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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.1


כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house


כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

80 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 7.14 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.9, 15.2, 17.6, 17.17, 19.15, 21.13, 21.15, 22.8, 22.13-22.22, 23.15, 24.2-24.4, 30.11-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 15.2. לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹאכֲלֶנּוּ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃ 15.2. וְזֶה דְּבַר הַשְּׁמִטָּה שָׁמוֹט כָּל־בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר יַשֶּׁה בְּרֵעֵהוּ לֹא־יִגֹּשׂ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־אָחִיו כִּי־קָרָא שְׁמִטָּה לַיהוָה׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 21.13. וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.15. כִּי־תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכוֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה׃ 22.8. כִּי תִבְנֶה בַּיִת חָדָשׁ וְעָשִׂיתָ מַעֲקֶה לְגַגֶּךָ וְלֹא־תָשִׂים דָּמִים בְּבֵיתֶךָ כִּי־יִפֹּל הַנֹּפֵל מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 22.13. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבָא אֵלֶיהָ וּשְׂנֵאָהּ׃ 22.14. וְשָׂם לָהּ עֲלִילֹת דְּבָרִים וְהוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רָע וְאָמַר אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת לָקַחְתִּי וָאֶקְרַב אֵלֶיהָ וְלֹא־מָצָאתִי לָהּ בְּתוּלִים׃ 22.15. וְלָקַח אֲבִי הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] וְאִמָּהּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־בְּתוּלֵי הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] אֶל־זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַשָּׁעְרָה׃ 22.16. וְאָמַר אֲבִי הנער [הַנַּעַרָה] אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אֶת־בִּתִּי נָתַתִּי לָאִישׁ הַזֶּה לְאִשָּׁה וַיִּשְׂנָאֶהָ׃ 22.17. וְהִנֵּה־הוּא שָׂם עֲלִילֹת דְּבָרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־מָצָאתִי לְבִתְּךָ בְּתוּלִים וְאֵלֶּה בְּתוּלֵי בִתִּי וּפָרְשׂוּ הַשִּׂמְלָה לִפְנֵי זִקְנֵי הָעִיר׃ 22.18. וְלָקְחוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר־הַהִוא אֶת־הָאִישׁ וְיִסְּרוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 22.19. וְעָנְשׁוּ אֹתוֹ מֵאָה כֶסֶף וְנָתְנוּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה כִּי הוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע עַל בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלוֹ־תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה לֹא־יוּכַל לְשַּׁלְּחָהּ כָּל־יָמָיו׃ 22.21. וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] אֶל־פֶּתַח בֵּית־אָבִיהָ וּסְקָלוּהָ אַנְשֵׁי עִירָהּ בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתָה כִּי־עָשְׂתָה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְנוֹת בֵּית אָבִיהָ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 22.22. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ שֹׁכֵב עִם־אִשָּׁה בְעֻלַת־בַּעַל וּמֵתוּ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִם־הָאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 23.15. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 24.3. וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כִי יָמוּת הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.4. לֹא־יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁלְּחָהּ לָשׁוּב לְקַחְתָּהּ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא תַחֲטִיא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 30.11. כִּי הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לֹא־נִפְלֵאת הִוא מִמְּךָ וְלֹא רְחֹקָה הִוא׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates." 15.2. And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he hath lent unto his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother; because the LORD’S release hath been proclaimed." 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 21.13. and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife." 21.15. If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated;" 22.8. When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thy house, if any man fall from thence." 22.13. If any man take a wife, and go in unto her, and hate her," 22.14. and lay wanton charges against her, and bring up an evil name upon her, and say: ‘I took this woman, and when I came nigh to her, I found not in her the tokens of virginity’;" 22.15. then shall the father of the damsel, and her mother, take and bring forth the tokens of the damsel’s virginity unto the elders of the city in the gate." 22.16. And the damsel’s father shall say unto the elders: ‘I gave my daughter unto this man to wife, and he hateth her;" 22.17. and, lo, he hath laid wanton charges, saying: I found not in thy daughter the tokens of virginity; and yet these are the tokens of my daughter’s virginity.’ And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city." 22.18. And the elders of that city shall take the man and chastise him." 22.19. And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel; and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days." 22.20. But if this thing be true, that the tokens of virginity were not found in the damsel;" 22.21. then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die; because she hath wrought a wanton deed in Israel, to play the harlot in her father’s house; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee." 22.22. If a man be found lying with a woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die, the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so shalt thou put away the evil from Israel." 23.15. For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee." 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 24.3. and the latter husband hateth her, and writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife;" 24.4. her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 30.11. For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too hard for thee, neither is it far off." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.13-2.14, 19.3, 19.25, 21.14, 21.24, 22.24, 31.15, 32.27, 35.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.13. וַיֵּצֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי וְהִנֵּה שְׁנֵי־אֲנָשִׁים עִבְרִים נִצִּים וַיֹּאמֶר לָרָשָׁע לָמָּה תַכֶּה רֵעֶךָ׃ 2.14. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי שָׂמְךָ לְאִישׁ שַׂר וְשֹׁפֵט עָלֵינוּ הַלְהָרְגֵנִי אַתָּה אֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר הָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּירָא מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמַר אָכֵן נוֹדַע הַדָּבָר׃ 19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.25. וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם׃ 21.14. וְכִי־יָזִד אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ לְהָרְגוֹ בְעָרְמָה מֵעִם מִזְבְּחִי תִּקָּחֶנּוּ לָמוּת׃ 21.24. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל׃ 22.24. אִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃ 31.15. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימוּ אִישׁ־חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בַּמַּחֲנֶה וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ־אֶת־אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבוֹ׃ 35.2. וַיֵּצְאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִלִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה׃ 35.2. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִהְיֶה לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בוֹ מְלָאכָה יוּמָת׃ 2.13. And he went out the second day, and, behold, two men of the Hebrews were striving together; and he said to him that did the wrong: ‘Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?’" 2.14. And he said: ‘Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? thinkest thou to kill me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian?’ And Moses feared, and said: ‘Surely the thing is known.’" 19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:" 19.25. So Moses went down unto the people, and told them." 21.14. And if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die." 21.24. eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot," 22.24. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest." 31.15. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." 32.27. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’" 35.2. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a sabbath of solemn rest to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work therein shall be put to death."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.17, 1.27, 2.24, 4.5, 34.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.17. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 4.5. וְאֶל־קַיִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָּנָיו׃ 34.5. וְיַעֲקֹב שָׁמַע כִּי טִמֵּא אֶת־דִּינָה בִתּוֹ וּבָנָיו הָיוּ אֶת־מִקְנֵהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וְהֶחֱרִשׁ יַעֲקֹב עַד־בֹּאָם׃ 1.17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth," 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 4.5. but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell." 34.5. Now Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his cattle in the field; and Jacob held his peace until they came."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.4-2.5, 2.9, 2.21, 11.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. רִיבוּ בְאִמְּכֶם רִיבוּ כִּי־הִיא לֹא אִשְׁתִּי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אִישָׁהּ וְתָסֵר זְנוּנֶיהָ מִפָּנֶיה וְנַאֲפוּפֶיהָ מִבֵּין שָׁדֶיהָ׃ 2.5. פֶּן־אַפְשִׁיטֶנָּה עֲרֻמָּה וְהִצַּגְתִּיהָ כְּיוֹם הִוָּלְדָהּ וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ כַמִּדְבָּר וְשַׁתִּהָ כְּאֶרֶץ צִיָּה וַהֲמִתִּיהָ בַּצָּמָא׃ 2.9. וְרִדְּפָה אֶת־מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְלֹא־תַשִּׂיג אֹתָם וּבִקְשָׁתַם וְלֹא תִמְצָא וְאָמְרָה אֵלְכָה וְאָשׁוּבָה אֶל־אִישִׁי הָרִאשׁוֹן כִּי טוֹב לִי אָז מֵעָתָּה׃ 2.21. וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי לְעוֹלָם וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בְּצֶדֶק וּבְמִשְׁפָּט וּבְחֶסֶד וּבְרַחֲמִים׃ 11.9. לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה חֲרוֹן אַפִּי לֹא אָשׁוּב לְשַׁחֵת אֶפְרָיִם כִּי אֵל אָנֹכִי וְלֹא־אִישׁ בְּקִרְבְּךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא אָבוֹא בְּעִיר׃ 2.4. Plead with your mother, plead; For she is not My wife, neither am I her husband; And let her put away her harlotries from her face, And her adulteries from between her breasts;" 2.5. Lest I strip her naked, And set her as in the day that she was born, And make her as a wilderness, And set her like a dry land, And slay her with thirst." 2.9. And she shall run after her lovers, but she shall not overtake them, And she shall seek them, but shall not find them; Then shall she say: ‘I will go and return to my first husband; For then was it better with me than now.’" 2.21. And I will betroth thee unto Me for ever; Yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness, and in justice, And in lovingkindness, and in compassion." 11.9. I will not execute the fierceness of Mine anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim; For I am God, and not man, The Holy One in the midst of thee; And I will not come in fury."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.13, 18.6-18.18, 18.24-18.30, 19.18, 19.31, 20.1-20.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 18.6. אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.7. עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.8. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.9. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹתְךָ בַת־אָבִיךָ אוֹ בַת־אִמֶּךָ מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן׃ 18.11. עֶרְוַת בַּת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ מוֹלֶדֶת אָבִיךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.12. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה שְׁאֵר אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 18.14. עֶרְוַת אֲחִי־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ לֹא תִקְרָב דֹּדָתְךָ הִוא׃ 18.15. עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.16. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָחִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָחִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.17. עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶת־בַּת־בְּנָהּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּהּ לֹא תִקַּח לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה זִמָּה הִוא 18.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ׃ 18.24. אַל־תִּטַּמְּאוּ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה כִּי בְכָל־אֵלֶּה נִטְמְאוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם׃ 18.25. וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ וָאֶפְקֹד עֲוֺנָהּ עָלֶיהָ וַתָּקִא הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ׃ 18.26. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אַתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 18.27. כִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵל עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם וַתִּטְמָא הָאָרֶץ׃ 18.28. וְלֹא־תָקִיא הָאָרֶץ אֶתְכֶם בְּטַמַּאֲכֶם אֹתָהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר קָאָה אֶת־הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם׃ 18.29. כִּי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה מִכֹּל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.31. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֹבֹת וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים אַל־תְּבַקְשׁוּ לְטָמְאָה בָהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.1. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִנְאַף אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִנְאַף אֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ מוֹת־יוּמַת הַנֹּאֵף וְהַנֹּאָפֶת׃ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 20.2. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ מוֹת יוּמָת עַם הָאָרֶץ יִרְגְּמֻהוּ בָאָבֶן׃ 20.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־דֹּדָתוֹ עֶרְוַת דֹּדוֹ גִּלָּה חֶטְאָם יִשָּׂאוּ עֲרִירִים יָמֻתוּ׃ 20.3. וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי׃ 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 18.6. None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness. I am the LORD." 18.7. The nakedness of thy father, and the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.8. The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness." 18.9. The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or the daughter of thy mother, whether born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover. ." 18.10. The nakedness of thy son’s daughter, or of thy daughter’s daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover; for theirs is thine own nakedness." 18.11. The nakedness of thy father’s wife’s daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.12. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s sister: she is thy father’s near kinswoman." 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman." 18.14. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy fathers brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt." 18.15. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law: she is thy son’wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.16. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife: it is thy brother’s nakedness." 18.17. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; thou shalt not take her son’s daughter, or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness: they are near kinswomen; it is lewdness." 18.18. And thou shalt not take a woman to her sister, to be a rival to her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her lifetime." 18.24. Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things; for in all these the nations are defiled, which I cast out from before you." 18.25. And the land was defiled, therefore I did visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land vomited out her inhabitants." 18.26. Ye therefore shall keep My statutes and Mine ordices, and shall not do any of these abominations; neither the home-born, nor the stranger that sojourneth among you—" 18.27. for all these abominations have the men of the land done, that were before you, and the land is defiled—" 18.28. that the land vomit not you out also, when ye defile it, as it vomited out the nation that was before you." 18.29. For whosoever shall do any of these abominations, even the souls that do them shall be cut off from among their people." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 19.31. Turn ye not unto the ghosts, nor unto familiar spirits; seek them not out, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God." 20.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 20.2. Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones." 20.3. I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name."
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.13-2.16, 3.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.13. וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה מֵאֵין עוֹד פְּנוֹת אֶל־הַמִּנְחָה וְלָקַחַת רָצוֹן מִיֶּדְכֶם׃ 2.14. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם עַל־מָה עַל כִּי־יְהוָה הֵעִיד בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין אֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּגַדְתָּה בָּהּ וְהִיא חֲבֶרְתְּךָ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּרִיתֶךָ׃ 2.15. וְלֹא־אֶחָד עָשָׂה וּשְׁאָר רוּחַ לוֹ וּמָה הָאֶחָד מְבַקֵּשׁ זֶרַע אֱלֹהִים וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וּבְאֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אַל־יִבְגֹּד׃ 2.16. כִּי־שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִסָּה חָמָס עַל־לְבוּשׁוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִבְגֹּדוּ׃ 3.22. זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתוֹ בְחֹרֵב עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים׃ 2.13. And this further ye do: Ye cover the altar of the LORD with tears, With weeping, and with sighing, Insomuch that He regardeth not the offering any more, Neither receiveth it with good will at your hand." 2.14. Yet ye say: ‘Wherefore?’ Because the LORD hath been witness Between thee and the wife of thy youth, Against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, Though she is thy companion, And the wife of thy covet." 2.15. And not one hath done so Who had exuberance of spirit! For what seeketh the one? A seed given of God. Therefore take heed to your spirit, And let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth." 2.16. For I hate putting away, Saith the LORD, the God of Israel, And him that covereth his garment with violence, Saith the LORD of hosts; Therefore take heed to your spirit, That ye deal not treacherously." 3.22. Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordices."
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.11-5.31, 6.5, 6.26, 15.35, 35.33-35.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 5.17. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מַיִם קְדֹשִׁים בִּכְלִי־חָרֶשׂ וּמִן־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתַן אֶל־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 5.29. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַקְּנָאֹת אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׂטֶה אִשָּׁה תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ וְנִטְמָאָה׃ 5.31. וְנִקָּה הָאִישׁ מֵעָוֺן וְהָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָהּ׃ 6.5. כָּל־יְמֵי נֶדֶר נִזְרוֹ תַּעַר לֹא־יַעֲבֹר עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ עַד־מְלֹאת הַיָּמִם אֲשֶׁר־יַזִּיר לַיהוָה קָדֹשׁ יִהְיֶה גַּדֵּל פֶּרַע שְׂעַר רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 15.35. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה מוֹת יוּמַת הָאִישׁ רָגוֹם אֹתוֹ בָאֲבָנִים כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 5.17. And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water." 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people." 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 5.29. This is the law of jealousy, when a wife, being under her husband, goeth aside, and is defiled;" 5.30. or when the spirit of jealousy cometh upon a man, and he be jealous over his wife; then shall he set the woman before the LORD, and the priest shall execute upon her all this law." 5.31. And the man shall be clear from iniquity, and that woman shall bear her iniquity." 6.5. All the days of his vow of Naziriteship there shall no razor come upon his head; until the days be fulfilled, in which he consecrateth himself unto the LORD, he shall be holy, he shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow long." 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 15.35. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘The man shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp.’" 35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it." 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 6.32-6.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.32. נֹאֵף אִשָּׁה חֲסַר־לֵב מַשְׁחִית נַפְשׁוֹ הוּא יַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 6.33. נֶגַע־וְקָלוֹן יִמְצָא וְחֶרְפָּתוֹ לֹא תִמָּחֶה׃ 6.34. כִּי־קִנְאָה חֲמַת־גָּבֶר וְלֹא־יַחְמוֹל בְּיוֹם נָקָם׃ 6.35. לֹא־יִשָּׂא פְּנֵי כָל־כֹּפֶר וְלֹא־יֹאבֶה כִּי תַרְבֶּה־שֹׁחַד׃ 6.32. He that committeth adultery with a woman lacketh understanding; He doeth it that would destroy his own soul." 6.33. Wounds and dishonour shall he get, And his reproach shall not be wiped away. ." 6.34. For jealousy is the rage of a man, And he will not spare in the day of vengeance." 6.35. He will not regard any ransom; Neither will he rest content, though thou givest many gifts."
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 18, 2-3, 8-9, 144 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3, 8, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִי חֲגֹר מָתְנֶיךָ וְקַח מִשְׁעַנְתִּי בְיָדְךָ וָלֵךְ כִּי־תִמְצָא אִישׁ לֹא תְבָרְכֶנּוּ וְכִי־יְבָרֶכְךָ אִישׁ לֹא תַעֲנֶנּוּ וְשַׂמְתָּ מִשְׁעַנְתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי הַנָּעַר׃ 4.29. Then he said to Gehazi: ‘Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not; and lay my staff upon the face of the child.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 5.13, 6.23, 11.1-12.25, 12.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 50.1-50.3, 54.1-54.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 50.1. מִי בָכֶם יְרֵא יְהוָה שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקוֹל עַבְדּוֹ אֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ חֲשֵׁכִים וְאֵין נֹגַהּ לוֹ יִבְטַח בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְיִשָּׁעֵן בֵּאלֹהָיו׃ 50.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֵי זֶה סֵפֶר כְּרִיתוּת אִמְּכֶם אֲשֶׁר שִׁלַּחְתִּיהָ אוֹ מִי מִנּוֹשַׁי אֲשֶׁר־מָכַרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לוֹ הֵן בַּעֲוֺנֹתֵיכֶם נִמְכַּרְתֶּם וּבְפִשְׁעֵיכֶם שֻׁלְּחָה אִמְּכֶם׃ 50.2. מַדּוּעַ בָּאתִי וְאֵין אִישׁ קָרָאתִי וְאֵין עוֹנֶה הֲקָצוֹר קָצְרָה יָדִי מִפְּדוּת וְאִם־אֵין־בִּי כֹחַ לְהַצִּיל הֵן בְּגַעֲרָתִי אַחֲרִיב יָם אָשִׂים נְהָרוֹת מִדְבָּר תִּבְאַשׁ דְּגָתָם מֵאֵין מַיִם וְתָמֹת בַּצָּמָא׃ 50.3. אַלְבִּישׁ שָׁמַיִם קַדְרוּת וְשַׂק אָשִׂים כְּסוּתָם׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.2. הַרְחִיבִי מְקוֹם אָהֳלֵךְ וִירִיעוֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַיִךְ יַטּוּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂכִי הַאֲרִיכִי מֵיתָרַיִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַיִךְ חַזֵּקִי׃ 54.3. כִּי־יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול תִּפְרֹצִי וְזַרְעֵךְ גּוֹיִם יִירָשׁ וְעָרִים נְשַׁמּוֹת יוֹשִׁיבוּ׃ 54.4. אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־לֹא תֵבוֹשִׁי וְאַל־תִּכָּלְמִי כִּי לֹא תַחְפִּירִי כִּי בֹשֶׁת עֲלוּמַיִךְ תִּשְׁכָּחִי וְחֶרְפַּת אַלְמְנוּתַיִךְ לֹא תִזְכְּרִי־עוֹד׃ 54.5. כִּי בֹעֲלַיִךְ עֹשַׂיִךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ יִקָּרֵא׃ 54.6. כִּי־כְאִשָּׁה עֲזוּבָה וַעֲצוּבַת רוּחַ קְרָאָךְ יְהוָה וְאֵשֶׁת נְעוּרִים כִּי תִמָּאֵס אָמַר אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 54.7. בְּרֶגַע קָטֹן עֲזַבְתִּיךְ וּבְרַחֲמִים גְּדֹלִים אֲקַבְּצֵךְ׃ 54.8. בְּשֶׁצֶף קֶצֶף הִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי רֶגַע מִמֵּךְ וּבְחֶסֶד עוֹלָם רִחַמְתִּיךְ אָמַר גֹּאֲלֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.9. כִּי־מֵי נֹחַ זֹאת לִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי־נֹחַ עוֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ כֵּן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מִקְּצֹף עָלַיִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּךְ׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 50.1. Thus saith the LORD: Where is the bill of your mother’s divorcement, Wherewith I have put her away? Or which of My creditors is it To whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities were ye sold, And for your transgressions was your mother put away." 50.2. Wherefore, when I came, was there no man? When I called, was there none to answer? Is My hand shortened at all, that it cannot redeem? Or have I no power to deliver? Behold, at My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness; Their fish become foul, because there is no water, And die for thirst." 50.3. I clothe the heavens with blackness, And I make sackcloth their covering." 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 54.2. Enlarge the place of thy tent, And let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations, spare not; Lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes." 54.3. For thou shalt spread abroad on the right hand and on the left; And thy seed shall possess the nations, And make the desolate cities to be inhabited." 54.4. Fear not, for thou shalt not be ashamed. Neither be thou confounded, for thou shalt not be put to shame; For thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, And the reproach of thy widowhood shalt thou remember no more." 54.5. For thy Maker is thy husband, The LORD of hosts is His name; And the Holy One of Israel is thy Redeemer, The God of the whole earth shall He be called." 54.6. For the LORD hath called thee As a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit; And a wife of youth, can she be rejected? Saith thy God." 54.7. For a small moment have I forsaken thee; But with great compassion will I gather thee." 54.8. In a little wrath I hid My face from thee for a moment; But with everlasting kindness will I have compassion on thee, Saith the LORD thy Redeemer." 54.9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee." 54.10. For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall My covet of peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath compassion on thee."
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.7, 2.23, 3.1-3.3, 3.7-3.9, 3.11-3.13, 7.3-7.14, 7.30, 26.1-26.6, 26.8-26.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.7. וָאָבִיא אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכַּרְמֶל לֶאֱכֹל פִּרְיָהּ וְטוּבָהּ וַתָּבֹאוּ וַתְּטַמְּאוּ אֶת־אַרְצִי וְנַחֲלָתִי שַׂמְתֶּם לְתוֹעֵבָה׃ 2.23. אֵיךְ תֹּאמְרִי לֹא נִטְמֵאתִי אַחֲרֵי הַבְּעָלִים לֹא הָלַכְתִּי רְאִי דַרְכֵּךְ בַּגַּיְא דְּעִי מֶה עָשִׂית בִּכְרָה קַלָּה מְשָׂרֶכֶת דְּרָכֶיהָ׃ 3.1. וְגַם־בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁבָה אֵלַי בָּגוֹדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ יְהוּדָה בְּכָל־לִבָּהּ כִּי אִם־בְּשֶׁקֶר נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 3.1. לֵאמֹר הֵן יְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה מֵאִתּוֹ וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר הֲיָשׁוּב אֵלֶיהָ עוֹד הֲלוֹא חָנוֹף תֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא וְאַתְּ זָנִית רֵעִים רַבִּים וְשׁוֹב אֵלַי נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה׃ 3.2. שְׂאִי־עֵינַיִךְ עַל־שְׁפָיִם וּרְאִי אֵיפֹה לֹא שגלת [שֻׁכַּבְתְּ] עַל־דְּרָכִים יָשַׁבְתְּ לָהֶם כַּעֲרָבִי בַּמִּדְבָּר וַתַּחֲנִיפִי אֶרֶץ בִּזְנוּתַיִךְ וּבְרָעָתֵךְ׃ 3.2. אָכֵן בָּגְדָה אִשָּׁה מֵרֵעָהּ כֵּן בְּגַדְתֶּם בִּי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 3.3. וַיִּמָּנְעוּ רְבִבִים וּמַלְקוֹשׁ לוֹא הָיָה וּמֵצַח אִשָּׁה זוֹנָה הָיָה לָךְ מֵאַנְתְּ הִכָּלֵם׃ 3.7. וָאֹמַר אַחֲרֵי עֲשׂוֹתָהּ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה אֵלַי תָּשׁוּב וְלֹא־שָׁבָה ותראה [וַתֵּרֶא] בָּגוֹדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ יְהוּדָה׃ 3.8. וָאֵרֶא כִּי עַל־כָּל־אֹדוֹת אֲשֶׁר נִאֲפָה מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁלַּחְתִּיהָ וָאֶתֵּן אֶת־סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻתֶיהָ אֵלֶיהָ וְלֹא יָרְאָה בֹּגֵדָה יְהוּדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתִּזֶן גַּם־הִיא׃ 3.9. וְהָיָה מִקֹּל זְנוּתָהּ וַתֶּחֱנַף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַתִּנְאַף אֶת־הָאֶבֶן וְאֶת־הָעֵץ׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי צִדְּקָה נַפְשָׁהּ מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֹּגֵדָה יְהוּדָה׃ 3.12. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה צָפוֹנָה וְאָמַרְתָּ שׁוּבָה מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה לוֹא־אַפִּיל פָּנַי בָּכֶם כִּי־חָסִיד אֲנִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה לֹא אֶטּוֹר לְעוֹלָם׃ 3.13. אַךְ דְּעִי עֲוֺנֵךְ כִּי בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהַיִךְ פָּשָׁעַתְּ וַתְּפַזְּרִי אֶת־דְּרָכַיִךְ לַזָּרִים תַּחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן וּבְקוֹלִי לֹא־שְׁמַעְתֶּם נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה׃ 7.3. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵיטִיבוּ דַרְכֵיכֶם וּמַעַלְלֵיכֶם וַאֲשַׁכְּנָה אֶתְכֶם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 7.3. כִּי־עָשׂוּ בְנֵי־יְהוּדָה הָרַע בְּעֵינַי נְאֻום־יְהוָה שָׂמוּ שִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם בַּבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו לְטַמְּאוֹ׃ 7.4. אַל־תִּבְטְחוּ לָכֶם אֶל־דִּבְרֵי הַשֶּׁקֶר לֵאמֹר הֵיכַל יְהוָה הֵיכַל יְהוָה הֵיכַל יְהוָה הֵמָּה׃ 7.5. כִּי אִם־הֵיטֵיב תֵּיטִיבוּ אֶת־דַּרְכֵיכֶם וְאֶת־מַעַלְלֵיכֶם אִם־עָשׂוֹ תַעֲשׂוּ מִשְׁפָּט בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין רֵעֵהוּ׃ 7.6. גֵּר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה לֹא תַעֲשֹׁקוּ וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לֹא תֵלְכוּ לְרַע לָכֶם׃ 7.7. וְשִׁכַּנְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם לְמִן־עוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.8. הִנֵּה אַתֶּם בֹּטְחִים לָכֶם עַל־דִּבְרֵי הַשָּׁקֶר לְבִלְתִּי הוֹעִיל׃ 7.9. הֲגָנֹב רָצֹחַ וְנָאֹף וְהִשָּׁבֵעַ לַשֶּׁקֶר וְקַטֵּר לַבָּעַל וְהָלֹךְ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 7.11. הַמְעָרַת פָּרִצִים הָיָה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו בְּעֵינֵיכֶם גַּם אָנֹכִי הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי לְכוּ־נָא אֶל־מְקוֹמִי אֲשֶׁר בְּשִׁילוֹ אֲשֶׁר שִׁכַּנְתִּי שְׁמִי שָׁם בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּרְאוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ מִפְּנֵי רָעַת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.13. וְעַתָּה יַעַן עֲשׂוֹתְכֶם אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים הָאֵלֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה וָאֲדַבֵּר אֲלֵיכֶם הַשְׁכֵּם וְדַבֵּר וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם וָאֶקְרָא אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא עֲנִיתֶם׃ 7.14. וְעָשִׂיתִי לַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בֹּטְחִים בּוֹ וְלַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָכֶם וְלַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְשִׁלוֹ׃ 26.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית מַמְלְכוּת יְהוֹיָקִים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה מֵאֵת יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 26.1. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיַּעֲלוּ מִבֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית יְהוָה וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּפֶתַח שַׁעַר־יְהוָה הֶחָדָשׁ׃ 26.2. וְגַם־אִישׁ הָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה אוּרִיָּהוּ בֶּן־שְׁמַעְיָהוּ מִקִּרְיַת הַיְּעָרִים וַיִּנָּבֵא עַל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת כְּכֹל דִּבְרֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ׃ 26.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עֲמֹד בַּחֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה וְדִבַּרְתָּ עַל־כָּל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה הַבָּאִים לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת בֵּית־יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְדַבֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם אַל־תִּגְרַע דָּבָר׃ 26.3. אוּלַי יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וְנִחַמְתִּי אֶל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי חֹשֵׁב לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶם מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיהֶם׃ 26.4. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ אֵלַי לָלֶכֶת בְּתוֹרָתִי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִפְנֵיכֶם׃ 26.5. לִשְׁמֹעַ עַל־דִּבְרֵי עֲבָדַי הַנְּבִאִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ אֲלֵיכֶם וְהַשְׁכֵּם וְשָׁלֹחַ וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם׃ 26.6. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה כְּשִׁלֹה וְאֶת־הָעִיר הזאתה [הַזֹּאת] אֶתֵּן לִקְלָלָה לְכֹל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 26.8. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת יִרְמְיָהוּ לְדַבֵּר אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם וַיִּתְפְּשׂוּ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 26.9. מַדּוּעַ נִבֵּיתָ בְשֵׁם־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר כְּשִׁלוֹ יִהְיֶה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְהָעִיר הַזֹּאת תֶּחֱרַב מֵאֵין יוֹשֵׁב וַיִּקָּהֵל כָּל־הָעָם אֶל־יִרְמְיָהוּ בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 26.11. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִאִים אֶל־הַשָּׂרִים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת לָאִישׁ הַזֶּה כִּי נִבָּא אֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת כַּאֲשֶׁר שְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם׃ 26.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי לְהִנָּבֵא אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְאֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שְׁמַעְתֶּם׃ 26.13. וְעַתָּה הֵיטִיבוּ דַרְכֵיכֶם וּמַעַלְלֵיכֶם וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְיִנָּחֵם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 26.14. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי בְיֶדְכֶם עֲשׂוּ־לִי כַּטּוֹב וְכַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵיכֶם׃ 26.15. אַךְ יָדֹעַ תֵּדְעוּ כִּי אִם־מְמִתִים אַתֶּם אֹתִי כִּי־דָם נָקִי אַתֶּם נֹתְנִים עֲלֵיכֶם וְאֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְאֶל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ כִּי בֶאֱמֶת שְׁלָחַנִי יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 26.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הַשָּׂרִים וְכָל־הָעָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֶל־הַנְּבִיאִים אֵין־לָאִישׁ הַזֶּה מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת כִּי בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ דִּבֶּר אֵלֵינוּ׃ 26.17. וַיָּקֻמוּ אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָאָרֶץ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־קְהַל הָעָם לֵאמֹר׃ 26.18. מיכיה [מִיכָה] הַמּוֹרַשְׁתִּי הָיָה נִבָּא בִּימֵי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־כָּל־עַם יְהוּדָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלַיִם עִיִּים תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 26.19. הֶהָמֵת הֱמִתֻהוּ חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֲלֹא יָרֵא אֶת־יְהוָה וַיְחַל אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עֲלֵיהֶם וַאֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים רָעָה גְדוֹלָה עַל־נַפְשׁוֹתֵינוּ׃ 26.21. וַיִּשְׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ־יְהוֹיָקִים וְכָל־גִּבּוֹרָיו וְכָל־הַשָּׂרִים אֶת־דְּבָרָיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲמִיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע אוּרִיָּהוּ וַיִּרָא וַיִּבְרַח וַיָּבֹא מִצְרָיִם׃ 26.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹיָקִים אֲנָשִׁים מִצְרָיִם אֵת אֶלְנָתָן בֶּן־עַכְבּוֹר וַאֲנָשִׁים אִתּוֹ אֶל־מִצְרָיִם׃ 26.23. וַיּוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־אוּרִיָּהוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיְבִאֻהוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹיָקִים וַיַּכֵּהוּ בֶּחָרֶב וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־נִבְלָתוֹ אֶל־קִבְרֵי בְּנֵי הָעָם׃ 26.24. אַךְ יַד אֲחִיקָם בֶּן־שָׁפָן הָיְתָה אֶת־יִרְמְיָהוּ לְבִלְתִּי תֵּת־אֹתוֹ בְיַד־הָעָם לַהֲמִיתוֹ׃ 2.7. And I brought you into a land of fruitful fields, to eat the fruit thereof and the good thereof; but when ye entered, ye defiled My land, and made My heritage an abomination." 2.23. How canst thou say: ‘I am not defiled, I have not gone after the Baalim’? See thy way in the valley, know what thou hast done; thou art a swift young camel traversing her ways;" 3.1. . . . saying: If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man’s, may he return unto her again? Will not that land be greatly polluted? But thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; and wouldest thou yet return to Me? Saith the LORD." 3.2. Lift up thine eyes unto the high hills, and see: Where hast thou not been lain with? By the ways hast thou sat for them, as an Arabian in the wilderness; and thou hast polluted the land with thy harlotries and with thy wickedness." 3.3. Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there hath been no latter rain; yet thou hadst a harlot’s forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed." 3.7. And I said: After she hath done all these things, she will return unto me; but she returned not. And her treacherous sister Judah saw it." 3.8. And I saw, when, forasmuch as backsliding Israel had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a bill of divorcement, that yet treacherous Judah her sister feared not; but she also went and played the harlot;" 3.9. and it came to pass through the lightness of her harlotry, that the land was polluted, and she committed adultery with stones and with stocks;" 3.11. even the LORD said unto me—backsliding Israel hath proved herself more righteous than treacherous Judah." 3.12. Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say: Return, thou backsliding Israel, Saith the LORD; I will not frown upon you; For I am merciful, saith the LORD, I will not bear grudge for ever." 3.13. Only acknowledge thine iniquity, That thou hast transgressed against the LORD thy God, And hast scattered thy ways to the strangers Under every leafy tree, And ye have not hearkened to My voice, Saith the LORD." 7.3. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Amend your ways and your doings, and I will cause you to dwell in this place." 7.4. Trust ye not in lying words, saying: ‘The temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD, are these.’" 7.5. Nay, but if ye thoroughly amend your ways and your doings; if ye thoroughly execute justice between a man and his neighbour;" 7.6. if ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt;" 7.7. then will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, for ever and ever." 7.8. Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit." 7.9. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and offer unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye have not known," 7.10. and come and stand before Me in this house, whereupon My name is called, and say: ‘We are delivered’, that ye may do all these abominations?" 7.11. Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith the LORD." 7.12. For go ye now unto My place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My name to dwell at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of My people Israel." 7.13. And now, because ye have done all these works, saith the LORD, and I spoke unto you, speaking betimes and often, but ye heard not, and I called you, but ye answered not;" 7.14. therefore will I do unto the house, whereupon My name is called, wherein ye trust, and unto the place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I have done to Shiloh." 7.30. For the children of Judah have done that which is evil in My sight, saith the LORD; they have set their detestable things in the house whereon My name is called, to defile it." 26.1. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, came this word from the LORD, saying:" 26.2. ’Thus saith the LORD: Stand in the court of the LORD’S house, and speak unto all the cities of Judah, which come to worship in the LORD’S house, all the words that I command thee to speak unto them; diminish not a word." 26.3. It may be they will hearken, and turn every man from his evil way; that I may repent Me of the evil, which I purpose to do unto them because of the evil of their doings." 26.4. And thou shalt say unto them: Thus saith the LORD: If ye will not hearken to Me, to walk in My law, which I have set before you," 26.5. to hearken to the words of My servants the prophets, whom I send unto you, even sending them betimes and often, but ye have not hearkened;" 26.6. then will I make this house like Shiloh, and will make this city a curse to all the nations of the earth.’" 26.8. Now it came to pass, when Jeremiah had made an end of speaking all that the LORD had commanded him to speak unto all the people, that the priests and the prophets and all the people laid hold on him, saying: ‘Thou shalt surely die." 26.9. Why hast thou prophesied in the name of the LORD, saying: This house shall be like Shiloh, and this city shall be desolate, without an inhabitant?’ And all the people were gathered against Jeremiah in the house of the LORD." 26.10. When the princes of Judah heard these things, they came up from the king’s house unto the house of the LORD; and they sat in the entry of the new gate of the LORD’S house." 26.11. Then spoke the priests and the prophets unto the princes and to all the people, saying: ‘This man is worthy of death; for he hath prophesied against this city, as ye have heard with your ears.’" 26.12. Then spoke Jeremiah unto all the princes and to all the people, saying: ‘The LORD sent me to prophesy against this house and against this city all the words that ye have heard." 26.13. Therefore now amend your ways and your doings, and hearken to the voice of the LORD your God; and the LORD will repent Him of the evil that He hath pronounced against you." 26.14. But as for me, behold, I am in your hand; do with me as is good and right in your eyes." 26.15. Only know ye for certain that, if ye put me to death, ye will bring innocent blood upon yourselves, and upon this city, and upon the inhabitants thereof; for of a truth the LORD hath sent me unto you to speak all these words in your ears.’" 26.16. Then said the princes and all the people unto the priests and to the prophets: ‘This man is not worthy of death; for he hath spoken to us in the name of the LORD our God.’" 26.17. Then rose up certain of the elders of the land, and spoke to all the assembly of the people, saying:" 26.18. ’Micah the Morashtite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Zion shall be plowed as a field, And Jerusalem shall become heaps, And the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." 26.19. Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him at all to death? did he not fear the LORD, and entreat the favour of the LORD, and the LORD repented Him of the evil which He had pronounced against them? Thus might we procure great evil against our own souls.’" 26.20. And there was also a man that prophesied in the name of the LORD, Uriah the son of Shemaiah of Kiriath-jearim; and he prophesied against this city and against this land according to all the words of Jeremiah;" 26.21. and when Jehoiakim the king, with all his mighty men, and all the princes, heard his words, the king sought to put him to death; but when Uriah heard it, he was afraid, and fled, and went into Egypt;" 26.22. and Jehoiakim the king sent men into Egypt, Elnathan the son of Achbor, and certain men with him, into Egypt;" 26.23. and they fetched forth Uriah out of Egypt, and brought him unto Jehoiakim the king; who slew him with the sword, and cast his dead body into the graves of the children of the people." 26.24. Nevertheless the hand of Ahikam the son of Shaphan was with Jeremiah, that they should not give him into the hand of the people to put him to death."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 5.11, 16.39, 23.9-23.10, 23.22-23.24, 36.17, 36.19, 40.46 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.11. לָכֵן חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־לֹא יַעַן אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי טִמֵּאת בְּכָל־שִׁקּוּצַיִךְ וּבְכָל־תּוֹעֲבֹתָיִךְ וְגַם־אֲנִי אֶגְרַע וְלֹא־תָחוֹס עֵינִי וְגַם־אֲנִי לֹא אֶחְמוֹל׃ 16.39. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָךְ בְּיָדָם וְהָרְסוּ גַבֵּךְ וְנִתְּצוּ רָמֹתַיִךְ וְהִפְשִׁיטוּ אוֹתָךְ בְּגָדַיִךְ וְלָקְחוּ כְּלֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ וְהִנִּיחוּךְ עֵירֹם וְעֶרְיָה׃ 23.9. לָכֵן נְתַתִּיהָ בְּיַד־מְאַהֲבֶיהָ בְּיַד בְּנֵי אַשּׁוּר אֲשֶׁר עָגְבָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 23.22. לָכֵן אָהֳלִיבָה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי מֵעִיר אֶת־מְאַהֲבַיִךְ עָלַיִךְ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־נָקְעָה נַפְשֵׁךְ מֵהֶם וַהֲבֵאתִים עָלַיִךְ מִסָּבִיב׃ 23.23. בְּנֵי בָבֶל וְכָל־כַּשְׂדִּים פְּקוֹד וְשׁוֹעַ וְקוֹעַ כָּל־בְּנֵי אַשּׁוּר אוֹתָם בַּחוּרֵי חֶמֶד פַּחוֹת וּסְגָנִים כֻּלָּם שָׁלִשִׁים וּקְרוּאִים רֹכְבֵי סוּסִים כֻּלָּם׃ 23.24. וּבָאוּ עָלַיִךְ הֹצֶן רֶכֶב וְגַלְגַּל וּבִקְהַל עַמִּים צִנָּה וּמָגֵן וְקוֹבַע יָשִׂימוּ עָלַיִךְ סָבִיב וְנָתַתִּי לִפְנֵיהֶם מִשְׁפָּט וּשְׁפָטוּךְ בְּמִשְׁפְּטֵיהֶם׃ 36.17. בֶּן־אָדָם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל יֹשְׁבִים עַל־אַדְמָתָם וַיְטַמְּאוּ אוֹתָהּ בְּדַרְכָּם וּבַעֲלִילוֹתָם כְּטֻמְאַת הַנִּדָּה הָיְתָה דַרְכָּם לְפָנָי׃ 36.19. וָאָפִיץ אֹתָם בַּגּוֹיִם וַיִּזָּרוּ בָּאֲרָצוֹת כְּדַרְכָּם וְכַעֲלִילוֹתָם שְׁפַטְתִּים׃ 40.46. וְהַלִּשְׁכָּה אֲשֶׁר פָּנֶיהָ דֶּרֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן לַכֹּהֲנִים שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֵמָּה בְנֵי־צָדוֹק הַקְּרֵבִים מִבְּנֵי־לֵוִי אֶל־יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ׃ 5.11. Wherefore, as I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely, because thou hast defiled My sanctuary with all thy detestable things, and with all thine abominations, therefore will I also diminish thee; neither shall Mine eye spare, and I also will have no pity." 16.39. I will also give thee into their hand, and they shall throw down thine eminent place, and break down thy lofty places; and they shall strip thee of thy clothes, and take thy fair jewels; and they shall leave thee naked and bare." 23.9. Wherefore I delivered her into the hand of her lovers, into the hand of the Assyrians, upon whom she doted." 23.10. These uncovered her nakedness; they took her sons and her daughters, and her they slew with the sword; and she became a byword among women, for judgments were executed upon her." 23.22. Therefore, O Oholibah, thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will raise up thy lovers against thee, from whom thy soul is alienated, and I will bring them against thee on every side:" 23.23. the Babylonians and all the Chaldeans, Pekod and Shoa and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them, handsome young men, governors and rulers all of them, captains and councillors, all of them riding upon horses." 23.24. And they shall come against thee with hosts, chariots, and wheels, and with an assembly of peoples; they shall set themselves in array against thee with buckler and shield and helmet round about; and I will commit the judgment unto them, and they shall judge thee according to their judgments." 36.17. ’Son of man, when the house of Israel dwelt in their own land, they defiled it by their way and by their doings; their way before Me was as the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity." 36.19. and I scattered them among the nations, and they were dispersed through the countries; according to their way and according to their doings I judged them." 40.46. And the chamber whose prospect is toward the north is for the priests, the keepers of the charge of the altar; these are the sons of Zadok, who from among the sons of Levi come near to the LORD to minister unto Him.’"
18. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 3.1-3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וּבֶן־שְׁלֹמֹה רְחַבְעָם אֲבִיָּה בְנוֹ אָסָא בְנוֹ יְהוֹשָׁפָט בְּנוֹ׃ 3.1. וְאֵלֶּה הָיוּ בְּנֵי דָויִד אֲשֶׁר נוֹלַד־לוֹ בְּחֶבְרוֹן הַבְּכוֹר אַמְנֹן לַאֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִית שֵׁנִי דָּנִיֵּאל לַאֲבִיגַיִל הַכַּרְמְלִית׃ 3.2. הַשְּׁלִשִׁי לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי מֶלֶךְ גְּשׁוּר הָרְבִיעִי אֲדֹנִיָּה בֶן־חַגִּית׃ 3.2. וַחֲשֻׁבָה וָאֹהֶל וּבֶרֶכְיָה וַחֲסַדְיָה יוּשַׁב חֶסֶד חָמֵשׁ׃ 3.1. Now these were the sons of David, that were born unto him in Hebron: the first-born, Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess;" 3.2. the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith;"
19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6, 2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.1-9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת אֵלֶּה נִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי הַשָּׂרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־נִבְדְּלוּ הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הַפְּרִזִּי הַיְבוּסִי הָעַמֹּנִי הַמֹּאָבִי הַמִּצְרִי וְהָאֱמֹרִי׃ 9.1. וְעַתָּה מַה־נֹּאמַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת כִּי עָזַבְנוּ מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃ 9.2. כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃ 9.1. Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites." 9.2. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’"
21. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 5, 7, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Septuagint, Tobit, 7.14 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

23. Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.2 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 37. The second vision which he saw, the vision of wisdom -which Enoch the son of Jared, the son,of Mahalalel, the son of Cai, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, saw. And this is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to speak and say to those which dwell on earth: Hear, ye men of old time, and see, ye that come after, the words of the Holy,One which I will speak before the Lord of Spirits. It were better to declare (them only) to the men of old time, but even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom.,Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits by whom the lot of,eternal life has been given to me. Now three Parables were imparted to me, and I lifted up my voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth.
24. Anon., Jubilees, 41.2, 50.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

41.2. But he hated, and did not lie with her, because his mother was of the daughters of Canaan, and he wished to take him a wife of the kinsfolk of his mother, but Judah, his father, would not permit him. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God.
25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.19-4.21, 5.2, 5.7, 10.17-10.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.19-4.21, 5.2, 5.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 8.16-8.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 2.2, 5.7-5.10, 16.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 2.2, 5.7-5.10, 16.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.17-57.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.26, 28.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.26. If you have a wife who pleases you, do not cast her out;but do not trust yourself to one whom you detest. 28.15. Slander has driven away courageous women,and deprived them of the fruit of their toil.
32. Septuagint, Judith, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.4. Judith had lived at home as a widow for three years and four months.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

91. For although the seventh day is a lesson to teach us the power which exists in the uncreated God, and also that the creature is entitled to rest from his labours, it does not follow that on that account we may abrogate the laws which are established respecting it, so as to light a fire, or till land, or carry burdens, or bring accusations, or conduct suits at law, or demand a restoration of a deposit, or exact the repayment of a debt, or do any other of the things which are usually permitted at times which are not days of festival.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.30-3.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.30. But if, proceeds the lawgiver, a woman having been divorced from her husband under any pretence whatever, and having married another, has again become a widow, whether her second husband is alive or dead, still she must not return to her former husband, but may be united to any man in the world rather than to him, having violated her former ties which she forgot, and having chosen new allurements in the place of the old ones. 3.31. But if any man should choose to form an alliance with such a woman, he must be content to bear the reputation of effeminacy and a complete want of manly courage and vigour, as if he had been castrated and deprived of the most useful portion of the soul, namely, that disposition which hates iniquity, by which the affairs both of houses and cities are placed on a good footing, and as having stamped deeply on his character two of the greatest of all iniquities, adultery and the employment of a pander; for the reconciliations which take place subsequently are indications of the death of each. Let him, therefore, suffer the punishment appointed, together with his wife.VI.
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.261, 4.253, 18.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.261. 3. He also ordered that those whose bodies were afflicted with leprosy, and that had a gonorrhea, should not come into the city; nay, he removed the women, when they had their natural purgations, till the seventh day; after which he looked on them as pure, and permitted them to come in again. 4.253. He that desires to be divorced from his wife for any cause whatsoever, (and many such causes happen among men,) let him in writing give assurance that he will never use her as his wife any more; for by this means she may be at liberty to marry another husband, although before this bill of divorce be given, she is not to be permitted so to do: but if she be misused by him also, or if, when he is dead, her first husband would marry her again, it shall not be lawful for her to return to him. 18.23. 6. But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Judas the Galilean was the author. These men agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but they have an inviolable attachment to liberty, and say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. They also do not value dying any kinds of death, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man lord. 18.23. Now the centurion who was set to keep Agrippa, when he saw with what haste Marsyas came, and what joy Agrippa had from what he said, he had a suspicion that his words implied some great innovation of affairs, and he asked them about what was said.
37. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.120-2.121, 2.160-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
38. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Molo and some others determined it as every one pleased; but this Apion of ours, as deserving to be believed before them, hath determined it exactly to have been in the seventh olympiad, and the first year of that olympiad; the very same year in which he says that Carthage was built by the Phoenicians. The reason why he added this building of Carthage was, to be sure, in order, as he thought, to strengthen his assertion by so evident a character of chronology. But he was not aware that this character confutes his assertion; 2.17. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to the utility of all than other legislations were, is this, that Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion; I mean justice, and fortitude, and temperance, and a universal agreement of the members of the community with one another;
39. Josephus Flavius, Life, 12, 426, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. Mishnah, Eduyot, 4.7, 9.3, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.7. A woman is betrothed by a denar or the value of a denar, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai. But Beth Hillel says: by a perutah or the value of a perutah. And how much is a perutah? One-eighth of an Italian issar. Beth Shammai says: one may dismiss his wife with an old bill of divorcement, But Beth Hillel forbids it. What is an old bill of divorcement? Whenever he was secluded with her after he has written it for her. One who divorces his wife and she [afterwards] spends a night with him at the [same] inn: Beth Shammai says: she does not require a second bill of divorcement from him. But Beth Hillel says: she requires a second bill of divorcement from him. When [does she require a second bill of divorcement]? When she was divorced after marriage. But if she was divorced after betrothal she does not require from him a second bill of divorcement, since he is not [yet] familiar with her."
41. Mishnah, Gittin, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.10. Bet Shammai says: a man should not divorce his wife unless he has found her guilty of some unseemly conduct, as it says, “Because he has found some unseemly thing in her.” Bet Hillel says [that he may divorce her] even if she has merely burnt his dish, since it says, “Because he has found some unseemly thing in her.” Rabbi Akiva says, [he may divorce her] even if he finds another woman more beautiful than she is, as it says, “it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes."
42. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.9. A man in whom defects have arisen [after marriage] cannot be forced to divorce [his wife]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: To what does this apply: to minor defects, but with regard to major defects he can be forced to divorce her."
43. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Mishnah, Nedarim, 11.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11.12. At first they would say that three women must be divorced and receive their ketubah: She who says: “I am defiled to you”; “Heaven is between me and you”; “I have been removed from the Jews.” But subsequently they changed the ruling to prevent her from setting her eye on another and spoiling herself to her husband: She who said, “I am defiled unto you” must bring proof. “Heaven is between me and you” they [shall appease them] by a request. “I have been removed from the Jews” he [the husband] must annul his portion, and she may have relations with him, and she shall be removed from other Jews."
45. Mishnah, Niddah, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. All bloodstains, wherever they are found are clean except those that are found in rooms or in a house for unclean women. A house for unclean Samaritan women conveys uncleanness by overshadowing because they bury miscarriages there. Rabbi Judah says: they did not bury them but threw them away and the wild beasts dragged them off."
46. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
47. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

48. Mishnah, Shabbat, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.4. A man may not go out with a sword, bow, shield, club, or spear, and if he does go out, he incurs a sin-offering. Rabbi Eliezer says: they are ornaments for him. But the sages say, they are nothing but a disgrace, as it is said, “And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more” (Isaiah 2:4). A garter is clean, and they go out [wearing] it on Shabbat. Knee-bands are unclean, and they may not go out with them on Shabbat."
49. Mishnah, Sotah, 5.1, 6.3, 9.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. Just as the water checks her so the water checks him, as it is said, “And shall enter”, “And shall enter” (Numbers 5:22,. Just as she is prohibited to the husband so is she prohibited to the lover, as it is said, “defiled … and is defiled” (Numbers 5:27,, the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Joshua said: thus Zechariah ben Hakatzav used to expound. Rabbi says: twice in the portion, “If she is defiled…defiled”--one referring [to her being prohibited] to the husband and the other to the paramour." 6.3. For it would have been logical: Now if the first evidence [that the woman had secluded herself with the man], which does not prohibit her [to her husband] for all time, is not established by fewer than two witnesses, is it not logical that the final evidence [that she had been defiled] which does prohibit her to him for all time, should not be established by fewer than two witnesses! Scripture states, “And there is no witness against her” (Numbers 5:13) whatever testimony there may be against her [is believed]. And now with respect to the first evidence [about her seclusion with the man] there is an a fortiori (kal vehomer) argument: Now if the final evidence [regarding her being defiled], which prohibits her to her husband for all time, is established by one witness, is it not logical that the first evidence, which does not prohibit her to him for all time, should be established by one witness! Scripture states, “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her” (Deuteronomy 24:1), and elsewhere [Scripture] states, “By the mouth of two witnesses ... shall the matter be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15); just as the “matter” mentioned in this latter case must be based on the testimony of two witnesses, so also here [in the case of the suspected woman] the “matter” must be based on the testimony of two witnesses." 9.9. When murderers multiplied, the [ceremony of] breaking a heifer’s neck ceased. That was from the time of Eliezer ben Dinai, and he was also called Tehinah ben Perisha and he was afterwards renamed “son of the murderer”. When adulterers multiplied, the ceremony of the bitter waters ceased and it was Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai who discontinued it, as it is said, “I will not punish their daughters for fornicating, nor their daughters-in-law for committing adultery, for they themselves [turn aside with whores and sacrifice with prostitutes]” (Hosea 4:14). When Yose ben Yoezer of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha of Jerusalem died, the grape-clusters ceased, as it is said, “There is not a cluster [of grapes] to eat; not a ripe fig I could desire [The pious are vanished from the land, none upright are left among men” (Micah 7:1-2)."
50. Mishnah, Yevamot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Beth Shammai permits the rival wives to the surviving brothers, and Beth Hillel prohibits them. If they perform the halitzah, Beth Shammai disqualifies them from marrying a priest, and Beth Hillel makes the eligible. If they performed yibbum, Beth Shammai makes them eligible [to marry a priest], and Beth Hillel disqualifies them. Though these forbid and these permit, and these disqualify and these make eligible, Beth Shammai did not refrain from marrying women from [the families of] Beth Hillel, nor did Beth Hillel [refrain from marrying women] from [the families of] Beth Shammai. [With regard to] purity and impurity, which these declare pure and the others declare impure, neither of them refrained from using the utensils of the others for the preparation of food that was ritually clean."
51. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
52. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. Let your beauty be not just the outward adorning of braiding the hair, and of wearing jewels of gold, or of putting on fine clothing;
53. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.10-7.16, 7.39, 14.33-14.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.16. For how do you know,wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband,whether you will save your wife? 7.39. A wife is bound by law for as long as her husband lives;but if the husband is dead, she is free to be married to whoever shedesires, only in the Lord. 14.33. for God is not a God of confusion, but of peace.As in all the assemblies of the saints 14.34. let your wives keepsilent in the assemblies, for it has not been permitted for them tospeak; but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 14.35. Ifthey desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home,for it is shameful for a woman to chatter in the assembly. 14.36. What? Was it from you that the word of God went out? Or did it come toyou alone? 14.37. If any man thinks himself to be a prophet, orspiritual, let him recognize the things which I write to you, that theyare the commandment of the Lord.
54. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.3-5.16, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.3. Honor widows who are widows indeed. 5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5.5. Now she who is a widow indeed, and desolate, has her hope set on God, and continues in petitions and prayers night and day. 5.6. But she who gives herself to pleasure is dead while she lives. 5.7. Also command these things, that they may be without reproach. 5.8. But if anyone doesn't provide for his own, and especially his own household, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 5.9. Let no one be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, having been the wife of one man 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work. 5.11. But refuse younger widows, for when they have grown wanton against Christ, they desire to marry; 5.12. having condemnation, because they have rejected their first pledge. 5.13. Besides, they also learn to be idle, going about from house to house. Not only idle, but also gossips and busybodies, saying things which they ought not. 5.14. I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear children, rule the household, and give no occasion to the adversary for reviling. 5.15. For already some have turned aside after Satan. 5.16. If any man or woman who believes has widows, let them relieve them, and don't let the assembly be burdened; that it might relieve those who are widows indeed. 5.19. Don't receive an accusation against an elder, except at the word of two or three witnesses.
55. New Testament, Acts, 13.15, 15.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath.
56. New Testament, Apocalypse, 21.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.22. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God, the Almighty, and the Lamb, are its temple.
57. New Testament, Galatians, 4-5, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

58. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.28. A man who disregards Moses' law dies without compassion on the word of two or three witnesses.
59. New Testament, Romans, 1.13, 7.1-7.4, 10.6-10.8, 11.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Now I don't desire to have you unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, and was hindered so far, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles. 7.1. Or don't you know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.3. So then if, while the husband lives, she is joined to another man, she would be called an adulteress. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is no adulteress, though she is joined to another man. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.) 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry;
60. New Testament, John, 8.2-8.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.2. At early dawn, he came again into the temple, and all the people came to him. He sat down, and taught them. 8.3. The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman taken in adultery. Having set her in the midst 8.4. they told him, "Teacher, we found this woman in adultery, in the very act. 8.5. Now in our law, Moses commanded us to stone such. What then do you say about her? 8.6. They said this testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of. But Jesus stooped down, and wrote on the ground with his finger. 8.7. But when they continued asking him, he looked up and said to them, "He who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her. 8.8. Again he stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. 8.9. They, when they heard it, being convicted by their conscience, went out one by one, beginning from the oldest, even to the last. Jesus was left alone with the woman where she was, in the middle. 8.10. Jesus, standing up, saw her and said, "Woman, where are your accusers? Did no one condemn you? 8.11. She said, "No one, Lord."Jesus said, "Neither do I condemn you. Go your way. From now on, sin no more.
61. New Testament, Luke, 2.36, 4.16, 6.29, 7.9, 9.51-9.52, 10.5, 10.25-10.28, 10.39, 12.13-12.14, 13.28, 14.26, 16.16, 16.18, 17.20-17.21, 18.35-18.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 7.9. When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith, no, not in Israel. 9.51. It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face to go to Jerusalem 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 10.39. She had a sister called Mary, who also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word. 12.13. One of the multitude said to him, "Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me. 12.14. But he said to him, "Man, who made me a judge or an arbitrator over you? 13.28. There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets, in the Kingdom of God, and yourselves being thrown outside. 14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 16.18. Everyone who divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery. 17.20. Being asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God would come, he answered them, "The Kingdom of God doesn't come with observation; 17.21. neither will they say, 'Look, here!' or, 'Look, there!' for behold, the Kingdom of God is within you. 18.35. It happened, as he came near Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the road, begging. 18.36. Hearing a multitude going by, he asked what this meant. 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 18.38. He cried out, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me! 18.39. Those who led the way rebuked him, that he should be quiet; but he cried out all the more, "You son of David, have mercy on me! 18.40. Standing still, Jesus commanded him to be brought to him. When he had come near, he asked him 18.41. What do you want me to do?"He said, "Lord, that I may see again. 18.42. Jesus said to him, "Receive your sight. Your faith has healed you. 18.43. Immediately he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God. All the people, when they saw it, praised God.
62. New Testament, Mark, 2.23-2.28, 10.2-10.12, 12.28-12.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate. 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that.
63. New Testament, Matthew, 5.17-5.48, 7.28-7.29, 18.16, 19.1-19.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.31. It was also said, 'Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce,' 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.38. You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.' 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 18.16. But if he doesn't listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 19.1. It happened when Jesus had finished these words, he departed from Galilee, and came into the borders of Judea beyond the Jordan. 19.2. Great multitudes followed him, and he healed them there. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 19.10. His disciples said to him, "If this is the case of the man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry. 19.11. But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother's womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it.
64. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.1. Originally, when her ketubah was with her father, it was light in [her husband's] eyes to divorce her. Shimon ben Shatah decreed that her ketubah should be with her husband and that he should write for her \"All of my property will be mortgaged or pledged for your ketubah\". They do not make a wife's ketubah from moveable items [i.e. they don't make moveable items the thing that she can collect from it, but rather real estate] because of tikkun ha-olam. Said Rabbi Yose: What tikkun ha-olam is there in this!? It is because they [the moveable items] have no fixed value."
65. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

66. Tosefta, Sotah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

67. Tosefta, Yevamot, 1.10-1.12, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

68. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 122 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

69. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.16.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

70. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90a. והלכתא מותרת לשניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים לא יגרש אדם את אשתו אלא אם כן מצא בה דבר ערוה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ובית הלל אומרים אפילו הקדיחה תבשילו שנאמר כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ר' עקיבא אומר אפי' מצא אחרת נאה הימנה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר דבר אמרו להם ב"ש והלא כבר נאמר ערות,אמרו להם ב"ה אם נאמר ערות ולא נאמר דבר הייתי אומר משום ערוה תצא משום דבר לא תצא לכך נאמר דבר ואילו נאמר דבר ולא נאמר ערות הייתי אומר משום דבר תנשא לאחר ומשום ערוה לא תנשא לאחר לכך נאמר ערות,וב"ש האי דבר מאי עבדי ליה נאמר כאן דבר ונאמר להלן דבר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן בשני עדים אף כאן בשני עדים,וב"ה מי כתיב ערוה בדבר וב"ש מי כתיב או ערוה או דבר,וב"ה להכי כתיב ערות דבר דמשמע הכי ומשמע הכי:,ר"ע אומר אפי' מצא אחרת: במאי קא מיפלגי בדר"ל דאמר ריש לקיש כי משמש בד' לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,ב"ש סברי [והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו] כי מצא בה ערות דבר דהא מצא בה ערות דבר ור"ע סבר כי מצא בה ערות דבר אי נמי מצא בה ערות דבר,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא לא מצא בה לא ערוה ולא דבר מהו,א"ל מדגלי רחמנא גבי אונס (דברים כב, יט) לא יוכל לשלחה כל ימיו כל ימיו בעמוד והחזיר קאי התם הוא דגלי רחמנא אבל הכא מאי דעבד עבד,א"ל רב משרשיא לרבא אם לבו לגרשה והיא יושבת תחתיו ומשמשתו מהו קרי עליה (משלי ג, כט) אל תחרש על רעך רעה והוא יושב לבטח אתך,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כשם שהדעות במאכל כך דעות בנשים יש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ואינו שותהו וזו היא מדת פפוס בן יהודה שהיה נועל בפני אשתו ויוצא,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ושותהו וזו היא מדת כל אדם שמדברת עם אחיה וקרוביה ומניחה,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך תמחוי מוצצו ואוכלו זו היא מדת אדם רע שרואה את אשתו יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק 90a. bAnd the ihalakha /iis that bshe is permitted to both of them. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bBeit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he findsout babout herhaving engaged in ba matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [ idevar erva /i],i.e., she committed adultery or is suspected of doing so, bas it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i] in her,and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1)., bAnd Beit Hillel say:He may divorce her bevendue to a minor issue, e.g., because bshe burnedor over-salted bhis dish, as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her,”meaning that he found any type of shortcoming in her., bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is bbetter looking than herand wishes to marry her, bas it is statedin that verse: b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes”(Deuteronomy 24:1)., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But isn’tthe word b“matter” already statedin the verse, indicating that any disadvantageous matter is a legitimate reason for divorce? bBeit Shammai said to them: But isn’tthe word b“unseemly [ iervat /i]” already stated? /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: Ifthe word b“unseemly” had been stated andthe word b“matter” had not been stated, I would have saidthat a wife bshould leaveher husband bdue to forbidden sexual intercourse,but bshe should nothave to bleavehim bdue toany other bmatter. Therefore,the word b“matter” is stated. And ifthe word b“matter” had been stated andthe word b“unseemly” had not been stated, I would have saidthat if he divorced her merely bdue toa disadvantageous bmatter she may marry anotherman, as the Torah continues: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” (Deuteronomy 24:2). bButif she was divorced bdue toher engaging in bforbidden sexual intercourse, she may not marry anotherman, as she is prohibited from remarrying. bTherefore,the word b“unseemly” is stated,indicating that even a wife who is divorced due to adultery is permitted to remarry.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do Beit Shammai do with thisword b“matter”?How do they interpret it? It seems superfluous, as in their opinion the verse refers specifically to a wife who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse. The Gemara answers: The word b“matter” is stated here,with regard to divorce, bandthe word b“matter” is stated there,with regard to testimony: b“At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bJust as there,it is stated that a matter is established only bthrough two witnesses, so too here,a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse justifies divorce only if it is established bthrough two witnesses. /b, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond to this analogy in the following manner: bIs it written:Because he has found something bunseemly in a matter [ ierva bedavar /i],indicating that it was established through the testimony of two witnesses that she engaged in adultery? bAnd Beit Shammaiwould respond to Beit Hillel’s interpretation as follows: bIs it written:Because he has found beithersomething bunseemly oranother bmatter i[o erva o davar /i],in accordance with Beit Hillel’s understanding?, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond that bfor thisreason the expression b“some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i]” is written, as it indicates thatinterpretation, i.e., that a husband is not obligated to divorce his wife unless there are two witnesses to her having engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse, band italso bindicates thisinterpretation, i.e., that he may divorce her due to any deficiency, be it adultery or any other shortcoming.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is better looking than her. bWith regard to what do they disagree?They disagree bwith regard tothe application of bReish Lakish’sstatement, bas Reish Lakish saidthat the term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If, perhaps, rather,and bbecause. /b, bBeit Shammai holdthat the verse b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means that she did not find favor in his eyes bdue tothe fact that bhe has found some unseemly matter in her. And Rabbi Akiva holdsthat the phrase b“because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means: bOr if he has found some unseemly matter in her. /b,§ bRav Pappa said to Rava:According to Beit Hillel, if the husband bfound about her neither forbidden sexual intercourse norany other bmatter,but divorced her anyway, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Is the divorce valid?,Rava bsaid to himthat the answer can be derived bfrom what the Merciful One revealsin the Torah bwith regard to a rapist: “He may not send her away all his days”(Deuteronomy 22:29), indicating that even if he divorces the woman whom he raped and was subsequently commanded to marry, ball his days he standscommanded bto arise and remarryher as his wife. Evidently, bspecifically therethe husband is obligated to remarry his divorcée, bas the Merciful One revealsas much. bBut here, what he did, he did. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said to Rava: If he intends to divorce her and she is living with him and serving him, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rava breadthe following verse baboutsuch a person: b“Devise not evil against your neighbor, seeing he dwells securely by you”(Proverbs 3:29).,§ It bis taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota5:9) that bRabbi Meir would say: Just as there aredifferent battitudes with regard to food, so too, there aredifferent battitudes with regard to women.With regard to food, byou have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe wine with the fly band does not drink it. And this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of Pappos ben Yehudawith regard to his wife, bas he would lockthe door bbefore his wife and leaveso that she would not see any other man., bAnd you have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe fly band drinksthe wine. bAnd this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of anycommon bman, whosewife bspeaks with her siblings and relatives, and he lets herdo so., bAnd you have a man who,when ba fly falls intohis bserving bowl, he sucksthe fly band eatsthe food. bThis is the demeanor of a bad man, who sees his wife going outinto the street bwith her head uncovered, and spinning in the marketplaceimmodestly
71. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. אפוטרופוס או שהניח תפילין בפני רבו או שקרא שלשה פסוקים בבית הכנסת הרי זה לא יצא לחירות התם דאיקרי עבד מדעתו כי קאמרינן דקא נהיג ביה מנהג בנים: לטבול לאכול בתרומה: בתרומה דרבנן:,ושהיה חולק עמנו על הגורן: ודלמא עבד כהן הוא תנן כמאן דאמר אין חולקין תרומה לעבד אלא אם כן רבו עמו דתניא אין חולקין תרומה לעבד אלא אם כן רבו עמו דברי רבי יהודה רבי יוסי אומר יכול הוא שיאמר אם כהן אני תנו לי בשביל עצמי ואם עבד כהן אני תנו לי בשביל רבי,במקומו של רבי יהודה היו מעלין מתרומה ליוחסין במקומו של רבי יוסי לא היו מעלין מתרומה ליוחסין,תניא א"ר אלעזר ברבי יוסי מימי לא העדתי פעם אחת העדתי והעלו עבד לכהונה על פי העלו סלקא דעתך השתא ומה בהמתן של צדיקים אין הקב"ה מביא תקלה על ידם צדיקים עצמם לא כ"ש,אלא בקשו להעלות עבד לכהונה על פי חזא באתריה דרבי יוסי ואזל ואסהיד באתריה דרבי יהודה:,ושהמקום הזה בית הפרס הוא: מ"ט בית הפרס דרבנן דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מנפח אדם בית הפרס והולך ורב יהודה בר אמי משמיה דרב יהודה אמר בית הפרס שנידש טהור מאי טעמא אי אפשר לעצם כשעורה שלא נידש ברגל:,ועד כאן היינו באין בשבת: קסבר תחומין דרבנן:,ואין נאמן לומר דרך היה לפלוני במקום הזה מעמד ומספד היה לפלוני במקום הזה: מאי טעמא אפוקי ממונא לא מפקינן,תנו רבנן נאמן התינוק לומר כך אמר לי אבא משפחה זו טהורה משפחה זו טמאה טהורה וטמאה סלקא דעתך אלא משפחה זו כשרה ומשפחה זו פסולה,ושאכלנו בקצצה של בת פלוני לפלוני ושהיינו מוליכים חלה ומתנות לפלוני כהן על ידי עצמו אבל לא על ידי אחר וכולן אם היה עובד כוכבים ונתגייר עבד ונשתחרר אין נאמנים ואין נאמן לומר דרך היה לפלוני במקום הזה מעמד ומספד היה לפלוני במקום הזה רבי יוחנן בן ברוקא אומר נאמנים,ר' יוחנן בן ברוקא אהייא אילימא אסיפא אפוקי ממונא הוא אלא ארישא וכולם אם היה עובד כוכבים ונתגייר עבד ונשתחרר אין נאמנין ר' יוחנן בן ברוקא אומר נאמנין,במאי קמיפלגי ת"ק סבר כיון דעובד כוכבים הוא לא הוה דייק ורבי יוחנן בן ברוקא סבר כיון דדעתיה לאיגיורי מידק הוה דייק,מאי קצצה דתנו רבנן כיצד קצצה אחד מן האחין שנשא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו באין בני משפחה ומביאין חבית מליאה פירות ושוברין אותה באמצע רחבה ואומרים אחינו בית ישראל שמעו אחינו פלוני נשא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו ומתייראים אנו שמא יתערב זרעו בזרעינו בואו וקחו לכם דוגמא לדורות שלא יתערב זרעו בזרעינו וזו היא קצצה שהתינוק נאמן להעיד עליה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך האשה שנתארמלה /strong /big br br
72. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
73. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

70a. לא תאכל,גירי וחרורי מנלן אמר רב חסדא דאמר קרא (עזרא ו, כא) וכל הנבדל מטומאת גויי הארץ אליהם,ממזרי מנלן דכתיב (נחמיה ב, י) וישמע סנבלט החרוני וטוביה העבד העמוני וכתיב (נחמיה ו, יח) כי רבים ביהודה בעלי שבועה לו כי חתן הוא לשכניה בן ארח ויהוחנן בנו לקח את בת משלם בן ברכיה קסבר עובד כוכבים ועבד הבא על בת ישראל הולד ממזר,הניחא למ"ד הולד ממזר אלא למאן דאמר הולד כשר מאי איכא למימר ותו ממאי דהוו ליה בני דילמא לא הוו ליה בני ותו ממאי דהכא הוו להו וסליקו דילמא התם הוו,אלא מהכא (נחמיה ז, סא) ואלה העולים מתל מלח תל חרשא כרוב אדון ואמר ולא יכלו להגיד בית אבותם וזרעם אם מישראל הם תל מלח אלו בני אדם שדומים מעשיהם למעשה סדום שנהפכה לתל מלח תל חרשא זה שקורא אבא ואמו משתקתו,ולא יכלו להגיד בית אבותם וזרעם אם מישראל הם זה הוא אסופי שנאסף מן השוק כרוב אדון ואמר אמר רבי אבהו אמר אדון אני אמרתי יהיו ישראל לפני חשובים ככרוב והם שמו עצמם כנמר איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אבהו אמר אדון אע"פ ששמו עצמם כנמר הן חשובים לפני ככרוב,אמר רבה בר בר חנה כל הנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו חרשו לכל העולם כולו וזרעו מלח שנאמר (נחמיה ז, סא) ואלה העולים מתל מלח תל חרשא,אמר רבה בר רב אדא אמר רב כל הנושא אשה לשום ממון הויין לו בנים שאינן מהוגנים שנאמר (הושע ה, ז) בה' בגדו כי בנים זרים ילדו,ושמא תאמר ממון פלט תלמוד לומר (הושע ה, ז) עתה יאכלם חדש את חלקיהם ושמא תאמר חלקו ולא חלקה תלמוד לומר חלקיהם ושמא תאמר לזמן מרובה ת"ל חדש מאי משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק חדש נכנס וחדש יצא וממונם אבד,ואמר רבה בר רב אדא ואמרי לה אמר רבי סלא אמר רב המנונא כל הנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו אליהו כופתו והקב"ה רוצעו ותנא על כולם אליהו כותב והקב"ה חותם אוי לו לפוסל את זרעו ולפוגם את משפחתו ולנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו אליהו כופתו והקב"ה רוצעו,וכל הפוסל פסול ואינו מדבר בשבחא לעולם ואמר שמואל במומו פוסל,ההוא גברא דמנהרדעא דעל לבי מטבחיא בפומבדיתא אמר להו הבו לי בישרא אמרו ליה נטר עד דשקיל לשמעיה דרב יהודה בר יחזקאל וניתיב לך אמר מאן יהודה בר שויסקאל דקדים לי דשקל מן קמאי אזלו אמרו ליה לרב יהודה שמתיה אמרו רגיל דקרי אינשי עבדי אכריז עליה דעבדא הוא,אזל ההוא אזמניה לדינא לקמיה דרב נחמן אייתי פיתקא דהזמנא אזל רב יהודה לקמיה דרב הונא אמר ליה איזיל או לא איזיל אמר ליה מיזל לא מיבעי לך למיזל משום דגברא רבה את אלא משום יקרא דבי נשיאה קום זיל,אתא אשכחיה דקעביד מעקה אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב הונא בר אידי אמר שמואל כיון שנתמנה אדם פרנס על הצבור אסור בעשיית מלאכה בפני שלשה א"ל פורתא דגונדריתא הוא דקא עבידנא א"ל מי סניא מעקה דכתיב באורייתא או מחיצה דאמור רבנן,א"ל יתיב מר אקרפיטא א"ל ומי סני ספסל דאמור רבנן או איצטבא דאמרי אינשי א"ל ליכול מר אתרונגא אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל כל האומר אתרונגא תילתא ברמות רוחא או אתרוג כדקריוה רבנן או אתרוגא דאמרי אינשי אמר ליה לישתי מר אנבגא אמר ליה מי סני איספרגוס דקריוה רבנן או אנפק דאמרי אינשי,אמר ליה תיתי דונג תשקינן אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל אין משתמשים באשה קטנה היא בפירוש אמר שמואל אין משתמשים באשה כלל בין גדולה בין קטנה,נשדר ליה מר שלמא לילתא א"ל הכי אמר שמואל קול באשה ערוה אפשר ע"י שליח א"ל הכי אמר שמואל 70a. bshe may not eat. /b,§ The mishna teaches that bconverts and emancipated slavesascended from Babylonia. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRav Ḥisda says: As the verse stateswith regard to the eating of the Paschal offering upon the return to Eretz Yisrael: “And the children of Israel who had come back from the exile ate, band all such as had separated themselves to them from the impurity of the nations of the landto seek the Lord, the God of Israel, did eat” (Ezra 6:21), indicating that converts and emancipated slaves who had abandoned “the impurity of the nations of the land,” i.e., idolatry, joined Ezra.,The mishna taught that imamzerim /iwere among those who ascended from Babylonia. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard”(Nehemiah 2:19), bandelsewhere bit is writtenwith regard to Tobiah the Ammonite: b“For there were many in Judah sworn to him because he was the son-in-law of Shecaniah the son of Arah; and his son Jehoha had taken the daughter of Meshullam the son of Berechiah”(Nehemiah 6:18). The Gemara proceeds to explain: This itanna bholdsthat in the case of ba gentile or a slave who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Jewish woman, the offspring is a imamzer /i.Since Tobiah the Ammonite, a gentile, married a Jewish woman, as did his son, there were clearly imamzerimamong those who ascended.,The Gemara asks: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat in that case bthe offspring is a imamzer /i. But according to the one who saysthat the lineage of bthe offspring is unflawedand has the status of the mother, bwhat can be said? And furthermore, from whereis it clear bthatJehoha bhad offspringfrom this wife? bPerhaps he did not have offspring,and it is possible that there were no imamzerim /i. bAnd furthermore,even if they did have offspring, bfrom whereis it clear bthat they hadoffspring bhere,in Babylonia, who then bascendedto Eretz Yisrael? bPerhaps they were there,in Eretz Yisrael, all the time, as they may have been one of the families that was not exiled to Babylonia, and therefore they cannot be used as the proof that imamzerimascended from Babylonia., bRather,the proof that imamzerimwere among those who ascended from Babylonia is bfrom here: “And these were they that ascended from Tel Melah, Tel Harsha, Cherub, Addon, and Immer; but they could not tell their fathers’ houses, nor their offspring, whether they were of Israel”(Nehemiah 7:61). The Gemara explains that these names are to be interpreted as follows: b“Tel Melah”; these are people whoselicentious bactions were similar to the act of Sodom, which was turned into a mound of salt [ itel melaḥ /i]. “Tel Harsha”; thisis referring to one bwho callsa man bfather, and his mother silences him,as the word iḥarshais similar to imaḥarishto /i, meaning: Silences him. In any event, the statement that there were those who acted licentiously, as did the people of Sodom, means that there were imamzerimamong them.,The Gemara continues with its explication of the verse: b“But they could not tell their fathers’ houses, nor their offspring, whether they were of Israel”; thisis referring to ba foundling who is gathered from the marketplace.Such a person does not even know if he is Jewish, as he has no knowledge of his parents. With regard to the names b“Cherub, Addon, and Immer,” Rabbi Abbahu saysthat these terms should be expounded as follows: bThe Master [ iAdon /i],God, bsaid: I saidthat bthe Jewishpeople bshall be as important before Me as a cherub, but they made themselvesimpudent bas a leopard [ inamer /i]. There arethose bwho saya different version: bRabbi Abbahu said: The Master [ iAdon /i] saidthat balthough they made themselves as a leopard [ inamer /i], they are as important before Me as a cherub. /b,§ Explicating the same verse, bRabba bar bar Ḥana says:In the case of banyone who marries a woman who is not suited for himto marry due to her lineage, bthe verse ascribes himblame bas though he plowed [ iḥarash /i] allof bthe entire world and sowed it with salt [ imelaḥ /i], as it is statedwith regard to those of flawed lineage who ascended from Babylonia: b“And these were they that ascended from Tel Melah, Tel Harsha.” /b, bRabba bar Rav Adda saysthat bRav says:In the case of banyone who marries a womanof flawed lineage only bfor the sake of money, he will have offspringwho will act binappropriately, as it is stated: “They have dealt treacherously against the Lord, for they have begotten strange children;now shall the new moon devour them with their portions” (Hosea 5:7).,Rabba bar Rav Adda explains the verse: bAnd lest you saythat at least the bmoneythat they received as dowry bwas spared,although they suffer from the acts of their offspring, bthe verse states: “Now shall the new moon devour them with their portions,”meaning their property shall be consumed in a single month. bAnd lest you say his portionwill be lost bbut not the portionof his wife, bthe verse states “their portions”in the plural. bAnd lest you saythis will occur bafter a long time,but in the interim he will benefit from the money, bthe verse states: “The new moon.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where mayit bbe inferredthat their money will be lost immediately? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: A month comes and a month goes, and their money isalready blost.In any event, the fact that the punishment they receive is the loss of their portions indicates that the sin in this case was marrying for the sake of money., bAnd Rabba bar Rav Adda says, and some say Rabbi Salla saysthat bRav Hamnuna says:In the case of banyone who marries a woman who is not suited for himto marry due to her lineage, bElijah binds himin the manner that those liable to receive lashes are bound, band the Holy One, Blessed be He, straps him. Anda Sage btaught: Concerning all of them, Elijah writes and the Holy One, Blessed be He, signsthe following: bWoe to he who disqualifies his offspring, and who brings a flaw to his familylineage, band who marries a woman who is nothalakhically bsuited for himto marry. bElijah binds him and the Holy One, Blessed be He, straps him. /b,He further said: bAnd anyone who disqualifiesothers by stating that their lineage is flawed, that is a sign that he himself bisof bflawedlineage. Another indication that one’s lineage is flawed is that bhe never speaks in praiseof others. bAnd Shmuel says:If one habitually claims that others are flawed, bhe disqualifieshimself bwith hisown bflaw.The flaw he accuses them of having is in fact the one that he has.,§ The Gemara recounts a related incident: There was ba certain man from Neharde’a who entered a butcher shop in Pumbedita. He said to them: Give me meat. They said to him: Wait until the servant of Rav Yehuda bar Yeḥezkel has takenhis meat, bandthen bwe will giveit bto you.The man bsaidto them in anger: bWho isthis bYehuda bar Sheviske’el,a derogatory name for a glutton for meat, bthat he should precede me, that he should take before me? They wentand btold Rav Yehudawhat the man had said. Rav Yehuda bexcommunicated him,in accordance with the ihalakhaof one who disparages a Torah scholar. bTheyalso bsaidto him that the same man bwas in the habit of calling people slaves.Rav Yehuda bproclaimed about him that he is a slaveand may not marry a Jew.,The Gemara continues the story: bThatman bwent and summonedRav Yehuda bto judgment before Rav Naḥman,who was a judge in Neharde’a. When the bsummons arrivedin Pumbedita, bRav Yehuda went before Rav Hunato seek his council. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Should I go or should I not go?Rav Huna bsaid to him:As for the obligation bto go, you are not required to go, since you are a great manand therefore are not under the jurisdiction of Rav Naḥman’s court. bBut due to the honor of the Exilarch’s house,as Rav Naḥman was the son-in-law of the Exilarch, bget upand bgo. /b,Rav Yehuda barrivedin Neharde’a and bfoundRav Naḥman bconstructing a parapet.Rav Yehuda bsaid toRav Naḥman: bDoes the Master not hold in accordance with that ihalakhathat bRav Huna bar Idi saysthat bShmuel says: Once a person has been appointed a leader of the community, he is prohibited from performing labor before threepeople, so that he not belittle the honor of his position? Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: It ismerely ba little fence [ igundarita /i] that I am constructing.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Isthe term ima’akeh /i, which is written in the Torah, orthe corresponding term imeḥitza /i, which the Sages said, distastefulto you? Why do you use a term that is used by neither the Torah nor the Sages?,During their meeting, Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Let the Master sit on the bench [ ikarfita /i].Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Isthe term isafsal /i, which the Sages said, orthe word iitzteva /i, whichcommon bpeople say, distastefulto you? Why are you using uncommon terms? Rav Naḥman then bsaid to him: Let the Master eat a citron [ ietronga /i].Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel said: Anyone who says ietronga /idemonstrates bone-third of a haughtiness of spirit.Why? He should beithersay ietrog /i, as the Sages called it, or ietroga /i, ascommon bpeople sayin Aramaic. Saying ietrongais a sign of snobbery, as it was employed by the aristocratic class. He subsequently bsaid to him: Let the Master drink a cup [ ianbaga /i]of wine. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Isthe term iispargus /i, as the Sages called it, or ianpak /i, ascommon bpeople say, distastefulto you?,Later on, Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Letmy daughter bDonag comeand bpour us drinks.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: One may not make use of a womanfor a service such as this. Rav Naḥman replied: bShe is a minor.Rav Yehuda retorted: bShmuel explicitly says: One may not make use of a woman at all, whethershe is ban adult or a minor. /b,Later on, Rav Naḥman suggested: bLet the Master sendgreetings of bpeace tomy wife bYalta.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: A woman’s voice isconsidered bnakedness,and one may not speak with her. Rav Naḥman responded: It is bpossibleto send your regards bwith a messenger.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: /b
74. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. שילה נוב וגבעון ובית עולמים,איסי בן מנחם אומר אינו צריך ומה בטומאה קלה לא חלק הכתוב בטומאת אשת איש חמורה לא כ"ש א"כ מה ת"ל בקרקע המשכן שלא יביא מתוך קופתו,איבעיא להו אין שם עפר מהו שיתן אפר אליבא דבית שמאי לא תיבעי לך דאמרי לא מצינו אפר שקרוי עפר,כי תיבעי לך אליבא דבית הלל דאמרי מצינו אפר שקרוי עפר מאי אע"ג דאיקרי עפר הכא בקרקע המשכן כתיב או דילמא האי בקרקע המשכן לכדאיסי בן יהודה ולכדאיסי בן מנחם הוא דאתי,ת"ש דא"ר יוחנן משום ר' ישמעאל בשלשה מקומות הלכה עוקבת מקרא,התורה אמרה (ויקרא יז, יג) בעפר והלכה בכל דבר התורה אמרה (במדבר ו, ה) בתער והלכה בכל דבר התורה אמרה (דברים כד, א) ספר והלכה בכל דבר,ואם איתא ליחשוב נמי האי,תנא ושייר ומאי שייר דהאי שייר שייר מצורע דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) והיה ביום השביעי יגלח את כל שערו כלל את ראשו ואת זקנו ואת גבות עיניו פרט ואת כל שערו יגלח חזר וכלל כלל ופרט וכלל אי אתה דן אלא כעין הפרט מה פרט מפורש מקום כינוס שער ונראה אף כל מקום כינוס שער ונראה,מה רבי רבי שיער הרגלים מאי מיעט מיעט דבית השחי ודכוליה גופיה,והלכתא מגלח כדלעת דתנן בא לו להקיף את המצורע מעביר תער על כל בשרו וקתני סיפא וביום השביעי מגלחו תגלחת שניה כתגלחת ראשונה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כי קא חשיב הלכה עוקבת מקרא הא עוקבת מדרבנן היא,רב פפא אמר כי קא חשיב הלכה עוקבת ועוקרת הא עוקבת ומוספת היא,רב אשי אמר הא מתניתא מני רבי ישמעאל היא דדריש כללי ופרטי 16a. bShiloh, Nob, and Gibeon, andalso bthe Eternal House,i.e., the Temple in Jerusalem. The dust for the isotais still brought from the ground of the Sanctuary wherever it is located, even after the Jewish people are no longer in the wilderness., bIsi ben Menaḥem says: There is no needto derive this ihalakhafrom the verse. It may be learned by an ia fortioriinference: bWith regard tothe prohibition against entering the Sanctuary in a state of bimpurity, a lenientmatter for which there is no court-imposed capital punishment, bthe Torah does not differentiate.It is prohibited for an impure person to enter the Tabernacle no matter where it stands. Therefore, bwith regard to the impurity of a married woman,which is bstringentand carries the penalty of strangulation, ball the more sois it bnotclear that the Torah does not differentiate? The dust must be brought from the Sanctuary no matter where it stands. bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states:“And of the dust that is bon the floor of the Tabernacle”?It teaches bthat one should not bringdust bfrom hisown bbasketand place it directly into the water; he must first place it on the floor., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If bthere is no dust there, what isthe ihalakha /i? May one bplace ashesin the vessel instead? The Gemara responds: There is bnoneed to braise the dilemmaif one holds bin accordance withthe opinion of bBeit Shammai, as they say: We never find ashes referred to as dustin the Torah., bWhen you raise the dilemma,it is bin accordance withthe opinion of bBeit Hillel, who say: Wedo bfind ashes referred to as dustin the context of the red heifer (Numbers 19:17). They likewise hold that ashes may also be used instead of dust to cover the blood of a slaughtered bird or undomesticated animal (see Leviticus 17:13). bWhatis the ihalakhahere, with regard to the water of a isota /i? May ashes replace dust? bAlthoughelsewhere ashes may be breferred to as dust, here it is written: “On the floor of the Tabernacle,”indicating that dust in particular is required, since dust comes from the ground. bOr perhapsthe phrase b“on the floor of the Tabernacle” comesonly to teach that the ihalakhais bin accordance withthe teaching of bIsi ben Yehuda or in accordance withthe teaching of bIsi ben Menaḥem.If so, perhaps ashes are acceptable as well., bComeand bhearevidence from bthatwhich bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: In three instances the ihalakhasupersedes the verse,i.e., the tradition alters the straightforward meaning of the verse., bThe Torah states:“And whatsoever man…that takes in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it bin dust”(Leviticus 17:13), bbut the ihalakhaisthat the blood may be covered bin anythingsimilar to dust. bThe Torah stateswith regard to the nazirite: “All the days of his vow of naziriteship there shall be no brazorcome upon his head” (Numbers 6:5), bbut the ihalakhaisthat the nazirite may not remove his hair bwith anything. The Torah states:“That he writes her a bbill [ isefer /i]of divorce” (Deuteronomy 24:1). The word iseferdenotes a scroll, bbut the ihalakhaisthat the husband may inscribe the bill of divorce bon anythingthat is detached from the ground and suitable to be written upon, not only on a scroll., bAnd if it is sothat ashes may be placed in the water of a isotadespite the verse’s stipulation of dust, bconsider thisfourth case bas wellto be a ihalakhathat supersedes the verse. Since it is omitted from Rabbi Yishmael’s statement, it seems that ashes may not be used.,The Gemara responds: Rabbi Yishmael btaughtsome cases band omittedothers; his list is not exhaustive. The Gemara asks: bWhatelse bdid he omit that he omitted this?It is not reasonable that he would provide a list lacking only one item. The Gemara answers: bHe omitted the leper, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iNega’im1:9): In the verse: b“And it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave off all his hair”(Leviticus 14:9), the phrase “all his hair” is ba generalization.The phrase that follows: b“His head and his beard and his eyebrows,”is ba detail.And with the following phrase: b“Even all his hair he shall shave off,”the verse bthen generalizedagain. In any case of ba generalization, and a detail, and a generalization, you may deducethat the verse is referring bonlyto items bsimilar to the detail. Just as the detail is explicitlyreferring to bareaswhere there is ba collection of hair which is visible, so too all areason the leper that have ba collection of hair which is visiblemust be shaven.,To bwhatotherwise excluded case does this ibaraita bextendthe ihalakha /i? It bextendsthe ihalakhaof hair to include bpubic hair. Whatdoes the ibaraita bexclude? It excludes armpit hair,which is not visible, band body hairthat is not collected. This is the straightforward meaning of the verse., bAndyet bthe ihalakhais:The leper bshaves like a gourd,i.e., his entire body must be shaved. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iNega’im14:2): When the priest bcomes to shave the leper, he passes a razor over all of his flesh. Andin bthe latter clause,the mishna bteaches: On the seventh day he shavesthe leper again. bThe second shaving isjust blike the first shaving.The verse previously analyzed is referring to the second shaving, and its straightforward meaning is that not all of the leper’s flesh needs to be shaved. However, the mishna states that the leper must shave all of his flesh in the second shaving as well. This is another instance where the ihalakhasupersedes the straightforward meaning of the verse, yet it is omitted from Rabbi Yishmael’s list., bRabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Rabbi Yishmael consciously omitted the ihalakhaof the leper because he bcountedonly instances where the ihalakhasupersedesthe straightforward meaning of the bverse. This ihalakhaof the leper, however, bisan instance where the ihalakha bsupersedesonly an exegetical interpretation bof the Sages. /b, bRav Pappa said:Rabbi Yishmael bcountedonly cases where the ihalakha /iboth bsupersedes and uprootsthe straightforward meaning of the verse. bThis,however, is an instance where the ihalakha bsupersedes and adds.The ihalakhadoes not overrule the verse but rather adds an additional requirement, i.e., that the whole body must be shaved., bRav Ashi said: This ibaraita /i,which teaches that only certain parts of the body must be shaved, bisin accordance with bwhoseopinion? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yishmael, who interpretsverses by means of the principle of bgeneralizations and details.According to this interpretation, only collected areas of hair that are visible must be shaven.
75. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63b. מן החטא מקרי ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה א"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך,והא מתני ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה אין אדם מוצא קורת רוח אלא מאשתו ראשונה שנאמר (משלי ה, יח) יהי מקורך ברוך ושמח מאשת נעוריך וא"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך מתקיף תקיפא ועבורי מיעברא במלה,היכי דמי אשה רעה אמר אביי מקשטא ליה תכא ומקשטא ליה פומא רבא אמר מקשטא ליה תכא ומהדרא ליה גבא,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כיון שנשא אדם אשה עונותיו מתפקקין שנאמר (משלי יח, כב) מצא אשה מצא טוב ויפק רצון מה' במערבא כי נסיב אינש איתתא אמרי ליה הכי מצא או מוצא מצא דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב מוצא דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה,אמר רבא אשה רעה מצוה לגרשה דכתיב (משלי כב, י) גרש לץ ויצא מדון וישבות דין וקלון ואמר רבא אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה צרתה בצדה דאמרי אינשי בחברתה ולא בסילתא ואמר רבא קשה אשה רעה כיום סגריר שנאמר (משלי כז, טו) דלף טורד ביום סגריר ואשת מדינים נשתוה,ואמר רבא בא וראה כמה טובה אשה טובה וכמה רעה אשה רעה כמה טובה אשה טובה דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהכתוב משבחה אי בתורה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהתורה נמשלה בה כמה רעה אשה רעה דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שהכתוב מגנה אי בגיהנם משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שגיהנם נמשלה בה,(ירמיהו יא, יא) הנני מביא רעה אשר לא יוכלו לצאת ממנה אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה (איכה א, יד) נתנני ה' בידי לא אוכל קום אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא בר חייא זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה במערבא אמרו זה שמזונותיו תלוין בכספו,(דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשת האב (דברים לב, כא) בגוי נבל אכעיסם אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה רבי אליעזר אומר אלו הצדוקים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים יד, א) אמר נבל בלבו אין אלהים וגו',במתניתא תנא אלו אנשי ברבריא ואנשי מרטנאי שמהלכין ערומים בשוק שאין לך משוקץ ומתועב לפני המקום יותר ממי שמהלך בשוק ערום רבי יוחנן אמר אלו חברים אמרו ליה לר' יוחנן אתו חברי לבבל שגא נפל אמרו ליה מקבלי שוחדא תריץ יתיב,גזרו על ג' מפני ג' גזרו על הבשר מפני המתנות גזרו על המרחצאות מפני הטבילה,קא מחטטי שכבי מפני ששמחים ביום אידם שנאמר (שמואל א יב, טו) והיתה יד ה' בכם ובאבותיכם אמר רבה בר שמואל זו חטוטי שכבי דאמר מר בעון חיים מתים מתחטטין,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מארי כתיב (ירמיהו ח, ב) לא יאספו ולא יקברו לדומן על פני האדמה יהיו וכתיב (ירמיהו ח, ג) ונבחר מות מחיים אמר ליה נבחר מות לרשעים שלא יחיו בעולם הזה ויחטאו ויפלו בגיהנם,כתוב בספר בן סירא אשה טובה מתנה טובה לבעלה וכתיב טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה,אל תצר צרת מחר כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא מחר בא ואיננו נמצא מצטער על העולם שאין שלו מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סוד לאחד מאלף,אמר רבי אסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי תניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם באדם דמו ישפך וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו ורבו,רבי יעקב אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו וגו' בן עזאי אומר כאילו שופך דמים וממעט הדמות שנאמר ואתם פרו ורבו,אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש ונאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש ואתה נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים אמר להן בן עזאי ומה אעשה שנפשי חשקה בתורה אפשר לעולם שיתקיים על ידי אחרים,תניא אידך רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר שופך דם האדם וסמיך ליה ואתם פרו וגו' רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות בן עזאי אומר וכו' אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש וכו',ת"ר (במדבר י, לו) ובנחה יאמר שובה ה' רבבות אלפי ישראל 63b. bfrom sin.We should therefore show our gratitude to them. The Gemara cites a related incident: bRav Yehudawas bteachingTorah bto Rav Yitzḥak, his son,and they encountered the verse: b“And I find more bitter than death the woman”(Ecclesiastes 7:26). His son bsaid to him: For example, whom?His father replied: bFor example, your mother. /b,The Gemara asks: bDidn’t Rav Yehuda teach Rav Yitzḥak, his son,the following ibaraita /i: bA man finds peace of mind only with his first wife, as it is stated: “Let your fountain be blessed, and have joy from the wife of your youth”(Proverbs 5:18), bandhis son bsaid to him: For example, whom,and his father responded in this case as well: bFor example, your mother.This indicates that Rav Yehuda did find peace of mind with his wife. The Gemara answers: She was aggressive and bforceful, butshe was beasily appeased. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstanceswhen a woman is considered ba bad wife? Abaye said: She arranges a table for him and arrangesher bmouth for himat the same time. In other words, although she prepares food for him, she verbally abuses him while he eats. bRava said: She arranges a table for him andthen bturnsher bback to him,displaying her lack of interest in his company., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Once a man marries a woman his iniquities crumble [ imitpakekin /i], as it is stated: “Whoever finds a wife finds good, and obtains [ iveyafek /i] favor of the Lord”(Proverbs 18:22). bIn the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bwhen a man married a woman they would say to him as follows: iMatzaor imotze /i?In other words, they would ask the groom if the appropriate passage for his wife is that verse, which begins with the word imatza /i, as it is written: Whoever finds [ imatza /i] a wife finds good,or whether the more appropriate verse is the one beginning with the word imotze /i, as it is written: “And I find [ imotze /i] more bitter than death the woman”(Ecclesiastes 7:26)., bRava said: It is a mitzva to divorce a bad wife, as it is written: “Cast out the scorner and contention will depart; strife and shame will cease”(Proverbs 22:10). bAnd Rava said: A bad wife whose marriage contractsettlement bistoo blargefor her husband to pay in the event of a divorce, bher rival wife is at her side.In other words, the only way for him to improve matters is to take another wife. bAs people sayin the well-known adage: The way to trouble a woman is bwith her peer and not with a thorn. And Rava said: A bad wife is as troublesome as a day of heavy rain, as it is stated: “A continual dropping on a very rainy day and a contentious woman are alike”(Proverbs 27:15)., bAnd Rava said: Come and see how good a good wife is and how bad a bad wife is. How good is a good wife? As it is written: Whoever finds a wife finds good. If the verse speaks of her,a wife, this demonstrates bhow good a good wife is, as the Bible praises her. If the verse speaksmetaphorically bof the Torah,it nevertheless indicates bhow good a good wife is, as the Torah is compared to her.Conversely, bhow bad is a bad wife? As it is written: “And I find more bitter than death the woman.” If the verse speaks of her,this demonstrates bhow bad a bad wife is, as the Bible condemns her. If the verse speaksmetaphorically bof Gehenna,it still demonstrates bhow bad a bad wife is, as Gehenna is compared to her. /b,The Gemara cites further statements on the same issue. The verse states: b“Behold, I will bring evil upon them, which they shall not be able to escape”(Jeremiah 11:11). bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large.Similarly, with regard to the verse: b“The Lord has given me into the hands of those against whom I cannot stand”(Lamentations 1:14), bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva bar Ḥiyya said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey said thisverse is referring to one bwhose food is dependent on his money.He is forced to purchase his food with cash, as he does not possess land of his own.,With regard to the verse: b“Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people”(Deuteronomy 28:32), bRav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: This isa reference to the children’s bfather’s wife,their stepmother. With regard to the verse: b“I will provoke them with a vile nation”(Deuteronomy 32:21), bRav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. Rabbi Eliezer saysthat bthese are apostates, and so toothe verse bstates: “The vile man has said in his heart: There is no God,they have dealt corruptly” (Psalms 14:1), which proves that an apostate is called vile., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /iwith regard to the verse: “I will provoke them with a vile nation,” that bthese are the inhabitants of Barbarya and the inhabitants of Martenai, who walk naked in the marketplace, as none is more despised and abominable before the Omnipresent than one who walks naked in the marketplace. Rabbi Yoḥa said: These arethe iḤabbarim /i,a sect of Persian priests. The Gemara relates: When bthey said to Rabbi Yoḥa:The iḤabbarimhave come to Babylonia, he shuddered and fellof his chair, out of concern for the Jews living there. bThey said to him:There is a way to deal with their persecution, as bthey accept bribes.Upon hearing that not all was lost, bhe straightened himselfand bsatin his place once again.,Apropos the iḤabbarim /i, the Gemara cites the following statement of the Sages: The iḤabbarimwere able to bissue decrees againstthe Jewish people with regard to bthreematters, bdue to threetransgressions on the part of the Jewish people. bThey decreed against meat,i.e., they banned ritual slaughter, bdue tothe failure of the Jewish people to give the priests bthe giftsof the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw. bThey decreed againstJews bathing in bbathhouses, due totheir neglect of ritual bimmersion. /b,Third, bthey exhumed the deadfrom their graves bbecausethe Jews brejoice onthe bholidaysof the gentiles, bas it is stated: “Then shall the hand of the Lord be against you and against your fathers”(I Samuel 12:15). bRabba bar Shmuel said: Thisverse is referring to bexhuming the dead,which upsets both the living and the dead, bas the Master said:Due bto the iniquity of the living, the dead are exhumed. /b, bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written: “They shall not be gathered nor buried; they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth”(Jeremiah 8:2), band it is written: “And death shall be chosen rather than life”(Jeremiah 8:3). If death will be so indecent that their bodies will not even be buried, why would people choose death over life? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him:The latter verse does not refer to the previously described state of affairs, but rather it means: bDeath is preferable for the wicked,as it is better bthat they not live in this world and sin andconsequently bdescend into Gehenna. /b,The Gemara cites more statements concerning women. bIt is written in the book of Ben Sira: A good wife is a good gift for her husband. And it is written: A good one will be placed in the bosom of a God-fearing man; a bad wife is a plague to her husband. What is his remedy? He should divorce her and he will be cured of his plague. A beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days are doubled.His pleasure in her beauty makes him feel as though he has lived twice as long., bTurn your eyes from a graceful womanwho is married to another man, blest you be caught in her trap. Do not turn to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him,which can lead to temptation. bFor onaccount of bthe countece of a beautiful woman many have been destroyed, and her slain is a mighty host.Furthermore, bmany have been the wounded peddlers.This is referring to men who travel from place to place to sell women’s jewelry. Their frequent dealings with women lead their husbands to harm the peddlers. bThose who accustomthemselves bto licentious matters are like a spark that ignites a coal. As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit. /b,The Gemara quotes additional statements from the book of Ben Sira: bDo not suffer from tomorrow’s trouble,that is, do not worry about problems that might arise in the future, bas you do not know what a day will bring. Perhapswhen btomorrow comes,the individual who was so worried will bnotbe among the living, and bhewas bconsequently upset over a world that is not his. Prevent a crowd from inside your house,do not let many people enter, band do noteven bbring allyour friends into byour house.Make sure, however, that ba crowd seeks your welfare,and that you have many allies. bReveal a secret toonly bone in a thousand,since most people are unable to keep a secret., bRabbi Asi said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage inthe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiplyis considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed”(Genesis 9:6), band it is writtenimmediately bafterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply”(Genesis 9:7)., bRabbi Ya’akov says: It is as though he diminishes theDivine bImage, as it is stated: “For in the image of God He made man”(Genesis 9:6), band it is writtenimmediately bafterward: “And you, be fruitfuland multiply” (Genesis 9:7). bBen Azzai says:It is bas though he sheds blood andalso bdiminishes theDivine bImage, as it is stated: “And you, be fruitful and multiply,”after the verse that alludes to both shedding blood and the Divine Image., bThey said to ben Azzai: Thereis a type of scholar who bexpounds well and fulfillshis own teachings bwell,and another who bfulfills well and does not expound well. But you,who have never married, bexpound wellon the importance of procreation, bandyet byou do not fulfill wellyour own teachings. bBen Azzai said to them: What shall I do, as my soul yearns for Torah,and I do not wish to deal with anything else. bIt is possible for the world to be maintained by others,who are engaged in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply., bIt issimilarly btaughtin banother ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage inthe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiplyis considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man,” andit is stated bnear it: “And you, be fruitfuland multiply.” bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya says:It is bas though he diminishes theDivine bImage. Ben Azzai says:It is as though he both sheds blood and diminishes the Divine Image. bThey said to ben Azzai: There isa type of scholar who bexpounds well, etc. /b, bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply: b“And when it rested, he would say: Return, Lord, to the ten thousands of the thousands of Israel”(Numbers 10:36).
76. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 20, 54, 62, 114 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

77. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.44 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.44. After these points Celsus quotes some objections against the doctrine of Jesus, made by a very few individuals who are considered Christians, not of the more intelligent, as he supposes, but of the more ignorant class, and asserts that the following are the rules laid down by them. Let no one come to us who has been instructed, or who is wise or prudent (for such qualifications are deemed evil by us); but if there be any ignorant, or unintelligent, or uninstructed, or foolish persons, let them come with confidence. By which words, acknowledging that such individuals are worthy of their God, they manifestly show that they desire and are able to gain over only the silly, and the mean, and the stupid, with women and children. In reply to which, we say that, as if, while Jesus teaches continence, and says, Whosoever looks upon a woman to lust after her, has already committed adultery with her in his heart, one were to behold a few of those who are deemed to be Christians living licentiously, he would most justly blame them for living contrary to the teaching of Jesus, but would act most unreasonably if he were to charge the Gospel with their censurable conduct; so, if he found nevertheless that the doctrine of the Christians invites men to wisdom, the blame then must remain with those who rest in their own ignorance, and who utter, not what Celsus relates (for although some of them are simple and ignorant, they do not speak so shamelessly as he alleges), but other things of much less serious import, which, however, serve to turn aside men from the practice of wisdom.
78. Aphrahat, Demonstrations, 13, 15, 18-19, 7, 12 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

79. Anon., Sifre Zuta Deuteronomy, 346

80. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 54, 62, 114



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 115
abraham Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 228
adam Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 114
adultery, adulterous thing Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196
adultery, divorce Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 197
adultery Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 73, 74, 82, 83, 88, 99, 101
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 86, 88, 91, 101
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 70, 73, 74, 81
alphabetic culture Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 112, 115, 121
ammi Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 190
ancient halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
antitheses, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 228, 281
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 228, 229, 230, 231
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 388
apostolic tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 389
aqiva Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 39
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 86, 389
aramaic papyri (elephantine) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 70, 77, 82
asceticism, as betrothal to jesus Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
atonement Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 55
babatha Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54
ben garon Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
bet hillel Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 113, 115
bet shammai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 111, 112, 115, 116, 117
betrothal, vs. marriage Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
betrothed, celibate woman and jesus Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
betz, hans dieter Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 132, 133
biblical referents, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 73
bloodguilt Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 189
breaking ceremony (qetsatsa) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
brooten, b. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
caird, g. b. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
canon law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 101
celibacy Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 64
celibates Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 112
christology Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 105
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 101
chōrizō Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
collins, adela yarbro Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69
corinth Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 594
covenant renewal Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 99
david Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 389
death penalty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 82, 83, 88
deuteronomic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 112
deuteronomy and deuteronomistic history Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54, 69, 85, 86, 88, 101
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
divorce, adultery Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
divorce, biblical law Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
divorce, dead sea scrolls Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 197
divorce, divorcée as adulteress Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196
divorce, from betrothal Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156, 160
divorce, from prostitute Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
divorce, hated wife Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 69, 70, 73, 74, 76, 77, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 94, 99, 101
divorce, new testament Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
divorce, pauls views Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
divorce, procedure Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 197
divorce, reasons Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196
divorce, second marriage Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 197
divorce Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 64; Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 155; Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
divorce bill Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 77, 81, 85, 86, 99, 388, 389
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 73, 82
ekklêsia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
eleazar Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 296
elijah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185; Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 112
epictetus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 33
epstein, jacob n. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 135
ervah Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 155
essenes, celibacy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 132
essenes Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 113
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 388
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 76, 99
fitzmyer, joseph a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95
fornication, during betrothal Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
fornication, falsely accused wife Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
fourth philosophy (josephus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 101, 594
get, married couple Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83
get Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83
ginzberg, louis Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 99
giving of law at sinai Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
gospel of the circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
grant, r. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 82
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 82, 88, 91, 99, 101, 389
halakha, in the new testament Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 70, 73
halakha, rejected Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 197
halivni, david weiss Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 136
hate, divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 74, 77, 81, 82
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95, 96, 97, 99
hebrew, ʿ-z-b Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
hebrew, ʿerwat dāb̠ār Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196
hebrew, ʿerwāh Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 81, 82
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
heschel, abraham joshua Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 135
hiding Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 129
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 421
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 54, 69, 70, 85, 101, 388, 389, 594
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 54, 69, 70, 82, 85, 86, 88, 91, 99, 101, 388, 389
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 70, 101, 433
history of halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69
holiness code (h) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
ibn ezra Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 77
index of subjects, shammaite) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 86, 389
intercourse, sexual Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 117
interpreter of the law Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 99
interreligiöse ehe Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
israel (land) Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
jeremiah Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
jerusalemite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
jesus, rejection of synagogue Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
jesus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83; Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 69, 389, 433
johanan ben nuri, r. Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 74, 76, 83
jubilees, and covenant renewal Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 99
judaism and christianity Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 64
judaize, judaizing (ioudaïzein) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
justin martyr, story of roman christian matron Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
karaites Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 99
ketuba Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 77
kingdom of heaven Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
laban Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
lampe, p. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 228
law and prophets Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 281
law in paul Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 388, 389, 594
levi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
levit Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
lex talionis Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 281
literacy, extent of Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 115, 121
loader, william Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 96
love, of neighbour Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
luke Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 101
mark Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69
marriage, and breaking ceremony Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
marriage, and divorce Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
marriage, human Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 229, 230
marriage Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 117; Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 155
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 73, 74, 76, 77, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 94, 101, 388, 389
marriage law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 82, 388
martha (sister of mary) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
mary (mother of jesus) Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
mary magdalene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
mary of bethany Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
matrimonial formulae Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69
matrimony, second marriage Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
matthaean church, community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 73, 76
meier, john p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95, 96, 97, 132, 133, 136
meir, r. Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 196; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 83, 88, 101
menstrual impurity Libson, Law and self-knowledge in the Talmud (2018) 155
metaphor(ical) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94, 388
metaphor, metaphorical language Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 228, 229, 230, 231
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91, 101
mishna Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
modesty Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 39
moral defilement Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 55, 93
moses Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 135, 136; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 228, 281; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 101, 389
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
nabataeans Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83
near eastern law, ancient Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 73, 77, 86
new testament, deliberate incongruity with authoritative precursor Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 501, 502
new testament, interpretations Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
new testament, new testament, old testament in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 501, 502
new testament, sermon on the mount Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 153
new testament Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83
oral tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54, 76
panken, aaron d. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 136
patriarchy, patriarchal Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 81, 82, 85, 101
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 86, 94, 99, 101, 388, 389, 433, 594
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 389
pauls corinthian correspondence, views of separation/divorce Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
pentateuch (see also tora) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 76, 83
pharisaic-rabbinic (tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 88, 101
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54
pharisees Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 132, 133
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 74, 76, 82, 83, 88, 433
philo of alexandria Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 33
pollution, impurity Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 230
polygamy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 85
porneia (zenut, unchastity) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 73, 99, 389, 594
priestly strand (p) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
priests (kohanim) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
prophecy, prophets, prophetic books Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 228, 229, 230, 231
prophecy Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 228
prophets (later/minor) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 81
prostitution, israel Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
protestant Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69
proto-rabbinic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 73
qetsatsa (breaking ceremony) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 69, 73, 74, 85
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 74, 76, 388, 389, 594
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 101
r. eliezer shammaite Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 86
rabbinic tradition/literature, halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54, 74, 81, 388
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 74, 594
reformation (see also protestant) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 101
remarriage Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
resurrection Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 94
revolt/war, under nero (great ~) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 101
rhetoric, rhetorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54
ritual impurity, and moral impurity, compared Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 55
ritual impurity, hebrew bible Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 55
ritual purity, as prerequisite for sacrifice Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 55
roman catholic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 69, 70, 73
roman legal prosecution, of christians Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
sacrifice, process of, in hebrew bible Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 55
sadducean Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 83
safrai, shmuel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 135
samson (biblical) Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
schechter, solomon Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95, 97
schools Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 115
septuagint/septuaginta/lxx Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 74, 81, 82, 94
sermon on the mount Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95, 96, 97, 135, 136
sex, adultery Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 189
sex, promiscuity Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 189
sex Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 189
sexual relations, (mis)behaviour Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 54
shame Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 39
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 54, 69, 70, 73, 74, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 99, 101, 388, 389, 594
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 54, 69, 70, 73, 74, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 99, 101, 388, 389
shiloh Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 93
shimon ben shetah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 77
sigal, phillip Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95, 96, 97
smith, morton Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 96, 136
socialization of elite' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 115
some indecency Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 129
son Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 281
sotah Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 83; Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 160
stain Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 189
synoptic, gospels Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 433
syriac, bar qyāmā Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
syriac, iḥidāyā Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
syriac, kṯābā dšubqānā Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
syriac, mṣaʿarṯā Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
syriac, š-b-q Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
syriac, šbiqṯā Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
syriac, ʾegartā ddulālā Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 156
system, halakhic ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 54
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 86, 594
teacher of righteousness Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 99
tertullian, on new testament citation of old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 501
tertullian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 101
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 76, 88
tumah Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 189
two witnesses Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 197
vermes, geza Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 95
war, on sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53
wedding Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 228
wisdom (books, tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 76
women, ancient roman perspective Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 51
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 53, 73, 74, 82, 83, 85, 88, 91, 94, 388, 433, 594
works of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 594
yadin, azzan Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 135, 136
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 86, 389
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), breaking ceremony in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
yhwh, yahweh Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 228, 229, 230, 231
yohanan (ben nappaha), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
yom kippur Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
yose b. kefar, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
zecharia Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 185
ḥṭ Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 421