, 25.18, 25.19, 26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11.2, 12.9, 12.35, 12.36, 13.11, 13.12, 15, 16.29, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 20.15, 20.16, 20.17, 20.22-23.33, 24.8, 25.1-31.18, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.3, 33.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 33.18. וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב שָׁלֵם עִיר שְׁכֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בְּבֹאוֹ מִפַּדַּן אֲרָם וַיִּחַן אֶת־פְּנֵי הָעִיר׃ 2.3. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made." 33.18. And Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and encamped before the city."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.5-6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. עַל־כֵּן חָצַבְתִּי בַּנְּבִיאִים הֲרַגְתִּים בְּאִמְרֵי־פִי וּמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ אוֹר יֵצֵא׃ 6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 6.5. Therefore have I hewed them by the prophets, I have slain them by the words of My mouth; And thy judgment goeth forth as the light." 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.2, 18.4-18.5, 18.21, 18.30, 19.9-19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.2. וְאֶל־אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ׃ 18.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.11. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 18.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: I am the LORD your God." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.11. Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together."
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.6-6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.6. בַּמָּה אֲקַדֵּם יְהוָה אִכַּף לֵאלֹהֵי מָרוֹם הַאֲקַדְּמֶנּוּ בְעוֹלוֹת בַּעֲגָלִים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה׃ 6.7. הֲיִרְצֶה יְהוָה בְּאַלְפֵי אֵילִים בְּרִבְבוֹת נַחֲלֵי־שָׁמֶן הַאֶתֵּן בְּכוֹרִי פִּשְׁעִי פְּרִי בִטְנִי חַטַּאת נַפְשִׁי׃ 6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 6.6. ’Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, And bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings, With calves of a year old?" 6.7. Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, With ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?’" 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.22-15.26, 30.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.22. וְכִי תִשְׁגּוּ וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֺת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה׃ 15.23. אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה מִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וָהָלְאָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 15.24. וְהָיָה אִם מֵעֵינֵי הָעֵדָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה לִשְׁגָגָה וְעָשׂוּ כָל־הָעֵדָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד לְעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתוֹ וְנִסְכּוֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּת׃ 15.25. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם כִּי־שְׁגָגָה הִוא וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְחַטָּאתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שִׁגְגָתָם׃ 15.26. וְנִסְלַח לְכָל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם כִּי לְכָל־הָעָם בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 15.22. And when ye shall err, and not observe all these commandments, which the LORD hath spoken unto Moses," 15.23. even all that the LORD hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the LORD gave commandment, and onward throughout your generations;" 15.24. then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD—with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordice—and one he-goat for a sin-offering." 15.25. And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error." 15.26. And all the congregation of the children of Israel shall be forgiven, and the stranger that sojourneth among them; for in respect of all the people it was done in error." 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her."
8. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.22, 5.25 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.22. כִּי אִם־תַּעֲלוּ־לִי עֹלוֹת וּמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם לֹא אֶרְצֶה וְשֶׁלֶם מְרִיאֵיכֶם לֹא אַבִּיט׃ 5.25. הַזְּבָחִים וּמִנְחָה הִגַּשְׁתֶּם־לִי בַמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.22. Yea, though ye offer me burnt-offerings and your meal-offerings, I will not accept them; Neither will I regard the peace-offerings of your fat beasts." 5.25. Did ye bring unto Me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.11-1.13, 58.13, 66.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃ 1.12. כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃ 1.13. לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃ 58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 66.3. שׁוֹחֵט הַשּׁוֹר מַכֵּה־אִישׁ זוֹבֵחַ הַשֶּׂה עֹרֵף כֶּלֶב מַעֲלֵה מִנְחָה דַּם־חֲזִיר מַזְכִּיר לְבֹנָה מְבָרֵךְ אָוֶן גַּם־הֵמָּה בָּחֲרוּ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם נַפְשָׁם חָפֵצָה׃ 1.11. To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats." 1.12. When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?" 1.13. Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly." 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;" 66.3. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he broke a dog’s neck; He that offereth a meal-offering, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that maketh a memorial-offering of frankincense, as if he blessed an idol; according as they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.21-7.23, 17.21-17.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ עַל־זִבְחֵיכֶם וְאִכְלוּ בָשָׂר׃ 7.22. כִּי לֹא־דִבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים בְּיוֹם הוציא [הוֹצִיאִי] אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־דִּבְרֵי עוֹלָה וָזָבַח׃ 7.23. כִּי אִם־אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר שִׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָכֶם׃ 17.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִשָּׁמְרוּ בְּנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם וְאַל־תִּשְׂאוּ מַשָּׂא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַהֲבֵאתֶם בְּשַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 17.22. וְלֹא־תוֹצִיאוּ מַשָּׂא מִבָּתֵּיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 7.21. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh." 7.22. For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices;" 7.23. but this thing I commanded them, saying: ‘Hearken unto My voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people; and walk ye in all the way that I command you, that it may be well with you.’" 17.21. thus saith the LORD: Take heed for the sake of your souls, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem;" 17.22. neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work; but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 35.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.13. וַיְבַשְּׁלוּ הַפֶּסַח בָּאֵשׁ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְהַקֳּדָשִׁים בִּשְּׁלוּ בַּסִּירוֹת וּבַדְּוָדִים וּבַצֵּלָחוֹת וַיָּרִיצוּ לְכָל־בְּנֵי הָעָם׃ 35.13. And they roasted the passover with fire according to the ordice; and the holy offerings sod they in pots, and in caldrons, and in pans, and carried them quickly to all the children of the people."
12. Anon., Jubilees, 1.8, 1.14, 6.34, 23.19, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 23.19. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a half of years, they will say regarding him: "He hath lived long 50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.8-9.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 16.6-16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.8-9.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 16.6-16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Anon., Didache, 1.2-1.6, 2.2, 2.4-2.5, 2.7, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar?
17. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.15-5.10, 7.12, 10.28, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 12.21, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.28. A man who disregards Moses' law dies without compassion on the word of two or three witnesses.
18. New Testament, Romans, 3.20, 15.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
19. New Testament, Luke, 6.20-6.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you. 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great.
20. New Testament, Matthew, 5.19, 5.21-5.48, 7.12, 19.19, 22.37-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
21. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. ומן התפלין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ק"ש פשיטא מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,מהו דתימא הואיל ואית בה מלכות שמים קמ"ל:,ומן התפלין: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש למזוזה קמ"ל:,וחייבין בתפלה: דרחמי נינהו מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב בה (תהלים נה, יח) ערב ובקר וצהרים כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:,ובמזוזה: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש לתלמוד תורה קמשמע לן:,ובברכת המזון: פשיטא מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב (שמות טז, ח) בתת ה' לכם בערב בשר לאכל ולחם בבקר לשבע כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה נשים חייבות בקדוש היום דבר תורה אמאי מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות אמר אביי מדרבנן,א"ל רבא והא דבר תורה קאמר ועוד כל מצות עשה נחייבינהו מדרבנן,אלא אמר רבא אמר קרא (שמות כ, ז) זכור (דברים ה, יא) ושמור כל שישנו בשמירה ישנו בזכירה והני נשי הואיל ואיתנהו בשמירה איתנהו בזכירה,א"ל רבינא לרבא נשים בברכת המזון דאורייתא או דרבנן למאי נפקא מינה לאפוקי רבים ידי חובתן אי אמרת (בשלמא) דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא (אלא אי) אמרת דרבנן הוי שאינו מחוייב בדבר וכל שאינו מחוייב בדבר אינו מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן מאי,ת"ש באמת אמרו בן מברך לאביו ועבד מברך לרבו ואשה מברכת לבעלה אבל אמרו חכמים תבא מארה לאדם שאשתו ובניו מברכין לו,אי אמרת בשלמא דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא אלא אי אמרת דרבנן אתי דרבנן ומפיק דאורייתא,ולטעמיך קטן בר חיובא הוא אלא הכי במאי עסקינן כגון שאכל שיעורא דרבנן דאתי דרבנן ומפיק דרבנן:,דרש רב עוירא זמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אמי וזמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אסי אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע כתוב בתורתך (דברים י, יז) אשר לא ישא פנים ולא יקח שחד והלא אתה נושא פנים לישראל דכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא ה' פניו אליך אמר להם וכי לא אשא פנים לישראל שכתבתי להם בתורה (דברים ח, י) ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך והם מדקדקים [על] עצמם עד כזית ועד כביצה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בעל קרי מהרהר בלבו ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה ועל המזון מברך לאחריו ואינו מברך לפניו רבי יהודה אומר מברך לפניהם ולאחריהם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רבינא זאת אומרת הרהור כדבור דמי דאי סלקא דעתך לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר,אלא מאי הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו,כדאשכחן בסיני,ורב חסדא אמר הרהור לאו כדבור דמי דאי סלקא דעתך הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו,אלא מאי הרהור לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר אמר רבי אלעזר כדי שלא יהו כל העולם עוסקין בו והוא יושב ובטל,ונגרוס בפרקא אחרינא אמר רב אדא בר אהבה בדבר שהצבור עוסקין בו 20b. band from phylacteries, butthey bare obligated inthe mitzvot of bprayer, imezuza /i, and Grace after Meals.The Gemara explains the rationale for these exemptions and obligations.,GEMARA With regard to the mishna’s statement that women are exempt from bthe recitation of iShema /i,the Gemara asks: That is bobvious,as iShemais a btime-bound, positive mitzva, andthe halakhic principle is: bWomen are exempt from any time-bound, positive mitzva,i.e., any mitzva whose performance is only in effect at a particular time. iShemafalls into that category as its recitation is restricted to the morning and the evening. Why then did the mishna need to mention it specifically?,The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Since iShema bincludesthe acceptance of the yoke of bthe kingdom of Heaven,perhaps women are obligated in its recitation despite the fact that it is a time-bound, positive mitzva. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat, nevertheless, women are exempt.,We also learned in the mishna that women are exempt bfrom phylacteries.The Gemara asks: That is bobviousas well. The donning of phylacteries is only in effect at particular times; during the day but not at night, on weekdays but not on Shabbat or Festivals. The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Sincethe mitzva of phylacteries bis juxtaposedin the Torah btothe mitzva of imezuza /i,as it is written: “And you shall bind them as a sign upon your hands and they shall be frontlets between your eyes” (Deuteronomy 6:8), followed by: “And you shall write them upon the door posts of your house and on your gates” (Deuteronomy 6:9), just as women are obligated in the mitzva of imezuza /i, so too they are obligated in the mitzva of phylacteries. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat nevertheless, women are exempt.,We also learned in the mishna that women, slaves, and children are bobligated in prayer.The Gemara explains that, although the mitzva of prayer is only in effect at particular times, which would lead to the conclusion that women are exempt, nevertheless, since prayer bissupplication for bmercyand women also require divine mercy, they are obligated. However, blest you say: Sinceregarding prayer it is bwritten: “Evening and morning and afternoonI pray and cry aloud and He hears my voice” (Psalms 55:18), perhaps prayer should be bconsidered a time-bound, positive mitzvaand women would be exempt, the mishna bteaches usthat, fundamentally, the mitzva of prayer is not time-bound and, therefore, everyone is obligated.,We also learned in the mishna that women are obligated in the mitzva of imezuza /i.The Gemara asks: That too is bobvious.Why would they be exempt from fulfilling this obligation, it is a positive mitzva that is not time-bound? The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Sincethe mitzva of imezuza bis juxtaposedin the Torah to the mitzva of bTorah study(Deuteronomy 11:19–20), just as women are exempt from Torah study, so too they are exempt from the mitzva of imezuza /i. Therefore, the mishna explicitly bteaches usthat they are obligated.,We also learned in the mishna that women are obligated to recite the bGrace after Meals.The Gemara asks: That too is bobvious.The Gemara replies: bLest you say: Since it is written: “When the Lord shall give you meat to eat in the evening and bread in the morning to the full”(Exodus 16:8), one might conclude that the Torah established fixed times for the meals and, consequently, for the mitzva of Grace after Meals and, therefore, it bis considered a time-bound, positive mitzva,exempting women from its recitation. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat women are obligated., bRav Adda bar Ahava said: Women are obligated torecite the sanctification of the Shabbat day [ikiddush /i]by Torah law.The Gemara asks: bWhy? iKiddushis a btime-bound, positive mitzva, and women are exemptfrom ball time-bound, positive mitzvot. Abaye said:Indeed, women are obligated to recite ikiddushby brabbinic,but not by Torah blaw. /b, bRava said toAbaye: There are two refutations to your explanation. First, Rav Adda bar Ahava said that women are obligated to recite ikiddush bby Torah law, and, furthermore,the very explanation is difficult to understand. If the Sages do indeed institute ordices in these circumstances, blet us obligate themto fulfill balltime-bound, bpositive mitzvot by rabbinic law,even though they are exempt by Torah law., bRather, Rava said:This has a unique explanation. In the Ten Commandments in the book of Exodus, bthe verse said: “RememberShabbat and sanctify it” (Exodus 20:8), while in the book of Deuteronomy it is said: b“ObserveShabbat and sanctify it” (Deuteronomy 5:12). From these two variants we can deduce that banyone included inthe obligation to bobserveShabbat by avoiding its desecration, bisalso bincluded inthe mitzva to brememberShabbat by reciting ikiddush /i. bSince these women are included inthe mitzva bto observeShabbat, as there is no distinction between men and women in the obligation to observe prohibitions in general and to refrain from the desecration of Shabbat in particular, so too bare they included inthe mitzva of brememberingShabbat., bRavina said to Rava:We learned in the mishna that bwomenare obligated in the mitzva of bGrace after Meals.However, are they obligated bby Torah lawor merely bby rabbinic law? What difference does it makewhether it is by Torah or rabbinic law? The difference is regarding her ability bto fulfill the obligation of otherswhen reciting the blessing on their behalf. bGranted, if you say thattheir obligation bis by Torah law,one whose obligation bis by Torah law can come and fulfill the obligationof others who are obligated bby Torah law. However, if you saythat their obligation is bby rabbinic law,then from the perspective of Torah law, women bareconsidered to be bone who is not obligated, andthe general principle is that bone who is not obligatedto fulfill a particular mitzva bcannot fulfill the obligations of the manyin that mitzva. Therefore, it is important to know bwhatis the resolution of this dilemma., bComeand bhearfrom what was taught in a ibaraita /i: bActually they saidthat ba son may recite a blessingon behalf of bhis father, and a slave may recite a blessingon behalf of bhis master, and a woman may recite a blessingon behalf of bher husband, but the Sages said: May a curse come to a manwho, due to his ignorance, requires bhis wife and children to recite a blessing on his behalf. /b,From here we may infer: bGranted, if you say thattheir obligation bis by Torah law,one whose obligation bis by Torah law can come and fulfill the obligationof others who are obligated bby Torah law. However, if you saythat their obligation is bby rabbinic law,can one who is obligated bby rabbinic law, come and fulfill the obligationof one whose obligation is bby Torah law? /b,The Gemara challenges this proof: bAnd according to your reasoning,is ba minor obligatedby Torah law to perform mitzvot? Everyone agrees that a minor is exempt by Torah law, yet here the ibaraitasaid that he may recite a blessing on behalf of his father. There must be another way to explain the ibaraita /i. bWith what we are dealing here? With a case wherehis father batea quantity of food that did not satisfy his hunger, a bmeasurefor which one is only obligated bby rabbinic lawto recite Grace after Meals. In that case, one whose obligation bis by rabbinic law can come and fulfill the obligationof another whose obligation bis by rabbinic law. /b,After citing the ihalakhathat one who eats a quantity of food that does not satisfy his hunger is obligated by rabbinic law to recite Grace after Meals, the Gemara cites a related homiletic interpretation. bRav Avira taught, sometimes he said it in the nameof bRabbi Ami, and sometimes he said it in the nameof bRabbi Asi: The ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, in Your Torah it is written:“The great, mighty and awesome God bwho favors no one and takes no bribe”(Deuteronomy 10:17), byet You,nevertheless, bshow favor to Israel, as it is written: “The Lord shall show favor to youand give you peace” (Numbers 6:26). bHe replied to them: And how can I not show favor to Israel, as I wrote for them in the Torah: “And you shall eat and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 8:10), meaning that there is no obligation to bless the Lord until one is satiated; byet they are exacting with themselvesto recite Grace after Meals even if they have eaten bas much as an olive-bulk or an egg-bulk.Since they go beyond the requirements of the law, they are worthy of favor., strongMISHNA: /strong Ezra the Scribe decreed that one who is ritually impure because of a seminal emission may not engage in matters of Torah until he has immersed in a ritual bath and purified himself. This ihalakhawas accepted over the course of many generations; however, many disputes arose with regard to the Torah matters to which it applies. Regarding this, the mishna says: If the time for the recitation of iShemaarrived and boneis impure due to a bseminal emission,he may bcontemplate iShema bin his heart, but neither recites the blessings preceding iShema /i, bnor the blessings following it. Over foodwhich, after partaking, one is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing, bone recites a blessing afterward, but one does not recite a blessing beforehand,because the blessing recited prior to eating is a requirement by rabbinic law. bAndin all of these instances bRabbi Yehuda says: He recites a blessing beforehand and thereafterin both the case of iShemaand in the case of food., strongGEMARA: /strong bRavina said: That is to say,from the mishna that bcontemplation is tantamount to speech. As if it would enter your mindthat bit is not tantamount to speech,then bwhydoes one who is impure because of a seminal emission bcontemplate?It must be that it is tantamount to speech.,The Gemara rejects this: bBut whatare you saying, that bcontemplation is tantamount to speech?Then, if one who is impure because of a seminal emission is permitted to contemplate, why does he not butterthe words bwith his lips? /b,The Gemara answers: bAs we found atMount bSinai.There one who had sexual relations with a woman was required to immerse himself before receiving the Torah, which was spoken and not merely contemplated. Here, too, it was decreed that one who was impure due to a seminal emission may not recite matters of Torah out loud until he immerses himself., bAnd Rav Ḥisda saidthat the opposite conclusion should be drawn from the mishna: bContemplation is not tantamount to speech, as if it would enter your mindthat bcontemplation is tantamount to speech,then one who is impure because of a seminal emission should iab initio /i, butter iShema bwith his lips. /b,The Gemara challenges this argument: bBut whatare you saying, that bcontemplation is not tantamount to speech?If so, bwhy does he contemplate? Rabbi Elazar said: So thata situation bwill notarise bwhere everyone is engaged inreciting iShema band he sits idlyby.,The Gemara asks: If that is the only purpose, blet him study another chapterand not specifically iShemaor one of the blessings. bRav Adda bar Ahava said:It is fitting that one engage bin a matter in which the community is engaged. /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. מתניתין בזבינא מיצעא ודשמואל בזבינא חריפא,תניא כוותיה דשמואל הלוקח כלים מן התגר לשגרן לבית חמיו ואמר לו אם מקבלין אותן ממני אני נותן לך דמיהם ואם לאו אני נותן לך לפי טובת הנאה שבהן נאנסו בהליכה חייב,בחזרה פטור מפני שהוא כנושא שכר,ההוא ספסירא דשקל חמרא לזבוני ולא איזבן בהדי דהדר איתניס חמרא חייביה רב נחמן לשלומי איתיביה רבא לרב נחמן נאנסו בהליכה חייב בחזרה פטור,אמר ליה חזרה דספסירא הולכה היא דאילו משכח לזבוני אפילו אבבא דביתיה מי לא מזבין ליה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big קונם שאני נהנה לערלים מותר בערלי ישראל ואסור במולי נוכרים,שאני נהנה למולים אסור בערלי ישראל ומותר במולי נוכרים שאין הערלה קרויה אלא לשם נוכרים שנאמר כי כל הגוים ערלים וכל בית ישראל ערלי לב (ירמיהו ט, כה) ואומר והיה הפלשתי הערל הזה (שמואל א יז, לו) ואומר פן תשמחנה בנות פלשתים פן תעלוזנה בנות הערלים (שמואל ב א, כ),רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר מאוסה היא הערלה שנתגנו בה רשעים שנאמר כי כל הגוים ערלים (ירמיהו ט, כה) רבי ישמעאל אומר גדולה מילה שנכרתו עליה שלוש עשרה בריתות,רבי יוסי אומר גדולה מילה שדוחה את השבת חמורה,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר גדולה מילה שלא נתלה לו למשה הצדיק עליה מלוא שעה,רבי נחמיה אומר גדולה מילה שדוחה את הנגעים רבי אומר גדולה מילה שכל המצוות שעשה אברהם אבינו לא נקרא שלם עד שמל שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א),דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאלמלא היא לא ברא הקב"ה את עולמו שנאמר כה אמר ה' אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי (ירמיהו לג, כה), big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר גדולה מילה שכל זכויות שעשה משה רבינו לא עמדו לו כשנתרשל מן המילה שנאמר ויפגשהו ה' ויבקש המיתו (שמות ד, כד),אמר רבי חס ושלום שמשה רבינו נתרשל מן המילה אלא כך אמר אמול ואצא סכנה היא שנאמר ויהי ביום השלישי בהיותם כואבים וגו' (בראשית לד, כה) אמול ואשהא שלשה ימים הקב"ה אמר לי לך שוב מצרים (שמות ד, יט) אלא מפני מה נענש משה 31b. it must be that bthe mishnais dealing bwith an average sale,which is neither of particularly low quality and difficult to sell nor of particularly high quality and in high demand. Therefore, when it is sold at the fixed price, it cannot be said that either the buyer or seller benefits. Consequently, the one taking the vow must lower the price when selling to those forbidden by the vow and add to the price when buying from them. bAndby contrast, the case bof Shmuelis referring bto a keen sale,in which a sale at the fixed price is considered to be primarily beneficial to the buyer.,The Gemara comments: It bis taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance with the opinion of Shmuelthat taking an item from the seller to inspect it before purchase is considered like borrowing it. In the case of bone who takes utensils from a merchantin order bto send them to his father-in-law’s houseas a gift band says tothe merchant: bIf they accept them from me Iwill bgive you their value, and ifthey do bnotwant them, bIwill bgive youa sum of money baccording tothe value of bthe ficial benefit thatI received bfrom them,i.e., I will pay something for the benefit that I received from showing my father-in-law that I want to honor him, then if ban accident occurs tothe utensils bon the wayto the house of the father-in-law and they are broken, the buyer is bliableto pay because he has the status of a borrower.,But if the father-in-law did not want them and returned them to the seller, and an accident occurred bon the returntrip, the buyer bis exempt because he is like a paid bailee.Since the father-in-law decided not to accept them, and the prospective buyer no longer benefits from them, he is not considered to be a borrower, but rather, a paid bailee of these utensils, and a paid bailee is exempt in the case of an accident.,The Gemara relates: There was ba certain middleman [ isafseira /i] who took a donkey to sell but it was not sold,i.e., he was unsuccessful in finding a buyer. bWhile he was in the midst of returningthe donkey to its owner, ban accident occurredto the bdonkey. Rav Naḥmanthen bobligated him to payfor it. bRava raised an objection to Rav Naḥmanfrom this ibaraita /i: bIf an accident occurred while on the way, he is liableto pay; if it occurred bon the returntrip bhe is exempt.Since the case involving Rav Naḥman occurred on the return trip, why did Rav Naḥman obligate him to pay?,Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: The returntrip bof a middleman islike bthe tripthere, and an item is not considered returned until he actually gives it to its owner. This is bbecause were he to findsomeone bto sellthe donkey to beven at the door of his house, would he not sell it?Therefore, he retains the status of a borrower. However, in the case of bringing a gift to a particular person who does not accept it, the sale is nullified, and the prospective buyer has only to take care of the item until it is returned to its owner, which gives him the status of a paid bailee., strongMISHNA: /strong If one says: bBenefiting from those who are uncircumcised is ikonamfor me,he is bpermittedto derive benefit bfrom uncircumcised Jewsbecause they are not regarded as uncircumcised, bbut he is prohibitedfrom deriving benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world. /b,Conversely, if he said: bBenefiting from those who are circumcisedis ikonam bfor me, he is prohibitedfrom deriving benefit even bfrom uncircumcised Jews andhe is bpermittedto derive benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world, asthe term buncircumcised is used only to name the nations of the world, as it is stated: “For all the nations are uncircumcised, but all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart”(Jeremiah 9:25), band it says: “And this uncircumcised Philistine shall be”(I Samuel 17:36), band it says: “Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph”(II Samuel 1:20). These verses indicate that ordinary gentiles are referred to as uncircumcised, regardless of whether they are actually circumcised., bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The foreskin is repulsive, asis evident from the fact that bthe wicked are disgraced through it, as it is stated:“Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will punish all them that are circumcised in their uncircumcision: Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that have the corners of their hair polled, that dwell in the wilderness; bfor all the nations are uncircumcised,but all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart” (Jeremiah 9:25), which indicates that there is an element of disgrace associated with the foreskin. bRabbi Yishmael says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that thirteen covets were sealed with regard to it,for the word covet appears thirteen times in the biblical passage that discusses circumcision (Genesis, chapter 17)., bRabbi Yosei says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it overrides the strict ihalakhotof bShabbat,as circumcision is performed even if the eighth day following the birth of a son occurs on Shabbat, despite the fact that circumcision violates the prohibition of labor on Shabbat., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision,as is evident from the fact bthatthe punishment of bMoses the righteous fornot circumcising his son when he was capable of doing so bwas not postponedfor even ba full hour(see Exodus 4:24–26)., bRabbi Neḥemya says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it overridesthe prohibitions associated with bleprosy.If leprosy is found on the foreskin of an infant, although it is generally prohibited to cut the afflicted area, it is permitted to do so to perform the mitzva of circumcision. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision thatdespite ball the mitzvot that Abraham our Patriarch did,he bwas not called wholehearted until he circumcisedhimself, bas it is statedat the time that the mitzva was given to him: b“Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1)., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for it the Holy One, Blessed be He, would not have created His world, as it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: If My covet be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:So bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that all the merits that Moses our teacheraccrued when he bperformedmitzvot bdid not protect him when he was negligent aboutperforming bthemitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “And the Lord met him and sought to kill him”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Heaven forbid that Moses our teacher was neglectful of themitzva of bcircumcision. Rather, thisis what bhe said:If bI circumcisethe child now band departto begin my journey, it bis a dangerfor the child, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain”(Genesis 34:25), which indicates that the pain of circumcision lasts for several days and the child may be in danger while in pain. If bI circumcisehim immediately band wait three daysand only then embark on the journey, this is problematic, as bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to me: “Go, return into Egypt”(Exodus 4:19), i.e., go immediately. For these reasons Moses did not circumcise the child immediately, but no neglect existed on his part. bButaccording to this explanation, bfor what reason was Moses punished? /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33b. על המעשר ר' אלעזר בר' יוסי אומר על לשון הרע אמר רבא ואיתימא ריב"ל מאי קראה (תהלים סג, יב) והמלך ישמח באלהים יתהלל כל הנשבע בו כי יסכר פי דוברי שקר,איבעיא להו רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי על לשון הרע קאמר או דילמא אף על לשון הרע נמי קאמר ת"ש כשנכנסו רבותינו לכרם ביבנה היה שם רבי יהודה ור' אלעזר בר' יוסי ור"ש נשאלה שאלה זו בפניהם מכה זו מפני מה מתחלת בבני מעיים וגומרת בפה נענה רבי יהודה ברבי אלעאי ראש המדברים בכל מקום ואמר אע"פ שכליות יועצות ולב מבין ולשון מחתך פה גומר נענה רבי אלעזר ברבי יוסי ואמר מפני שאוכלין בה דברים טמאין דברים טמאים סלקא דעתך אלא שאוכלין בה דברים שאינן מתוקנים נענה ר' שמעון ואמר בעון ביטול תורה,אמרו לו נשים יוכיחו שמבטלות את בעליהן נכרים יוכיחו שמבטלין את ישראל תינוקות יוכיחו שמבטלין את אביהן תינוקות של בית רבן יוכיחו,התם כדרבי גוריון דאמר רבי גוריון ואיתימא רב יוסף ברבי שמעיה בזמן שהצדיקים בדור צדיקים נתפסים על הדור אין צדיקים בדור תינוקות של בית רבן נתפסים על הדור א"ר יצחק בר זעירי ואמרי לה א"ר שמעון בן נזירא מאי קראה (שיר השירים א, ח) אם לא תדעי לך היפה בנשים צאי לך בעקבי הצאן וגו' ואמרינן גדיים הממושכנין על הרועים ש"מ אף על לשון הרע נמי קאמר ש"מ,ואמאי קרו ליה ראש המדברים בכל מקום דיתבי רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי ורבי שמעון ויתיב יהודה בן גרים גבייהו פתח ר' יהודה ואמר כמה נאים מעשיהן של אומה זו תקנו שווקים תקנו גשרים תקנו מרחצאות ר' יוסי שתק נענה רשב"י ואמר כל מה שתקנו לא תקנו אלא לצורך עצמן תקנו שווקין להושיב בהן זונות מרחצאות לעדן בהן עצמן גשרים ליטול מהן מכס הלך יהודה בן גרים וסיפר דבריהם ונשמעו למלכות אמרו יהודה שעילה יתעלה יוסי ששתק יגלה לציפורי שמעון שגינה יהרג,אזל הוא ובריה טשו בי מדרשא כל יומא הוה מייתי להו דביתהו ריפתא וכוזא דמיא וכרכי כי תקיף גזירתא א"ל לבריה נשים דעתן קלה עליהן דילמא מצערי לה ומגליא לן אזלו טשו במערתא איתרחיש ניסא איברי להו חרובא ועינא דמיא והוו משלחי מנייהו והוו יתבי עד צוארייהו בחלא כולי יומא גרסי בעידן צלויי לבשו מיכסו ומצלו והדר משלחי מנייהו כי היכי דלא ליבלו איתבו תריסר שני במערתא אתא אליהו וקם אפיתחא דמערתא אמר מאן לודעיה לבר יוחי דמית קיסר ובטיל גזירתיה,נפקו חזו אינשי דקא כרבי וזרעי אמר מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה כל מקום שנותנין עיניהן מיד נשרף יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם להחריב עולמי יצאתם חיזרו למערתכם הדור אזול איתיבו תריסר ירחי שתא אמרי משפט רשעים בגיהנם י"ב חדש יצתה בת קול ואמרה צאו ממערתכם נפקו כל היכא דהוה מחי ר' אלעזר הוה מסי ר"ש אמר לו בני די לעולם אני ואתה,בהדי פניא דמעלי שבתא חזו ההוא סבא דהוה נקיט תרי מדאני אסא ורהיט בין השמשות אמרו ליה הני למה לך אמר להו לכבוד שבת ותיסגי לך בחד חד כנגד (שמות כ, ז) זכור וחד כנגד (דברים ה, יא) שמור א"ל לבריה חזי כמה חביבין מצות על ישראל יתיב דעתייהו,שמע ר' פנחס בן יאיר חתניה ונפק לאפיה עייליה לבי בניה הוה קא אריך ליה לבישריה חזי דהוה ביה פילי בגופיה הוה קא בכי וקא נתרו דמעת עיניה וקמצוחא ליה א"ל אוי לי שראיתיך בכך א"ל אשריך שראיתני בכך שאילמלא לא ראיתני בכך לא מצאת בי כך דמעיקרא כי הוה מקשי ר"ש בן יוחי קושיא הוה מפרק ליה ר' פנחס בן יאיר תריסר פירוקי לסוף כי הוה מקשי ר"פ בן יאיר קושיא הוה מפרק ליה רשב"י עשרין וארבעה פירוקי,אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש ניסא איזיל אתקין מילתא דכתיב (בראשית לג, יח) ויבא יעקב שלם ואמר רב שלם בגופו שלם בממונו שלם בתורתו (בראשית לג, יח) ויחן את פני העיר אמר רב מטבע תיקן להם ושמואל אמר שווקים תיקן להם ור' יוחנן אמר מרחצאות תיקן להם אמר איכא מילתא דבעי לתקוני אמרו ליה איכא דוכתא דאית ביה ספק טומאה 33b. bforneglecting to separate btithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: iAskaracomes as punishment for bslander. Rava said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwho said it: bWhat is the versethat alludes to this? b“But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped”(Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. iAskaraaffects the mouth along with other parts of the body., bA dilemma was raised beforethose who were sitting in the study hall: Did bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, saythat iaskaracomes as punishment only bfor slander, or perhaps he saidit was balso for slander? Comeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: bWhen our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before themwith regard to bthis plagueof iaskara /i: bWhy does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila’i,who was bthe head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapesthe voice that emerges from the mouth, still, bthe mouth completesthe formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said:This disease ends in the mouth bbecause one eats with it non-kosher things.They immediately wondered about this: bDoes it enter your mindto say that iaskarais caused by eating bnon-kosher food?Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? bRather,it comes as a punishment bfor eatingfoods bthat were notritually bprepared,i.e., were not tithed. bRabbi Shimon responded and said:This disease comes as a punishment bfor the sin of dereliction inthe study of bTorah. /b, bThey said to him: Women will provethat dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract iaskara /i. He answered them: They are punished because bthey cause their husbands to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bGentiles will provethat this is not the cause, as they also contract iaskaraeven though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because bthey cause Israel to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bChildren will provethat this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from iaskara /i. He answered them: They are punished because bthey cause their fathers to be idlefrom the study of Torah. They said to him: bSchool children will provethat this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from iaskara /i.,The Gemara answers: bThere /b, it must be understood bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Guryon,as bRabbi Guryon said, and some saythat it was bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya,who said it: bAt a time whenthere are brighteous people in the generation,the brighteous are seized /b, i.e., they die or suffer, bforthe sins of bthe generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children,who are also without sin, bare seized forthe sins of bthe generation /b. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Ze’iri said, and some saythat bRabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the versethat alludes to this? b“If you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flockand feed your kids, beside the shepherds’ tents [ imishkenot /i] b” ( /bSong of Songs 1:8). bAnd we sayin explanation of this verse: They are the blambs that are taken as collateral [ ihamemushkanin /i],which is etymologically similar to the word imishkenot /i, bin place of the shepherds.If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, bconclude from itthat Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaidthat the illness of iaskara balsoresults from bslander,as the ibaraitaprovides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, bconclude from it. /b,In this ibaraitaRabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: bAnd why did they call him head of the speakers in every place?The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place bwhen Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts, sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation,the Romans, as bthey established marketplaces, established bridges,and bestablished bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves;and bbridges, to collect taxes fromall who pass over bthem. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statementsto his household, bandthose statements continued to spread until bthey were heard by the monarchy. Theyruled and bsaid: Yehuda, who elevatedthe Roman regime, bshall be elevatedand appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. bYosei, who remained silent, shall be exiledfrom his home in Judea as punishment, and sent btothe city of bTzipporiin the Galilee. bAnd Shimon, who denouncedthe government, bshall be killed. /b,Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai band his son,Rabbi Elazar, bwentand bhid in the study hall. Every dayRabbi Shimon’s bwife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified,Rabbi Shimon bsaid to his son: Women are easily impressionableand, therefore, there is room for concern blestthe authorities btorture her and she reveal ourwhereabouts. bThey went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurredand ba carobtree bwas created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sitcovered bin sand up to their necks /b. bThey would studyTorah ball dayin that manner. bAt the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijahthe Prophet bcame and stood at the entrance to the caveand bsaid: Who will inform bar Yoḥai thatthe bemperor died and his decree has been abrogated? /b, bThey emergedfrom the cave, and bsaw people who were plowing and sowing.Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai bsaid:These people babandon eternal lifeof Torah study band engage in temporal lifefor their own sustece. The Gemara relates that bevery place thatRabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar bdirected their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them:Did byou emergefrom the cave in order bto destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again wentand bsatthere bfor twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lastsfor btwelve months.Surely their sin was atoned in that time. bA Divine Voice emerged and saidto them: bEmerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal.Rabbi Shimon bsaid toRabbi Elazar: bMy son, you and I suffice for theentire bworld,as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah., bAs the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat.They said to him: bAnd let one suffice.He answered them: bOneis bcorresponding to: “Rememberthe Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8), bandone is bcorresponding to: “Observethe Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon bsaid to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds wereput bat easeand they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study., bRabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir,Rabbi Shimon’s bson-in-law /b, bheard and went out togreet bhim. He brought him into the bathhouse andbegan btending to his flesh. He saw thatRabbi Shimon bhad cracks inthe skin on bhis body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and causedRabbi Shimon bpain.Rabbi Pineḥas bsaid toRabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: bWoe is me, that I have seen you like this.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me thisprominence in Torah, basthe Gemara relates: bAt first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would respondto his question with btwelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would raise a difficulty /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would respondwith btwenty-four answers. /b,Rabbi Shimon bsaid: Since a miracle transpiredfor me, bI will goand brepair somethingfor the sake of others in gratitude for God’s kindness, bas it is written: “And Jacob came wholeto the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countece of the city” (Genesis 33:18). bRav said,the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: bWhole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah.And what did he do? bAnd he graced the countece of the city;he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. bRav said:Jacob bestablished a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: He established bathhouses for them.In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. bHe said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
abortion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
accusations (against creator or creation) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
action Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
activity (labor) Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
ada b. ahava, rav Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
adultery Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
aggadah, distribution of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
aggadah, in nonhalakhic discussions Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
amidah Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 16
amos Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 145
bar kokhba (revolt) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 207
bavli, amoraic strata of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
bible Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 112
biblical texts, halakhah and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
blessing Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
carrying, prohibited on sabbath, biblical referents, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 179
carrying, prohibited on sabbath, biblical referents Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 179
christology Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 180
cohn, yehudah Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
collective memory Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
commandment, commandments Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5, 184
commandment Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
commandments Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
conversation analysis Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
corruption Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
covenant, new Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 180
covenant Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
de-orayta (laws from the torah), on tosefet shabbat Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis), on tosefet shabbat Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
death, way of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159
decalogue Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
demons, demonic, evil spirits Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
deuteronomy, and urdeuteronomium DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 58
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
diligence Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
distinguishing Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
double love commandment Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
eden, as sabbath metaphor Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
eden, restoration of Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
egypt, egyptians Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
egypt Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 207
eleazar Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
embodiment Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
erubin Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
ethical teachings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil, actions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
evil, plans Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
exegesis, inner-biblical interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
food Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
golden rule Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
hanukah candles, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
harmonization Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
heart Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
hebrew bible/old testament, inner-biblical interpretation in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 159; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
homer Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
horeb theophany DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 58, 64
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
inner-biblical interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
instruction verses Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
intention Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
israel/palestine/holy land/zion Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 112
israel Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
jubilees (book) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
kahana Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
kiddush hayom, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
kilayim, labor, prohibitions on Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
labor, prohibitions Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168, 180
literacy, ideal of universal literacy Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
love, of brothers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
love, of neighbours Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
magic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
marks of scripture, memorization, indicators of Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
matter (ïlh) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
megillah, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
memorization Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
memory techniques Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
minayin/minalan Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
moods, verbal, imperative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
moods, verbal, indicative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
moses Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168, 180
murder Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
neighbour Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233, 245
oral Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
parallel Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
passover, four cups of, as timebound commandment to which women are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168, 180
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 180
performance Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
poor, share of harvest for Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
prayer Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
priest, priests Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
principles (érxæ) (first) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
prophecy, etiology of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 64
prophets, ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
providence Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
pseudepigraphy DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 58
qumran, tefillin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
r. eleazar b. r. shimon Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136
r. phinḥas b. yair Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136
rabbinic, academies Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
rabbinic exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
rabbis, divergent opinions of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
rashbi (r. shimon bar yoḥai), purification of tiberias Bar Asher Siegal, Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud (2013) 136
rava Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
recital, recitation Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5, 184
repetition Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184; Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
revelation DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 64
revision, textual Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
ritual Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
sabbath, are obligated Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
sabbath, as restoration of eden Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
sabbath, differing traditions of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
sabbath, prohibitions on labor Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
sabbath Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5, 184; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159; Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
sadducees, legal tradition of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
scribal memory Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
scribal performance Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
scribe Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
second temple period, halakhic disputes from time of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
second temple period, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
second temple period Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 5
secularisation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
septuagint, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
sermon, on the mount Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
sermon, on the plain Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
sex Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
shabbat Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 25
shabbat (sabbath) Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
shamor Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
shema, in nash papyrus Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
shema, linked to decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
shimon Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
shimon b. yochai Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
sinai Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 179
siyyuma Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
skin disease Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 184
special grammar Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
speech, as opposed to action Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 233
tamhui, provisions for sabbath Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
tefillin, qumran Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
ten commandments (decalogue) Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 112
testament genre Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
theology Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45
timebound positive commandments, contradictory cases Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
timebound positive commandments, in amoraic period Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 159
torah and torah study Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 112
tosefet shabbat (addition to the sabbath) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
tradition Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
traditional phraseology Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
traditions, matthean Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 245
transmission of rule, womens obligation to perform Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
tsitsit (fringes) Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 112
ulla, r./aha b. ulla, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 34
variant Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
vegetables Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
will, volition Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 44
wine Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
wisdom literature, distinctive function in education' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 137
word-selection Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
word Beck, Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World (2021) 320
yehoshua b. levi, r. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
yerushalmi, tolerance for cases that contradict the rule Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 123
yerushalmi Bickart, The Scholastic Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2022) 45