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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.10-23.15


nanWhen thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing.


כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָיְלָה וְיָצָא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of that which chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp.


וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת־עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he may come within the camp.


וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חוּץ׃Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad.


וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶךָ׃And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee.


כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

39 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.1, 17.16-17.17, 20.1, 20.10, 21.1, 21.6-21.11, 23.9, 23.11-23.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.1. לֹא־תִזְבַּח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם כֹּל דָּבָר רָע כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא׃ 17.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ עַל־פִּי הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יַגִּידוּ לְךָ מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה וְשָׁמַרְתָּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יוֹרוּךָ׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 20.1. כִּי־תִקְרַב אֶל־עִיר לְהִלָּחֵם עָלֶיהָ וְקָרָאתָ אֵלֶיהָ לְשָׁלוֹם׃ 20.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְרָאִיתָ סוּס וָרֶכֶב עַם רַב מִמְּךָ לֹא תִירָא מֵהֶם כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עִמָּךְ הַמַּעַלְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 21.1. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא חָלָל בָּאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לְרִשְׁתָּהּ נֹפֵל בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא נוֹדַע מִי הִכָּהוּ׃ 21.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וּנְתָנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיוֹ׃ 21.6. וְכֹל זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא הַקְּרֹבִים אֶל־הֶחָלָל יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־הָעֶגְלָה הָעֲרוּפָה בַנָּחַל׃ 21.7. וְעָנוּ וְאָמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ לֹא שפכה [שָׁפְכוּ] אֶת־הַדָּם הַזֶּה וְעֵינֵינוּ לֹא רָאוּ׃ 21.8. כַּפֵּר לְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִיתָ יְהוָה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם׃ 21.9. וְאַתָּה תְּבַעֵר הַדָּם הַנָּקִי מִקִּרְבֶּךָ כִּי־תַעֲשֶׂה הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 21.11. וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.11. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָיְלָה וְיָצָא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.12. וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת־עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.13. וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חוּץ׃ 23.14. וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶךָ׃ 23.15. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 17.1. Thou shalt not sacrifice unto the LORD thy God an ox, or a sheep, wherein is a blemish, even any evil thing; for that is an abomination unto the LORD thy God." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 20.1. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and seest horses, and chariots, and a people more than thou, thou shalt not be afraid of them; for the LORD thy God is with thee, who brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." 20.10. When thou drawest nigh unto a city to fight against it, then proclaim peace unto it." 21.1. If one be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath smitten him;" 21.6. And all the elders of that city, who are nearest unto the slain man, shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley." 21.7. And they shall speak and say: ‘Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it." 21.8. Forgive, O LORD, Thy people Israel, whom Thou hast redeemed, and suffer not innocent blood to remain in the midst of Thy people Israel.’ And the blood shall be forgiven them." 21.9. So shalt thou put away the innocent blood from the midst of thee, when thou shalt do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD." 21.10. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive," 21.11. and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;" 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.11. If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of that which chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp." 23.12. But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he may come within the camp." 23.13. Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad." 23.14. And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee." 23.15. For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.10-19.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.11. וְהָיוּ נְכֹנִים לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יֵרֵד יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם עַל־הַר סִינָי׃ 19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.14. וַיֵּרֶד מֹשֶׁה מִן־הָהָר אֶל־הָעָם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם וַיְכַבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.10. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Go unto the people, and sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, and let them wash their garments," 19.11. and be ready against the third day; for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai." 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.14. And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their garments." 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.24, 24.37-24.38, 43.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 24.37. וַיַּשְׁבִּעֵנִי אֲדֹנִי לֵאמֹר לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִבְּנוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי יֹשֵׁב בְּאַרְצוֹ׃ 24.38. אִם־לֹא אֶל־בֵּית־אָבִי תֵּלֵךְ וְאֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתִּי וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי׃ 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 24.37. And my master made me swear, saying: Thou shalt not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell." 24.38. But thou shalt go unto my father’s house, and to my kindred, and take a wife for my son." 43.30. And Joseph made haste; for his heart yearned toward his brother; and he sought where to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and wept there."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.10, 3.1-3.6, 3.11, 3.16, 10.4, 11.44, 12.2-12.8, 14.2-14.30, 15.2-15.31, 18.6-18.14, 18.19, 19.12, 20.18, 20.26, 22.3-22.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃ 3.1. וְאִם־זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים קָרְבָּנוֹ אִם מִן־הַבָּקָר הוּא מַקְרִיב אִם־זָכָר אִם־נְקֵבָה תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 3.2. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ קָרְבָּנוֹ וּשְׁחָטוֹ פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 3.3. וְהִקְרִיב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה אֶת־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַקֶּרֶב׃ 3.4. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃ 3.5. וְהִקְטִירוּ אֹתוֹ בְנֵי־אַהֲרֹן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 3.6. וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ לְזֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃ 3.11. וְהִקְטִירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 3.16. וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ כָּל־חֵלֶב לַיהוָה׃ 10.4. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־מִישָׁאֵל וְאֶל אֶלְצָפָן בְּנֵי עֻזִּיאֵל דֹּד אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם קִרְבוּ שְׂאוּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם מֵאֵת פְּנֵי־הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 11.44. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וְטָמְאָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כִּימֵי נִדַּת דְּוֺתָהּ תִּטְמָא׃ 12.3. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 12.4. וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב בִּדְמֵי טָהֳרָה בְּכָל־קֹדֶשׁ לֹא־תִגָּע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא תָבֹא עַד־מְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ׃ 12.5. וְאִם־נְקֵבָה תֵלֵד וְטָמְאָה שְׁבֻעַיִם כְּנִדָּתָהּ וְשִׁשִּׁים יוֹם וְשֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב עַל־דְּמֵי טָהֳרָה׃ 12.6. וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 12.7. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה׃ 12.8. וְאִם־לֹא תִמְצָא יָדָהּ דֵּי שֶׂה וְלָקְחָה שְׁתֵּי־תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה׃ 14.2. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 14.2. וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃ 14.3. וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃ 14.3. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.5. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.6. אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃ 14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.8. וְכִבֶּס הַמִּטַּהֵר אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְגִלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָשַׁב מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 14.9. וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶת־זְקָנוֹ וְאֵת גַּבֹּת עֵינָיו וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ יְגַלֵּחַ וְכִבֶּס אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר׃ 14.11. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן הַמְטַהֵר אֵת הָאִישׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר וְאֹתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 14.12. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד וְהִקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לְאָשָׁם וְאֶת־לֹג הַשָּׁמֶן וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.13. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָעֹלָה בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי כַּחַטָּאת הָאָשָׁם הוּא לַכֹּהֵן קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא׃ 14.14. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הָאָשָׁם וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן עַל־תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית׃ 14.15. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִלֹּג הַשָּׁמֶן וְיָצַק עַל־כַּף הַכֹּהֵן הַשְּׂמָאלִית׃ 14.16. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעוֹ הַיְמָנִית מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּפּוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית וְהִזָּה מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.17. וּמִיֶּתֶר הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּפּוֹ יִתֵּן הַכֹּהֵן עַל־תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל דַּם הָאָשָׁם׃ 14.18. וְהַנּוֹתָר בַּשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַכֹּהֵן יִתֵּן עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.19. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עַל־הַמִּטַּהֵר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ וְאַחַר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה׃ 14.21. וְאִם־דַּל הוּא וְאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת וְלָקַח כֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד אָשָׁם לִתְנוּפָה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו וְעִשָּׂרוֹן סֹלֶת אֶחָד בָּלוּל בַּשֶּׁמֶן לְמִנְחָה וְלֹג שָׁמֶן׃ 14.22. וּשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ וְהָיָה אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה׃ 14.23. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי לְטָהֳרָתוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.24. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־כֶּבֶשׂ הָאָשָׁם וְאֶת־לֹג הַשָּׁמֶן וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.25. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־כֶּבֶשׂ הָאָשָׁם וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הָאָשָׁם וְנָתַן עַל־תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן־הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית׃ 14.26. וּמִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן יִצֹק הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כַּף הַכֹּהֵן הַשְּׂמָאלִית׃ 14.27. וְהִזָּה הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ הַיְמָנִית מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּפּוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.28. וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּפּוֹ עַל־תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל־מְקוֹם דַּם הָאָשָׁם׃ 14.29. וְהַנּוֹתָר מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַכֹּהֵן יִתֵּן עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 15.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא׃ 15.2. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.3. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ׃ 15.3. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת־זוֹבוֹ אוֹ־הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא׃ 15.4. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.5. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.6. וְהַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.7. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.8. וְכִי־יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.9. וְכָל־הַמֶּרְכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא׃ 15.11. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא־שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.12. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם׃ 15.13. וְכִי־יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר׃ 15.14. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.15. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.17. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־עוֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.21. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.22. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.23. וְאִם עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־הִוא יֹשֶׁבֶת־עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ־בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.24. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.25. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת־נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי־תָזוּב עַל־נִדָּתָהּ כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא׃ 15.26. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה־לָּהּ וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ׃ 15.27. וְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.28. וְאִם־טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר׃ 15.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח־לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 15.31. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּטֻמְאָתָם בְּטַמְּאָם אֶת־מִשְׁכָּנִי אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָם׃ 18.6. אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.7. עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.8. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.9. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹתְךָ בַת־אָבִיךָ אוֹ בַת־אִמֶּךָ מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן׃ 18.11. עֶרְוַת בַּת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ מוֹלֶדֶת אָבִיךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.12. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה שְׁאֵר אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 18.14. עֶרְוַת אֲחִי־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ לֹא תִקְרָב דֹּדָתְךָ הִוא׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.18. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת־מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִיא גִּלְּתָה אֶת־מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 22.3. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.3. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.4. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע׃ 22.5. אוֹ־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל־שֶׁרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ אוֹ בְאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ׃ 22.6. נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע־בּוֹ וְטָמְאָה עַד־הָעָרֶב וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי אִם־רָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם׃ 22.7. וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי לַחְמוֹ הוּא׃ 22.8. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 1.10. And if his offering be of the flock, whether of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-offering, he shall offer it a male without blemish." 3.1. And if his offering be a sacrifice of peace-offerings: if he offer of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD." 3.2. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it at the door of the tent of meeting; and Aaron’s sons the priests shall dash the blood against the altar round about." 3.3. And he shall present of the sacrifice of peace-offerings an offering made by fire unto the LORD: the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards," 3.4. and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away hard by the kidneys." 3.5. And Aaron’s sons shall make it smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, which is upon the wood that is on the fire; it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 3.6. And if his offering for a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD be of the flock, male or female, he shall offer it without blemish." 3.11. And the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the LORD." 3.16. And the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savour; all the fat is the LORD’S." 10.4. And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them: ‘Draw near, carry your brethren from before the sanctuary out of the camp.’" 11.44. For I am the LORD your God; sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy; neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth." 12.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a woman be delivered, and bear a man-child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of the impurity of her sickness shall she be unclean." 12.3. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised." 12.4. And she shall continue in the blood of purification three and thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purification be fulfilled." 12.5. But if she bear a maid-child, then she shall be unclean two weeks, as in her impurity; and she shall continue in the blood of purification threescore and six days." 12.6. And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest." 12.7. And he shall offer it before the LORD, and make atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the law for her that beareth, whether a male or a female." 12.8. And if her means suffice not for a lamb, then she shall take two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons: the one for a burnt-offering, and the other for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her, and she shall be clean." 14.2. This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest." 14.3. And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper;" 14.4. then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop." 14.5. And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water." 14.6. As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water." 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field." 14.8. And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean; and after that he may come into the camp, but shall dwell outside his tent seven days." 14.9. And it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave all his hair off his head and his beard and his eyebrows, even all his hair he shall shave off; and he shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and he shall be clean." 14.10. And on the eighth day he shall take two he-lambs without blemish, and one ewe-lamb of the first year without blemish, and three tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with oil, and one log of oil." 14.11. And the priest that cleanseth him shall set the man that is to be cleansed, and those things, before the LORD, at the door of the tent of meeting." 14.12. And the priest shall take one of the he-lambs, and offer him for a guilt-offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave-offering before the LORD." 14.13. And he shall kill the he-lamb in the place where they kill the sin-offering and the burnt-offering, in the place of the sanctuary; for as the sin-offering is the priest’s, so is the guilt-offering; it is most holy." 14.14. And the priest shall take of the blood of the guilt-offering, and the priest shall put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot." 14.15. And the priest shall take of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand." 14.16. And the priest shall dip his right finger in the oil that is in his left hand, and shall sprinkle of the oil with his finger seven times before the LORD." 14.17. And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the guilt-offering." 14.18. And the rest of the oil that is in the priest’s hand he shall put upon the head of him that is to be cleansed; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD." 14.19. And the priest shall offer the sin-offering, and make atonement for him that is to be cleansed because of his uncleanness; and afterward he shall kill the burnt-offering." 14.20. And the priest shall offer the burnt-offering and the meal-offering upon the altar; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be clean." 14.21. And if he be poor, and his means suffice not, then he shall take one he-lamb for a guilt-offering to be waved, to make atonement for him, and one tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with oil for a meal-offering, and a log of oil;" 14.22. and two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, such as his means suffice for; and the one shall be a sin-offering, and the other a burnt-offering." 14.23. And on the eighth day he shall bring them for his cleansing unto the priest, unto the door of the tent of meeting, before the LORD." 14.24. And the priest shall take the lamb of the guilt-offering, and the log of oil, and the priest shall wave them for a wave-offering before the LORD." 14.25. And he shall kill the lamb of the guilt-offering, and the priest shall take of the blood of the guilt-offering, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot." 14.26. And the priest shall pour of the oil into the palm of his own left hand." 14.27. And the priest shall sprinkle with his right finger some of the oil that is in his left hand seven times before the LORD." 14.28. And the priest shall put of the oil that is in his hand upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the place of the blood of the guilt-offering." 14.29. And the rest of the oil that is in the priest’s hand he shall put upon the head of him that is to be cleansed, to make atonement for him before the LORD." 14.30. And he shall offer one of the turtle-doves, or of the young pigeons, such as his means suffice for;" 15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man hath an issue out of his flesh, his issue is unclean." 15.3. And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness." 15.4. Every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth shall be unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. ." 15.5. And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.6. And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he that hath the issue sat shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.7. And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.8. And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean, then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.9. And what saddle soever he that hath the issue rideth upon shall be unclean." 15.10. And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even; and he that beareth those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.11. And whomsoever he that hath the issue toucheth, without having rinsed his hands in water, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.12. And the earthen vessel, which he that hath the issue toucheth, shall be broken; and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water." 15.13. And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue, then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes; and he shall bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean." 15.14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tent of meeting, and give them unto the priest." 15.15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his issue." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.17. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the flow of seed, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even." 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even." 15.20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her impurity shall be unclean; every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean." 15.21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sitteth upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.23. And if he be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even." 15.24. And if any man lie with her, and her impurity be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. ." 15.25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days not in the time of her impurity, or if she have an issue beyond the time of her impurity; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness she shall be as in the days of her impurity: she is unclean." 15.26. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her impurity; and every thing whereon she sitteth shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her impurity." 15.27. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.28. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean." 15.29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 15.30. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness." 15.31. Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile My tabernacle that is in the midst of them." 18.6. None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness. I am the LORD." 18.7. The nakedness of thy father, and the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.8. The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness." 18.9. The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or the daughter of thy mother, whether born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover. ." 18.10. The nakedness of thy son’s daughter, or of thy daughter’s daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover; for theirs is thine own nakedness." 18.11. The nakedness of thy father’s wife’s daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.12. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s sister: she is thy father’s near kinswoman." 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman." 18.14. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy fathers brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 20.18. And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness—he hath made naked her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood—both of them shall be cut off from among their people." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine." 22.3. Say unto them: Whosoever he be of all your seed throughout your generations, that approacheth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from before Me: I am the LORD." 22.4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath an issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any one that is unclean by the dead; or from whomsoever the flow of seed goeth out;" 22.5. or whosoever toucheth any swarming thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever uncleanness he hath;" 22.6. the soul that toucheth any such shall be unclean until the even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he bathe his flesh in water." 22.7. And when the sun is down, he shall be clean; and afterward he may eat of the holy things, because it is his bread." 22.8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith: I am the LORD." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.44, 5.1-5.4, 27.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.44. אֵלֶּה הַפְּקֻדִים אֲשֶׁר פָּקַד מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּנְשִׂיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אִישׁ אִישׁ־אֶחָד לְבֵית־אֲבֹתָיו הָיוּ׃ 5.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.1. וְאִישׁ אֶת־קֳדָשָׁיו לוֹ יִהְיוּ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִתֵּן לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 5.3. מִזָּכָר עַד־נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה תְּשַׁלְּחוּם וְלֹא יְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 5.3. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו רוּחַ קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעָשָׂה לָהּ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 5.4. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־כֵן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אוֹתָם אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 1.44. These are those that were numbered, which Moses and Aaron numbered, and the princes of Israel, being twelve men; they were each one for his fathers’house." 5.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 5.3. both male and female shall ye put out, without the camp shall ye put them; that they defile not their camp, in the midst whereof I dwell.’" 5.4. And the children of Israel did so, and put them out without the camp; as the LORD spoke unto Moses, so did the children of Israel." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 7.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.10. Oh that a full measure of evil might come upon the wicked, And that Thou wouldest establish the righteous; For the righteous God trieth the heart and reins."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 21.5-21.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.5. וַיַּעַן הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין־לֶחֶם חֹל אֶל־תַּחַת יָדִי כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם קֹדֶשׁ יֵשׁ אִם־נִשְׁמְרוּ הַנְּעָרִים אַךְ מֵאִשָּׁה׃ 21.6. וַיַּעַן דָּוִד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כִּי אִם־אִשָּׁה עֲצֻרָה־לָנוּ כִּתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם בְּצֵאתִי וַיִּהְיוּ כְלֵי־הַנְּעָרִים קֹדֶשׁ וְהוּא דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְאַף כִּי הַיּוֹם יִקְדַּשׁ בַּכֶּלִי׃ 21.5. And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread in my hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women." 21.6. And David answered the priest, and said to him, of a truth women have been kept from us as always when I am on a journey, and the vessels of the young men are holy, (although it is a common journey,) how much more today when there will be hallowed bread in their vessel."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 11.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אוּרִיָּה אֶל־דָּוִד הָאָרוֹן וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה יֹשְׁבִים בַּסֻּכּוֹת וַאדֹנִי יוֹאָב וְעַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה חֹנִים וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִי לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׁכַּב עִם־אִשְׁתִּי חַיֶּךָ וְחֵי נַפְשֶׁךָ אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 11.11. And Uriyya said to David, The ark, and Yisra᾽el, and Yehuda, dwell in booths; and my lord Yo᾽av, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open fields; shall I then go into my house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? as thou livest, and as thy soul lives, I will not do this thing."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 20.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.12. וַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֹּחֵן צַדִּיק רֹאֶה כְלָיוֹת וָלֵב אֶרְאֶה נִקְמָתְךָ מֵהֶם כִּי אֵלֶיךָ גִּלִּיתִי אֶת־רִיבִי׃ 20.12. But, O LORD of hosts, that triest the righteous, That seest the reins and the heart, Let me see Thy vengeance on them; For unto Thee have I revealed my cause."
11. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.5, 7.13, 10.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־הָעָם הִתְקַדָּשׁוּ כִּי מָחָר יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה בְּקִרְבְּכֶם נִפְלָאוֹת׃ 7.13. קֻם קַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם וְאָמַרְתָּ הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לְמָחָר כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חֵרֶם בְּקִרְבְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תוּכַל לָקוּם לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ עַד־הֲסִירְכֶם הַחֵרֶם מִקִּרְבְּכֶם׃ 10.15. וַיָּשָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה׃ 3.5. And Joshua said unto the people: ‘Sanctify yourselves; for to-morrow the LORD will do wonders among you.’" 7.13. Up, sanctify the people, and say: Sanctify yourselves against tomorrow; for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: There is a curse in the midst of thee, O Israel; thou canst not stand before thine enemies, until ye take away the accursed thing from among you." 10.15. And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, unto the camp to Gilgal."
12. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.6-4.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.6. וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתִּקְרָא לְבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם מִקֶּדֶשׁ נַפְתָּלִי וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הֲלֹא צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵךְ וּמָשַׁכְתָּ בְּהַר תָּבוֹר וְלָקַחְתָּ עִמְּךָ עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי וּמִבְּנֵי זְבֻלוּן׃ 4.7. וּמָשַׁכְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ אֶל־נַחַל קִישׁוֹן אֶת־סִיסְרָא שַׂר־צְבָא יָבִין וְאֶת־רִכְבּוֹ וְאֶת־הֲמוֹנוֹ וּנְתַתִּיהוּ בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ בָּרָק אִם־תֵּלְכִי עִמִּי וְהָלָכְתִּי וְאִם־לֹא תֵלְכִי עִמִּי לֹא אֵלֵךְ׃ 4.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָלֹךְ אֵלֵךְ עִמָּךְ אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא תִהְיֶה תִּפְאַרְתְּךָ עַל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ כִּי בְיַד־אִשָּׁה יִמְכֹּר יְהוָה אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתָּקָם דְּבוֹרָה וַתֵּלֶך עִם־בָּרָק קֶדְשָׁה׃ 4.6. And she sent and called Baraq the son of Avino῾am out of Qedesh-naftali, and said to him, Has not the Lord God of Yisra᾽el commanded, saying, Go and gather your men to mount Tavor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children of Naftali and of the children of Zevulun?" 4.7. And I will draw out to thee to the wadi of Qishon, Sisera, the captain of Yavin’s army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will deliver him into thy hand." 4.8. And Baraq said to her, If thou wilt go with me, then I will go: but if thou wilt not go with me, then I will not go." 4.9. And she said, I will surely go with thee: however thou shalt scarcely attain honour on the journey that thou goest; for the Lord shall yield Sisera into the hand of a woman. And Devora arose, and went with Baraq to Qedesh."
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.22. וְאַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה לֹא־יִקְחוּ לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלֹת מִזֶּרַע בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה מִכֹּהֵן יִקָּחוּ׃ 44.22. Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away; but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that is the widow of a priest."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 29.17 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.17. וְיָדַעְתִּי אֱלֹהַי כִּי אַתָּה בֹּחֵן לֵבָב וּמֵישָׁרִים תִּרְצֶה אֲנִי בְּיֹשֶׁר לְבָבִי הִתְנַדַּבְתִּי כָל־אֵלֶּה וְעַתָּה עַמְּךָ הַנִּמְצְאוּ־פֹה רָאִיתִי בְשִׂמְחָה לְהִתְנַדֶּב־לָךְ׃ 29.17. I know also, my God, that Thou triest the heart, and hast pleasure in uprightness. As for me, in the uprightness of my heart I have willingly offered all these things; and now have I seen with joy Thy people, that are present here, offer willingly unto Thee."
15. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.6-7.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qt, 45.7-45.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 45.11, 57.15-57.19, 58.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Septuagint, Judith, 8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.2. Her husband Manasseh, who belonged to her tribe and family, had died during the barley harvest.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.110-1.112 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.110. And besides these commands, he also defined precisely the family of the women who might be married by the high priest, commanding him to marry not merely a woman who was a virgin, but also one who was a priestess, the daughter of a priest, that so both bridegroom and bride might be of one house, and in a manner of one blood, so as to display a most lasting harmony and union of disposition during the whole of their lives. 1.111. The others also were permitted to marry women who were not the daughters of priests, partly because their purificatory sacrifices are of but small importance, and partly because he was not willing entirely to disunite and separate the whole nation from the order of the priesthood; for which reason he did not prevent the other priests from making intermarriages with any of their countrywomen, as that is relationship in the second degree; for sons-in-law are in the place of sons to their fathersin-law, and fathers-in-law instead of fathers to their sons-in-law.XXIII. 1.112. These, then, are the ordices which were established respecting marriage, and respecting what greatly resembles marriage, the procreation of children. But since destruction follows creation, Moses also gave the priests laws relating to death, {12}{#le 23:1.} commanding them not to permit themselves to be defiled in respect of all people whatsoever, who might happen to die, and who might be connected with them through some bond of friendship, or distant relationship: but allowing them to mourn for six classes only, their fathers or their mothers, their sons of their daughters, their brothers or their sisters, provided that these last were virgins;
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.277 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.277. Nay, he did not think it proper for the high priest to marry even the widow of one that was dead, though he allowed that to the priests; but he permitted him only to marry a virgin, and to retain her. Whence it is that the high priest is not to come near to one that is dead, although the rest are not prohibited from coming near to their brethren, or parents, or children, when they are dead;
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.147-2.149 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them.
24. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. for he who is partaker of the priesthood must propagate of a wife of the same nation, without having any regard to money, or any other dignities; but he is to make a scrutiny, and take his wife’s genealogy from the ancient tables, and procure many witnesses to it; 1.31. that the rest commended what he had said with one consent, and did what they had resolved on, and so travelled over the desert. But that the difficulties of the journey being over, they came to a country inhabited, and that there they abused the men, and plundered and burnt their temples, and then came into that land which is called Judea, and there they built a city, and dwelt therein
25. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.4-3.6, 8.1-8.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. One who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them." 3.5. If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits." 3.6. A zav who has had a seminal emission and a niddah from whom semen escapes and a woman who becomes niddah during intercourse require a mikveh. Rabbi Judah exempts them." 8.1. These are the points [of difference] between Bet Shammai and Bet Hillel in regard to a meal.Bet Shammai says: first he blesses over the day and then over the wine. Bet Hillel says: first he blesses over the wine and then over the day." 8.2. Bet Shammai says: they wash their hands and then they pour the cup [of wine]. Bet Hillel says: they pour the cup [of wine] and then they wash their hands."
26. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. There are ten [grades of] impurity that emanate from a person:A person before the offering of his obligatory sacrifices is forbidden to eat holy things but permitted to eat terumah and [second] tithe. If he is a tevul yom he is forbidden to eat holy things and terumah but permitted to eat [second] tithe. If he emitted semen he is forbidden to eat any of the three. If he had intercourse with a menstruant he defiles the bottom [bedding] upon which he lies as he does the top [bedding]. If he is a zav who has seen two discharges he conveys impurity to that on which he lies or sits and is required to undergo immersion in running water, but he is exempt from the sacrifice. If he saw three discharges he must bring the sacrifice. If he is a metzora that was only enclosed he conveys impurity by entry [into an ohel] but is exempt from loosening his hair, from rending his clothes, from shaving and from the birds offering. But if he was a confirmed metzora, he is liable for all these. If a limb on which there was not the proper quantity of flesh was severed from a person, it conveys impurity by contact and by carriage but not by ohel. But if it has the proper quantity of flesh it conveys impurity by contact, by carriage and by ohel. A \"proper quantity of flesh\" is such as is capable of healing. Rabbi Judah says: if in one place it has flesh sufficient to surround it with [the thickness of] a thread of the woof it is capable of healing."
27. Mishnah, Negaim, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13.12. If he enters a synagogue, a partition ten handbreadths high and four cubits wide must be made for him. He should enter first and come out last. Any vessel that affords protection by having a tightly fitting cover in the tent of a corpse affords protection by a tightly fitting cover in the house of one afflicted by a nega, And whatsoever affords protection when covered in the tent of a corpse affords protection when covered in the house of one afflicted with a nega, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: any vessel that affords protection by having a tightly fitting cover in the tent of a corpse affords protection when covered in the house of one afflicted with a nega; and whatsoever affords protection when covered in the tent of a corpse remains clean even when uncovered in a leprous house."
28. Mishnah, Parah, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\""
29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.3-11.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.4. Every manpraying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man;
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.3-14.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.3. They sing a new song before the throne, and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand, those who had been redeemed out of the earth. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
31. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.23-5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.28. Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband.
32. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”"
33. Tosefta, Negaim, 7.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 222, 258, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Hermas, Visions, 1.1-1.2, 3.11-3.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

82a. והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:,עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:,שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:,ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים,כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה,מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:,ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:,ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:,ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:,ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:,ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:,ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא,דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער,אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה 82a. The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: bBut when Rabbi Avin camefrom Eretz Yisrael he said that bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bboth a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundarywith another field, the owner of the tree bbringsthe first fruits of the tree band recitesthe accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, basit was bon this conditionthat bJoshua apportioned EretzYisrael bto the Jewish people.This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.,The Gemara answers: bRather, whois the one who btaughtthe ibaraitathat deals with the bten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,an iamora /i. Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa, another iamora /i, can disagree with it. bRav Geviha from Bei Katil teachesthis bexplicitlyin his version of the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is thatelder? It is bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions. /b,§ The Sages taught that bEzrathe Scribe binstituted ten ordices:He instituted bthatcommunities breadthe Torah bon Shabbat in the afternoon; and theyalso breadthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday; andthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. AndEzra further instituted bthat a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she wants to bake; band that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath after being ritually impure; band that peddlersof cosmetics and perfumes bshould travel around throughall bthe towns. AndEzra further binstitutedthe requirement of bimmersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b,The Gemara analyzes these ordices, the first of which is bthatcommunities bshall readthe Torah bon Shabbat afternoon.This Gemara explains that this ordice was instituted bdue to those who sitidly on street bcorners,who do not attend the synagogue during the week.,The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordices: bAnd that they should readthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara asks: bDid Ezra institutethis practice? bBut it was instituted from the beginning,i.e., long before his time. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; band they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water”(Exodus 15:22). bThose who interpret versesmetaphorically bsaidthat bwaterhere is referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is statedmetaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1).,The ibaraitacontinues: The verse means that bsincethe Jews btraveled for three days withouthearing any bTorah they became weary,and therefore the bprophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should readfrom the Torah each bShabbat, and pauseon bSunday, and readagain on bMonday, and pauseon bTuesday and Wednesday, and readagain on bThursday, and pauseon bShabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days withouthearing the bTorah.Evidently this practice predates Ezra.,The Gemara answers: bInitially they institutedthat bone manread bthree verses;or balternatively,that bthree menread bthree verses.Either way, the number three bcorresponds tothe three types of Jews: bPriests, Levites, and Israelites.Ezra later bcameand binstitutedthat bthree menalways read, bandthat bten versesaltogether be read by them, bcorresponding to the ten idlersin a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.,The next ordice of Ezra is: bAndthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordice is bthatmany people are bfoundin a city on these days, bas they comefrom the countryside bfor the reading of theholy bbook,the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.,The ibaraitateaches: bAnd that one should do laundry on Thursday.This was instituted bdue tothe need to have clean garments in bdeference to Shabbat. /b,The Gemara explains the next listed ordice: bAnd that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve.This is bdue tothe fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for bconjugal relations. As it is writtenconcerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, bwho brings forth his fruit in his season”(Psalms 1:3); band Rabbi Yehuda says, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman, and some sayit was bRav Kahana, and some sayit was bRabbi Yoḥawho said: bThisis referring to bone who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat bfive matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warmsthe body; bit causesone’s bcountece to shine; it increasesone’s bsperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some saythat it also binstills loveinto those who eat it band removes jealousyfrom them.,The next ordice is: bAnd that a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted bso that bread should be available for poor people,who go begging for bread in the mornings.,The ibaraitafurther teaches: bAnd that a woman should don a breechcloth [ isinar /i].This ordice was instituted bdue toreasons of bmodesty. /b,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: bThis isrequired bby Torah law,Ezra did not institute this., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: b“And he shall bathe his flesh [ iet besaro /i] in water”(Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches bthat no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water.When the verse states this in the expanded form of b“ iethis flesh,”using the term “ iet /i,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with bthat which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that?It is one’s bhair.Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?,The Sages bsayin response: bBy Torah lawone is required bto inspecthis or her hair before immersion, as bperhapssome hairs are bknottedtogether, preventing contact with water at that spot, borperhaps there is some brepulsive substancein his hair. One must perform this inspection bbecausethese would constitute ban interposition. /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. (ירמיהו י, י) וה' אלהים אמת,חוזר ואומר אמת או אינו חוזר ואומר אמת,א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן חוזר ואומר אמת רבה אמר אינו חוזר ואומר אמת ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה שמעיה רבה דאמר אמת אמת תרי זימני אמר רבה כל אמת אמת תפסיה להאי,אמר רב יוסף כמה מעליא הא שמעתתא דכי אתא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר אמרי במערבא ערבית דבר אל בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם אני ה' אלהיכם אמת,אמר ליה אביי מאי מעליותא והא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר וכי תימא ואמרת אליהם לא הוי התחלה והאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק אמר רב דבר אל בני ישראל לא הוי התחלה ואמרת אליהם הוי התחלה,אמר רב פפא קסברי במערבא ואמרת אליהם נמי לא הויא התחלה עד דאמר ועשו להם ציצית,אמר אביי הלכך אנן אתחולי מתחלינן דקא מתחלי במערבא וכיון דאתחלינן מגמר נמי גמרינן דהא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר,חייא בר רב אמר אמר אני ה' אלהיכם צריך לומר אמת לא אמר אני ה' אלהיכם אינו צ"ל אמת,והא בעי לאדכורי יציאת מצרים,דאמר הכי מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו שהוצאתנו מארץ מצרים ופדיתנו מבית עבדים ועשית לנו נסים וגבורות על הים ושרנו לך:,אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה למה קדמה פרשת שמע וכו':,תניא ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בדין הוא שיקדים שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וזה ללמד והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה ללמוד וזה לעשות,אטו שמע ללמוד אית ביה ללמד ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב ושננתם וקשרתם וכתבתם ותו והיה אם שמוע ללמד הוא דאית ביה ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב וקשרתם וכתבתם,אלא הכי קאמר בדין הוא שתקדם שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וללמד ולעשות והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה יש בה ללמד ולעשות ויאמר אין בה אלא לעשות בלבד,ותיפוק ליה מדרבי יהושע בן קרחה חדא ועוד קאמר חדא כדי שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואח"כ יקבל עליו עול מצות ועוד משום דאית בה הני מילי אחרנייתא.,רב משי ידיה וקרא ק"ש ואנח תפילין וצלי והיכי עביד הכי והתניא החופר כוך למת בקבר פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה הגיע זמן ק"ש עולה ונוטל ידיו ומניח תפילין וקורא ק"ש ומתפלל,הא גופא קשיא רישא אמר פטור וסיפא חייב,הא לא קשיא סיפא בתרי ורישא בחד,מ"מ קשיא לרב רב כרבי יהושע בן קרחה סבירא ליה דאמר עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואח"כ עול מצות,אימר דאמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה להקדים קריאה לקריאה קריאה לעשיה מי שמעת ליה,ותו מי סבר ליה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה והאמר רב חייא בר אשי זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב ומקדים ומשי ידיה ומברך ומתני לן פרקין ומנח תפילין והדר קרי ק"ש וכ"ת בדלא מטא זמן ק"ש א"כ מאי אסהדתיה דרב חייא בר אשי,לאפוקי ממ"ד למשנה אין צריך לברך קמ"ל דאף למשנה נמי צריך לברך,מ"מ קשיא לרב שלוחא הוא דעוית:,אמר עולא כל הקורא ק"ש בלא תפילין כאילו מעיד עדות שקר בעצמו א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כאילו הקריב עולה בלא מנחה וזבח בלא נסכים:,ואמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים שלמה 14b. b“And the Lord, God, is True”(Jeremiah 10:10).,After the conclusion of the final paragraph of iShemaalong with the first word of the subsequent blessing, with the words: “The Lord, your God, is True [ iHashem Eloheikhem emet /i],” the question is posed: bDoes one repeat iemet /iwhen he begins the blessing of iemet veyatziv /i, bor does he not repeat iemet /i? /b, bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: He repeats iemet /i. Rabba said: He does not repeat iemet /i.The Gemara relates: bThis person who descendedto lead the service bbefore Rabba, Rabba heard that he said iemet /i, iemettwice. Rabbamocked him and bsaid: Every iemet /i, iemethas caught this one;he must be passionate about the pursuit of truth., bRav Yosef said: How excellent is this traditionthat I heard, bas when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: bIn Eretz Yisrael, at the evening prayerthey do not recite the entire third portion of iShema /i, which deals with ritual fringes, as there is no obligation to wear ritual fringes at night. Rather, bthey saya condensed version of that portion that includes an excerpt from the beginning and an excerpt from the end: b“Speak to the children of Israel and say to them…I am the Lord, your God, True”(Numbers 15:38, 41)., bAbaye said to him: What is excellentabout this tradition? bDidn’t Rav Kahana saythat bRav said: Oneshould bnot beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, bbut if he does begin, he completesit? bAnd if you say that:Speak to the children of Israel band say to them, is not considered the beginningof the portion of ritual fringes, bdidn’t Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak saythat bRav said: Speak to the children of Israel, is notconsidered ba beginningof the portion of ritual fringes, as many passages in the Torah begin this way; band say to them, isconsidered ba beginning. /b, bRav Pappa said: In Eretz Yisrael, they holdthat band say to them, is notconsidered ba beginning, until he said: And make for them ritual fringes. /b, bAbaye said: Therefore, we beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes, bsince they beginto recite it bin Eretz Yisrael. And once we beginto recite it, bwe complete it as well, as Rav Kahana saidthat bRav said: Oneshould bnot beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, bbut if he does begin, he completesit., bḤiyya bar Rav said: Ifin the evening bone recitedthe portion of ritual fringes concluding with: bI am the Lord, your God, he must recite: Trueand Faithful [iemet /i ive’emuna /i], and the entire blessing of redemption. However, bif he did not recite: I am the Lord, your God, he need not recite iemet /i ive’emuna /i.,The Gemara asks: bIsn’t he required to mention the exodus from Egyptat night as well?,The Gemara responds: In place of reciting iemet ve’emuna bhe said the followingshorter passage: bWe give thanks to You, Lord, our God, Who took us out from Egypt and redeemed us from the house of bondage, and performed miracles and mighty deeds on our behalf on the sea, and we sang unto You,as this formula includes all of the content comprising iemet ve’emuna /i.,We learned in the mishna: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Why did the portion of iShemaprecedethat of iVeHaya im Shamoa /i? So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥaioffers a different explanation for the order of the portions of iShema /i. He bsays: By right, iShemashould precede iVeHaya im Shamoabecausethe iShemaincludes the directive bto learn, while iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directive bto teach.Similarly, iVeHaya im Shamoa /ishould precede iVaYomer /i,the final paragraph of iShema /i, because iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directive bto teach, whilethe portion of ritual fringes includes the directive bto perform. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say thatthe portion of iShemacontainsthe directive bto learnbut bit does not containthe directive bto teach and perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall teach themto your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), a directive to teach, as well as: b“And you shall bind themas a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 6:8) and: b“And write themon your door posts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), directives to perform? bFurthermore, does iVeHaya im Shamoacontainthe directive bto teachbut bit does not containthe directive bto perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall bind themas a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 11:18), a directive to perform?, bRather,Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai bsaid as follows: By right,the portion of iShemashould precede iVeHaya im Shamoabecausethe portion of iShemaincludes the directives bto learn, to teach, and to perform,while iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directives to teach and to perform. iVeHaya im Shamoashould precede iVaYomerbecause iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directives bto teach and to perform, while iVaYomer bonlyincludes the directive bto perform. /b,The Gemara asks: bLet him derive this,that the portion of iShemais recited first, bfromthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa.The Gemara responds: bHe stated onereason band another.Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai does not disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; he simply suggested as additional explanation as follows: bOnereason the portion of iShemais recited first is bso that one will first accept the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself and afterward the yoke of the mitzvot; andthe second reason is bbecausethe portion of iShema bcontains these other elementsas well.,The Gemara relates: bRav washed his hands, recited iShema /i, donned phylacteries, and prayedin that order. The Gemara asks: bHow could he do that? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who digs a grave for the deadin the wall of the family burial cave bis exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, from prayer, from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah.When btheappointed btime for the recitation of iShemaarrives, he emergesfrom the cave, bwashes his hands, dons phylacteries, recites iShema /i, and prays. /b,Before clarifying the problem, the Gemara comments: bThis ibaraita bitself is difficult;it appears to be contradictory. bThe first clauseof the ibaraita bstatedthat one digging a grave bis exemptfrom the recitation of iShema /i, band the latter clausestated that bhe is obligatedto emerge and recite iShema /i,The Gemara responds: bThat is not difficult. The latter clauseof the ibaraitarefers to a case bof twoindividuals digging the grave together; one pauses to recite iShemawhile the other continues digging. bThe first clauseof the ibaraitarefers to a case bof oneindividual digging alone, who may not stop., bIn any case, this ibaraita bcontradicts Ravin terms of the order in which the mitzvot are performed. The Gemara responds: bRav holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, who saidthat the acceptance of bthe yoke of the kingdom of Heaventakes precedence and should bcome first, followed bythe acceptance of bthe yoke of the mitzvot.Therefore, Rav first recited iShema /i, and only then donned phylacteries.,The Gemara challenges: bSaythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saidto bgive precedence to recitationof the portion concerning the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven over brecitationof other portions. But bdid you hear himsay the ihalakhagives precedence to brecitation over performance? /b, bAnd furthermore, doesRav breally hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? But didn’t Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi say: Many times I stood before Rav, and he first washed his hands, recited a blessing, taught us our lesson, donned phylacteries, and then recited iShema /i. And if you say:This was when bthe time for the recitation of iShemahad notyet barrivedand that is why he donned his phylacteries first, bthen what isthe point of bthe testimony of Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi? /b,The Gemara responds: Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi’s story comes bto excludethe opinion of bthe one who said that one need not recite the blessingon Torah study bforthe study of bmishna. It teaches us that even for mishna, one must recite a blessing. /b, bIn any casethis ibaraita bis difficult for Rav.The Gemara responds: bThe messenger was at faultand brought Rav his phylacteries late, so Rav recited iShemaat its appropriate time and later donned phylacteries.,With regard to the recitation of iShemawithout phylacteries, bUlla said: Anyone who recites iShemawithout phylacteries, it is as if he has borne false testimony against himself,as in iShema /i, he mentions his obligation to don phylacteries and in this case fails to don them himself ( iTalmidei Rabbeinu Yona /i). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:One who recites iShemawithout phylacteries, bit is as if he has offered a burnt-offering without a meal-offering or a peace-offering without libations.Despite the fact that he fulfilled his obligation, his offering is incomplete., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who seeks to accept upon himself the complete yoke of the kingdom of Heaven /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. לא הוה מפליג נפשיה מיניה מנלן אילימא מדכתיב (מלכים א כב, ד) כמוני כמוך כעמי כעמך אלא מעתה כסוסי כסוסיך הכי נמי אלא מה דהוי אסוסיך תהוי אסוסי ה"נ מאי דהוי עלך ועילוי עמך תיהוי עלי ועילוי עמי,אלא מהכא (מלכים א כב, י) ומלך ישראל ויהושפט מלך יהודה יושבים איש על כסאו מלובשים בגדים בגורן פתח שער שומרון מאי גורן אילימא גורן ממש אטו שער שומרון גורן הוה אלא כי גורן דתנן סנהדרין היתה כחצי גורן עגולה כדי שיהו רואין זה את זה,לימא מסייע ליה (מלכים א יז, ו) והעורבים מביאים לו לחם ובשר בבקר ולחם ובשר בערב ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב מבי טבחי דאחאב על פי הדבור שאני,מאי עורבים אמר רבינא עורבים ממש א"ל רב אדא בר מניומי ודלמא תרי גברי דהוי שמייהו עורבים מי לא כתיב (שופטים ז, כה) ויהרגו את עורב בצור עורב ואת זאב וגו' א"ל איתרמאי מילתא דתרוייהו הוה שמייהו עורבים,ודלמא על שם מקומן מי לא כתיב (מלכים ב ה, ב) וארם יצאו גדודים וישבו מארץ ישראל נערה קטנה וקשיא לן קרי לה נערה וקרי לה קטנה וא"ר פדת קטנה דמן נעורן אם כן עורביים מיבעי ליה,לימא מסייע ליה הכל שוחטין ואפילו כותי ואפילו ערל ואפילו ישראל מומר האי ערל ה"ד אילימא שמתו אחיו מחמת מילה האי ישראל מעליא הוא אלא פשיטא מומר לערלות,אימא סיפא ואפילו ישראל מומר ה"ד אי מומר לדבר אחד היינו מומר לערלות אלא לאו מומר לעבודת כוכבים וכדרב ענן,לא לעולם אימא לך מומר לעבודת כוכבים לא דאמר מר חמורה עבודת כוכבים שכל הכופר בה כמודה בכל התורה כולה,אלא מומר לאותו דבר וכדרבא,מיתיבי (ויקרא א, ב) מכם ולא כולכם להוציא את המומר מכם בכם חלקתי ולא באומות מן הבהמה להביא בני אדם שדומים לבהמה מכאן אמרו מקבלין קרבנות מפושעי ישראל כדי שיחזרו בהן בתשובה חוץ מן המומר ומנסך את היין ומחלל שבתות בפרהסיא,הא גופא קשיא אמרת מכם ולא כולכם להוציא את המומר והדר תני מקבלין קרבנות מפושעי ישראל,הא לא קשיא רישא מומר לכל התורה כולה מציעתא מומר לדבר אחד,אימא סיפא חוץ מן המומר ומנסך את היין ומחלל שבת בפרהסיא האי מומר היכי דמי אי מומר לכל התורה כולה היינו רישא ואי מומר לדבר אחד קשיא מציעתא,אלא לאו הכי קאמר חוץ מן המומר לנסך את היין ולחלל שבתות בפרהסיא אלמא מומר לעבודת כוכבים הוה מומר לכל התורה כולה ותיובתא דרב ענן תיובתא,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא 5a. The Gemara rejects that suggestion: Jehoshaphat bwould not have separated himself fromAhab to eat and drink by himself, as he relied on him completely. bFrom where do wederive this? bIf we saythat it is derived bfromthat bwhich is writtenthat Jehoshaphat said to Ahab: b“I am as you are, my people as your people”(I Kings 22:4), i.e., I am equally reliable, this is difficult, as, bif that is so,then when Jehoshaphat said at the conclusion of that verse: b“My horses as your horses,”can this balsobe referring to reliability? bRather,Jehoshaphat’s intention was: bThat which will befall your horses will befall my horses; so too, that which will befall you and your people will befall me and my people. /b, bRather,it is derived that Jehoshaphat relied upon Ahab bfrom here: “And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, sat each on his throne, arrayed in their robes, in a threshing floor, at the entrance of the gate of Samaria”(I Kings 22:10). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the term bthreshing floorin this context? bIf we saythat it was ban actual threshing floor; is that to saythat bthe gate of Samaria was a threshing floor?Typically, the gate of a city was the place of assembly for the city’s judges and elders, not a threshing floor. bRather,they were sitting in a configuration blikethat of a circular bthreshing floor,i.e., facing each other in a display of amity, bas we learnedin a mishna ( iSanhedrin36b): bA Sanhedrin wasarranged in the same layout bas half of a circular threshing floor, so thatthe judges bwould see each other.This verse demonstrates that Jehoshaphat deliberated with Ahab and relied on his judgment.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat the verse written with regard to Elijah bsupportsthe opinion of Rav A. The verse states: b“And the ravens [ iorevim /i] brought him bread and meat in the morning, and bread and meat in the evening”(I Kings 17:6); band Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:They would bring the meat bfrom the slaughterhouse of Ahab.Clearly, Elijah would not have eaten the meat if Ahab’s slaughter was not valid. The Gemara responds: Since he ate the meat baccording to the wordof God, the case of Elijah bis different,and no proof may be cited from there.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of iorevim /iin this context? bRavina said:They were bactual ravens. Rav Adda bar Minyumi said to him: And perhapsthey were btwo men whose names were Oreb? Isn’t it written: “And they slew Oreb at the Rock of Oreb, and Zeebthey slew at the winepress of Zeeb” (Judges 7:25), indicating that Oreb is a person’s name? Ravina bsaid to him:Did bthe matterjust so bhappen that the names of both ofthe people supplying Elijah with food bwere Oreb?The improbability of this occurrence indicates that they were actual ravens.,The Gemara suggests: bAnd perhapsthey are called iorevim bafter the name of their placeof origin. bIsn’t it written: “And the Arameans had gone out in bands, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a minor young woman [ ina’ara ketana /i]”(II Kings 5:2)? bAndit is bdifficult for usto understand why the verse bcalls her a young woman andalso bcalls her a minor,which are two different stages in a girl’s development. bAnd Rabbi Pedat said:She was ba minor girl who was froma place called bNaaran.Perhaps in the case of Elijah they were two people from a place called Oreb. The Gemara rejects that suggestion: bIf so, Orebites [ ioreviyyim /i] should havebeen written in the verse.,§ bLet us saythat the following ibaraita bsupportsthe opinion of Rav A, who says that it is permitted to eat from the slaughter of a Jew who is a transgressor with regard to idol worship: bEveryone slaughters, and even a Samaritan, and even an uncircumcisedman, band even a Jewish transgressor.The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bThis uncircumcisedman, bwhat are the circumstances? If we saythat he is an uncircumcised man bwhose brothers died due to circumcisionand the concern is that he might suffer a similar fate, clearly one may eat from what he slaughters, as bhe is a full-fledged Jewand not a transgressor at all. bRather,it is bobviousthat he is ba transgressor with regard toremaining buncircumcised,as he refuses to be circumcised., bSay the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: bAnd even a Jewish transgressor. What are the circumstances? If he is a transgressor with regard to one matter, that isidentical to the case of ba transgressor with regard toremaining buncircumcised. Rather, is it notthat he is ba transgressor with regard to idol worship, andit is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav A? /b,The Gemara rejects that proof: bNo, actually I will say to youthat ba transgressor with regard to idol worshipmay bnotslaughter, bas the Master said: Idol worship is a severetransgression, baswith regard to banyone who denies it,it is basthough bhe acknowledgeshis acceptance of bthe entire Torah.Conversely, with regard to one who accepts idolatry, it is as though he denies the entire Torah. Therefore, his halakhic status is that of a transgressor with regard to the entire Torah, and his slaughter is not valid., bRather,the transgressor in the latter clause of the ibaraitais ba transgressor concerning the same matterof eating unslaughtered carcasses, bandit is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava,who said that one may rely on the slaughter of a transgressor with regard to eating unslaughtered animal carcasses to satisfy his appetite even iab initio /i.,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion of Rav A from that which is taught in a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “When any man of you brings an offering unto the Lord, from the animal” (Leviticus 1:2). The itannainfers: b“of you,”indicating: bBut not all of you.This serves bto exclude the transgressor,from whom an offering is not accepted. The itannacontinues: The term b“of you”is also interpreted to mean that bI distinguished among you and not among the nations.Therefore, a gentile may bring an offering even if he is an idol worshipper. The expression b“from the animal”serves bto include people who are similar to an animalin that they do not recognize God. bFrom here,the Sages bstated: One accepts offerings from Jewish transgressors so that they will consequently repent, except for the transgressor, one who pours wine as a libationto idolatry, band one who desecrates Shabbat in public [ ibefarhesya /i]. /b, bThis ibaraita bitselfis bdifficult.Initially, byou said: “of you,”indicating: bBut not all of you.This serves bto exclude the transgressor,from whom an offering is not accepted. bAnd thenthe itanna bteaches: One accepts offerings from Jewish transgressors. /b,The Gemara answers: bThisis bnot difficult. The first clausestates that an offering is not accepted from ba transgressor with regard to the entire Torah. The middle clausestates that one accepts an offering from ba transgressor with regard to one matter. /b,The Gemara challenges: bSay the last clause: Except for the transgressor, and one who pours wine as a libationto idolatry, band one who desecrates Shabbat in public.With regard to bthis transgressorin the last clause, bwhat are the circumstances? Ifthe reference is to ba transgressor with regard to the entire Torah, that isidentical to bthe first clause:of you, and not all of you, to exclude the transgressor. bAnd ifthe reference is to ba transgressor with regard to one matter, the middle clauseis bdifficult,as it is stated there that one accepts an offering from a transgressor with regard to one matter., bRather, is it notthat bthisis what the mishna bis sayingin the last clause: bExcept for the transgressor to pour wine as a libationto idolatry bor to desecrate Shabbat in public? Apparently, a transgressor with regard to idol worship is a transgressor with regard to the entire Torah, andthis ibaraitais ba refutation ofthe opinion of bRav A.The Gemara concludes: It is indeed ba conclusive refutation. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd is this ihalakhathat one does not accept an offering from a transgressor bderived fromthe verse cited bhere? It is derived fromthe verse written btherewith regard to a sin offering:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aherim, non-jews Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
ai Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
alienation, language of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
asceticism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
birth Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 207; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
bloch-smith, elizabeth Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
bny ysrl Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
body Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
brichto, herbert chanan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
buckley, jorunn jacobsen Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
celibacy Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
chieftain / prince Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
church (ejkklhsiva), as a woman Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
church (ejkklhsiva) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
clements, r. e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
contagion Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53
cross, frank moore Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
death Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200
discharge Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
disease, infection, ix Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53
disease Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
douglas, mary Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
ejaculants/baal qeri Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 388, 396, 397
eliade, mircea Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
emotions, disgust Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200, 207, 214, 223
essenes Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 57
essentialism Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 207, 223
excrement Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200, 207, 214
family Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
fishbane, michael Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
foreigners, protecting sancta against Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 388
fox, everett Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
geller, stephen Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
gender Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 207, 214, 217, 223; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
gerstenberger, erhard s. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
gilgal Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
girard, rene´ Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
gorman, frank h., jr. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
handwashing Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 201
haran, menahem Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
hartley, john e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
hendel, ronald s. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
holiness Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53
holiness of community Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
holiness of sacred space Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
holy war Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
idolatry Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
jerusalem Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 57
josephus Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 201
joshua Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
judges Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
king Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
levenson, jon d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
leviticus (biblical book) Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
lundquist, john m. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
marriage, renunciation of Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
menstrual blood Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53, 207, 223
menstrual taboos, biblical background Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396, 397
menstruants/niddah, and the sacred Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 407
menstruants/niddah, earliest expression of a fear of menstrual pollution Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 388
menstruants/niddah, entering the synagogue Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 407
menstruants/niddah, from ritually impure to being a danger Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 407
menstruants/niddah, intercourse with Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396, 397
menstruants/niddah, status in jewish law Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 397
menstruation, menstruant Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
mesopotamia Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53
milgrom, jacob Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
miller, patrick d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
moses Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
nature, indigenous notions of Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 223
niditch, susan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
pharaohs daughter (wife of solomon), reason for separation from city of david Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 388
philo, of alexandria Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 151
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 201
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 57
purity law Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 385
qumran (settlement) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 57
rabbi ishmael Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
rabbi jonathan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
rabbi pinhas ben yair Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
rabbi shmuel bar sosarti Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
return of lost property, commandment of Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 151, 162
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 201
ritual impurity, of temple, at qumran Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 154
ritual purity, maintained beyond the temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 201
sabbath, transition to surrogate temple Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 407
sabbath Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 57
sanctuary Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 162
saḫaršubbû (mesopotamian skin disease), seed, loss of Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53, 207, 214
sex, intermarriage Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200
sex, promiscuity Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200
sex Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 200, 207, 214, 217, 223
sexuality Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
sojourning Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
sperling, s. david Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
stager, lawrence e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
stain Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 207
synagogue, menstruants entering Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 407
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
temple, third/new temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 201
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
temple scroll Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 299
tevul yom Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 154
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296
tumah Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 53
von rad, gerhard Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
wenham, gordon j. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 268
women, and christianity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
women Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 207
your brother Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 230
zav/zavim' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396