Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.12-30.14


לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’


וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’


כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

46 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 2.14, 4.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃ 4.1. מַה־יָּפוּ דֹדַיִךְ אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה מַה־טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל־בְּשָׂמִים׃ 4.1. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד׃ 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 4.1. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves behind thy veil; Thy hair is as a flock of goats, that trail down from mount Gilead.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.3-6.4, 7.3, 8.18, 9.4, 14.22, 15.12-15.15, 20.5-20.7, 20.19-20.20, 21.10-21.14, 22.1-22.3, 22.5, 22.10, 23.7-23.8, 23.20, 24.1, 24.19-24.20, 25.4, 26.17, 29.28-29.29, 30.1-30.11, 30.13-30.16, 30.18-30.20, 31.9-31.13, 31.19, 31.22, 31.24-31.26, 31.30, 32.4, 32.44 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.3. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׁמַרְתָּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לְךָ וַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְבּוּן מְאֹד כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 8.18. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי הוּא הַנֹּתֵן לְךָ כֹּחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת חָיִל לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 9.4. אַל־תֹּאמַר בִּלְבָבְךָ בַּהֲדֹף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם מִלְּפָנֶיךָ לֵאמֹר בְּצִדְקָתִי הֱבִיאַנִי יְהוָה לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּבְרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 14.22. עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר אֵת כָּל־תְּבוּאַת זַרְעֶךָ הַיֹּצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁנָה שָׁנָה׃ 15.12. כִּי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ אָחִיךָ הָעִבְרִי אוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת תְּשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ׃ 15.13. וְכִי־תְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ לֹא תְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ רֵיקָם׃ 15.14. הַעֲנֵיק תַּעֲנִיק לוֹ מִצֹּאנְךָ וּמִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ אֲשֶׁר בֵּרַכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּתֶּן־לוֹ׃ 15.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה הַיּוֹם׃ 20.5. וְדִבְּרוּ הַשֹּׁטְרִים אֶל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר מִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בַיִת־חָדָשׁ וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יַחְנְכֶנּוּ׃ 20.6. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יְחַלְּלֶנּוּ׃ 20.7. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְקָחָהּ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יִקָּחֶנָּה׃ 20.19. כִּי־תָצוּר אֶל־עִיר יָמִים רַבִּים לְהִלָּחֵם עָלֶיהָ לְתָפְשָׂהּ לֹא־תַשְׁחִית אֶת־עֵצָהּ לִנְדֹּחַ עָלָיו גַּרְזֶן כִּי מִמֶּנּוּ תֹאכֵל וְאֹתוֹ לֹא תִכְרֹת כִּי הָאָדָם עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה לָבֹא מִפָּנֶיךָ בַּמָּצוֹר׃ 21.11. וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.12. וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶיהָ׃ 21.13. וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.14. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃] 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃ 22.5. לֹא־יִהְיֶה כְלִי־גֶבֶר עַל־אִשָּׁה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.19. כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃ 25.4. לֹא־תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ׃ 26.17. אֶת־יְהוָה הֶאֱמַרְתָּ הַיּוֹם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וְלָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וְלִשְׁמֹר חֻקָּיו וּמִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְלִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקֹלוֹ׃ 29.28. הַנִּסְתָּרֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהַנִּגְלֹת לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ עַד־עוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 30.1. וְהָיָה כִי־יָבֹאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָ אֶל־לְבָבֶךָ בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִדִּיחֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.1. כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו הַכְּתוּבָה בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה כִּי תָשׁוּב אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 30.2. לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקֹלוֹ וּלְדָבְקָה־בוֹ כִּי הוּא חַיֶּיךָ וְאֹרֶךְ יָמֶיךָ לָשֶׁבֶת עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֵת לָהֶם׃ 30.2. וְשַׁבְתָּ עַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְקֹלוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 30.3. וְשָׁב יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־שְׁבוּתְךָ וְרִחֲמֶךָ וְשָׁב וְקִבֶּצְךָ מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר הֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.4. אִם־יִהְיֶה נִדַּחֲךָ בִּקְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם מִשָּׁם יְקַבֶּצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּמִשָּׁם יִקָּחֶךָ׃ 30.5. וֶהֱבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יָרְשׁוּ אֲבֹתֶיךָ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְהֵיטִבְךָ וְהִרְבְּךָ מֵאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 30.6. וּמָל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְאֶת־לְבַב זַרְעֶךָ לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ לְמַעַן חַיֶּיךָ׃ 30.7. וְנָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־הָאָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְעַל־שֹׂנְאֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר רְדָפוּךָ׃ 30.8. וְאַתָּה תָשׁוּב וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 30.9. וְהוֹתִירְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶךָ בִּפְרִי בִטְנְךָ וּבִפְרִי בְהֶמְתְּךָ וּבִפְרִי אַדְמָתְךָ לְטוֹבָה כִּי יָשׁוּב יְהוָה לָשׂוּשׂ עָלֶיךָ לְטוֹב כַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׂשׂ עַל־אֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 30.11. כִּי הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לֹא־נִפְלֵאת הִוא מִמְּךָ וְלֹא רְחֹקָה הִוא׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 30.15. רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַחַיִּים וְאֶת־הַטּוֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת־הָרָע׃ 30.16. אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחָיִיתָ וְרָבִיתָ וּבֵרַכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 30.18. הִגַּדְתִּי לָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן לֹא־תַאֲרִיכֻן יָמִים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹבֵר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן לָבֹא שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 30.19. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 31.19. וְעַתָּה כִּתְבוּ לָכֶם אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת וְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימָהּ בְּפִיהֶם לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה־לִּי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לְעֵד בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.22. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.24. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לִכְתֹּב אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.25. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 31.26. לָקֹחַ אֵת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֹתוֹ מִצַּד אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהָיָה־שָׁם בְּךָ לְעֵד׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.44. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַשִּׁירָה־הַזֹּאת בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם הוּא וְהוֹשֵׁעַ בִּן־נוּן׃ 6.3. Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase mightily, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath promised unto thee—a land flowing with milk and honey." 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 8.18. But thou shalt remember the LORD thy God, for it is He that giveth thee power to get wealth, that He may establish His covet which He swore unto thy fathers, as it is this day." 9.4. Speak not thou in thy heart, after that the LORD thy God hath thrust them out from before thee, saying: ‘For my righteousness the LORD hath brought me in to possess this land’; whereas for the wickedness of these nations the LORD doth drive them out from before thee." 14.22. Thou shalt surely tithe all the increase of thy seed, that which is brought forth in the field year by year." 15.12. If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years; and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee." 15.13. And when thou lettest him go free from thee, thou shalt not let him go empty;" 15.14. thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flock, and out of thy threshing-floor, and out of thy winepress; of that wherewith the LORD thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him." 15.15. And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God redeemed thee; therefore I command thee this thing to-day." 20.5. And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying: ‘What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it." 20.6. And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not used the fruit thereof? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man use the fruit thereof." 20.7. And what man is there that hath betrothed a wife, and hath not taken her? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man take her.’" 20.19. When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by wielding an axe against them; for thou mayest eat of them, but thou shalt not cut them down; for is the tree of the field man, that it should be besieged of thee?" 20.20. Only the trees of which thou knowest that they are not trees for food, them thou mayest destroy and cut down, that thou mayest build bulwarks against the city that maketh war with thee, until it fall." 21.10. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive," 21.11. and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;" 21.12. then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails;" 21.13. and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife." 21.14. And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her." 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother." 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him." 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself." 22.5. A woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment; for whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD thy God." 22.10. Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 23.20. Thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother: interest of money, interest of victuals, interest of any thing that is lent upon interest." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.19. When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands." 24.20. When thou beatest thine olive-tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow." 25.4. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn." 26.17. Thou hast avouched the LORD this day to be thy God, and that thou wouldest walk in His ways, and keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His ordices, and hearken unto His voice." 29.28. The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but the things that are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law." 30.1. And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt bethink thyself among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee," 30.2. and shalt return unto the LORD thy God, and hearken to His voice according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul;" 30.3. that then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the peoples, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee." 30.4. If any of thine that are dispersed be in the uttermost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will He fetch thee." 30.5. And the LORD thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and He will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers. ." 30.6. And the LORD thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live." 30.7. And the LORD thy God will put all these curses upon thine enemies, and on them that hate thee, that persecuted thee." 30.8. And thou shalt return and hearken to the voice of the LORD, and do all His commandments which I command thee this day." 30.9. And the LORD thy God will make thee over-abundant in all the work of thy hand, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy land, for good; for the LORD will again rejoice over thee for good, as He rejoiced over thy fathers;" 30.10. if thou shalt hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which are written in this book of the law; if thou turn unto the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul." 30.11. For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too hard for thee, neither is it far off." 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it." 30.15. See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil," 30.16. in that I command thee this day to love the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His ordices; then thou shalt live and multiply, and the LORD thy God shall bless thee in the land whither thou goest in to possess it." 30.18. I declare unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish; ye shall not prolong your days upon the land, whither thou passest over the Jordan to go in to possess it." 30.19. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed;" 30.20. to love the LORD thy God, to hearken to His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for that is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them." 31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’" 31.19. Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach thou it the children of Israel; put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for Me against the children of Israel." 31.22. So Moses wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel." 31.24. And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished," 31.25. that Moses commanded the Levites, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, saying:" 31.26. ’Take this book of the law, and put it by the side of the ark of the covet of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee." 31.30. And Moses spoke in the ears of all the assembly of Israel the words of this song, until they were finished:" 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ." 32.44. And Moses came and spoke all the words of this song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea the son of Nun."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.1-2.20, 12.35-12.36, 13.18, 21.2, 21.24, 22.20, 22.24, 22.29, 23.2, 23.4-23.5, 23.9-23.11, 23.19, 34.26, 34.29-34.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 2.3. וְלֹא־יָכְלָה עוֹד הַצְּפִינוֹ וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ תֵּבַת גֹּמֶא וַתַּחְמְרָה בַחֵמָר וּבַזָּפֶת וַתָּשֶׂם בָּהּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתָּשֶׂם בַּסּוּף עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃ 2.4. וַתֵּתַצַּב אֲחֹתוֹ מֵרָחֹק לְדֵעָה מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂה לוֹ׃ 2.5. וַתֵּרֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לִרְחֹץ עַל־הַיְאֹר וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלְכֹת עַל־יַד הַיְאֹר וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף וַתִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֲמָתָהּ וַתִּקָּחֶהָ 2.6. וַתִּפְתַּח וַתִּרְאֵהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וְהִנֵּה־נַעַר בֹּכֶה וַתַּחְמֹל עָלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר מִיַּלְדֵי הָעִבְרִים זֶה׃ 2.7. וַתֹּאמֶר אֲחֹתוֹ אֶל־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הַאֵלֵךְ וְקָרָאתִי לָךְ אִשָּׁה מֵינֶקֶת מִן הָעִבְרִיֹּת וְתֵינִק לָךְ אֶת־הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.8. וַתֹּאמֶר־לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לֵכִי וַתֵּלֶךְ הָעַלְמָה וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־אֵם הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הֵילִיכִי אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה וְהֵינִקִהוּ לִי וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־שְׂכָרֵךְ וַתִּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּנִיקֵהוּ׃ 2.11. וַיְהִי בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וַיִּגְדַּל מֹשֶׁה וַיֵּצֵא אֶל־אֶחָיו וַיַּרְא בְּסִבְלֹתָם וַיַּרְא אִישׁ מִצְרִי מַכֶּה אִישׁ־עִבְרִי מֵאֶחָיו׃ 2.12. וַיִּפֶן כֹּה וָכֹה וַיַּרְא כִּי אֵין אִישׁ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּטְמְנֵהוּ בַּחוֹל׃ 2.13. וַיֵּצֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי וְהִנֵּה שְׁנֵי־אֲנָשִׁים עִבְרִים נִצִּים וַיֹּאמֶר לָרָשָׁע לָמָּה תַכֶּה רֵעֶךָ׃ 2.14. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי שָׂמְךָ לְאִישׁ שַׂר וְשֹׁפֵט עָלֵינוּ הַלְהָרְגֵנִי אַתָּה אֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר הָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּירָא מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמַר אָכֵן נוֹדַע הַדָּבָר׃ 2.15. וַיִּשְׁמַע פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ לַהֲרֹג אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וַיִּבְרַח מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־מִדְיָן וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הַבְּאֵר׃ 2.16. וּלְכֹהֵן מִדְיָן שֶׁבַע בָּנוֹת וַתָּבֹאנָה וַתִּדְלֶנָה וַתְּמַלֶּאנָה אֶת־הָרְהָטִים לְהַשְׁקוֹת צֹאן אֲבִיהֶן׃ 2.17. וַיָּבֹאוּ הָרֹעִים וַיְגָרְשׁוּם וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹשִׁעָן וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־צֹאנָם׃ 2.18. וַתָּבֹאנָה אֶל־רְעוּאֵל אֲבִיהֶן וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ מִהַרְתֶּן בֹּא הַיּוֹם׃ 2.19. וַתֹּאמַרְןָ אִישׁ מִצְרִי הִצִּילָנוּ מִיַּד הָרֹעִים וְגַם־דָּלֹה דָלָה לָנוּ וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־הַצֹּאן׃ 12.35. וּבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָשׂוּ כִּדְבַר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב וּשְׂמָלֹת׃ 12.36. וַיהוָה נָתַן אֶת־חֵן הָעָם בְּעֵינֵי מִצְרַיִם וַיַּשְׁאִלוּם וַיְנַצְּלוּ אֶת־מִצְרָיִם׃ 13.18. וַיַּסֵּב אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָעָם דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּדְבָּר יַם־סוּף וַחֲמֻשִׁים עָלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.24. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל׃ 22.24. אִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃ 22.29. כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשֹׁרְךָ לְצֹאנֶךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִהְיֶה עִם־אִמּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּתְּנוֹ־לִי׃ 23.2. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָךְ לְפָנֶיךָ לִשְׁמָרְךָ בַּדָּרֶךְ וְלַהֲבִיאֲךָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר הֲכִנֹתִי׃ 23.2. לֹא־תִהְיֶה אַחֲרֵי־רַבִּים לְרָעֹת וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶה עַל־רִב לִנְטֹת אַחֲרֵי רַבִּים לְהַטֹּת׃ 23.4. כִּי תִפְגַּע שׁוֹר אֹיִבְךָ אוֹ חֲמֹרוֹ תֹּעֶה הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ׃ 23.5. כִּי־תִרְאֶה חֲמוֹר שֹׂנַאֲךָ רֹבֵץ תַּחַת מַשָּׂאוֹ וְחָדַלְתָּ מֵעֲזֹב לוֹ עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב עִמּוֹ׃ 23.9. וְגֵר לֹא תִלְחָץ וְאַתֶּם יְדַעְתֶּם אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הַגֵּר כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 23.11. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ וְאָכְלוּ אֶבְיֹנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְיִתְרָם תֹּאכַל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכַרְמְךָ לְזֵיתֶךָ׃ 23.19. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 2.3. And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by the river’s brink." 2.4. And his sister stood afar off, to know what would be done to him." 2.5. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." 2.6. And she opened it, and saw it, even the child; and behold a boy that wept. And she had compassion on him, and said: ‘This is one of the Hebrews’children.’" 2.7. Then said his sister to Pharaoh’s daughter: ‘Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?’" 2.8. And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her: ‘Go.’ And the maiden went and called the child’s mother." 2.9. And Pharaoh’s daughter said unto her: ‘Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages.’ And the woman took the child, and nursed it." 2.10. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses, and said: ‘Because I drew him out of the water.’" 2.11. And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown up, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens; and he saw an Egyptian smiting a Hebrew, one of his brethren." 2.12. And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he smote the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand." 2.13. And he went out the second day, and, behold, two men of the Hebrews were striving together; and he said to him that did the wrong: ‘Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?’" 2.14. And he said: ‘Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? thinkest thou to kill me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian?’ And Moses feared, and said: ‘Surely the thing is known.’" 2.15. Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian; and he sat down by a well." 2.16. Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock." 2.17. And the shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock." 2.18. And when they came to Reuel their father, he said: ‘How is it that ye are come so soon to-day?’" 2.19. And they said: ‘An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and moreover he drew water for us, and watered the flock.’" 2.20. And he said unto his daughters: ‘And where is he? Why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread.’" 12.35. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment." 12.36. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. And they despoiled the Egyptians." 13.18. But God led the people about, by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea; and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt." 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.24. eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot," 22.20. And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." 22.24. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest." 22.29. Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep; seven days it shall be with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it Me." 23.2. Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou bear witness in a cause to turn aside after a multitude to pervert justice;" 23.4. If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again." 23.5. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under its burden, thou shalt forbear to pass by him; thou shalt surely release it with him." 23.9. And a stranger shalt thou not oppress; for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." 23.10. And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and gather in the increase thereof;" 23.11. but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of thy people may eat; and what they leave the beast of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard." 23.19. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.2, 12.7, 13.3-13.4, 13.14-13.17, 15.2, 15.5-15.6, 15.8, 17.1, 17.5, 17.8, 17.10, 17.17-17.18, 23.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 13.3. וַיֵּלֶךְ לְמַסָּעָיו מִנֶּגֶב וְעַד־בֵּית־אֵל עַד־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה שָׁם אהלה [אָהֳלוֹ] בַּתְּחִלָּה בֵּין בֵּית־אֵל וּבֵין הָעָי׃ 13.4. אֶל־מְקוֹם הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁם בָּרִאשֹׁנָה וַיִּקְרָא שָׁם אַבְרָם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 13.14. וַיהוָה אָמַר אֶל־אַבְרָם אַחֲרֵי הִפָּרֶד־לוֹט מֵעִמּוֹ שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה מִן־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה שָׁם צָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וָקֵדְמָה וָיָמָּה׃ 13.15. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה רֹאֶה לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֲךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 13.16. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אִם־יוּכַל אִישׁ לִמְנוֹת אֶת־עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ גַּם־זַרְעֲךָ יִמָּנֶה׃ 13.17. קוּם הִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ לְאָרְכָּהּ וּלְרָחְבָּהּ כִּי לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה׃ 15.2. וְאֶת־הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי וְאֶת־הָרְפָאִים׃ 15.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר׃ 15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 15.8. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה בַּמָּה אֵדַע כִּי אִירָשֶׁנָּה׃ 17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃ 17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃ 17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃ 17.8. וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֵת אֶרֶץ מְגֻרֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לַאֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 17.17. וַיִּפֹּל אַבְרָהָם עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּצְחָק וַיֹּאמֶר בְּלִבּוֹ הַלְּבֶן מֵאָה־שָׁנָה יִוָּלֵד וְאִם־שָׂרָה הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֵד׃ 17.18. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים לוּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל יִחְיֶה לְפָנֶיךָ׃ 23.6. שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרֵינוּ קְבֹר אֶת־מֵתֶךָ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ מִקְּבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃ 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 13.3. And he went on his journeys from the South even to Beth-el, unto the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Beth-el and Ai;" 13.4. unto the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first; and Abram called there on the name of the LORD." 13.14. And the LORD said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him: ‘Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward and southward and eastward and westward;" 13.15. for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever." 13.16. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth; so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered." 13.17. Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it.’" 15.2. And Abram said: ‘O Lord GOD, what wilt Thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?’" 15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’" 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 15.8. And he said: ‘O Lord GOD, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?’" 17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted." 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee." 17.8. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.’" 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.17. Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart: ‘Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?’" 17.18. And Abraham said unto God: ‘Oh that Ishmael might live before Thee! ’" 23.6. ’Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.32, 3.1-3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וְהָיָה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי עַל־כָּל־בָּשָׂר וְנִבְּאוּ בְּנֵיכֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיכֶם זִקְנֵיכֶם חֲלֹמוֹת יַחֲלֹמוּן בַּחוּרֵיכֶם חֶזְיֹנוֹת יִרְאוּ׃ 3.2. וְגַם עַל־הָעֲבָדִים וְעַל־הַשְּׁפָחוֹת בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי׃ 3.3. וְנָתַתִּי מוֹפְתִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ דָּם וָאֵשׁ וְתִימֲרוֹת עָשָׁן׃ 3.4. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵהָפֵךְ לְחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵחַ לְדָם לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 3.5. וְהָיָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה יִמָּלֵט כִּי בְּהַר־צִיּוֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם תִּהְיֶה פְלֵיטָה כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה וּבַשְּׂרִידִים אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה קֹרֵא׃ 3.1. And it shall come to pass afterward, That I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh; And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your old men shall dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions;" 3.2. And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids In those days will I pour out My spirit." 3.3. And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, Blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke." 3.4. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and terrible day of the LORD come. 3.5. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered; For in mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those that escape, As the LORD hath said, And among the remt those whom the LORD shall call."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.14-15.15, 18.5, 18.24-18.30, 19.13, 19.33-19.34, 22.27-22.28, 25.3-25.4, 25.36-25.37, 25.39-25.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.14. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.15. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.24. אַל־תִּטַּמְּאוּ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה כִּי בְכָל־אֵלֶּה נִטְמְאוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם׃ 18.25. וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ וָאֶפְקֹד עֲוֺנָהּ עָלֶיהָ וַתָּקִא הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ׃ 18.26. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אַתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 18.27. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵל עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ׃ 18.28. וְלֹא־תָקִיא הָאָרֶץ אֶתְכֶם בְּטַמַּאֲכֶם אֹתָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר קָאָה אֶת־הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם׃ 18.29. כִּי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.33. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 19.34. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 22.27. שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד וְהָיָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּחַת אִמּוֹ וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה יֵרָצֶה לְקָרְבַּן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 22.28. וְשׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃ 25.3. שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ׃ 25.3. וְאִם לֹא־יִגָּאֵל עַד־מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת לַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל׃ 25.4. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ׃ 25.4. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר׃ 25.36. אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ׃ 25.37. אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ׃ 25.39. וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד׃ 25.41. וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב׃ 25.42. כִּי־עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד׃ 25.43. לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 15.14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tent of meeting, and give them unto the priest." 15.15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his issue." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.24. Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things; for in all these the nations are defiled, which I cast out from before you." 18.25. And the land was defiled, therefore I did visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land vomited out her inhabitants." 18.26. Ye therefore shall keep My statutes and Mine ordices, and shall not do any of these abominations; neither the home-born, nor the stranger that sojourneth among you—" 18.27. for all these abominations have the men of the land done, that were before you, and the land is defiled—" 18.28. that the land vomit not you out also, when ye defile it, as it vomited out the nation that was before you." 18.29. For whosoever shall do any of these abominations, even the souls that do them shall be cut off from among their people." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.33. And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not do him wrong." 19.34. The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be unto you as the home-born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 22.27. When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, is brought forth, then it shall be seven days under the dam; but from the eighth day and thenceforth it may be accepted for an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 22.28. And whether it be cow or ewe, ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day." 25.3. Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the produce thereof." 25.4. But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard." 25.36. Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee." 25.37. Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase." 25.39. And if thy brother be waxen poor with thee, and sell himself unto thee, thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant." 25.40. As a hired servant, and as a settler, he shall be with thee; he shall serve with thee unto the year of jubilee." 25.41. Then shall he go out from thee, he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return." 25.42. For they are My servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen." 25.43. Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.32, 8.35, 12.22, 15.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 8.32. וְעַתָּה בָנִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִי וְאַשְׁרֵי דְּרָכַי יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 8.35. כִּי מֹצְאִי מצאי [מָצָא] חַיִּים וַיָּפֶק רָצוֹן מֵיְהוָה׃ 12.22. תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה שִׂפְתֵי־שָׁקֶר וְעֹשֵׂי אֱמוּנָה רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 15.27. עֹכֵר בֵּיתוֹ בּוֹצֵעַ בָּצַע וְשׂוֹנֵא מַתָּנֹת יִחְיֶה׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 8.32. Now therefore, ye children, hearken unto me; For happy are they that keep my ways." 8.35. For whoso findeth me findeth life, And obtaineth favour of the LORD." 12.22. Lying lips are an abomination to the LORD; But they that deal truly are His delight. ." 15.27. He that is greedy of gain troubleth his own house; But he that hateth gifts shall live."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 16.8-16.11, 110.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.8. שִׁוִּיתִי יְהוָה לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד כִּי מִימִינִי בַּל־אֶמּוֹט׃ 16.9. לָכֵן שָׂמַח לִבִּי וַיָּגֶל כְּבוֹדִי אַף־בְּשָׂרִי יִשְׁכֹּן לָבֶטַח׃ 16.11. תּוֹדִיעֵנִי אֹרַח חַיִּים שֹׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת־פָּנֶיךָ נְעִמוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶצַח׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 16.8. I have set the LORD always before me; Surely He is at my right hand, I shall not be moved." 16.9. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh also dwelleth in safety;" 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit." 16.11. Thou makest me to know the path of life; In Thy presence is fulness of joy, In Thy right hand bliss for evermore." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'"
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2, 25.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 25.11. וְאֵת יֶתֶר הָעָם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּעִיר וְאֶת־הַנֹּפְלִים אֲשֶׁר נָפְלוּ עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאֵת יֶתֶר הֶהָמוֹן הֶגְלָה נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב־טַבָּחִים׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD." 25.11. And the residue of the people that were left in the city, and those that fell away, that fell to the king of Babylon, and the residue of the multitude, did Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carry away captive."
11. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.4. הִנֵּה עֻפְּלָה לֹא־יָשְׁרָה נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ וְצַדִּיק בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ יִחְיֶה׃ 2.4. Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him; But the righteous shall live by his faith."
12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 8.35, 24.25-24.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.35. לֹא־הָיָה דָבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קָרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ נֶגֶד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְהַגֵּר הַהֹלֵךְ בְּקִרְבָּם׃ 24.25. וַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרִית לָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיָּשֶׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט בִּשְׁכֶם׃ 24.26. וַיִּכְתֹּב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהִים וַיִּקַּח אֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָה וַיְקִימֶהָ שָּׁם תַּחַת הָאַלָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּמִקְדַּשׁ יְהוָה׃ 24.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן הַזֹּאת תִּהְיֶה־בָּנוּ לְעֵדָה כִּי־הִיא שָׁמְעָה אֵת כָּל־אִמְרֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עִמָּנוּ וְהָיְתָה בָכֶם לְעֵדָה פֶּן־תְּכַחֲשׁוּן בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 24.28. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הָעָם אִישׁ לְנַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 8.35. There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the assembly of Israel, and the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that walked among them." 24.25. So Joshua made a covet with the people that day, and set them a statute and an ordice in Shechem." 24.26. And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God; and he took a great stone, and set it up there under the oak that was by the sanctuary of the LORD." 24.27. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Behold, this stone shall be a witness against us; for it hath heard all the words of the LORD which He spoke unto us; it shall be therefore a witness against you, lest ye deny your God.’" 24.28. So Joshua sent the people away, every man unto his inheritance."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.1. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הִתְיַחְשׂוּ וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה הָגְלוּ לְבָבֶל בְּמַעֲלָם׃ 9.1. וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים יְדַעְיָה וִיהוֹיָרִיב וְיָכִין׃ 9.1. So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel; and Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their transgression."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.7. אִם־עֹשֶׁק רָשׁ וְגֵזֶל מִשְׁפָּט וָצֶדֶק תִּרְאֶה בַמְּדִינָה אַל־תִּתְמַהּ עַל־הַחֵפֶץ כִּי גָבֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבֹהַ שֹׁמֵר וּגְבֹהִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 5.7. If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and the violent perverting of justice and righteousness in the state, marvel not at the matter; for one higher than the high watcheth, and there are higher than they."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.10-9.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.11. אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָ בְּיַד עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּאִים לְרִשְׁתָּהּ אֶרֶץ נִדָּה הִיא בְּנִדַּת עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת בְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר מִלְאוּהָ מִפֶּה אֶל־פֶּה בְּטֻמְאָתָם׃ 9.12. וְעַתָּה בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְּנוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם אַל־תִּשְׂאוּ לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא־תִדְרְשׁוּ שְׁלֹמָם וְטוֹבָתָם עַד־עוֹלָם לְמַעַן תֶּחֶזְקוּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־טוּב הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּם לִבְנֵיכֶם עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 9.10. And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? for we have forsaken Thy commandments," 9.11. which Thou hast commanded by Thy servants the prophets, saying: The land, unto which ye go to possess it, is an unclean land through the uncleanness of the peoples of the lands, through their abominations, wherewith they have filled it from one end to another with their filthiness." 9.12. Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their prosperity for ever; that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever."
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.2, 9.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 9.8. וּמָצָאתָ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ וְכָרוֹת עִמּוֹ הַבְּרִית לָתֵת אֶת־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי לָתֵת לְזַרְעוֹ וַתָּקֶם אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ כִּי צַדִּיק אָתָּה׃ 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 9.8. and foundest his heart faithful before Thee, and madest a covet with him to give the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite, and the Girgashite, even to give it unto his seed, and hast performed Thy words; for Thou art righteous;"
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.1-91.10, 91.14, 92.1, 92.3, 94.1, 94.5, 94.11, 95.2-95.3, 95.7, 96.1-96.2, 96.4, 96.8, 97.1, 97.3-97.5, 97.7, 98.4, 98.6, 98.10, 98.12, 99.3, 99.6, 99.16, 100.3-100.5, 100.7, 100.9-100.10, 101.7, 101.9, 102.3, 102.5-102.6, 102.9, 103.1, 103.4-103.5, 103.9, 103.11, 104.5-104.7, 104.9-104.10, 104.12, 105.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

91.1. And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy brothers And gather together to me all the sons of thy mother; For the word calls me, And the spirit is poured out upon me, That I may show you everything That shall befall you for ever.' 91.1. And the righteous shall arise from their sleep, And wisdom shall arise and be given unto them. 91.2. And there upon Methuselah went and summoned to him all his brothers and assembled his relatives. 91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 91.4. Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion. 91.5. For I know that violence must increase on the earth, And a great chastisement be executed on the earth, And all unrighteousness come to an end:Yea, it shall be cut off from its roots, And its whole structure be destroyed. 91.6. And unrighteousness shall again be consummated on the earth, And all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence And transgression shall prevail in a twofold degree. 91.7. And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth. 91.8. In those days violence shall be cut off from its roots, And the roots of unrighteousness together with deceit, And they shall be destroyed from under heaven. 91.9. And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever. 92.1. The book written by Enoch-[Enoch indeed wrote this complete doctrine of wisdom, (which is) praised of all men and a judge of all the earth] for all my children who shall dwell on the earth. And for the future generations who shall observe uprightness and peace. 92.3. And the righteous one shall arise from sleep, [Shall arise] and walk in the paths of righteousness, And all his path and conversation shall be in eternal goodness and grace. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 94.5. And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish. 94.11. And your righteous ones in those days shall be A reproach to the sinners and the godless. 95.2. who has permitted you to practice reproaches and wickedness And so judgement shall overtake you, sinners. 95.3. Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires. 95.7. Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 96.1. Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires. 96.2. [And in the day of the tribulation of the sinners, Your children shall mount and rise as eagles, And higher than the vultures will be your nest, And ye shall ascend and enter the crevices of the earth, And the clefts of the rock for ever as coneys before the unrighteous, And the sirens shall sigh because of you-and weep.] 96.4. Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds. 96.8. Woe to you, ye mighty, Who with might oppress the righteous; For the day of your destruction is coming.In those days many and good days shall come to the righteous-in the day of your judgement. 97.1. Believe, ye righteous, that the sinners will become a shame And perish in the day of unrighteousness. 97.1. Yea and like water your lies shall flow away; For your riches shall not abide But speedily ascend from you;For ye have acquired it all in unrighteousness, And ye shall be given over to a great curse. 97.3. What will ye do, ye sinners, And whither will ye flee on that day of judgement, When ye hear the voice of the prayer of the righteou 97.4. Yea, ye shall fare like unto them, Against whom this word shall be a testimony: ' Ye have been companions of sinners. 97.5. And in those days the prayer of the righteous shall reach unto the Lord, And for you the days of your judgement shall come. 97.7. Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you. 98.4. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it. 98.6. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy Great One, That all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, And that none of your deeds of oppression are covered and hidden. 98.6. neighbour. Therefore they shall have no peace but die a sudden death. 98.12. Woe to you who love the deeds of unrighteousness: wherefore do ye hope for good hap unto yourselves know that ye shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they shall cut 99.3. In those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as a memorial, And place them as a testimony before the angels, That they may place the sin of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High. 99.16. For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins. 100.3. And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot shall be submerged to its height. 100.4. In those days the angels shall descend into the secret places And gather together into one place all those who brought down sin And the Most High will arise on that day of judgement To execute great judgement amongst sinners. 100.5. And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint guardians from amongst the holy angels To guard them as the apple of an eye, Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have nought to fear. 100.7. Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works. 100.9. Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn. 101.7. High, and has He not set limits to its doings, and confined it throughout by the sand And at His reproof it is afraid and dries up, and all its fish die and all that is in it; But ye sinners that are 101.9. Do not the sailors of the ships fear the sea Yet sinners fear not the Most High. 102.3. And all the angels shall execute their commandst And shall seek to hide themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, And the children of earth shall tremble and quake; And ye sinners shall be cursed for ever, And ye shall have no peace. 102.5. And grieve not if your soul into Sheol has descended in grief, And that in your life your body fared not according to your goodness, But wait for the day of the judgement of sinners And for the day of cursing and chastisement. 102.6. And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deed 102.9. I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content to eat and drink, and rob and sin, and strip men naked, and 103.1. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by the glory of the Great and Honoured and 103.1. And we have been destroyed and have not found any to help us even with a word: We have been tortured [and destroyed], and not hoped to see life from day to day. 103.4. And the spirits of you who have died in righteousness shall live and rejoice, And their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One Unto all the generations of the world: wherefore no longer fear their contumely. 103.5. Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: ' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days. 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 104.6. judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them 104.7. but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: ' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your 104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the 105.1. In those days the Lord bade (them) to summon and testify to the children of earth concerning their wisdom: Show (it) unto them; for ye are their guides, and a recompense over the whole earth.
18. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness?
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.1-24.34, 34.1-34.8, 44.19-44.20, 45.4, 46.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.1. Wisdom will praise herself,and will glory in the midst of her people. 24.1. In the holy tabernacle I ministered before him,and so I was established in Zion. 24.2. In the assembly of the Most High she will open her mouth,and in the presence of his host she will glory: 24.2. For the remembrance of me is sweeter than honey,and my inheritance sweeter than the honeycomb. 24.3. I came forth from the mouth of the Most High,and covered the earth like a mist. 24.3. I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden. 24.4. I dwelt in high places,and my throne was in a pillar of cloud. 24.5. Alone I have made the circuit of the vault of heaven and have walked in the depths of the abyss. 24.6. In the waves of the sea, in the whole earth,and in every people and nation I have gotten a possession. 24.7. Among all these I sought a resting place;I sought in whose territory I might lodge. 24.8. Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance. 24.9. From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist. 24.11. In the beloved city likewise he gave me a resting place,and in Jerusalem was my dominion. 24.12. So I took root in an honored people,in the portion of the Lord, who is their inheritance. 24.13. I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon. 24.14. I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall. 24.15. Like cassia and camels thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices,and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor,like galbanum, onycha, and stacte,and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle. 24.16. Like a terebinth I spread out my branches,and my branches are glorious and graceful. 24.17. Like a vine I caused loveliness to bud,and my blossoms became glorious and abundant fruit. 24.19. Come to me, you who desire me,and eat your fill of my produce. 24.21. Those who eat me will hunger for more,and those who drink me will thirst for more. 24.22. Whoever obeys me will not be put to shame,and those who work with my help will not sin. 24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob. 24.25. It fills men with wisdom, like the Pishon,and like the Tigris at the time of the first fruits. 24.26. It makes them full of understanding, like the Euphrates,and like the Jordan at harvest time. 24.27. It makes instruction shine forth like light,like the Gihon at the time of vintage. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 24.29. for her thought is more abundant than the sea,and her counsel deeper than the great abyss. 24.31. I said, "I will water my orchard and drench my garden plot";and lo, my canal became a river,and my river became a sea. 24.32. I will again make instruction shine forth like the dawn,and I will make it shine afar; 24.33. I will again pour out teaching like prophecy,and leave it to all future generations. 24.34. Observe that I have not labored for myself alone,but for all who seek instruction. 34.1. A man of no understanding has vain and false hopes,and dreams give wings to fools. 34.1. He that is inexperienced knows few things,but he that has traveled acquires much cleverness. 34.2. As one who catches at a shadow and pursues the wind,so is he who gives heed to dreams. 34.2. Like one who kills a son before his fathers eyes is the man who offers a sacrifice from the property of the poor. 34.3. The vision of dreams is this against that,the likeness of a face confronting a face. 34.4. From an unclean thing what will be made clean?And from something false what will be true? 34.5. Divinations and omens and dreams are folly,and like a woman in travail the mind has fancies. 34.6. Unless they are sent from the Most High as a visitation,do not give your mind to them. 34.7. For dreams have deceived many,and those who put their hope in them have failed. 34.8. Without such deceptions the law will be fulfilled,and wisdom is made perfect in truthful lips. 44.19. Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations,and no one has been found like him in glory; 45.4. He sanctified him through faithfulness and meekness;he chose him out of all mankind. 46.15. By his faithfulness he was proved to be a prophet,and by his words he became known as a trustworthy seer.
20. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 24.8-24.11, 24.21, 24.23, 34.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

21. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 1.127-1.147, 1.267-1.275 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

1.127. Into Tartarean chamber terrible 1.128. Kept in firm chains to pay full penalty 1.129. In Gehenna of strong, furious, quenchless fire. 1.130. 130 And after these a third strong-minded race 1.131. Appeared, a race of overbearing men 1.132. And terrible, who wrought among themselve 1.133. Many an evil. And fights, homicides 1.134. And battles did continually destroy 1.135. 135 Those men possessed of overweening heart 1.136. And from these afterward another race 1.137. Proceeded, late-completed, youngest born 1.138. Blood-stained, perverse in counsel; of men these 1.139. Were in the fourth race; much the blood they spilled 1.140. 140 Nor feared they God nor had regard for men 1.141. For maddening wrath and sore impiety 1.142. Were sent upon them. And wars, homicides 1.143. And battles sent some into Erebus 1.144. Since they were overweening impious men. 1.145. 145 But the rest did the heavenly God himself 1.146. In anger afterwards change from his world 1.147. Casting them into mighty Tartaru 1.267. And he massed clouds, and bid the sun's bright disk 1.268. And moon, and stars, and circle of the heaven 1.269. Obscuring all things round; he thundered loud 1.270. 270 Terror of mortals, sending lightnings forth; 1.271. And all the winds together were aroused 1.272. And all the veins of water were unloosed 1.273. By opening of great cataracts from heaven 1.274. And from earth's caverns and the tireless deep 1.275. 275 Appeared the myriad waters, and the whole
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.185, 3.89-3.90, 8.350, 8.352, 13.282-13.283 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.185. After which, before he built his altar, where the birds of prey flew about, as desirous of blood, a divine voice came to him, declaring that their neighbors would be grievous to his posterity, when they should be in Egypt, for four hundred years; during which time they should be afflicted, but afterwards should overcome their enemies, should conquer the Canaanites in war, and possess themselves of their land, and of their cities. 3.89. 4. When he had said this, he brought the people, with their wives and children, so near the mountain, that they might hear God himself speaking to them about the precepts which they were to practice; that the energy of what should be spoken might not be hurt by its utterance by that tongue of a man, which could but imperfectly deliver it to their understanding. 8.352. and after a silence made, a divine voice exhorted him not to be disturbed with the circumstances he was in, for that none of his enemies should have power over him. The voice also commanded him to return home, and to ordain Jehu, the son of Nimshi, to be king over their own multitude; and Hazael, of Damascus, to be over the Syrians; and Elisha, of the city Abel, to be a prophet in his stead; and that of the impious multitude, some should be slain by Hazael, and others by Jehu. 13.282. Now a very surprising thing is related of this high priest Hyrcanus, how God came to discourse with him; for they say that on the very same day on which his sons fought with Antiochus Cyzicenus, he was alone in the temple, as high priest, offering incense, and heard a voice, that his sons had just then overcome Antiochus. 13.283. And this he openly declared before all the multitude upon his coming out of the temple; and it accordingly proved true; and in this posture were the affairs of Hyrcanus.
23. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.175-2.178 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p 2.176. 19. And indeed, the greatest part of mankind are so far from living according to their own laws, that they hardly know them; but when they have sinned they learn from others that they have transgressed the law. 2.177. Those also who are in the highest and principal posts of the government, confess they are not acquainted with those laws, and are obliged to take such persons for their assessors in public administrations as profess to have skill in those laws; 2.178. but for our people, if any body do but ask any one of them about our laws, he will more readily tell them all than he will tell his own name, and this in consequence of our having learned them immediately as soon as ever we became sensible of any thing, and of our having them, as it were engraven on our souls. Our transgressors of them are but few; and it is impossible, when any do offend, to escape punishment. /p
24. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.8-1.9, 2.9, 4.13-4.14, 4.17, 4.21, 6.19, 7.15, 8.3, 9.9, 9.20-9.21, 10.25, 11.7-11.8, 14.1, 15.20-15.28, 15.58, 16.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. who will also confirm you until the end, blameless in the day of ourLord Jesus Christ. 1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 4.13. Being defamed, we entreat. We are made as the filthof the world, the dirt wiped off by all, even until now. 4.14. I don'twrite these things to shame you, but to admonish you as my belovedchildren. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness? 6.19. Or don't you know that your body is a temple ofthe Holy Spirit which is in you, which you have from God? You are notyour own 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him. 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law. 10.25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 14.1. Follow after love, and earnestly desire spiritual gifts, butespecially that you may prophesy. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord. 16.24. My love to all of you in Christ Jesus. Amen.
25. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.3-1.4, 2.8, 4.9, 5.8, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen 2.8. Even so, affectionately longing for you, we were well pleased to impart to you, not the gospel of God only, but also our own souls, because you had become very dear to us. 4.9. But concerning brotherly love, you have no need that one write to you. For you yourselves are taught by God to love one another 5.8. But let us, since we belong to the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and, for a helmet, the hope of salvation. 5.13. and to respect and honor them in love for their work's sake. Be at peace among yourselves.
26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.4, 2.8, 4.10, 5.17, 6.6, 7.1, 8.7-8.8, 12.1-12.10, 12.15, 12.19, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Acts, 2.14-2.36, 3.18-3.24, 5.38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.14. But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and spoke out to them, "You men of Judea, and all you who dwell at Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listen to my words. 2.15. For these aren't drunken, as you suppose, seeing it is only the third hour of the day. 2.16. But this is what has been spoken through the prophet Joel: 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.21. It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 2.22. You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know 2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. 2.25. For David says concerning him, 'I saw the Lord always before my face, For he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. 2.26. Therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced. Moreover my flesh also will dwell in hope; 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 2.28. You made known to me the ways of life. You will make me full of gladness with your presence.' 2.29. Brothers, I may tell you freely of the patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2.30. Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, he would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne 2.31. he foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul left in Hades, nor did his flesh see decay. 2.32. This Jesus God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 2.33. Being therefore exalted by the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this, which you now see and hear. 2.34. For David didn't ascend into the heavens, but he says himself, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit by my right hand 2.35. Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' 2.36. Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified. 3.18. But the things which God announced by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he thus fulfilled. 3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord 3.20. and that he may send Christ Jesus, who was ordained for you before 3.21. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from ancient times. 3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 3.23. It will be, that every soul that will not listen to that prophet will be utterly destroyed from among the people.' 3.24. Yes, and all the prophets from Samuel and those who followed after, as many as have spoken, they also told of these days. 5.38. Now I tell you, refrain from these men, and leave them alone. For if this counsel or this work is of men, it will be overthrown.
28. New Testament, Apocalypse, 10.4, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.8. The voice which I heard from heaven, again speaking with me, said, "Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land.
29. New Testament, Philemon, 5, 7, 9, 16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.7-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.7. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men. 4.9. Now this, "He ascended," what is it but that he also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? 4.10. He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 4.11. He gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, shepherds and teachers; 4.12. for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; 4.13. until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a full grown man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; 4.14. that we may no longer be children, tossed back and forth and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in craftiness, after the wiles of error; 4.15. but speaking truth in love, we may grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ; 4.16. from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love.
31. New Testament, Galatians, 2.20, 4.22-4.23, 5.13-5.14, 5.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness
32. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.14, 2.5-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. Aren't they all ministering spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? 2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
33. New Testament, Philippians, 1.6, 1.16, 2.5-2.12, 3.5-3.6, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. being confident of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ. 1.16. The former insincerly preach Christ from selfish ambition, thinking that they add affliction to my chains; 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 2.12. So then, my beloved, even as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 4.1. Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
34. New Testament, Romans, 2.10, 3.17, 3.21-3.26, 3.30, 6.2, 8.13, 9.13, 10.4-10.13, 12.9, 12.19, 13.8-13.10, 14.15, 14.19, 15.33, 16.5, 16.8-16.9, 16.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 3.17. The way of peace, they haven't known. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 3.26. to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Jesus. 3.30. since indeed there is one God who will justify the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised through faith. 6.2. May it never be! We who died to sin, how could we live in it any longer? 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 10.4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. 12.9. Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor that which is evil. Cling to that which is good. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law. 14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. 14.19. So then, let us follow after things which make for peace, and things by which we may build one another up. 15.33. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ. 16.8. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord. 16.9. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. 16.12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Greet Persis, the beloved, who labored much in the Lord.
35. New Testament, John, 3.13, 6.62 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 6.62. Then what if you would see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before?
36. New Testament, Luke, 6.29, 7.28, 12.13-12.14, 16.18, 17.20-17.21, 18.35-18.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 7.28. For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he. 12.13. One of the multitude said to him, "Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me. 12.14. But he said to him, "Man, who made me a judge or an arbitrator over you? 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 17.20. Being asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God would come, he answered them, "The Kingdom of God doesn't come with observation; 17.21. neither will they say, 'Look, here!' or, 'Look, there!' for behold, the Kingdom of God is within you. 18.35. It happened, as he came near Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the road, begging. 18.36. Hearing a multitude going by, he asked what this meant. 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 18.38. He cried out, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me! 18.39. Those who led the way rebuked him, that he should be quiet; but he cried out all the more, "You son of David, have mercy on me! 18.40. Standing still, Jesus commanded him to be brought to him. When he had come near, he asked him 18.41. What do you want me to do?"He said, "Lord, that I may see again. 18.42. Jesus said to him, "Receive your sight. Your faith has healed you. 18.43. Immediately he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God. All the people, when they saw it, praised God.
37. Plutarch, On The Fortune Or Virtue of Alexander The Great, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 53.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.3-13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 34.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי יָמוּךְ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ אָמַר לָהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי מַה מִּצְוָה זוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן לִרְחֹץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי זוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא, אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. מָה אִם אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים אוֹתָן בְּבָתֵּי טַרְטִיאוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת, מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא מוֹרְקָן וְשׁוֹטְפָן וְהֵן מַעֲלִין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּדֵּל עִם גְּדוֹלֵי מַלְכוּת, אֲנִי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִם הָדֵין אַכְסַנְיָא בְּגוֹ בֵּיתָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל יוֹם אִית לָךְ אַכְסַנְיָא, אָמַר לָהֶם, וְהָדֵין נַפְשָׁא עֲלוּבְתָּא לָאו אַכְסַנְיָא הוּא בְּגוֹ גוּפָא, יוֹמָא דֵין הִיא הָכָא לְמָחָר לֵית הִיא הָכָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד וְעֹכֵר שְׁאֵרוֹ אַכְזָרִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זֶה שֶׁמַּגַעַת לוֹ שִׂמְחָה וְאֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק אֶת קְרוֹבָיו עִמּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲנִיּוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טו, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ. 34.3. Another Thing: 'But if he is impoverished', here it is written, \"The merciful man does good to his own soul (Proverbs 11:17),\" this [refers to] Hillel the Elder, who, at the time that he was departing from his students, would walk with them. They said to him, \"Rabbi, where are you walking to?\" He said to them, \"To fulfill a commandment!\" They said to him, \"And what commandment is this?\" He said to them, \"To bathe in the bathhouse.\" They said to him: \"But is this really a commandment?\" He said to them: \"Yes. Just like regarding the statues (lit. icons) of kings, that are set up in the theaters and the circuses, the one who is appointed over them bathes them and scrubs them, and they give him sustece, and furthermore, he attains status with the leaders of the kingdom; I, who was created in the [Divine] Image and Form, as it is written, \"For in the Image of G-d He made Man (Genesis 9:6),\" even more so!..."
41. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

42. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.22-1.28, 2.18.82-2.18.94, 2.18.96, 2.19, 5.6.32-5.6.40 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. וזה הוא תנור של עכנאי מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שהקיפו דברים כעכנא זו וטמאוהו תנא באותו היום השיב רבי אליעזר כל תשובות שבעולם ולא קיבלו הימנו,אמר להם אם הלכה כמותי חרוב זה יוכיח נעקר חרוב ממקומו מאה אמה ואמרי לה ארבע מאות אמה אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מן החרוב חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי אמת המים יוכיחו חזרו אמת המים לאחוריהם אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מאמת המים,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי כותלי בית המדרש יוכיחו הטו כותלי בית המדרש ליפול גער בהם רבי יהושע אמר להם אם תלמידי חכמים מנצחים זה את זה בהלכה אתם מה טיבכם לא נפלו מפני כבודו של רבי יהושע ולא זקפו מפני כבודו של ר"א ועדיין מטין ועומדין,חזר ואמר להם אם הלכה כמותי מן השמים יוכיחו יצאתה בת קול ואמרה מה לכם אצל ר"א שהלכה כמותו בכ"מ,עמד רבי יהושע על רגליו ואמר (דברים ל, יב) לא בשמים היא מאי לא בשמים היא אמר רבי ירמיה שכבר נתנה תורה מהר סיני אין אנו משגיחין בבת קול שכבר כתבת בהר סיני בתורה (שמות כג, ב) אחרי רבים להטות אשכחיה רבי נתן לאליהו א"ל מאי עביד קוב"ה בההיא שעתא א"ל קא חייך ואמר נצחוני בני נצחוני בני,אמרו אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום באש ונמנו עליו וברכוהו ואמרו מי ילך ויודיעו אמר להם ר"ע אני אלך שמא ילך אדם שאינו הגון ויודיעו ונמצא מחריב את כל העולם כולו,מה עשה ר"ע לבש שחורים ונתעטף שחורים וישב לפניו ברחוק ארבע אמות אמר לו ר"א עקיבא מה יום מיומים אמר לו רבי כמדומה לי שחבירים בדילים ממך אף הוא קרע בגדיו וחלץ מנעליו ונשמט וישב על גבי קרקע,זלגו עיניו דמעות לקה העולם שליש בזיתים ושליש בחטים ושליש בשעורים ויש אומרים אף בצק שבידי אשה טפח תנא אך גדול היה באותו היום שבכל מקום שנתן בו עיניו ר"א נשרף,ואף ר"ג היה בא בספינה עמד עליו נחשול לטבעו אמר כמדומה לי שאין זה אלא בשביל ר"א בן הורקנוס עמד על רגליו ואמר רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא עשיתי אלא לכבודך שלא ירבו מחלוקות בישראל נח הים מזעפו,אימא שלום דביתהו דר"א אחתיה דר"ג הואי מההוא מעשה ואילך לא הוה שבקה ליה לר"א למיפל על אפיה ההוא יומא ריש ירחא הוה ואיחלף לה בין מלא לחסר איכא דאמרי אתא עניא וקאי אבבא אפיקא ליה ריפתא,אשכחתיה דנפל על אנפיה אמרה ליה קום קטלית לאחי אדהכי נפק שיפורא מבית רבן גמליאל דשכיב אמר לה מנא ידעת אמרה ליה כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא כל השערים ננעלים חוץ משערי אונאה,תנו רבנן המאנה את הגר עובר בשלשה לאוין והלוחצו עובר בשנים,מאי שנא מאנה דכתיבי שלשה לאוין (שמות כב, כ) וגר לא תונה (ויקרא יט, לג) וכי יגור אתך גר בארצכם לא תונו אותו (ויקרא כה, יז) ולא תונו איש את עמיתו וגר בכלל עמיתו הוא לוחצו נמי שלשה כתיבי (שמות כב, כ) ולא תלחצנו (שמות כג, ט) וגר לא תלחץ (שמות כב, כד) ולא תהיה לו כנושה וגר בכלל הוא אלא אחד זה ואחד זה בשלשה,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר מפני מה הזהירה תורה בל"ו מקומות ואמרי לה במ"ו מקומות בגר מפני שסורו רע,מאי דכתיב וגר לא תונה ולא תלחצנו כי גרים הייתם בארץ מצרים (תנינא) רבי נתן אומר מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך והיינו דאמרי אינשי דזקיף ליה זקיפא בדיותקיה לא נימא ליה לחבריה זקיף ביניתא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין מערבין פירות בפירות אפי' חדשים בחדשים 59b. bAnd this isknown as bthe oven of iakhnai /i.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the relevance of iakhnai /i,a snake, in this context? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It is characterized in that manner due to the fact bthatthe Rabbis bsurroundedit bwiththeir bstatements like this snake,which often forms a coil when at rest, band deemed it impure.The Sages btaught: On that day,when they discussed this matter, bRabbi Eliezer answered allpossible banswers in the worldto support his opinion, bbutthe Rabbis bdid not accepthis explanations bfrom him. /b,After failing to convince the Rabbis logically, Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthis carobtree bwill proveit. The bcarobtree bwas uprooted from its place one hundred cubits, and some say four hundred cubits.The Rabbis bsaid to him: One does not citehalakhic bproof from the carobtree. Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthe stream will proveit. The water in bthe stream turned backwardand began flowing in the opposite direction. bThey said to him: One does not citehalakhic bproof from a stream. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bthe walls of the study hall will proveit. bThe walls of the study hall leanedinward and began bto fall. Rabbi Yehoshua scoldedthe walls and bsaid to them: If Torah scholars are contendingwith beach other inmatters of ihalakha /i, whatis the bnatureof byourinvolvement in this dispute? The Gemara relates: The walls bdid not fall because ofthe bdeferencedue bRabbi Yehoshua, but they did not straighten because ofthe bdeferencedue bRabbi Eliezer, and they still remain leaning. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bthen said to them: Ifthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance with myopinion, bHeaven will proveit. bA Divine Voice emergedfrom Heaven band said: Why are youdiffering bwith Rabbi Eliezer, asthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance withhis opinion bin every placethat he expresses an opinion?, bRabbi Yehoshua stood on his feet and said:It is written: b“It is not in heaven”(Deuteronomy 30:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the relevance of the phrase b“It is not in heaven”in this context? bRabbi Yirmeya says:Since bthe Torah was already given at Mount Sinai, we do not regard a Divine Voice, as You already wrote at Mount Sinai, in the Torah: “After a majority to incline”(Exodus 23:2). Since the majority of Rabbis disagreed with Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion, the ihalakhais not ruled in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara relates: Years after, bRabbi Natan encountered Elijahthe prophet and bsaid to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do at that time,when Rabbi Yehoshua issued his declaration? Elijah bsaid to him:The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsmiled and said: My children have triumphed over Me; My children have triumphed over Me. /b,The Sages bsaid:On bthat day,the Sages bbrought all the ritually pureitems bdeemed pure bythe ruling of bRabbi Eliezerwith regard to the oven band burned them in fire, andthe Sages breached a consensus in his regard and ostracized him. Andthe Sages bsaid: Who will go and inform himof his ostracism? bRabbi Akiva,his beloved disciple, bsaid to them: I will go, lest an unseemly person goand inform him in a callous and offensive manner, band he would thereby destroy the entire world. /b, bWhat did Rabbi Akiva do? He wore black and wrapped himself in black,as an expression of mourning and pain, band sat beforeRabbi Eliezer bat a distance of four cubits,which is the distance that one must maintain from an ostracized individual. bRabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva, whatis different about btoday from other days,that you comport yourself in this manner? Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: My teacher, it appears to me thatyour bcolleagues are distancingthemselves bfrom you.He employed euphemism, as actually they distanced Rabbi Eliezer from them. Rabbi Eliezer btoo, rent his garments and removed his shoes,as is the custom of an ostracized person, band he droppedfrom his seat band sat upon the ground. /b,The Gemara relates: bHis eyes shed tears,and as a result btheentire bworld was afflicted: One-third ofits boliveswere afflicted, band one-third ofits bwheat, and one-third ofits bbarley. And some saythat beven doughkneaded bin a woman’s hands spoiled.The Sages btaught: There was great anger on that day, as any place that Rabbi Eliezer fixed his gaze was burned. /b, bAnd even Rabban Gamliel,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin at Yavne, the head of the Sages who were responsible for the decision to ostracize Rabbi Eliezer, bwas coming on a boatat the time, and ba large wave swelled over himand threatened bto drown him.Rabban Gamliel bsaid: It seems to me that this is only for the sake of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus,as God punishes those who mistreat others. Rabban Gamliel bstood on his feet and said: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that neither was it for my honorthat bI actedwhen ostracizing him, bnor was it for the honor of the house of my fatherthat bI acted; rather,it was bfor Your honor, so that disputes will not proliferate in Israel.In response, bthe sea calmed from its raging. /b,The Gemara further relates: bImma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was the sister of Rabban Gamliel. From that incident forward, she would not allow Rabbi Eliezer to lower his headand recite the itaḥanunprayer, which includes supplication and entreaties. She feared that were her husband to bemoan his fate and pray at that moment, her brother would be punished. bA certain day wasaround the day of bthe New Moon, and sheinadvertently bsubstituted a fullthirty-day month bfor a deficienttwenty-nine-day month, i.e., she thought that it was the New Moon, when one does not lower his head in supplication, but it was not. bSome saythat ba pauper came and stood at the door,and bshe took bread out to him.The result was that she left her husband momentarily unsupervised.,When she returned, bshe found himand saw bthat he had lowered his headin prayer. bShe said to him: Arise, youalready bkilled my brother. Meanwhile,the sound of ba ishofaremerged from the house of Rabban Gamlielto announce bthatthe iNasi bhad died.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to her: From where did you knowthat your brother would die? bShe said to him: This isthe tradition that bI received from the house of the father ofmy bfather: All the gatesof Heaven are apt to be blocked, except for the gatesof prayer for victims bofverbal bmistreatment. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: One whoverbally bmistreats the convert violates three prohibitions, and one who oppresses himin other ways bviolates two. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentwith regard to verbal bmistreatment, that three prohibitions are writtenconcerning it: b“And you shall neither mistreat a convert”(Exodus 22:20); b“And when a convert lives in your land, you shall not mistreat him”(Leviticus 19:33); b“And you shall not mistreat, each man his colleague”(Leviticus 25:17), band a convert isincluded in the category of bcolleague?With regard to bone who also oppressesa convert bas well, threeprohibitions bare written:“And you shall neither mistreat a convert, bnor oppress him”(Exodus 22:20); b“And you shall not oppress a convert(Exodus 23:9); b“And you shall not be to him like a creditor”(Exodus 22:24). This last prohibition is a general prohibition, bin which converts are included.Consequently, it is not correct that one who oppresses a convert violates only two prohibitions. bRather, both thisone, who verbally mistreats a convert, band thatone, who oppresses him, bviolate three prohibitions. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: For what reason did the Torah issue warnings in thirty-six places, and some say in forty-six places, with regard tocausing any distress to ba convert?It is bdue tothe fact bthata convert’s binclination is evil,i.e., he is prone to return to his previous way of living., bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And you shall not mistreat a convert nor oppress him, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt”(Exodus 22:20)? bWe learnedin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: A defect that is in you, do not mentionit bin another.Since the Jewish people were themselves strangers, they are not in a position to demean a convert because he is a stranger in their midst. bAnd thisexplains the adage bthat people say: One who hasa person bhanged in his family [ ibidyotkei /i], does not say to anothermember of his household: bHang a fish for me,as the mention of hanging is demeaning for that family., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not intermingle producebought from one supplier bwithother bproduce, evenif he intermingles bnewproduce bwithother bnewproduce and ostensibly the buyer suffers no loss from his doing so.
44. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19a. ואי ס"ד דלא ידעי כי אמר להו מאי הוי אלא מאי דידעי למה לי' למימר להו לאחזוקי ליה טיבותא למשה,אמר רבי יצחק כל המספר אחרי המת כאלו מספר אחרי האבן איכא דאמרי דלא ידעי ואיכא דאמרי דידעי ולא איכפת להו,איני והא אמר רב פפא חד אישתעי מילתא בתריה דמר שמואל ונפל קניא מטללא ובזעא לארנקא דמוחיה,שאני צורבא מרבנן דקודשא בריך הוא תבע ביקריה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים נופל בגיהנם שנא' (תהלים קכה, ה) והמטים עקלקלותם יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון שלום על ישראל אפילו בשעה ששלום על ישראל יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אם ראית תלמיד חכם שעבר עבירה בלילה אל תהרהר אחריו ביום שמא עשה תשובה שמא סלקא דעתך אלא ודאי עשה תשובה והני מילי בדברים שבגופו אבל בממונא עד דמהדר למריה:,ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי בכ"ד מקומות בית דין מנדי' על כבוד הרב וכולן שנינו במשנתנו אמר ליה ר' אלעזר היכא אמר ליה לכי תשכח,נפק דק ואשכח תלת המזלזל בנטילת ידים והמספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמי' והמגיס דעתו כלפי מעלה,המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים מאי היא דתנן הוא היה אומר אין משקין לא את הגיורת ולא את המשוחררת וחכמים אומרים משקין ואמרו לו מעשה בכרכמית שפחה משוחררת בירושלים והשקוה שמעיה ואבטליון ואמר להם דוגמא השקוה ונדוהו ומת בנדויו וסקלו בית דין את ארונו,והמזלזל בנטילת ידים מאי היא דתנן א"ר יהודה חס ושלום שעקביא בן מהללאל נתנדה שאין עזרה ננעלת על כל אדם בישראל בחכמה ובטהרה וביראת חטא כעקביא בן מהללאל אלא את מי נדו את אלעזר בן חנוך שפקפק בנטילת ידים וכשמת שלחו בית דין והניחו אבן גדולה על ארונו ללמדך שכל המתנדה ומת בנדויו ב"ד סוקלין את ארונו,המגיס דעתו כלפי מעלה מאי היא דתנן שלח לו שמעון בן שטח לחוני המעגל צריך אתה להתנדות ואלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נדוי אבל מה אעשה שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא לפני אביו ועושה לו רצונו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,ותו ליכא והא איכא דתני רב יוסף תודוס איש רומי הנהיג את בני רומי להאכילן גדיים מקולסין בלילי פסחים שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח אלמלא תודוס אתה גוזרני עליך נדוי שאתה מאכיל את ישראל קדשים בחוץ,במשנתנו קאמרינן והא ברייתא היא,ובמתני' ליכא והא איכא הא דתנן חתכו חוליות ונתן חול בין חוליא לחוליא ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאים וזהו תנורו של עכנאי,מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מלמד שהקיפוהו הלכות כעכנאי זה וטמאוהו,ותניא אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום לפניו ולבסוף ברכוהו,אפילו הכי נדוי במתני' לא תנן אלא בכ"ד מקומות היכא משכחת לה ר' יהושע בן לוי מדמה מילתא למילתא ור' אלעזר לא מדמה מילתא למילתא:, נושאי המטה וחלופיהן: ת"ר אין מוציאין את המת סמוך לק"ש ואם התחילו אין מפסיקין איני והא רב יוסף אפקוהו סמוך לק"ש אדם חשוב שאני:,שלפני המטה ושלאחר המטה: ת"ר העוסקים בהספד בזמן שהמת מוטל לפניהם נשמטין אחד אחד וקורין אין המת מוטל לפניהם הן יושבין וקורין והוא יושב ודומם הם עומדים ומתפללין והוא עומד ומצדיק עליו את הדין ואומר רבון העולמים הרבה חטאתי לפניך ולא נפרעת ממני אחד מני אלף יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתגדור פרצותינו ופרצות כל עמך בית ישראל ברחמים,אמר אביי לא מבעי ליה לאינש למימר הכי דארשב"ל וכן תנא משמיה דרבי יוסי לעולם אל יפתח אדם פיו לשטן,ואמר רב יוסף מאי קראה שנאמר (ישעיהו א, ט) כמעט כסדום היינו מאי אהדר להו נביא שמעו דבר ה' קציני סדום:,קברו את המת וחזרו וכו': אם יכולים להתחיל ולגמור את כולה אין אבל פרק אחד או פסוק אחד לא ורמינהו קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור אפילו פרק אחד או פסוק אחד,הכי נמי קאמר אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור אפי' פרק אחד או אפילו פסוק אחד עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו 19a. bAnd if it should enter your mind thatthe dead bdo not know, then what of it if he tells them?The Gemara rejects this: bRather whatwill you say, bthatthey bknow?Then bwhy does heneed bto tell them?The Gemara replies: This is not difficult, as he is telling them so that bthey will give credit to Moses. /b,On this subject, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who speaksnegatively bafter the deceased it is as ifhe bspeaks after the stone.The Gemara offers two interpretations of this: bSome saythis is because the dead bdo not know, and some saythat bthey know,but bthey do not carethat they are spoken of in such a manner.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Pappa say:There was once bsomeone who spokedisparagingly bafterthe death of bMar Shmuel and a reed fell from the ceiling, fracturing his skull?Obviously, the dead care when people speak ill of them.,The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof that the dead care. Rather, a bTorah scholar is different, as GodHimself bdemandsthat bhis honorbe upheld.,Rabbi Yehoshua bben Levi saidsimilarly: bOne who speaksdisparagingly bafter the biers of Torah scholarsand maligns them after their death will bfall in Gehenna, as it is stated: “But those who turn aside unto their crooked ways, the Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity; peace be upon Israel”(Psalms 125:5). bEvenif he speaks ill of them bwhen there is peace upon Israel,after death, when they are no longer able to fight those denouncing them ( iTosafot /i); nevertheless bthe Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity,to Gehenna.,On a similar note, bit was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: If you saw aTorah bscholar transgress a prohibition at night, do not thinkbadly bof him during the day; perhaps he has repentedin the meantime. The Gemara challenges this: bDoes it enter your mindthat only bperhapshe has repented? Shouldn’t he be given the benefit of the doubt? bRather, he has certainly repented.The Gemara notes: bThe ideathat one must always give a Torah scholar the benefit of the doubt and assume that he has repented refers specifically to bmattersaffecting bhimself, but,if one witnesses a Torah scholar committing a transgression binvolving the propertyof another, one is not required to give him the benefit of the doubt. Rather, he should not assume that he has repented buntilhe sees him breturnthe money to bits owner. /b,Since matters relating to the respect due Torah scholars were raised, the Gemara continues, citing bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bsaid: There are twenty-four places in which the court ostracizes overmatters of brespectdue bthe rabbi, and we learned them all in our Mishna. Rabbi Elazar said to him: Whereare those cases to be found? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bsaid to him: Whenyou look, byouwill bfindthem., bHe went out, analyzed, and found threeexamples: bOne who demeansthe ritual of bwashing of the hands, one who speaksdisparagingly bafter the bier of Torah scholars, and one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven.The Gemara cites sources for each of these cases., bWhat isthe source for bone who speaksdisparagingly bafter the biers of Torah scholars? As we learnedin the mishna: Akavya ben Mahalalel bwould say:In the case of a woman whose husband suspects her of adultery, who was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with another man and she did not listen (see Numbers 5), the court bdoes not administerthe bitter water potion of a isotato ba convert or an emancipatedmaidservant. bAnd the Rabbis say:The court badministersthe bitter water potion to them. bAndthe Rabbis bsaid to himas proof: bThere is the story of Kharkemit, an emancipated maidservant in Jerusalem, and Shemaya and Avtalyon administered herthe bitter waters. Akavya ben Mahalalel bsaid tothe Sages: That is no proof. Shemaya and Avtalyon, who were also from families of converts, required the maidservant bto drinkthe potion because she was blike them [ idugma /i]. Andsince Akavya ben Mahalalel cast aspersion on the deceased Torah scholars, bhe was ostracized and diedwhile bhewas still under the ban of bostracism. Andin accordance with the ihalakhawith regard to one who dies while under a ban of ostracism, the court bstoned his coffin.Apparently, one who deprecates a deceased Torah scholar is sentenced to ostracism.,And bwhat isthe source for bone who demeansthe ritual of bwashing of the hands? We learnedlater in the same mishna: bRabbi Yehuda said:That story related with regard to the ostracism of Akavya ben Mahalalel is completely untrue; bGod forbid that Akavya ben Mahalalel was ostracized, as the Temple courtyard is not closed on any Jew,meaning that even when all of Israel made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, when each of the three groups that gathered to offer the Paschal lamb filled the courtyard, leading the Temple administration to close the courtyard, there was no one there as perfect bin wisdom, purity and fear of sin as Akavya ben Mahalalel. Rather, whom did they excommunicate? Elazar ben Ḥanokh,because he bdoubtedand demeaned the rabbinic ordice of bwashing of the hands. And when he died, the court sentinstructions band they placed a large rock upon his coffinin order bto teach you that one who is ostracized and dies ina state of bostracism, the court stones his coffin,as if symbolically stoning him. Apparently, one who makes light of the ritual of washing of the hands is sentenced to ostracism., bWhat isthe source for the third case, bone who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven?The mishna relates that Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, the circle-drawer, drew a circle and stood inside it, and said that he would not leave the circle until it rained, and he went so far as to make demands in terms of the manner in which he wanted the rain to fall. After it rained, bShimon ben Shataḥ,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin, relayed to bḤoni HaMe’aggel:Actually, byou should be ostracizedfor what you said, band if you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you, but what can I do? You nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father andhis father bdoes his biddingwithout reprimand. After all, the rain fell as you requested. bAbout you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice”(Proverbs 23:25). Apparently, one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven would ordinarily merit excommunication.,The Gemara challenges this: bAnd are there no morecases of excommunication or threats of excommunication? bSurely there areadditional cases like the one in the ibaraita btaught by Rav Yosef:It is told that bTheodosius of Rome,leader of the Jewish community there, binstituted the custom for the RomanJews bto eat whole kids,young goats roasted with their entrails over their heads, as was the custom when roasting the Paschal lamb, bon the eve of Passover,as they did in the Temple. bShimon ben Shataḥ senta message bto him: If you were not Theodosius,an important person, bI would have decreed ostracism upon you, asit appears as if byou are feeding Israel consecrated food,which may only be eaten in and around the Temple itself, boutsidethe Temple.,The Gemara responds: This case should not be included, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that there were twenty-four cases bin our Mishna,and bthis ismerely ba ibaraita /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd are there none in the Mishna? Isn’t there that which we learnedin the mishna: bOnewho bcutan earthenware oven horizontally bintoring-shaped bpieces and put sand between the pieces, Rabbi Eliezer deemsthe oven britually pure,i.e., it is no longer susceptible to ritual impurity. He holds that, although the fragments of the oven were pieced together, it is not considered an intact vessel but, rather, as a collection of fragments, and a broken earthenware vessel cannot become ritually impure. bAnd the Rabbis deem it ritually impure.Since the oven continues to serve its original function, it is still considered a single entity and a whole vessel despite the sand put between the pieces. bAnd this iscalled bthe oven of iakhnai /i, snake. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of oven of the bsnake? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It is called snake bto teach thatthe Rabbis bsurroundedRabbi Eliezer bwith ihalakhotand proofs blike a snakesurrounds its prey, band declaredthe oven and its contents britually impure. /b, bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn that day, they gathered allof bthe ritually purefood items that had come into contact with the oven bthat Rabbi Eliezer had declared ritually pure, and burned them before him,and because he did not accept the decision of the majority, bin the end they “blessed,”a euphemism for ostracized, bhim.This is another case that ended in ostracism.,The Gemara answers: bEven so, we did not learnthe ruling with regard to his bostracism in the mishna.The Gemara asks: Then bwhere do you findthe btwenty-four placesmentioned in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s statement? The Gemara responds: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi likens one matter to anothersimilar bmatter.Whenever he would encounter a case in a mishna where one of the Sages expressed himself inappropriately in reference to other Sages, he concluded that they should have been excommunicated. bRabbi Elazar does not liken one matter to anothersimilar bmatter,and therefore located only three explicit cases of ostracism.,We learned in the mishna that bthe pallbearers and their replacementsare exempt from the recitation of iShema /i. On this subject, the Gemara cites that which the bSages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe deceased may not be taken outto be buried badjacent tothe time for bthe recitation of iShema /i,but should be buried later. bAnd if theyalready bstartedto take him out, bthey need not stopin order to recite iShema /i. The Gemara challenges: bIs that so? Didn’t they take Rav Yosef outto be buried badjacent tothe time for bthe recitation of iShema /i?The Gemara resolves this contradiction: The case of ban important person is different,and they are more lenient in order to honor him at his burial.,In the mishna, we learned the ihalakhawith regard to the pallbearers and their obligation to recite iShema /i, and a distinction was made between those bwho are before the bier andthose bafter the bier. Our Rabbis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThose involved in eulogy must slip awayfrom the eulogy bone by one while the deceased is laid out before them and recite iShemaelsewhere. And bif the deceased is not laid out before them,the eulogizers must bsit and recite iShema bwhilethe bereaved bsits silently. They stand and pray and he stands and justifies God’s judgment, saying: Master of the Universe, I have sinned greatly against You, and You have not collected even one one-thousandthof my debt. bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, to mercifully repair the breaches in ourfence band the breaches of Your nation, the House of Israel. /b, bAbaye said: A person should not say that, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said, and it was also taught in the name of Rabbi Yosei: One must never open his mouth to the Satan,i.e., one must not leave room for or raise the possibility of disaster or evil. This formula, which states that the entire debt owed due to his transgressions has not been collected, raises the possibility that further payment will be exacted from him., bAnd Rav Yosef said: What is the versefrom which bitis derived? bAs it is stated: “We should have almost been as Sodom,we should have been like unto Gomorrah” (Isaiah 1:9), after which bwhat didthe prophet breply to them? “Hear the word of the Lord, rulers of Sodom;give ear unto the law of our God, people of Gomorrah” (Isaiah 1:10).,We learned in the mishna that, in a case when bthey buried the deceased and returned,if they have sufficient time to begin to recite iShemaand conclude before they arrive at the row formed by those who came to console the bereaved, they should begin. Here, the Gemara clarifies: This is the case only bif they can begin and completerecitation of iShema bin its entirety. However,if they can only complete bone chapter or one verse,they should bnotstop to do so. The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which we learned in the ibaraita /i: After bthey buried the deceased and returned, if they can beginthe recitation of iShema band finish even a single chapter or verse,they should begin.,The Gemara responds: bThat is also whatthe itannaof the mishna bsaidand this is the conclusion drawn from his statement: bIf one can begin and conclude even one chapter or one verse before they arrive at the rowof consolers, bthey should begin. And if not, they should not begin. /b
45. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה מוציאין את המדה כנגדן ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרובעת כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני מעברין וחד תני מאברין,מאן דתני מאברין אבר אבר ומאן דתני מעברין כאשה עוברה (בראשית כג, ט),מערת המכפלה רב ושמואל חד אמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה וחד אמר בית ועלייה על גביו,בשלמא למאן דאמר זה על גב זה היינו מכפלה אלא למאן דאמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה מאי מכפלה,שכפולה בזוגות (בראשית לה, כז) ממרא קרית ארבע א"ר יצחק קרית הארבע זוגות אדם וחוה אברהם ושרה יצחק ורבקה יעקב ולאה (בראשית יד, א),ויהי בימי אמרפל רב ושמואל חד אמר נמרוד שמו ולמה נקרא שמו אמרפל שאמר והפיל לאברהם אבינו בתוך כבשן האש וחד אמר אמרפל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נמרוד שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו (שמות א, ח),ויקם מלך חדש על מצרים רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו,מ"ד חדש ממש דכתיב חדש ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו מדלא כתיב וימת וימלוך,ולמאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו הא כתיב (שמות א, ח) אשר לא ידע את יוסף מאי אשר לא ידע את יוסף דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה ליוסף כלל:,(סימן שמונה עשרה ושנים עשר למדנו בדוד ויבן):,א"ר יוחנן י"ח ימים גידלתי אצל רבי אושעיא בריבי ולא למדתי ממנו אלא דבר אחד במשנתינו כיצד מאברין את הערים באלף,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן י"ב תלמידים היו לו לרבי אושעיא בריבי וי"ח ימים גידלתי ביניהן ולמדתי לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד,לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד גמר גמרא לא גמר איבעית אימא מנייהו דידהו גמר מיניה דידיה לא גמר ואב"א דבר אחד במשנתינו קאמר,וא"ר יוחנן כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל ר' אושעיא היינו יושבין ארבעה ארבעה באמה אמר רבי כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל רבי אלעזר בן שמוע היינו יושבין ששה ששה באמה,א"ר יוחנן רבי אושעיא בריבי בדורו כר' מאיר בדורו מה רבי מאיר בדורו לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו אף רבי אושעיא לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו,אמר ר' יוחנן לבן של ראשונים כפתחו של אולם ושל אחרונים כפתחו של היכל ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,ראשונים ר"ע אחרונים ר"א בן שמוע איכא דאמרי ראשונים ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אחרונים ר' אושעיא בריבי ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,אמר אביי ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמרא אמר רבא ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסברא אמר רב אשי אנן כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בני יהודה שהקפידו על לשונם נתקיימה תורתם בידם בני גליל שלא הקפידו על לשונם לא נתקיימה תורתם בידם,מידי בקפידא תליא מילתא אלא בני יהודה דדייקי לישנא ומתנחי להו סימנא נתקיימה תורתן בידן בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא ולא מתנחי להו סימנא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,בני יהודה גמרו מחד רבה נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גמרי מחד רבה לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,רבינא אמר בני יהודה דגלו מסכתא נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גלו מסכתא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,דוד גלי מסכתא שאול לא גלי מסכתא דוד דגלי מסכתא כתיב ביה (תהלים קיט, עד) יראיך יראוני וישמחו שאול דלא גלי מסכתא כתיב ביה ((שמואל א יד, מז) אל כל) אשר יפנה 53a. band bridges and monumentsover graves bin which there is a residence, one extends the measureof that side of the city as though there were other structures bopposite themin the adjacent corner of the city. bAndprior to measuring the Shabbat limit, bone rendersthe city blike a square tablet so that it gains the corners,although there are actually no houses in those corners., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the mishna’s terminology. bRav and Shmueldisagreed: bOne taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter iayin /i, band one taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter ialef /i.,The Gemara explains: bThe one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an ialefexplained the term in the sense of blimb[iever/b] by blimb.Determination of the city’s borders involves the addition of limbs to the core section of the city. bAnd the one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an iayinexplained the term in the sense of ba pregt woman[iubbera/b] whose belly protrudes. In similar fashion, all the city’s protrusions are incorporated in its Shabbat limit.,Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to bthe Machpelah Cave,in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried, bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:The cave consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other. And one said:It consists of ba room anda second bstory above it. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,this is understandable baccording to the one who saidthe cave consists of boneroom babove the other,as bthat isthe meaning of bMachpelah, double. However, according to the one who saidit consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other,in bwhatsense is it bMachpelah?Even ordinary houses contain two rooms.,Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense bthat it is doubled withthe Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there bin pairs.This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: b“Mamreof bKiryat Ha’Arba,which is Hebron” (Genesis 35:27). bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The city is called Kiryat Ha’Arba, the city of four, because it is bthe city of the four couplesburied there: bAdam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca,and bJacob and Leah. /b,They disagreed about this verse as well: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1). bRav and Shmuelboth identified Amraphel with Nimrod. However, bone said: Nimrod was his name. And why was his name called Amraphel?It is a contraction of two Hebrew words: bAs he said [ iamar /i]the command band cast [ ihippil /i] our father Abraham into the fiery furnace,when Abraham rebelled against and challenged his proclaimed divinity. bAnd one said: Amraphel was his name. And why was his name called Nimrod? Because he caused the entire world to rebel [ ihimrid /i]against bGod during his reign. /b,They also disagreed about this verse: b“There arose a new king over Egypt,who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:He was bactuallya bnewking, band one said:He was in fact the old king, but bhis decrees were new. /b,The Gemara explains. bThe one who saidhe was bactuallya bnewking based his opinion on the fact bthat it is writtenin the verse that he was bnew. And the one who said that his decrees were newderived his opinion bfromthe fact bthat it is not written: Andthe king bdied, andhis successor breigned,as it is written, for example, with regard to the kings of Edom (Genesis 36).,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who said that his decrees were new, isn’t it written: “Who knew not Joseph”?If it were the same king, how could he not know Joseph? The Gemara explains: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: b“Who knew not Joseph”?It means bthat heconducted himself blike one who did not know Joseph at all. /b,The Gemara cites a bmnemonicof key words from a series of traditions cited below: bEighteen and twelve we studied, with regard to David, and he will understand. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: I spent eighteen days with Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished [ iBeribbi /i], and I learned from him only one matter in our Mishna.In the phrase: bHow does one extend cities,the word ime’abberinis spelled bwith an ialef /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished had twelve students, and I spent eighteen days among them, and I learned the heart of each and every one,i.e., the nature and character of each student, band theextent of the bwisdom of each and every one?How could Rabbi Yoḥa say that he learned only one matter?,The Gemara answers: It is possible that bhe learned the heart of each and every one and the wisdom of each and every one,but bhe did not learnsubstantive btradition.And bif you wish, sayinstead: bFromthe students bthemselves he learnedmany things; bfromRabbi Oshaya bhimself he did not learnanything beyond that one matter. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: Rabbi Yoḥa meant to bsaythat he learned only one matter bin our Mishnafrom Rabbi Oshaya, but he learned other matters from him based on ibaraitotand other sources., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidabout that period: bWhen we were studying Torah with Rabbi Oshaya,it was so crowded with students that bwe would sit four in eachsquare bcubit.Similarly, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua, we would sit six in eachsquare bcubit. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa saidabout his teacher: bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguishedwas as great bin his generation as Rabbi Meirwas bin his generation: Just aswith regard to bRabbi Meir, in his generation his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinkingdue to the subtlety of his great mind, bsoit was with bRabbi Oshaya; his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinking. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The hearts,i.e., the wisdom, bofthe bearlySages were blike the doorway to the Entrance Hallof the Temple, which was twenty by forty cubits, bandthe hearts bofthe blaterSages bwere like the doorway to the Sanctuary,which was ten by twenty cubits. bAnd we,i.e., our hearts, bare likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,He explains: The term bearlySages is referring to bRabbi Akiva,and the term blaterSages is referring to his student, bRabbi Elazar ben Shamua. Some saythat the term bearlySages refers to bRabbi Elazar ben Shamuaand that the term the blaterSages refers to bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguished. And we are likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,On the topic of the steady decline of the generations, bAbaye said: And we,as far as our capabilities are concerned, bare like a peg in the wall with regard toTorah bstudy.Just as a peg enters a wall with difficulty, our studies penetrate our minds only with difficulty. bRava said: And we are like a finger in wax [ ikira /i] with regard to logical reasoning.A finger is not easily pushed into wax, and it extracts nothing from the wax. bRav Ashi said: We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness.Just as a finger easily enters a large pit, similarly, we quickly forget our studies.,The Gemara continues the discussion relating to study and comprehension, and cites that which bRav Yehuda said that Rav said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who were particular in their speechand always made certain that it was both precise and refined, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not particular in their speech, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara asks: bIsthis bmatter at all dependent onbeing bparticularwith one’s language? bRather,with regard to bthe people of Judea, who were precise in their language andwho bwould formulate mnemonicsfor their studies, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not precise in their language andwho bwould not formulate mnemonics, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,Furthermore, with regard to bthe people of Judea,who bstudied from one teacher, their Torahknowledge bendured for them,as their teacher provided them with a consistent approach; however, with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who did not study from one teacher,but rather from several teachers, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them,as it was a combination of the approaches and opinions of a variety of Sages., bRavina said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who wouldpublicly bdisclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term so that everyone could prepare and study it in advance ( ige’onim /i), btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara relates that King bDavid would disclose the tractateto be studied in advance, whereas bSaul would not disclose the tractateto be studied. bWith regard to David, who would disclose the tractate, it is written: “Those who fear You will see me and be glad”(Psalms 119:74), since all were prepared and could enjoy his Torah. bWith regard to Saul, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied, bit is written: “And wherever he turned himself /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9b. ששהו את קיניהן מיהא מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו שכבום,בזיון קדשים דכתיב (שמואל א ב, טו) גם בטרם יקטירון את החלב ובא נער הכהן ואמר לאיש הזובח תנה בשר לצלות לכהן ולא יקח ממך בשר מבושל כי אם חי ויאמר אליו האיש קטר יקטירון כיום החלב וקח לך כאשר תאוה נפשך ואמר לו כי עתה תתן ואם לא לקחתי בחזקה ותהי חטאת הנערים גדולה מאד את פני ה' כי נאצו האנשים את מנחת ה',מקדש ראשון מפני מה חרב מפני ג' דברים שהיו בו ע"ז וגלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע,מאי קצר המצע מהשתרע א"ר יונתן קצר מצע זה מהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד,(ישעיהו כח, כ) והמסכה צרה כהתכנס א"ר שמואל בר נחמני כי מטי רבי יונתן להאי קרא בכי אמר מאן דכתיב ביה (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים נעשית לו מסכה צרה,גלוי עריות דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, טז) ויאמר ה' יען כי גבהו בנות ציון ותלכנה נטויות גרון ומשקרות עינים הלוך וטפוף תלכנה וברגליהן תעכסנה יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ומשקרות עינים דהוו מליין כוחלא עיניהן הלוך וטפוף תלכנה שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל וברגליהן תעכסנה א"ר יצחק שהיו מביאות מור ואפרסמון ומניחות במנעליהן וכשמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות ומתיזות עליהן ומכניסין בהן יצה"ר כארס בכעוס,שפיכות דמים דכתיב (מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה [הרבה מאד] עד אשר מלא את ירושלם פה לפה,אבל מקדש שני שהיו עוסקין בתורה ובמצות וגמילות חסדים מפני מה חרב מפני שהיתה בו שנאת חנם ללמדך ששקולה שנאת חנם כנגד שלש עבירות ע"ז גלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים,רשעים היו אלא שתלו בטחונם בהקב"ה אתאן למקדש ראשון דכתיב (מיכה ג, יא) ראשיה בשוחד ישפוטו וכהניה במחיר יורו ונביאיה בכסף יקסומו ועל ה' ישענו לאמר הלא ה' בקרבנו לא תבוא עלינו רעה לפיכך הביא עליהן הקב"ה ג' גזרות כנגד ג' עבירות שבידם שנאמר (מיכה ג, יב) לכן בגללכם ציון שדה תחרש וירושלים עיין תהיה והר הבית לבמות יער,ובמקדש ראשון לא הוה ביה שנאת חנם והכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) מגורי אל חרב היו את עמי לכן ספוק אל ירך וא"ר (אליעזר) אלו בני אדם שאוכלין ושותין זה עם זה ודוקרין זה את זה בחרבות שבלשונם,ההיא בנשיאי ישראל הואי דכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) זעק והילל בן אדם כי היא היתה בעמי ותניא זעק והילל בן אדם יכול לכל תלמוד לומר היא בכל נשיאי ישראל,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרווייהו ראשונים שנתגלה עונם נתגלה קצם אחרונים שלא נתגלה עונם לא נתגלה קצם,אמר רבי יוחנן טובה צפורנן של ראשונים מכריסו של אחרונים א"ל ריש לקיש אדרבה אחרונים עדיפי אף על גב דאיכא שעבוד מלכיות קא עסקי בתורה אמר ליה בירה תוכיח שחזרה לראשונים ולא חזרה לאחרונים,שאלו את רבי אלעזר ראשונים גדולים או אחרונים גדולים אמר להם תנו עיניכם בבירה איכא דאמרי אמר להם עידיכם בירה,ריש לקיש הוי סחי בירדנא אתא רבה בר בר חנה יהב ליה ידא א"ל אלהא סנינא לכו דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ט) אם חומה היא נבנה עליה טירת כסף ואם דלת היא נצור עליה לוח ארז אם עשיתם עצמכם כחומה ועליתם כולכם בימי עזרא נמשלתם ככסף שאין רקב שולט בו עכשיו שעליתם כדלתות נמשלתם כארז שהרקב שולט בו,מאי ארז אמר עולא ססמגור מאי ססמגור אמר רבי אבא בת קול כדתניא משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקדש מישראל ועדיין היו משתמשין בבת קול,וריש לקיש מי משתעי בהדי רבה בר בר חנה ומה רבי (אליעזר) דמרא דארעא דישראל הוה ולא הוה משתעי ר"ל בהדיה דמאן דמשתעי ר"ל בהדיה בשוק יהבו ליה עיסקא בלא סהדי בהדי רבב"ח משתעי,אמר רב פפא שדי גברא בינייהו או ריש לקיש הוה וזעירי או רבה בר בר חנה הוה ור"א כי אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן א"ל לאו היינו טעמא א"נ סליקו כולהו בימי עזרא לא הוה שריא שכינה במקדש שני דכתיב (בראשית ט, כז) יפת אלהים ליפת וישכן באהלי שם 9b. bthat they deferredthe sacrifice of btheirbird-offerings by women after childbirth; bnevertheless, the verse ascribes to them as if they laywith bthem.These women came to the Tabernacle to sacrifice doves or pigeons as bird-offerings as part of their purification process, which would permit them to engage in sexual relations with their husbands. Eli’s sons delayed the sacrifice of these offerings and thereby delayed the return of these women to their husbands and their fulfillment of the mitzva of procreation. Even though, according to this opinion, Eli’s sons did not actually engage in sexual relations with these women, the verse attributes that degree of severity to their conduct.,Eli’s sons also sinned in the bdegradation of consecrated items, as it is written: “Before the fat was made burned, the priest’s servant came and said to the man who sacrificed: Hand over some flesh to roast for the priest, for he will not take cooked flesh from you, but raw. And if the man said to him: Let the fat be burnt first and then take as much as you want, then he would say: No, hand it over right now, or I will take it by force. The sin of the young men against the Lord was very great, for the men treated the Lord’s offerings with contempt”(I Samuel 2:15–17).,§ The iToseftacontinues with a discussion of the sins of the Jewish people over the generations: bDue to whatreason bwasthe bFirst Temple destroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there were three mattersthat existed binthe First Temple: bIdol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. Idol worship, as it is written: “The bed is too short for stretching [ imehistare’a /i],and the cover is too narrow for gathering” (Isaiah 28:20)., bWhat isthe meaning of: b“The bed is too short for stretching?” Rabbi Yonatan said: This bed is too short for two counterparts [ ire’im /i] to dominate [ imehistarer /i]. iMehistare’ais a contraction of imehistarer re’im /i. It is inconceivable that there would be in one Temple both service of God and worship of the idol placed there by King Manasseh., bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd the cover [ ivehamasseikha /i] is too narrow [ itzara /i] for gathering [ ikehitkannes /i]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bwhen Rabbi Yonatan reached this verse, he weptand bsaid: For He about Whom it is written: “He gathers [ ikones /i] waters of the sea together as a heap”(Psalms 33:7), bthe idol [ imasseikha /i] became a rival [ itzara /i]?In the homiletic interpretation, imasseikhais interpreted as idol and itzarais interpreted as rival, as in the term used to describe the relationship between two women married to the same husband, iisha tzara /i.,With regard to bforbidden sexual relations, it is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet”(Isaiah 3:16). br bBecause the daughters of Zion are haughty,indicates a btallwoman walking balongsidea bshortone so that the tall woman would stand out. br bAnd walk with outstretched necks,indicates bthat they would walk with upright statureand carry themselves in an immodest way. br bAnd wanton eyes,indicates bthat they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadowin order to draw attention to their eyes. br bWalking and mincing as they go,indicates bthat they would walkin small steps, bheel to toe,so onlookers would notice them. br bMaking a tinkling [ ite’akasna /i] with their feet, Rabbi Yitzḥak said:This teaches bthat they would bring myrrh and balsam and placethem bin their shoesand would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. bAnd once they approacheda place where byoung Jewish menwere congregated, bthey would stamptheir feet on the ground band splashthe perfume btoward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ ike’eres bikhos /i]. /b,With regard to bbloodshed it is written: “Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another”(II Kings 21:16)., bHowever,considering that the people during bthe Second Templeperiod bwere engaged in Torahstudy, observance of bmitzvot, and acts of kindness,and that they did not perform the sinful acts that were performed in the First Temple, bwhy wasthe Second Temple bdestroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there was wanton hatredduring that period. This comes bto teach you thatthe sin of bwanton hatred is equivalent to the threesevere btransgressions: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations and bloodshed. /b,The Gemara continues: bThey were wicked; however, they put their faith in the Holy One, Blessed be He.With that statement bwe have come tothe bFirst Templeera, about bwhich it is written: “Her chiefs judge for bribes, her priests give rulings for a fee, and her prophets divine for pay; yet they rely on the Lord, saying: The Lord is in our midst, no tragedy will overtake us”(Micah 3:11). At least the final portion of the verse was to their credit. bTherefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought upon them three decrees corresponding to their three wicked sins, as it is stated: “Therefore, due to you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become heaps of ruins, and the Temple Mount will be a like a shrine in the woods”(Micah 3:12).,The Gemara asks: bAnd in the First Templeera bwas therereally bno baseless hatred? Isn’t it written:“Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people, this will befall all the princes of Israel: bThey will be cast before the sword together with my people, therefore strike the thigh”(Ezekiel 21:17)? bRabbi Eliezerinterpreted this verse and bsaid: These are people who eat and drink with each other, and stab each other with verbal barbs.Apparently, even those who were close were filled with hatred toward one another.,The Gemara answers: bThatbehavior bwasfound only among bthe princes of Israel, as it is written: “Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people”; and it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Cry and wail, son of man,for this will befall my people”; one bmighthave thought that this unsavory trait was common bto all.Therefore, bthe verse states: “This will befall all the princes of Israel.”It was only the leaders of the nation who harbored baseless hatred for each other; the people of the nation as a whole did not hate one another.,§ It was bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar who both said:In the case of bthe former,the people in the First Temple era, bwhose sin was exposedand no attempt was made to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas exposed,and the prophet informed them that they would return to their land in seventy years. In the case of bthe latter,the people in the Second Temple era, bwhose sin was not exposed;rather, they attempted to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas not exposed. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The fingernails of the former are preferable to the belly of the latter. Reish Lakish said to him: On the contrary, the latter were superior; even though there is subjugation by the kingdoms, they are engaged in Torah study.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid toReish Lakish: bThe Temple will provethat the former were superior, bas itwas brestored to the former.The Second Temple was constructed after the destruction of the first. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple, bitwas bnot restored to the latter.Apparently, the former were superior to the latter.,Similarly, the Sages basked Rabbi Elazar: Are the former greater or are the latter greater? He said to them: Look to the Templeand see if it has been restored, as it was to our predecessors. bSome saythe exchange was slightly different: bHe said to them: The Temple is your witness.The restoration of the Temple after the destruction of the First Temple, attests to the fact that the former generation was greater., bReish Lakish was swimming in the Jordan Riverwhen bRabba bar bar Ḥana came and gave him a handto help him out. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: My God! I hate youBabylonians, bas it is written: “If she be a wall we will build a silver turret upon her, if she be a door we will cover her with boards of cedar”(Song of Songs 8:9). This is the meaning of the verse as it applies to the Jewish people: bHad you rendered yourselvesa solid bloc blike a wall and all ascendedto Eretz Yisrael bin the days of Ezra, you would have been likened to silver, which rot does not infest,in the sense that you would have merited experiencing the Divine Presence in all its glory. bNow that you ascended like doors,and only some of you came to Eretz Yisrael, byou are likened to cedar, which rot infests,and you merit experiencing only partial revelation of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara asks: bWhatrot infests bcedar? Ulla said: It is isasmagor /i,a type of worm. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes isasmagor /ihave to do with the Divine Presence during the Second Temple era? bRabbi Abba said:Just as little remains from a cedar tree infested by this worm, similarly, all that remained from the Divine Presence during the Second Temple period was a bDivine Voice, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAfter the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people, and they were still utilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as an echo of prophecy.,The Gemara asks: bAnd would Reish Lakish speak with Rabba bar bar Ḥanain public? bJust as Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisraelin wisdom and character, bandnevertheless, bReish Lakish would not speak with himin public, as Reish Lakish was sparing in his speech and extended friendship to only a select few prominent, righteous people, to the extent that ba person to whom Reish Lakishwas seen bspeaking in the marketplace, one would give hima loan and bdo businesswith him bwithout witnesses;would he bhave spoken with Rabba bar bar Ḥana? /b, bRav Pappa said: Cast a man between them,and say that the incident did not involve Reish Lakish and Rabba bar bar Ḥana. It bwas either Reish Lakishbathing in the river band Ze’iri,the prominent Babylonian Sage, who extended him a hand, borit was bRabba bar bar Ḥanawho was in the river band Rabbi Elazarextended a hand to him. In any event, bwhenthe Sage who heard what Reish Lakish said bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand related it, Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: That is not the reason; even had they all ascended in the days of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested in the Second Temple, as it is written: “God will enlarge Japheth, and dwell in the tents of Shem”(Genesis 9:27).


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abaye Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
abba silvanus Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
abraham,as model of trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 76
abraham,sons of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
abraham,trust of Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 76
abraham Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
afterlife,reward Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
akiva,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
allegory/-ies Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
allēgoria,interpretation Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
antitheses,marcions Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 281
antithesis Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56, 57, 58, 65
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
apocalyptic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
apostate,first-created Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
ascent of soul Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
asceticism Swartz (2018), The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism. 256
attention Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
banqueting Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 372
bat kol (heavenly voice) Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
birkat hamazon Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
blenkinsopp,joseph Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 40
books,by enoch Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
boyarin,daniel Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
chaos Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
character traits,humility Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
children/offspring,as addressees Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
children/offspring,humanity Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
cognitive load/overload Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
cognitive psychology Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
commandment/s Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 34, 35, 57
contemporization Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
contradiction,within scripture Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 65, 174
cosmos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
covenant Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 215
covenants,old and new Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
decalogue,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
decline of the generations Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
deuteronomistic theology Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 215
deuteronomy,and centralization DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 63
deuteronomy,and greek thought Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 137
deuteronomy,theology of DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 63
deuteronomy (book) Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
discourses of divine law,in biblical literature Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 37, 40
disputes,schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
dissimulation,didactic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 235
dissimulation,socratic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 235
divination,kledonomancy Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
divination,ornithomancy Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
divination Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
divine law,in biblical israel Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 37, 40
divine speech,enigmatic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 235
divine voices,jewish Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
dualism,dualist(ic) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
elijah Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
elite,elitism Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
enigma/enigmas,enigmatic Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
episodic memory Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
erga nomou Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56, 57
eschatology Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
ethical,divine-human trust as Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69
exegesis,scriptural Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
exemplars of trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 76
ezra Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 54
fate,εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 215
fragmentation Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164, 174
gemara (received tradition) Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
gentiles,and the torah/law Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35, 59, 65, 164
god,knowledge of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
god,revelation of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
god,voice of Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 137
greek (language),learning Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
haftarah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 55
hagar Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
halakhah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
heart Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 55
hermeneutics,and making communities Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 65, 164, 174
hermeneutics,and the endtime Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
hermeneutics,methods of interpretation Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35, 65
high priest Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
hillel,school of Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
hillel the elder Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
homer Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 55
hope Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69
horeb theophany DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 63
imitatio dei Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 37
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 53, 174
incarnation/incarnate Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
index of subjects,shammaite) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
intertextuality and intertext,word by word Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35
intertextuality and intertext Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 34, 35, 54, 55, 65, 164, 174
israel,nan Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
jesus,exaltation of deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 205
jesus Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33
judaization Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 34
justice Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
kings,biblical Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
knowledge,of god Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
koester,helmut Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 37
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
law/law Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
law and prophets Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 281
lemma Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
lex talionis Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 281
life / afterlife,earthly Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
list making Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 53, 174
list of virtues/vices Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 372
love Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69, 76
meir,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
memory,,and deuteronomy Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 137
midrash,biblical text Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
midrash,shnei ketuvim Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 65
midrash-pesher Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 34, 35, 53, 54, 174
monasticism,attitudes toward physical work Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
monosemy Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 53
mosaic law Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
moses,as mediator Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 137
moses,veil of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
moses Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 34, 35, 58, 59; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 281; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
narrative Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164, 174
new creation Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69
new perspective on paul school Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56
noahide laws Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
nomos/nomoi Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 59, 65
nomos pisteōs Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 65
novak,david Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 40
oral or written ~ Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
orality Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35
paraphrase Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 55
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
pesher Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35, 53, 54, 174
pharisees/pharisaism Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 174
philo Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
pistis,as fruit of the spirit Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69
pistis Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 34, 35, 54, 56, 57, 58, 164
polity Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
polysemy Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 53
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
priests/priesthood Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
promises of god Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 76
prooftext Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35
prophecy Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
prophets Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
proselytes Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 372
providence,πρόνοια/providentia Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 215
qumran Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 53, 55, 174
quotation Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 54, 55, 56, 164
r. eliezer Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 97
r. eliezer shammaite Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
rabbi akiva,school of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 65, 164
rabbi ishmael,school of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 65
rabbis Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
rava Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
reason,as grounding biblical divine law' Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 40
reason,as grounding biblical divine law Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 37
redaction Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 34, 35, 58, 59, 164
reliability Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 76
repentance Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 372
restoration within history Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 215
revelation DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 63; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
rhetoric Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35, 53, 56, 174
righteousness by pistis/deeds Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 33, 34, 35, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 65, 164, 174
risk,relation to divine-human trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69
ritual Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
sabbath Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
sadducees Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
sarah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
scripture,antithesis within Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59
scripture,reworking of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 34, 35, 164
scriptures,jewish,as source of new testament ideas about pistis Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 76
sense perception,,and deuteronomy Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 137
shammai,school Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
son Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 281
soul (human) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
speech in character Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 34
statman,daniel Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 40
suffering,suffering as discipline Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 215
supersessionism Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56, 57
teachers,deference toward Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
testamentary Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
textual variants deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 205
therapeutic trust Morgan (2022), The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust', 69
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
torah,and christ antithesis Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56
torah,as unified and divine Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 58, 59
torah,conceptualization of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 35, 58, 59, 65
torah,forgetting Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
torah,of trust and deeds Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164, 174
torah,telos of Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56
torah,two torot,double torah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 59, 65, 174
torah,written torah/oral torah Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 59, 65, 174
torah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 216
tradition,received Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
veil/unveil Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 164
virtue Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
voice portents,bat qol Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
voice portents,brontological (thunder) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
voice portents,kledonomantic (random voices) Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 207
wisdom) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová (2016), Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria , 27
wisdom,enochic Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
wisdom,fall away from Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
wisdom,for/of the elect/righteous Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
wisdom Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 372
withdrawal/rejection of/without Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 191
world-view,traditional in paul Engberg-Pedersen (2010), Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit, 88
writing Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 56
yocha,r. Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 53
yoshua,r. Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427