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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 21.21


וּרְגָמֻהוּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ בָאֲבָנִים וָמֵת וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּ׃And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.


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51 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.16, 13.9-13.11, 17.5-17.6, 17.12, 17.16, 19.15, 19.19-19.20, 21.10-21.15, 21.18-21.20, 22.8, 22.13-22.24, 25.5, 25.7-25.10, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.16. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 13.9. לֹא־תֹאבֶה לוֹ וְלֹא תִשְׁמַע אֵלָיו וְלֹא־תָחוֹס עֵינְךָ עָלָיו וְלֹא־תַחְמֹל וְלֹא־תְכַסֶּה עָלָיו׃ 13.11. וּסְקַלְתּוֹ בָאֲבָנִים וָמֵת כִּי בִקֵּשׁ לְהַדִּיחֲךָ מֵעַל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמּוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 17.5. וְהוֹצֵאתָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֶל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה וּסְקַלְתָּם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.12. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְזָדוֹן לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן הָעֹמֵד לְשָׁרֶת שָׁם אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אוֹ אֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט וּמֵת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 19.19. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר זָמַם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְאָחִיו וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 21.11. וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.12. וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶיהָ׃ 21.13. וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.14. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃ 21.15. כִּי־תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכוֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה׃ 21.18. כִּי־יִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ בֵּן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה אֵינֶנּוּ שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקוֹל אָבִיו וּבְקוֹל אִמּוֹ וְיסְּרוּ אֹתוֹ וְלֹא יִשְׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 21.19. וְתָפְשׂוּ בוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ וְאֶל־שַׁעַר מְקֹמוֹ׃ 22.8. כִּי תִבְנֶה בַּיִת חָדָשׁ וְעָשִׂיתָ מַעֲקֶה לְגַגֶּךָ וְלֹא־תָשִׂים דָּמִים בְּבֵיתֶךָ כִּי־יִפֹּל הַנֹּפֵל מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 22.13. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבָא אֵלֶיהָ וּשְׂנֵאָהּ׃ 22.14. וְשָׂם לָהּ עֲלִילֹת דְּבָרִים וְהוֹצִיא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רָע וְאָמַר אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת לָקַחְתִּי וָאֶקְרַב אֵלֶיהָ וְלֹא־מָצָאתִי לָהּ בְּתוּלִים׃ 22.15. וְלָקַח אֲבִי הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] וְאִמָּהּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־בְּתוּלֵי הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] אֶל־זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַשָּׁעְרָה׃ 22.16. וְאָמַר אֲבִי הנער [הַנַּעַרָה] אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים אֶת־בִּתִּי נָתַתִּי לָאִישׁ הַזֶּה לְאִשָּׁה וַיִּשְׂנָאֶהָ׃ 22.17. וְהִנֵּה־הוּא שָׂם עֲלִילֹת דְּבָרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־מָצָאתִי לְבִתְּךָ בְּתוּלִים וְאֵלֶּה בְּתוּלֵי בִתִּי וּפָרְשׂוּ הַשִּׂמְלָה לִפְנֵי זִקְנֵי הָעִיר׃ 22.18. וְלָקְחוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר־הַהִוא אֶת־הָאִישׁ וְיִסְּרוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 22.19. וְעָנְשׁוּ אֹתוֹ מֵאָה כֶסֶף וְנָתְנוּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה כִּי הוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע עַל בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלוֹ־תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה לֹא־יוּכַל לְשַּׁלְּחָהּ כָּל־יָמָיו׃ 22.21. וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] אֶל־פֶּתַח בֵּית־אָבִיהָ וּסְקָלוּהָ אַנְשֵׁי עִירָהּ בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתָה כִּי־עָשְׂתָה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְנוֹת בֵּית אָבִיהָ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 22.22. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ שֹׁכֵב עִם־אִשָּׁה בְעֻלַת־בַּעַל וּמֵתוּ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִם־הָאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 22.23. כִּי יִהְיֶה נער [נַעֲרָה] בְתוּלָה מְאֹרָשָׂה לְאִישׁ וּמְצָאָהּ אִישׁ בָּעִיר וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ׃ 22.24. וְהוֹצֵאתֶם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶל־שַׁעַר הָעִיר הַהִוא וּסְקַלְתֶּם אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ אֶת־הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צָעֲקָה בָעִיר וְאֶת־הָאִישׁ עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּה אֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 25.5. כִּי־יֵשְׁבוּ אַחִים יַחְדָּו וּמֵת אַחַד מֵהֶם וּבֵן אֵין־לוֹ לֹא־תִהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת־הַמֵּת הַחוּצָה לְאִישׁ זָר יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ וּלְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וְיִבְּמָהּ׃ 25.7. וְאִם־לֹא יַחְפֹּץ הָאִישׁ לָקַחַת אֶת־יְבִמְתּוֹ וְעָלְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ הַשַּׁעְרָה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִים וְאָמְרָה מֵאֵין יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי׃ 25.8. וְקָרְאוּ־לוֹ זִקְנֵי־עִירוֹ וְדִבְּרוּ אֵלָיו וְעָמַד וְאָמַר לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ׃ 25.9. וְנִגְּשָׁה יְבִמְתּוֹ אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי הַזְּקֵנִים וְחָלְצָה נַעֲלוֹ מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְיָרְקָה בְּפָנָיו וְעָנְתָה וְאָמְרָה כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִבְנֶה אֶת־בֵּית אָחִיו 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 5.16. Honour thy father and thy mother, as the LORD thy God commanded thee; that thy days may be long, and that it may go well with thee, upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 13.9. thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him;" 13.10. but thou shalt surely kill him; thy hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people." 13.11. And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he hath sought to draw thee away from the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 17.5. then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, who have done this evil thing, unto thy gates, even the man or the woman; and thou shalt stone them with stones, that they die." 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 17.12. And the man that doeth presumptuously, in not hearkening unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die; and thou shalt exterminate the evil from Israel." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 19.19. then shall ye do unto him, as he had purposed to do unto his brother; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee." 19.20. And those that remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil in the midst of thee." 21.10. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive," 21.11. and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;" 21.12. then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails;" 21.13. and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife." 21.14. And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her." 21.15. If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated;" 21.18. If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, that will not hearken to the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and though they chasten him, will not hearken unto them;" 21.19. then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place;" 21.20. and they shall say unto the elders of his city: ‘This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he doth not hearken to our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard.’" 22.8. When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thy house, if any man fall from thence." 22.13. If any man take a wife, and go in unto her, and hate her," 22.14. and lay wanton charges against her, and bring up an evil name upon her, and say: ‘I took this woman, and when I came nigh to her, I found not in her the tokens of virginity’;" 22.15. then shall the father of the damsel, and her mother, take and bring forth the tokens of the damsel’s virginity unto the elders of the city in the gate." 22.16. And the damsel’s father shall say unto the elders: ‘I gave my daughter unto this man to wife, and he hateth her;" 22.17. and, lo, he hath laid wanton charges, saying: I found not in thy daughter the tokens of virginity; and yet these are the tokens of my daughter’s virginity.’ And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city." 22.18. And the elders of that city shall take the man and chastise him." 22.19. And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel; and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days." 22.20. But if this thing be true, that the tokens of virginity were not found in the damsel;" 22.21. then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die; because she hath wrought a wanton deed in Israel, to play the harlot in her father’s house; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee." 22.22. If a man be found lying with a woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die, the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so shalt thou put away the evil from Israel." 22.23. If there be a damsel that is a virgin betrothed unto a man, and a man find her in the city, and lie with her;" 22.24. then ye shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die: the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbour’s wife; so thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee." 25.5. If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not be married abroad unto one not of his kin; her husband’s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her." 25.7. And if the man like not to take his brother’s wife, then his brother’s wife shall go up to the gate unto the elders, and say: ‘My husband’s brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel; he will not perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto me.’" 25.8. Then the elders of his city shall call him, and speak unto him; and if he stand, and say: ‘I like not to take her’;" 25.9. then shall his brother’s wife draw nigh unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say: ‘So shall it be done unto the man that doth not build up his brother’s house.’" 25.10. And his name shall be called in Israel The house of him that had his shoe loosed." 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.38, 20.12, 21.22-21.25, 21.32-21.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.38. וְגַם־עֵרֶב רַב עָלָה אִתָּם וְצֹאן וּבָקָר מִקְנֶה כָּבֵד מְאֹד׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 21.22. וְכִי־יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָגְפוּ אִשָּׁה הָרָה וְיָצְאוּ יְלָדֶיהָ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה אָסוֹן עָנוֹשׁ יֵעָנֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר יָשִׁית עָלָיו בַּעַל הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן בִּפְלִלִים׃ 21.23. וְאִם־אָסוֹן יִהְיֶה וְנָתַתָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ׃ 21.24. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל׃ 21.25. כְּוִיָּה תַּחַת כְּוִיָּה פֶּצַע תַּחַת פָּצַע חַבּוּרָה תַּחַת חַבּוּרָה׃ 21.32. אִם־עֶבֶד יִגַּח הַשּׁוֹר אוֹ אָמָה כֶּסֶף שְׁלֹשִׁים שְׁקָלִים יִתֵּן לַאדֹנָיו וְהַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל׃ 21.33. וְכִי־יִפְתַּח אִישׁ בּוֹר אוֹ כִּי־יִכְרֶה אִישׁ בֹּר וְלֹא יְכַסֶּנּוּ וְנָפַל־שָׁמָּה שּׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר׃ 21.34. בַּעַל הַבּוֹר יְשַׁלֵּם כֶּסֶף יָשִׁיב לִבְעָלָיו וְהַמֵּת יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ׃ 12.38. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 21.22. And if men strive together, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart, and yet no harm follow, he shall be surely fined, according as the woman’s husband shall lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine." 21.23. But if any harm follow, then thou shalt give life for life," 21.24. eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot," 21.25. burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." 21.32. If the ox gore a bondman or a bondwoman, he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned." 21.33. And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein," 21.34. the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money unto the owner of them, and the dead beast shall be his."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 38.25, 44.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.25. הִוא מוּצֵאת וְהִיא שָׁלְחָה אֶל־חָמִיהָ לֵאמֹר לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵלֶּה לּוֹ אָנֹכִי הָרָה וַתֹּאמֶר הַכֶּר־נָא לְמִי הַחֹתֶמֶת וְהַפְּתִילִים וְהַמַּטֶּה הָאֵלֶּה׃ 38.25. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: ‘By the man, whose these are, am I with child’; and she said: ‘Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff.’" 44.30. Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad is not with us; seeing that his soul is bound up with the lad’s soul;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.20, 20.2, 20.10, 24.14-24.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.2. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ מוֹת יוּמָת עַם הָאָרֶץ יִרְגְּמֻהוּ בָאָבֶן׃ 20.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־דֹּדָתוֹ עֶרְוַת דֹּדוֹ גִּלָּה חֶטְאָם יִשָּׂאוּ עֲרִירִים יָמֻתוּ׃ 24.14. הוֹצֵא אֶת־הַמְקַלֵּל אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְסָמְכוּ כָל־הַשֹּׁמְעִים אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְרָגְמוּ אֹתוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 24.15. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יְקַלֵּל אֱלֹהָיו וְנָשָׂא חֶטְאוֹ׃ 24.16. וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם־יְהוָה מוֹת יוּמָת רָגוֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־בוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח בְּנָקְבוֹ־שֵׁם יוּמָת׃ 24.17. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 24.18. וּמַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ־בְּהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ׃ 24.19. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִתֵּן מוּם בַּעֲמִיתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה כֵּן יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃ 18.20. And thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her." 20.2. Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 24.14. ’Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him." 24.15. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin." 24.16. And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him; as well the stranger, as the home-born, when he blasphemeth the Name, shall be put to death." 24.17. And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death." 24.18. And he that smiteth a beast mortally shall make it good: life for life." 24.19. And if a man maim his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him:" 24.20. breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; as he hath maimed a man, so shall it be rendered unto him."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.11-5.31, 15.35-15.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 5.17. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מַיִם קְדֹשִׁים בִּכְלִי־חָרֶשׂ וּמִן־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתַן אֶל־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 5.29. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַקְּנָאֹת אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׂטֶה אִשָּׁה תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ וְנִטְמָאָה׃ 5.31. וְנִקָּה הָאִישׁ מֵעָוֺן וְהָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָהּ׃ 15.35. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה מוֹת יוּמַת הָאִישׁ רָגוֹם אֹתוֹ בָאֲבָנִים כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 15.36. וַיֹּצִיאוּ אֹתוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וַיִּרְגְּמוּ אֹתוֹ בָּאֲבָנִים וַיָּמֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 5.17. And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water." 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people." 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 5.29. This is the law of jealousy, when a wife, being under her husband, goeth aside, and is defiled;" 5.30. or when the spirit of jealousy cometh upon a man, and he be jealous over his wife; then shall he set the woman before the LORD, and the priest shall execute upon her all this law." 5.31. And the man shall be clear from iniquity, and that woman shall bear her iniquity." 15.35. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘The man shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp.’" 15.36. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died, as the LORD commanded Moses."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 12.18, 21.10-21.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.18. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם אֶת־אֲדֹרָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמַּס וַיִּרְגְּמוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בּוֹ אֶבֶן וַיָּמֹת וְהַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם הִתְאַמֵּץ לַעֲלוֹת בַּמֶּרְכָּבָה לָנוּס יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 21.11. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ הַזְּקֵנִים וְהַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעִירוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁלְחָה אֲלֵיהֶם אִיזָבֶל כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בַּסְּפָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלְחָה אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 21.12. קָרְאוּ צוֹם וְהֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת־נָבוֹת בְּרֹאשׁ הָעָם׃ 21.13. וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ נֶגְדּוֹ וַיְעִדֻהוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַבְּלִיַּעַל אֶת־נָבוֹת נֶגֶד הָעָם לֵאמֹר בֵּרַךְ נָבוֹת אֱלֹהִים וָמֶלֶךְ וַיֹּצִאֻהוּ מִחוּץ לָעִיר וַיִּסְקְלֻהוּ בָאֲבָנִים וַיָּמֹת׃ 12.18. Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the levy; and all Israel stoned him with stones, so that he died. And king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem." 21.10. and set two men, base fellows, before him, and let them bear witness against him, saying: Thou didst curse God and the king. And then carry him out, and stone him, that he die.’" 21.11. And the men of his city, even the elders and the nobles who dwelt in his city, did as Jezebel had sent unto them, according as it was written in the letters which she had sent unto them." 21.12. They proclaimed a fast, and set Naboth at the head of the people." 21.13. And the two men, the base fellows, came in and sat before him; and the base fellows bore witness against him, even against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying: ‘Naboth did curse God and the king.’ Then they carried him forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones, that he died."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.25. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מֶה עֲכַרְתָּנוּ יַעְכֳּרְךָ יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּרְגְּמוּ אֹתוֹ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶבֶן וַיִּשְׂרְפוּ אֹתָם בָּאֵשׁ וַיִּסְקְלוּ אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים׃ 7.25. And Joshua said: ‘Why hast thou troubled us? the LORD shall trouble thee this day.’ And all Israel stoned him with stones; and they burned them with fire, and stoned them with stones."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.40-16.41 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.41. וְשָׂרְפוּ בָתַּיִךְ בָּאֵשׁ וְעָשׂוּ־בָךְ שְׁפָטִים לְעֵינֵי נָשִׁים רַבּוֹת וְהִשְׁבַּתִּיךְ מִזּוֹנָה וְגַם־אֶתְנַן לֹא תִתְּנִי־עוֹד׃ 16.40. They shall also bring up an assembly against thee, and they shall stone thee with stones, and thrust thee through with their swords." 16.41. And they shall burn thy houses with fire, and execute judgments upon thee in the sight of many women; and I will cause thee to cease from playing the harlot, and thou shalt also give no hire any more."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 10.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.18. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם אֶת־הֲדֹרָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמַּס וַיִּרְגְּמוּ־בוֹ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶבֶן וַיָּמֹת וְהַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם הִתְאַמֵּץ לַעֲלוֹת בַּמֶּרְכָּבָה לָנוּס יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 10.18. Then king Rehoboam sent Hadoram, who was over the levy; and the children of Israel stoned him with stones, so that he died. And king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem."
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.6. Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist,and make use of the creation to the full as in youth.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 15, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1. In every uncertain and important business it is proper to invoke God, because he is the good Creator of the world, and because nothing is uncertain with him who is possessed of the most accurate knowledge of all things. But of all times it is most necessary to invoke him when one is preparing to discuss the incorruptibility of the world; for neither among the things which are visible to the outward senses is there anything more admirably complete than the world, nor among things appreciable by the intellect is there anything more perfect than God. But the mind is at all times the governor of the outward sense, and that which is appreciable by the intellect is at all times superior to that which is visible to the outward senses, but those persons in whom there is implanted a vigorous and earnest love of truth willingly undergo the trouble of making inquiries relative to the subordinate things, from that which is superior to and the ruler over them.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 51 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 95 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

95. Very naturally, therefore, the sacred law commands the disobedient and contentious man--who brings contributions of evil, that is to say, who joins together and heaps up sin upon sin, great crimes on little ones, fresh guilt upon ancient, intentional upon involuntary misdeeds; and who, like a person inflamed by wine, is always intoxicated and drunk, and raging with ceaseless and unrestrained drunkenness, during the whole of his life--to be stoned; because he has drunk of the unmixed and abundant cup of folly, and because he has destroyed the injunctions of right reason, his father, and the legitimate expositions of his mother's instruction. And though he had an example of excellence and virtue in his brothers, who were approved of by his parents, he did not imitate their virtue, but, on the contrary, he thought fit to go to an additional length in his transgressions, so as to make a god of the body, and to make a god of Typhus, who is especially honoured among the Egyptians, the emblem of whom was the figure of a golden bull; around which his mad worshippers establish dances, and sing, and prelude, not with such melodies as are redolent of wine and revelry, like the sweet songs sung at feasts and entertainments, but a really melancholy and mournful lamentation, like men intoxicated, who have relaxed and quite destroyed the tone and energy of the soul.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 17-18, 16 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

16. for God, as apprehending beforehand, as a God must do, that there could not exist a good imitation without a good model, and that of the things perceptible to the external senses nothing could be faultless which wax not fashioned with reference to some archetypal idea conceived by the intellect, when he had determined to create this visible world, previously formed that one which is perceptible only by the intellect, in order that so using an incorporeal model formed as far as possible on the image of God, he might then make this corporeal world, a younger likeness of the elder creation, which should embrace as many different genera perceptible to the external senses, as the other world contains of those which are visible only to the intellect.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 46 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

46. And again, the name Lamech, which means humiliation, is a name of ambiguous meaning; for we are humiliated either when the vigour of our soul is relaxed, according to the diseases and infirmities which arise from the irrational passions, or in respect of our love for virtue, when we seek to restrain ourselves from swelling selfopinions.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.32-1.35, 1.41, 1.79, 1.277, 3.29 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.32. But the Father and Ruler of the universe is a being whose character it is difficult to arrive at by conjecture and hard to comprehend; but still we must not on that account shrink from an investigation of it. Now, in the investigations which are made into the nature of God, there are two things of the greatest importance, about which the intellect of the man who devotes himself to philosophy in a genuine spirit is perplexed. One is, whether there is any Deity at all? this question arises from the atheism (which is the greatest of all vice 1.33. It has invariably happened that the works which they have made have been, in some degree, the proofs of the character of the workmen; for who is there who, when he looks upon statues or pictures, does not at once form an idea of the statuary or painter himself? And who, when he beholds a garment, or a ship, or a house, does not in a moment conceive a notion of the weaver, or shipbuilder, or architect, who has made them? And if any one comes into a well-ordered city, in which all parts of the constitution are exceedingly well arranged and regulated, what other idea will he entertain but that this city is governed by wise and virtuous rulers? 1.34. He, therefore, who comes into that which is truly the greatest of cities, namely, this world, and who beholds all the land, both the mountain and the champaign district full of animals, and plants, and the streams of rivers, both overflowing and depending on the wintry floods, and the steady flow of the sea, and the admirable temperature of the air, and the varieties and regular revolutions of the seasons of the year; and then too the sun and moon, the rulers of day and night, and the revolutions and regular motions of all the other planets and fixed stars, and of the whole heaven; would he not naturally, or I should rather say, of necessity, conceive a notion of the Father, and creator, and governor of all this system; 1.35. for there is no artificial work whatever which exists of its own accord? And the world is the most artificial and skilfully made of all works, as if it had been put together by some one who was altogether accomplished and most perfect in knowledge. It is in this way that we have received an idea of the existence of God.VII. 1.41. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, "Show me thyself"--all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words--"that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. 1.79. Now there are twelve tribes of the nation, and one of them having been selected from the others for its excellence has received the priesthood, receiving this honour as a reward for its virtue, and fidelity, and its devout soul, which it displayed when the multitude appeared to be running into sin, following the foolish choices of some persons who persuaded their countrymen to imitate the vanity of the Egyptians, and the pride of the nations of the land, who had invented fables about irrational animals, and especially about bulls, making gods of them. For this tribe did of its own accord go forth and slay all the leaders of this apostacy from the youth upwards, in which they appeared to have done a holy action, encountering thus a contest and a labour for the sake of piety.XVI. 1.277. And this command is a symbol of nothing else but of the fact that in the eyes of God it is not the number of things sacrificed that is accounted valuable, but the purity of the rational spirit of the sacrificer. Unless, indeed, one can suppose that a judge who is anxious to pronounce a holy judgment will never receive gifts from any of those whose conduct comes before his tribunal, or that, if he does receive such presents, he will be liable to an accusation of corruption; and that a good man will not receive gifts from a wicked person, not even though he may be poor and the other rich, and he himself perhaps in actual want of what he would so receive; and yet that God can be corrupted by bribes, who is most all-sufficient for himself and who has no need of any thing created; who, being himself the first and most perfect good thing, the everlasting fountain of wisdom, and justice, and of every virtue, rejects the gifts of the wicked. 3.29. Again. Moses commands, do not either form a connection of marriage with one of another nation, and do not be seduced into complying with customs inconsistent with your own, and do not stray from the right way and forget the path which leads to piety, turning into a road which is no road. And, perhaps, you will yourself resist, if you have been from your earliest youth trained in the best possible instruction, which your parents have instilled into you, continually filling your mind with the sacred laws. And the anxiety and fear which parents feel for their sons and daughters is not slight; for, perchance, they may be allured by mischievous customs instead of genuine good ones, and so they may be in danger of learning to forget the honour belonging to the one God, which is the beginning and end of extreme unhappiness.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.147, 2.162, 2.193, 2.202 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.147. And of those who now went forth out of Egypt and left their abodes in that country, the men of age to bear arms were more than six hundred thousand men, and the other multitude of elders, and children, and women were so great that it was not easy to calculate it. Moreover, there also went forth with them a mixed multitude of promiscuous persons collected from all quarters, and servants, like an illegitimate crowd with a body of genuine citizens. Among these were those who had been born to Hebrew fathers by Egyptian women, and who were enrolled as members of their father's race. And, also, all those who had admired the decent piety of the men, and therefore joined them; and some, also, who had come over to them, having learnt the right way, by reason of the magnitude and multitude of the incessant punishments which had been inflicted on their own countrymen. 2.162. Then, having made a golden calf in imitation of that which appeared to be the most sacred animal in that district, they offered up unholy sacrifices, and instituted blasphemous dances, and sang hymns which differed in no respect from dirges, and, being filled with strong wine, gave themselves up to a twofold intoxication, the intoxication of wine and that of folly, revelling and devoting the night to feasting, and, having no foresight as to the future, they spent their time in pleasant sins, though justice had her eye upon them, who saw them while they would not see, and decided what punishments they deserved. 2.193. A certain man, illegitimately born of two unequal parents, namely, an Egyptian father and a Jewish mother, and who disregarded the national and hereditary customs which he had learnt from her, as it is reported, inclined to the Egyptian impiety, being seized with admiration for the ungodly practices of the men of that nation; 2.202. And God commanded him to be stoned, considering, as I imagine, the punishment of stoning to be a suitable and appropriate one for a man who had a stony and hardened heart, and wishing at the same time that all his fellow countrymen should have a share in inflicting punishment on him, as he knew that they were very indigt and eager to slay him; and the only punishment which so many myriads of men could possibly join in was that which was inflicted by throwing stones.
21. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 30 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

30. It is plain therefore that the creator of all created things, and the maker of all the things that have ever been made, and the governor of all the things which are subject to government, must of necessity be a being of universal knowledge; and he is in truth the father, and creator, and governor of all things in heaven and in the whole world; and indeed future events are overshadowed by the distance of future time, which is sometimes a short and sometimes a long interval.
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.144, 2.152, 3.317-3.318, 4.22, 4.202, 4.254-4.264, 4.266, 4.279-4.280, 4.282-4.283, 14.22, 14.24, 14.163, 14.167, 17.160 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.144. for thou wilt save those this way whom thou didst feed the other; and thou wilt hereby preserve alive, by thy own bounty, those souls which thou didst not suffer to be distressed by famine, it being indeed at once a wonderful and a great thing to sustain our lives by corn, and to bestow on us that pardon, whereby, now we are distressed, we may continue those lives. 2.152. for thereby thou wilt honor him that begat thee, and will grant it to thyself also, who enjoyest already that denomination; thou wilt then, by that denomination, be preserved of God, the Father of all,—by showing a pious regard to which, in the case of our father, thou wilt appear to honor him who is styled by the same name; I mean, if thou wilt have this pity on our father, upon this consideration, how miserable he will be if he be deprived of his sons! 3.317. 3. But this man was admirable for his virtue, and powerful in making men give credit to what he delivered, not only during the time of his natural life, but even there is still no one of the Hebrews who does not act even now as if Moses were present, and ready to punish him if he should do any thing that is indecent; nay, there is no one but is obedient to what laws he ordained, although they might be concealed in their transgressions. 3.318. There are also many other demonstrations that his power was more than human, for still some there have been, who have come from the parts beyond Euphrates, a journey of four months, through many dangers, and at great expenses, in honor of our temple; and yet, when they had offered their oblations, could not partake of their own sacrifices, because Moses had forbidden it, by somewhat in the law that did not permit them, or somewhat that had befallen them, which our ancient customs made inconsistent therewith; 4.22. nay, the multitude themselves were provoked to be seditious, and attempted to stone Moses, and gathered themselves together after an indecent manner, with confusion and disorder. And now they all were, in a tumultuous manner, raising a clamour before the tabernacle of God, to prosecute the tyrant, and to relieve the multitude from their slavery under him who, under color of the divine commands, laid violent injunctions upon them; 4.22. 16. If a murder be committed in any place, and he that did it be not found, nor is there any suspicion upon one as if he had hated the man, and so had killed him, let there be a very diligent inquiry made after the man, and rewards proposed to any one who will discover him; but if still no information can be procured, let the magistrates and senate of those cities that lie near the place in which the murder was committed, assemble together, and measure the distance from the place where the dead body lies; 4.202. 6. He that blasphemeth God, let him be stoned; and let him hang upon a tree all that day, and then let him be buried in an ignominious and obscure manner. 4.254. If a woman’s husband die, and leave her without children, let his brother marry her, and let him call the son that is born to him by his brother’s name, and educate him as the heir of his inheritance, for this procedure will be for the benefit of the public, because thereby families will not fail, and the estate will continue among the kindred; and this will be for the solace of wives under their affliction, that they are to be married to the next relation of their former husbands. 4.255. But if the brother will not marry her, let the woman come before the senate, and protest openly that this brother will not admit her for his wife, but will injure the memory of his deceased brother, while she is willing to continue in the family, and to hear him children. And when the senate have inquired of him for what reason it is that he is averse to this marriage, whether he gives a bad or a good reason, the matter must come to this issue 4.256. That the woman shall loose the sandals of the brother, and shall spit in his face, and say, He deserves this reproachful treatment from her, as having injured the memory of the deceased. And then let him go away out of the senate, and bear this reproach upon him all his life long; and let her marry to whom she pleases, of such as seek her in marriage. 4.257. But now, if any man take captive, either a virgin, or one that hath been married, and has a mind to marry her, let him not be allowed to bring her to bed to him, or to live with her as his wife, before she hath her head shaven, and hath put on her mourning habit, and lamented her relations and friends that were slain in the battle 4.258. that by this means she may give vent to her sorrow for them, and after that may betake herself to feasting and matrimony; for it is good for him that takes a woman, in order to have children by her, to be complaisant to her inclinations, and not merely to pursue his own pleasure, while he hath no regard to what is agreeable to her. 4.259. But when thirty days are past, as the time of mourning, for so many are sufficient to prudent persons for lamenting the dearest friends, then let them proceed to the marriage; but in case when he hath satisfied his lust, he be too proud to retain her for his wife, let him not have it in his power to make her a slave, but let her go away whither she pleases, and have that privilege of a free woman. 4.261. and let them say thus to them:—That they cohabited together, not for the sake of pleasure, nor for the augmentation of their riches, by joining both their stocks together, but that they might have children to take care of them in their old age, and might by them have what they then should want. And say further to him, “That when thou wast born, we took thee up with gladness, and gave God the greatest thanks for thee, and brought time up with great care, and spared for nothing that appeared useful for thy preservation, and for thy instruction in what was most excellent. 4.262. And now, since it is reasonable to forgive the sins of those that are young, let it suffice thee to have given so many indications of thy contempt of us; reform thyself, and act more wisely for the time to come; considering that God is displeased with those that are insolent towards their parents, because he is himself the Father of the whole race of mankind, and seems to bear part of that dishonor which falls upon those that have the same name, when they do not meet with dire returns from their children. And on such the law inflicts inexorable punishment; of which punishment mayst thou never have the experience.” 4.263. Now if the insolence of young men be thus cured, let them escape the reproach which their former errors deserved; for by this means the lawgiver will appear to be good, and parents happy, while they never behold either a son or a daughter brought to punishment. 4.264. But if it happen that these words and instructions, conveyed by them in order to reclaim the man, appear to be useless, then the offender renders the laws implacable enemies to the insolence he has offered his parents; let him therefore be brought forth by these very parents out of the city, with a multitude following him, and there let him be stoned; and when he has continued there for one whole day, that all the people may see him, let him be buried in the night. 4.266. 25. Let no one lend to any one of the Hebrews upon usury, neither usury of what is eaten or what is drunken, for it is not just to make advantage of the misfortunes of one of thy own countrymen; but when thou hast been assistant to his necessities, think it thy gain if thou obtainest their gratitude to thee; and withal that reward which will come to thee from God, for thy humanity towards him. 4.279. 34. Let no one of the Israelites keep any poison that may cause death, or any other harm; but if he be caught with it, let him be put to death, and suffer the very same mischief that he would have brought upon them for whom the poison was prepared. 4.282. But if the ox have killed a man-servant, or a maid-servant, let him be stoned; and let the owner of the ox pay thirty shekels to the master of him that was slain; but if it be an ox that is thus smitten and killed, let both the oxen, that which smote the other and that which was killed, be sold, and let the owners of them divide their price between them. 4.283. 37. Let those that dig a well or a pit be careful to lay planks over them, and so keep them shut up, not in order to hinder any persons from drawing water, but that there may be no danger of falling into them. 14.22. There were present at the writing of this decree, Lucius Calpurnius Piso of the Menenian tribe, Servius Papinins Potitus of the Lemonian tribe, Caius Caninius Rebilius of the Terentine tribe, Publius Tidetius, Lucius Apulinus, the son of Lucius, of the Sergian tribe, Flavius, the son of Lucius, of the Lemonian tribe, Publius Platins, the son of Publius, of the Papyrian tribe, Marcus Acilius, the son of Marcus, of the Mecian tribe, Lucius Erucius, the son of Lucius, of the Stellatine tribe, Mareils Quintus Plancillus, the son of Marcus, of the Pollian tribe, and Publius Serius. 14.22. Now there was one, whose name was Onias, a righteous man he was, and beloved of God, who, in a certain drought, had prayed to God to put an end to the intense heat, and whose prayers God had heard, and had sent them rain. This man had hid himself, because he saw that this sedition would last a great while. However, they brought him to the Jewish camp, and desired, that as by his prayers he had once put an end to the drought, so he would in like manner make imprecations on Aristobulus and those of his faction. 14.24. In the presence of these it was that Lentulus pronounced this decree: I have before the tribunal dismissed those Jews that are Roman citizens, and are accustomed to observe the sacred rites of the Jews at Ephesus, on account of the superstition they are under.” 14.24. “O God, the King of the whole world! since those that stand now with me are thy people, and those that are besieged are also thy priests, I beseech thee, that thou wilt neither hearken to the prayers of those against these, nor bring to effect what these pray against those.” Whereupon such wicked Jews as stood about him, as soon as he had made this prayer, stoned him to death. 14.163. 3. But now the principal men among the Jews, when they saw Antipater and his sons to grow so much in the good-will the nation bare to them, and in the revenues which they received out of Judea, and out of Hyrcanus’s own wealth, they became ill-disposed to him; 14.167. for Herod, Antipater’s son, hath slain Hezekiah, and those that were with him, and hath thereby transgressed our law, which hath forbidden to slay any man, even though he were a wicked man, unless he had been first condemned to suffer death by the Sanhedrim yet hath he been so insolent as to do this, and that without any authority from thee.”
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.207, 1.550, 1.654, 7.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.207. whence it came to pass that the nation paid Antipater the respects that were due only to a king, and the honors they all yielded him were equal to the honors due to an absolute lord; yet did he not abate any part of that goodwill or fidelity which he owed to Hyrcanus. 1.654. 4. At this the king was in such an extravagant passion, that he overcame his disease [for the time], and went out and spake to the people; wherein he made a terrible accusation against those men, as being guilty of sacrilege, and as making greater attempts under pretense of their law, and he thought they deserved to be punished as impious persons. 7.48. When the people heard this, they could not refrain their passion, but commanded that those who were delivered up to them should have fire brought to burn them, who were accordingly all burnt upon the theater immediately.
24. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.206 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.206. 28. The law ordains also, that parents should be honored immediately after God himself, and delivers that son who does not requite them for the benefits he hath received from them, but is deficient on any such occasion, to be stoned. It also says, that the young men should pay due respect to every elder, since God is the eldest of all beings.
25. Juvenal, Satires, 14.104 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.2. A simple document requires two witnesses; a sewn document requires three. If a simple document has only one witness, or a sewn document has only two, they are both invalid. If it was written in a debt document: “100 zuz which are 20 sela (=80”, he (the creditor) can claim only 20 sela; if [it was written] “100 zuz which are 30 sela (=120” he (the creditor) can claim only 100 zuz. [If there was written in a debt document] “Silver zuzim which are …”, and the rest was erased, [the creditor can claim] at least two zuzim. [If there was written in a debt document] “Silver selas which are …”, and the rest was erased, [the creditor can claim] at least two selas. [If there was written in a debt document] “Darics which are …”, and the rest was erased, [the creditor can claim] at least two darics. If at the top was written a “maneh (100” and at the bottom “200 zuz”, or “200 zuz” at the top and “maneh” at the bottom, everything goes according to the bottom amount. If so, why is the figure written at the top of the document? So that, if a letter of the lower figure was erased, they can learn from the upper figure."
27. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 6.1, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.1. When the trial is completed he [the condemned] is led forth to be stoned. The place of stoning was outside of the court, as it is says, “Bring out him that has cursed” (Lev. 24:14). A man was stationed at the door of the court with the handkerchiefs in his hand, and a man on a horse was stationed at a distance yet within sight of him. If one says, ‘I have something [further] to state in his favor’, he [the signaler] waves the handkerchief, and the man on the horse runs and stops them. And even if he [the convict] himself says, ‘I have something to plead in my own favor’, he is brought back, even four or five times, providing, however, that there is substance in his assertion. If then they find him innocent, they discharge him. But if not, he goes forth to be stoned, and a herald precedes him [crying]: so and so, the son of so and so, is going forth to be stoned because he committed such and such an offense, and so and so are his witnesses. Whoever knows anything in his favor, let him come and state it.”" 6.4. The place of stoning was twice a man's height. One of the witnesses pushed him by the hips, [so that] he was overturned on his heart. He was then turned on his back. If that caused his death, he had fulfilled [his duty]; but if not, the second witness took a stone and threw it on his chest. If he died thereby, he had done [his duty]; but if not, he [the criminal] was stoned by all Israel, for it is says: “The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people” (Deut. 17:7). All who are stoned are [afterwards] hanged, according to Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: “Only the blasphemer and the idolater are hanged.” A man is hanged with his face towards the spectators, but a woman with her face towards the gallows, according to Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: a man is hanged, but not a woman. Rabbi Eliezer said to them: “But did not Shimon ben Shetah hang women at ashkelon?” They said: “[On that occasion] he hanged eighty women, even though two must not be tried on the same day. How is he hanged? The post is sunk into the ground with a [cross-] piece branching off [at the top] and he brings his hands together one over the other and hangs him up [thereby]. R. Jose said: the post is leaned against the wall, and he hangs him up the way butchers do. He is immediately let down. If he is left [hanging] over night, a negative command is thereby transgressed, for it says, “You shall not let his corpse remain all night upon the tree, but you must bury him the same day because a hanged body is a curse against god” (Deut. 21:23). As if to say why was he hanged? because he cursed the name [of god]; and so the name of Heaven [God] is profaned." 7.4. The following are stoned:He who has sexual relations with his mother, with his father's wife, with his daughter-in-law, with a male; with a beast; a woman who commits bestiality with a beast; a blasphemer; an idolater; one who gives of his seed to molech; a necromancer or a wizard; one who desecrates the Sabbath; he who curses his father or mother; he who commits adultery with a betrothed woman; one who incites [individuals to idolatry]; one who seduces [a whole town to idolatry]; a sorcerer; and a wayward and rebellious son. He who has sexual relations with his mother incurs a penalty in respect of her both as his mother and as his father's wife. R. Judah says: “He is liable in respect of her as his mother only.” He who has sexual relations with his father's wife incurs a penalty in respect of her both as his father's wife, and as a married woman, both during his father's lifetime and after his death, whether she was widowed from betrothal or from marriage. He who has sexual relations with his daughter-in-law incurs a penalty in respect of her both as his daughter-in-law and as a married woman, both during his son's lifetime and after his death, whether she was widowed from betrothal or from marriage. He who has sexual relations with a male or a beast, and a woman that commits bestiality: if the man has sinned, how has the animal sinned? But because the human was enticed to sin by the animal, therefore scripture ordered that it should be stoned. Another reason is that the animal should not pass through the market, and people say, this is the animal on account of which so and so was stoned." 8.4. If his father wants [to have him punished], but not his mother; or his father does not want [to have him punished] but his mother does, he is not treated as a ‘wayward a rebellious son’, unless they both desire it. Rabbi Judah said: “If his mother is not fit for his father, he does not become a ‘wayward and rebellious son”. If one of them [his father or his mother] had a hand cut off, or was lame, mute, blind or deaf, he cannot become a “wayward and rebellious son”, because it says “his father and mother shall take hold of him” (Deut. 21:19) not those with a hand cut off; “and bring him out”, not lame parents; “and they shall say”, and not mute parents; “this our son”, and not blind parents; “he will not obey our voice” (Deut. 21:20), and not deaf parents. He is warned in the presence of three and beaten. If he transgresses again after this, he is tried by a court of twenty three. He cannot be sentenced to stoning unless the first three are present, because it says, “this our son” (Deut. 21:20), [implying], this one who was whipped in your presence. If he [the rebellious son] fled before his trial was completed, and then his pubic hair grew in fully, he is free. But if he fled after his trial was completed, and then his pubic hair grew in fully, he remains liable."
28. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.1-5.13, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality amongyou, and such sexual immorality as is not even named among theGentiles, that one has his father's wife. 5.2. You are puffed up, anddidn't rather mourn, that he who had done this deed might be removedfrom among you. 5.3. For I most assuredly, as being absent in body butpresent in spirit, have already, as though I were present, judged himwho has done this thing. 5.4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,you being gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our LordJesus Christ 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus. 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump? 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 5.8. Therefore let us keepthe feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice andwickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 5.9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 5.10. yet not at all meaning with the sexual sinners of this world, orwith the covetous and extortioners, or with idolaters; for then youwould have to leave the world. 5.11. But as it is, I wrote to you notto associate with anyone who is called a brother who is a sexualsinner, or covetous, or an idolater, or a slanderer, or a drunkard, oran extortioner. Don't even eat with such a person. 5.12. For what haveI to do with also judging those who are outside? Don't you judge thosewho are within? 5.13. But those who are outside, God judges. "Put awaythe wicked man from among yourselves. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led.
29. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. that you may walk properly toward those who are outside, and may have need of nothing.
30. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, Acts, 7.54-7.60 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.54. Now when they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed at him with their teeth. 7.55. But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 7.57. But they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and rushed at him with one accord. 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit! 7.60. He kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, don't hold this sin against them!" When he had said this, he fell asleep.
32. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds.
33. New Testament, Colossians, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry;
34. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints;
35. New Testament, Galatians, 1.16, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness
36. New Testament, Hebrews, 11.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.37. They were stoned. They were sawn apart. They were tempted. They were slain with the sword. They went around in sheepskins, in goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated
37. New Testament, Romans, 1.24-1.27, 1.29-1.31, 11.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry;
38. New Testament, John, 8.59, 10.31, 10.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.59. Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by. 10.31. Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him. 10.33. The Jews answered him, "We don't stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy: because you, being a man, make yourself God.
39. New Testament, Luke, 4.2-4.4, 7.33-7.34, 7.36-7.50, 11.37-11.54, 14.1-14.24, 15.1-15.2, 20.6, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 7.33. For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say, 'He has a demon.' 7.34. The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drunkard; a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' 7.36. One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 7.37. Behold, a woman in the city who was a sinner, when she knew that he was reclining in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster jar of ointment. 7.38. Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. 7.39. Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. 7.40. Jesus answered him, "Simon, I have something to tell you."He said, "Teacher, say on. 7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 7.43. Simon answered, "He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most."He said to him, "You have judged correctly. 7.44. Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 7.45. You gave me no kiss, but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. 7.46. You didn't anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. 7.47. Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But to whom little is forgiven, the same loves little. 7.48. He said to her, "Your sins are forgiven. 7.49. Those who sat at the table with him began to say to themselves, "Who is this who even forgives sins? 7.50. He said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you. Go in peace. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 11.38. When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed himself before dinner. 11.39. The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness. 11.40. You foolish ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 11.41. But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and behold, all things will be clean to you. 11.42. But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 11.44. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like hidden graves, and the men who walk over them don't know it. 11.45. One of the lawyers answered him, "Teacher, in saying this you insult us also. 11.46. He said, "Woe to you lawyers also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 11.47. Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 11.48. So you testify and consent to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs. 11.49. Therefore also the wisdom of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute 11.50. that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; 11.51. from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 11.52. Woe to you lawyers! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered. 11.53. As he said these things to them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to be terribly angry, and to draw many things out of him; 11.54. lying in wait for him, and seeking to catch him in something he might say, that they might accuse him. 14.1. It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 14.2. Behold, a certain man who had dropsy was in front of him. 14.3. Jesus, answering, spoke to the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, "Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath? 14.4. But they were silent. He took him, and healed him, and let him go. 14.5. He answered them, "Which of you, if your son or an ox fell into a well, wouldn't immediately pull him out on a Sabbath day? 14.6. They couldn't answer him regarding these things. 14.7. He spoke a parable to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the best seats, and said to them 14.8. When you are invited by anyone to a marriage feast, don't sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honorable than you might be invited by him 14.9. and he who invited both of you would come and tell you, 'Make room for this person.' Then you would begin, with shame, to take the lowest place. 14.10. But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when he who invited you comes, he may tell you, 'Friend, move up higher.' Then you will be honored in the presence of all who sit at the table with you. 14.11. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. 14.12. He also said to the one who had invited him, "When you make a dinner or a supper, don't call your friends, nor your brothers, nor your kinsmen, nor rich neighbors, or perhaps they might also return the favor, and pay you back. 14.13. But when you make a feast, ask the poor, the maimed, the lame, or the blind; 14.14. and you will be blessed, because they don't have the resources to repay you. For you will be repaid in the resurrection of the righteous. 14.15. When one of those who sat at the table with him heard these things, he said to him, "Blessed is he who will feast in the Kingdom of God! 14.16. But he said to him, "A certain man made a great supper, and he invited many people. 14.17. He sent out his servant at supper time to tell those who were invited, 'Come, for everything is ready now.' 14.18. They all as one began to make excuses. "The first said to him, 'I have bought a field, and I must go and see it. Please have me excused.' 14.19. Another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I must go try them out. Please have me excused.' 14.20. Another said, 'I have married a wife, and therefore I can't come.' 14.21. That servant came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house, being angry, said to his servant, 'Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor, maimed, blind, and lame.' 14.22. The servant said, 'Lord, it is done as you commanded, and there is still room.' 14.23. The lord said to the servant, 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. 14.24. For I tell you that none of those men who were invited will taste of my supper.' 15.1. Now all the tax collectors and sinners were coming close to him to hear him. 15.2. The Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, "This man welcomes sinners, and eats with them. 20.6. But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded that John was a prophet. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots.
40. New Testament, Matthew, 1.19, 5.47, 6.7, 18.12-18.35, 23.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man, and not willing to make her a public example, intended to put her away secretly. 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 18.12. What do you think? If a man has one hundred sheep, and one of them goes astray, doesn't he leave the ninety-nine, go to the mountains, and seek that which has gone astray? 18.13. If he finds it, most assuredly I tell you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine which have not gone astray. 18.14. Even so it is not the will of your Father who is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 18.16. But if he doesn't listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 18.18. Most assuredly I tell you, whatever things you will bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever things you will loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. 18.19. Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. 18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them. 18.21. Then Peter came and said to him, "Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Until seven times? 18.22. Jesus said to him, "I don't tell you until seven times, but, until seventy times seven. 18.23. Therefore the Kingdom of Heaven is like a certain king, who wanted to reconcile accounts with his servants. 18.24. When he had begun to reconcile, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. 18.25. But because he couldn't pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, with his wife, his children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. 18.26. The servant therefore fell down and kneeled before him, saying, 'Lord, have patience with me, and I will repay you all.' 18.27. The lord of that servant, being moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the debt. 18.28. But that servant went out, and found one of his fellow servants, who owed him one hundred denarii, and he grabbed him, and took him by the throat, saying, 'Pay me what you owe!' 18.29. So his fellow servant fell down at his feet and begged him, saying, 'Have patience with me, and I will repay you.' 18.30. He would not, but went and cast him into prison, until he should pay back that which was due. 18.31. So when his fellow servants saw what was done, they were exceedingly sorry, and came and told to their lord all that was done. 18.32. Then his lord called him in, and said to him, 'You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt, because you begged me. 18.33. Shouldn't you also have had mercy on your fellow servant, even as I had mercy on you?' 18.34. His lord was angry, and delivered him to the tormentors, until he should pay all that was due to him. 18.35. So my heavenly Father will also do to you, if you don't each forgive your brother from your hearts for his misdeeds. 23.37. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not!
41. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 11.6-11.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 44.1, 55.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר וגו' (בראשית טו, א), (תהלים יח, לא): הָאֵל תָּמִים דַּרְכּוֹ אִמְרַת ה' צְרוּפָה מָגֵן הוּא לְכֹל הַחוֹסִים בּוֹ, אִם דְּרָכָיו תְּמִימִים, הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, רַב אָמַר לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת אֶלָּא לְצָרֵף בָּהֶן אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, וְכִי מָה אִיכְפַּת לֵיהּ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִי שֶׁשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הַצַּוָּאר אוֹ מִי שֶׁשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הָעֹרֶף, הֱוֵי לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת אֶלָּא לְצָרֵף בָּהֶם אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הָאֵל תָּמִים דַּרְכּוֹ, זֶה אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה ט, ח): וּמָצָאתָ אֶת לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ. אִמְרַת ה' צְרוּפָה, שֶׁצֵּרְפוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּכִבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ. מָגֵן הוּא לְכֹל הַחוֹסִים בּוֹ, (בראשית טו, א): אַל תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ. 44.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם הֵן לִי לֹא נָתַתָּ זָרַע (בראשית טו, ג), אָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק הַמַּזָּל דּוֹחְקֵנִי וְאוֹמֵר לִי אַבְרָם אֵין אַתְּ מוֹלִיד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵן כִּדְבָרֶיךָ, אַבְרָם לֹא מוֹלִיד אַבְרָהָם מוֹלִיד. (בראשית יז, טו): שָׂרַי אִשְׁתְּךָ לֹא תִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שָׂרָי, שָׂרַי לֹא תֵלֵד, שָׂרָה תֵּלֵד. 55.4. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַחַר הִרְהוּרֵי דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, מִי הִרְהֵר אַבְרָהָם הִרְהֵר וְאָמַר שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרַשְׁתִּי לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לְךָ שֶׁתַּקְרִיב אֶת בִּנְךָ וְלֹא תְעַכֵּב, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר, אֱלֹהִים וְהָאֱלֹהִים, הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ, מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אָמְרוּ, אַבְרָהָם זֶה שָׂמַח וְשִׂמַּח אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּקְרִיב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְלֹא יְעַכֵּב. יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל הָיוּ מִדַּיְּנִים זֶה עִם זֶה, זֶה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, וְזֶה אָמַר חָבִיב אֲנִי מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים. אָמַר לֵיהּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ, לָמָּה שֶׁהָיָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדִי לִמְחוֹת וְלֹא מָחִיתִי. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר יִצְחָק הַלְּוַאי הָיָה נִגְלָה עָלַי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁאֶחְתֹּךְ אֶחָד מֵאֵבָרַי וְלֹא אֲעַכֵּב, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם. br br[נֻסַּח אַחֵר: אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, אֲבָל אַתָּה נִמַּלְתָּ בְּקָטְנְךָ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְחוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ יִצְחָק כָּל מַה שֶּׁהִלְוֵיתָ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁלשָׁה טִפִּים דַּם הֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי עַכְשָׁו בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנָה אִלּוּ מְבַקֵּשׁ לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִשָּׁחֵט אֵינִי מְעַכֵּב, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַשָּׁעָה, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם.] 44.1. After these things the word of Hashem came to Abram in a vision, saying, etc. (Psalms 18:31) \"As for God — His ways are perfect; the Word of Hashem is tried; a shield is He for all who take refuge in Him.\" If His way is perfect, how much more is He Himself! Rav said: Were not the mitzvot given so that man might be refined by them? . Do you really think that The Holy One of Blessing cares if an animal is slaughtered by front or by the back of the neck? Therefore, mitzvot were only given to make humans better." 55.4. After these things — misgivings were experienced on that occasion. Who then had misgivings? Avraham, saying to himself: ‘I have rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet I did not set aside a single bullock or ram for the Holy One of Blessing.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to him: ‘I know that even if you were commanded to offer your only son to Me, you would not refuse.’ - this is according to Rabbi Eleazar who said that the employment of va-e-lohim where E-lohim would suffice, implies both God and God’s Court. It was the ministering angels who spoke thus: ‘This Avraham rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet did not set aside for the Holy One of Blessing a single bullock or ram.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to them: ‘Even if we tell him to offer his own son, he will not refuse.’ Itzchak and Ishmael were engaged in a dispute: the latter argued, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at the age of thirteen’; while the other retorted, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at eight days.’ Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved, because I could have protested, yet I did not.’ At that moment Itzchak exclaimed: ‘O that God would appear to me and bid me cut off one of my limbs! then I would not refuse.’ Said God: ‘Even if I bid you sacrifice yourself, you will not refuse.’ [Another version: Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved than you, since I as circumcised at the age of thirteen, but you were circumcised as a baby and could not refuse.’ Itzchak retorted: ‘All that you did lend to the Holy One of Blessing was three drops of blood. But look, I am now thirty-seven years old, yet if God desired of me that I be slaughtered, I would not refuse.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing ‘This is the moment!’ Straightway, “God tested Avraham”.]"
43. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 219 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

44. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.176.1-1.176.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

160b. זה פשוט וחתום זה מקושר והעד שנים עדים שלשה הא כיצד שנים לפשוט שלשה למקושר,ואיפוך אנא מתוך שנתרבה בקשריו נתרבה בעדיו,רפרם אמר מהכא (ירמיהו לב, יא) ואקח את ספר המקנה את החתום המצוה והחקים ואת הגלוי ואקח את ספר המקנה זה פשוט את החתום זה מקושר ואת הגלוי זה פשוט שבמקושר,המצוה והחקים אלו דברים שבין פשוט למקושר הא כיצד זה עדיו שנים וזה עדיו שלשה זה עדיו מתוכו וזה עדיו מאחוריו,ואיפוך אנא מתוך שנתרבה בקשריו נתרבה בעדיו,רמי בר יחזקאל אמר מהכא (דברים יט, טו) על פי שנים עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר אם תתקיים עדותן בשנים למה פרט לך בשלשה לומר לך שנים לפשוט שלשה למקושר,ואיפוך אנא מתוך שנתרבה בקשריו נתרבה בעדיו,והני להכי הוא דאתו כל חד וחד למילתיה הוא דאתא לכדתניא (ירמיהו לב, מד) שדות בכסף יקנו וכתוב בספר וחתום עצה טובה קא משמע לן ואקח את ספר המקנה הכי הוה מעשה על פי שנים עדים או על פי שלשה עדים להקיש שלשה לשנים בפלוגתא דרבי עקיבא ורבנן,אלא מקושר מדרבנן וקראי אסמכתא בעלמא,וטעמא מאי תקינו רבנן מקושר אתרא דכהני הוו והוו קפדי טובא ומגרשי נשייהו ועבדי רבנן תקנתא אדהכי והכי מיתבא דעתייהו,התינח גיטין שטרות מאי איכא למימר כדי שלא תחלק בין גיטין לשטרות,היכן עדים חותמין רב הונא אמר בין קשר לקשר ורב ירמיה בר אבא אמר אחורי הכתב וכנגד הכתב מבחוץ,אמר ליה רמי בר חמא לרב חסדא לרב הונא דאמר בין קשר לקשר קא סלקא דעתין בין קשר לקשר מגואי והא ההוא מקושר דקאתא לקמיה דרבי ואמר רבי אין זמן בזה אמר ליה רבי שמעון ברבי לרבי שמא בין קשריו מובלע פלייה וחזייה ואם איתא אין זמן בזה ואין עדים בזה מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה מי סברת בין קשר לקשר מגואי לא בין קשר לקשר מאבראי,וניחוש דלמא זייף וכתב מאי דבעי וחתימי סהדי,דכתיב ביה שריר וקיים,וניחוש דלמא כתב מאי דבעי והדר כתב שריר וקיים אחרינא חד שריר וקיים כתבינן תרי שריר וקיים לא כתבינן,וליחוש דלמא מחיק ליה לשריר וקיים וכתב מאי דבעי והדר כתב שריר וקיים הא אמר ר' יוחנן תלויה מקויימת כשרה 160b. bthisis referring to ban ordinarydocument. When the verse states: b“And seal them,” thisis referring to ba tieddocument. The next phrase, “and call witnesses [ iveha’ed edim /i],” which more literally would be translated: And have witnesses bear witness, is interpreted as follows: b“And have bear witness [ iveha’ed /i],”this indicates the need for btwowitnesses, as the term “witness [ ied /i]” in the Torah generally refers to two witnesses. As to the word b“witnesses [ iedim /i],”this additional term indicates the need for bthreewitnesses. bHow so?How can the verse call for both two witnesses and three witnesses? Rabbi Ḥanina explains: bTwowitnesses are required bfor an ordinarydocument, and bthreeare required bfor a tieddocument.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bBut Ican just as well breverseit, requiring two witnesses for a tied document and three for an ordinary one. The Gemara answers: bSincethe tied document requires bmoreto be done bwith regard to its ties,it stands to reason that it requires bmoreto be done bwith regard to its witnesses,requiring three rather than two., bRafram saysthat there is a different source for two kinds of documents, bfrom here: “So I took the deed of the purchase, that which was sealed, the terms and conditions, and that which was open”(Jeremiah 32:11). When the verse states: b“So I took the deed of the purchase,” thisis referring to ban ordinarydocument. When it states: b“That which was sealed,” thisis referring to ba tieddocument. When it states: b“And that which was open,” thisis referring to the bordinary,unfolded part bof a tieddocument.,Rafram continues: With regard to the phrase: b“The terms and conditions,” these are the matters thatdistinguish ban ordinarydocument bfrom a tiedone. bHow so?What are the details that differentiate the two types of documents? bThisone, the ordinary document, has btwo witnesses, and thatone, the tied document, has bthree witnesses.And in bthisone, the ordinary document, bits witnessesare signed binside it,on the front side, while in bthatone, the tied document, bits witnessesare signed bon the back of it. /b,The Gemara questions this explanation: bBut Ican just as well breverseit, requiring two witnesses for a tied document and three for an ordinary one. The Gemara answers: bSincethe tied document requires bmoreto be done bwith regard to its ties,it stands to reason that it requires bmoreto be done bwith regard to its witnesses,requiring three rather than two., bRami bar Yeḥezkel saidthat there is a different source for two sets of ihalakhotfor two types of documents bfrom here: “At the mouth of two witnesses or at the mouth of three witnesses shall a matter be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bIfwitnesses’ btestimony is established with twowitnesses, bwhydid the verse bspecify for youthat it is also established bwith three,which is self-evident? Rather, this verse serves bto tell youthat there is a requirement for btwowitnesses bfor an ordinarydocument, and a requirement for bthreewitnesses bfor a tieddocument.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bBut Ican just as well breverseit, requiring two witnesses for a tied document and three for an ordinary one. The Gemara answers: bSincethe tied document requires bmoreto be done bwith regard to its ties,it stands to reason that it requires bmoreto be done bwith regard to its witnesses,requiring three rather than two.,The Gemara asks: bAndis it so that btheseverses bare coming for thispurpose, to teach that there are two types of documents? But beach and every oneof them bcomes for itsown bpurpose.The first verse comes bfor that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“They shall buy fields for money, and subscribe the deeds, and seal them,and call witnesses” (Jeremiah 32:44), it is merely to bteach us good advice,that people should carefully document their purchases in order to provide permanent proof of purchase. When the verse states: b“So I took the deed of the purchase”(Jeremiah 32:11), bthis wasmerely how that bincidentoccurred, and the phrase is not intended to teach any ihalakhot /i. When the verse states: b“At the mouth of two witnesses or at the mouth of three witnessesshall a matter be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15), this is stated in order bto juxtapose threewitnesses bwith twowitnesses for several reasons, as delineated bin the dispute between Rabbi Akiva and the Rabbis( iMakkot5b).,The Gemara explains: bRather,the entire institution of the btieddocument is brabbinicin origin, bandall these bversesthat were cited above by various iamora’imwere intended as bmere supportfor the concept of a tied document, as opposed to actual sources.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bthe Sages institutedthe btieddocument? The Gemara explains: There was ba place where there weremany bpriests, and they were very quick tempered, and they wouldseek to bdivorce their wivesimpetuously. The ihalakhais that a priest may not marry a divorcée, even his own ex-wife. These priests, who acted impetuously, often regretted having divorced their wives. bAndtherefore, bthe Sages instituted an ordicethat the bill of divorce for these people should be of the tied format, which is a long, drawn-out process, hoping that bmeanwhile, their composure would be regainedand they would reconsider their decision to divorce.,The Gemara asks: This bworks out wellfor bbills of divorce,but bwhat can be saidwith regard to other bdocuments?Why is this procedure used for other documents as well? The Gemara answers: This was instituted bso that you should not differentiate between bills of divorce andother bdocuments. /b,§ bWhere do the witnesses signon a tied document? bRav Huna says:They sign bbetween each tiedfold. bAnd Rav Yirmeya bar Abba says:They sign bon the back of the writtenside, taking care that the signatures are exactly bopposite the writing, on the outside. /b, bRami bar Ḥama said to Rav Ḥisda: According to Rav Huna, who saysthat the witnesses sign bbetween each tiedfold, it benters our mindthat he meant bbetween each tiedfold bon the insideof the document. bButthis is difficult, as there was ba certain tieddocument bthat came before RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band RabbiYehuda HaNasi, not realizing it was tied, bsaid: There is no date on thisdocument, so it is not valid. Then, bRabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bsaid to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bPerhapsthe date is bhidden between the tiedfolds. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bopened it and sawthat the date was in fact between the tied folds. bAnd if it is sothat the witnesses sign between each tied fold on the inside of the document, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bshould havehad two objections, and said: bThere is no date on thisdocument, band there arealso bno witnessessigned bon thisdocument.,Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Do you maintainthat Rav Huna meant that the witnesses sign bbetween the tiedfolds bon the inside? No,he meant bbetween the tiedfolds bon the outsideof the document.,The Gemara questions Rav Huna’s opinion: bBut let us be concernedthat bperhapsthe party holding the document bfalsifiedsome information band wrote whatever he wanted. Andthis is a concern, as there are already bwitnesses signedon the document. In an ordinary document the witnesses sign immediately following the text, so there is no possibility of adding to the text. A tied document has part of its text written in the folds, but also has a part written on the face of the document on the unfolded paper, before or after the text in the folded part. If the witnesses sign between the folds there is the possibility of writing additional text in the unfolded section.,The Gemara explains: The case is one bwhere it is written inthe document: Everything is bconfirmed and established.That is, every folded document must contain this formula at the end of the text, to prevent forgery, as any writing after this formula would be disregarded.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bBut let us be concernedthat bperhapsthe holder of the document bwrote whatever he wanted and afterward wrote anothertime: Everything is bconfirmed and established.The Gemara explains: bWe writeonly bonedeclaration of: Everything is bconfirmed and established; we do not write twodeclarations of: Everything is bconfirmed and established.Therefore, anything written after the first declaration would be rejected, even if followed by a repetition of the declaration.,The Gemara questions further: bBut letthere be ba concernthat bperhapsthe holder of the document berasedthe declaration: Everything is bconfirmed and established, andthen bwrote whatever he wantedover the erasure, band afterward wrotethe declaration: Everything is bconfirmed and established.The Gemara responds: How could this happen? bDoesn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:A document that includes ba suspendedcorrection of text inserted between lines of the document, which is bverifiedat the end of the document, bis valid; /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2b. לפי שאין בקיאין לשמה,רבא אמר לפי שאין עדים מצויין לקיימו,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאתיוהו בי תרי אי נמי ממדינה למדינה בארץ ישראל,אי נמי באותה מדינה במדינת הים,ולרבה דאמר לפי שאין בקיאין לשמה ליבעי תרי מידי דהוה אכל עדיות שבתורה עד אחד נאמן באיסורין,אימור דאמרינן עד אחד נאמן באיסורין כגון חתיכה ספק של חלב ספק של שומן דלא איתחזק איסורא,אבל הכא דאיתחזק איסורא דאשת איש הוי דבר שבערוה ואין דבר שבערוה פחות משנים,רוב בקיאין הן ואפילו לר"מ דחייש למיעוטא סתם ספרי דדייני מיגמר גמירי ורבנן הוא דאצרוך והכא 2b. It is bbecausethe people who live overseas bare not expertsin writing a bill of divorce bfor her sake.It is not sufficient for a bill of divorce to be written in a technically correct manner. It must also be written for the sake of the man and the woman who are divorcing. Therefore, when the witness comes before the court and says that it was written and signed in his presence, he is testifying that the writing and the signing of the bill of divorce were performed for the sake of the man and woman in question., bRava saysa different reason: It is bbecause there are no witnesses available to ratify it.Since the bill of divorce was written in a distant place, it is possible that the husband, or someone else, might later claim that the bill of divorce is a forgery. For this reason the agent must say that the bill of divorce was written and signed in his presence, a declaration that bars any subsequent objection on the part of the husband.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthese two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween themwith regard to a case bwhere twopeople bbroughtthe bill of divorce. In this case, two witnesses are available to ratify the bill of divorce if someone objects to its validity. bAlternatively,the difference concerns a case where the agent brings the bill of divorce bfromone bregion toanother bregion within Eretz Yisrael.Here there is no concern that the bill of divorce might not have been written for her sake, as the residents of Eretz Yisrael are aware of this requirement. However, witnesses are not necessarily available to confirm the document., bAlternatively,there is a difference between the two explanations in a case where the agent brings the bill of divorce bwithin thatsame bregion in a country overseas.According to the opinion of Rabba, who says the concern is that the people there might not know that the document must be written for her sake, this problem is equally relevant in this case. However, according to the opinion of Rava, who says that the reason is because witnesses are not available, if the bill of divorce is brought in the same region then the witnesses will be available to ratify it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd according tothe opinion of bRabba, who saidthat the reason is bbecause they are not expertsin writing a bill of divorce bfor her sake, let us require twowitnesses to testify about this, bjust as isthe case bwith regard to all testimonies in the Torah.The Gemara answers: bOne witness is deemed credible with regard to prohibitions.In other words, if there is uncertainty as to whether a matter is prohibited or permitted, in the case of the heretofore married woman, the testimony of one witnesses is sufficient.,The Gemara asks: One can bsay that we say one witness is deemed credible with regard to prohibitionsin a case bsuch aswhere there is ba pieceof fat, and it is buncertainif it is forbidden bfat[iḥelev/b] and buncertainif it is permitted bfat.In this situation the piece can be rendered permitted by a single witness, bas there is no presumptionthat it is bforbidden.Therefore, as there is an uncertainty, and one witness said it is permitted fat, he is deemed credible., bHowever, here, where there is a presumptionthat this woman is bforbidden, asshe is ba married woman,a status she retains until it is established that she has received a bill of divorce, if so, this bis a matter of forbidden sexual relations, andthe general principle is that bthere is no matterof testimony bfor forbidden sexual relationsthat can be attested to by bfewer than twowitnesses.,The Gemara answers: Rabba’s concern is not equivalent to a case of uncertainty, as bmostJewish people bare expertsin the requirement that a bill of divorce must be written for the woman’s sake. bAndthis is so beven according tothe opinion of bRabbi Meir, who isgenerally bconcerned about a minorityin a matter of forbidden sexual relations. In this case Rabbi Meir concedes that one need not be concerned for the minority, as bordinary judicial scribes,who write bills of divorce, bare learnedin this ihalakha /i, and know that a bill of divorce must be written for the woman’s sake. bAnd it is the Sages who requiredtestimony about this matter, as an extra precaution. bAnd here,with regard to this testimony
47. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

103b. (תהלים צא, יד) כי בי חשק ואפלטהו אשגבהו כי ידע שמי יקראני ואענהו עמו אנכי בצרה אחלצהו ואכבדהו אורך ימים אשביעהו ואראהו בישועתי,אמר ר"ש בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (איוב לח, טו) וימנע מרשעים אורם וזרוע רמה תשבר מפני מה עי"ן של רשעים תלויה כיון שנעשה אדם רש מלמטה נעשה רש מלמעלה,ולא נכתביה כלל ר' יוחנן ור"א חד אמר מפני כבודו של דוד וחד אמר משום כבודו של נחמיה בן חכליה,תנו רבנן מנשה היה שונה חמשים וחמשה פנים בתורת כהנים כנגד שני מלכותו אחאב שמנים וחמשה ירבעם מאה ושלשה,תניא היה ר"מ אומר אבשלום אין לו חלק לעוה"ב שנאמר (שמואל ב יח, טו) ויכו את אבשלום וימיתוהו ויכוהו בעוה"ז וימיתוהו לעוה"ב תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ אחז ואחזיה וכל מלכי ישראל שכתוב בהן ויעש הרע בעיני ה' לא חיין ולא נידונין,(מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה הרבה מאד עד אשר מלא את ירושלים פה לפה לבד מחטאתו אשר החטיא את יהודה לעשות הרע בעיני ה' הכא תרגימו שהרג ישעיה במערבא אמרי שעשה צלם משאוי אלף בני אדם ובכל יום ויום הורג (את) כולם כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה שקולה נשמה של צדיק אחד כנגד כל העולם כולו כמ"ד ישעיה הרג,כתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, ז) פסל וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לג, כב) פסילים א"ר יוחנן בתחלה עשה לו פרצוף אחד ולבסוף עשה לו ארבעה פרצופים כדי שתראה שכינה ותכעוס,אחז העמידו בעלייה שנאמר (מלכים ב כג, יב) ואת המזבחות אשר על הגג עליית אחז וגו' מנשה העמידו בהיכל שנאמר (מלכים ב כא, ז) וישם את פסל האשרה אשר עשה בבית אשר אמר ה' אל דוד ואל שלמה [בנו] בבית הזה ובירושלים אשר בחרתי מכל שבטי ישראל אשים את שמי לעולם אמון הכניסו לבית קדשי הקדשים שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע והמסכה צרה כהתכנס,מאי כי קצר המצע מהשתרע אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן [כי] קצר המצע זה מלהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד מאי והמסכה צרה וגו' אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני רבי יונתן כי הוה מטי להאי קרא הוה קא בכי מי שכתב בו (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים תעשה לו מסכה צרה,[אחז בטל את העבודה] וחתם את התורה שנאמר (ישעיהו ח, טז) צור תעודה חתום תורה בלמודי מנשה קדר את האזכרות והרס את המזבח אמון [שרף את התורה] והעלה שממית על גבי המזבח אחז התיר את הערוה מנשה בא על אחותו,אמון בא על אמו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לג, כג) כי הוא אמון הרבה אשמה רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר ששרף את התורה וחד אמר שבא על אמו אמרה לו אמו כלום יש לך הנאה ממקום שיצאת ממנו א"ל כלום אני עושה אלא להכעיס את בוראי,כי אתא יהויקים אמר קמאי לא ידעי לארגוזי כלום אנו צריכין אלא לאורו יש לנו זהב פרויים שאנו משתמשין בו יטול אורו אמרו לו והלא כסף וזהב שלו הוא שנאמר (חגי ב, ח) לי הכסף ולי הזהב נאם ה' צבאות אמר להם כבר נתנו לנו שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני האדם,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מפני מה לא מנו את יהויקים משום דכתיב ביה (דברי הימים ב לו, ח) ויתר דברי יהויקים ותועבותיו אשר עשה והנמצא עליו מאי והנמצא עליו רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר שחקק שם עבודת כוכבים על אמתו וחד אמר שחקק שם שמים על אמתו,א"ל במלכים לא שמעתי בהדיוטות שמעתי מפני מה לא מנו את מיכה מפני שפתו מצויה לעוברי דרכים שנאמר כל העובר ושב אל הלוים,(זכריה י, יא) ועבר בים צרה והכה בים גלים א"ר יוחנן זה פסלו של מיכה תניא רבי נתן אומר מגרב לשילה ג' מילין והיה עשן המערכה ועשן פסל מיכה מתערבין זה בזה,בקשו מלאכי השרת לדוחפו אמר להן הקב"ה הניחו לו שפתו מצויה לעוברי דרכים ועל דבר זה נענשו אנשי פלגש בגבעה אמר להן הקב"ה בכבודי לא מחיתם על כבודו של בשר ודם מחיתם,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן קסמא גדולה לגימה שהרחיקה שתי משפחות מישראל שנאמר (דברים כג, ה) על דבר אשר לא קדמו אתכם בלחם ובמים ורבי יוחנן דידיה אמר מרחקת את הקרובים ומקרבת את הרחוקים ומעלמת עינים מן הרשעים ומשרה שכינה על נביאי הבעל ושגגתו עולה זדון,מרחקת את הקרובים 103b. b“Because he has desired Me, therefore I will deliver him; I will set him on high, because he has known My name. He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble; I will deliver him, and honor him. With long life I will satisfy him, and show him My salvation”(Psalms 91:14–16)., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And He will withhold their light from the wicked [ iresha’im /i], and the high arm shall be broken”(Job 38:15)? bFor whatreason is the letter iayinofthe word iresha’imsuspendedslightly above the rest of the letters? It is suspended so that the word will be read irashim /i, meaning poor people. It means: bOnce a person becomes pooron earth bbelowand the number of his enemies grows, bhe becomes poorin Heaven babove,as he is certainly a sinner and that is why he is hated.,The Gemara challenges: If that is the meaning, bletthe iayin bnot be written at alland let the verse say: iRashim /i. bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazarboth explain why the iayinwas not omitted. bOne says:It was bdue tothe desire to preserve bthe honor of David,who had numerous enemies below despite the fact that he was a righteous person and had a place in the World-to-Come. bAnd one says:It was bdue tothe desire to preserve bthe honor of Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah,who also had numerous enemies below, despite his righteousness.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bManasseh,king of Judea, bwould study fifty-fivedifferent baspects ininterpreting iTorat Kohanim /i,the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, bcorresponding to the years of his reign,indicating that he possessed great knowledge. bAhabwas greater and studied beighty-fiveaspects, and bJeroboamwas greater still and studied bone hundred and threeaspects., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: Absalom has no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And they smote Absalom and they killed him”(II Samuel 18:15). b“And they smoteAbsalom” is referring to death bin this world,while b“and they killed him”is referring to death bin the World-to-Come. It is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Ahaz and Ahaziah,kings of Judea, band all of the kings ofthe kingdom of bIsrael about whom it is written: “And he did evil in the eyes of the Lord”(see, e.g., I Kings 15:34), bneither livein the World-to-Come bnor are sentencedto Gehenna.,It is stated: b“And Manasseh shed a great deal of innocent blood, until he filled Jerusalem from one end to another [ ipeh lafeh /i], beside his sin that he made Judea sin, to do evil in the eyes of the Lord”(II Kings 21:16). bHere,in Babylonia, bthey interpretthe verse to mean bthat he killedthe prophet bIsaiah(see iYevamot49b). bIn the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey say thatManasseh bcrafted an idolso large that it was ba burdenrequiring bone thousand peopleto carry it, band each and every day hewould require them to carry it, which would bkill all of them.The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rabba bar bar Ḥana says: The soul of one righteous person is equalin value bto the entire world?It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who says: He killed Isaiah. /b, bIt is writtenthat Manasseh crafted b“an idol”(II Chronicles 33:7), band it is writtenthat Manasseh crafted b“idols”(II Chronicles 33:19). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Initially, he crafted one face [ ipartzuf] forthe idol, band ultimately, he crafted four faces for it so that the Divine Presence would seeit from each side band become angry. /b, bAhaz placedthat idol bin the upper chamberin the Temple, bas it is stated: “And the altars that were on the roof of the upper chamber of Ahaz”(II Kings 23:12). bManasseh placed it in the Sanctuaryitself, bas it is stated: “And he set the graven image of the iasherathat he had crafted, in that house of which the Lord said to David, and to Solomon his son: In this house, and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen from all the tribes of Israel, will I put My name forever”(II Kings 21:7). bAmon introduced it into the Holy of Holies, as it is stated: “For the bed is too short for spreading, and the covering too narrow for when he gathers himself”(Isaiah 28:20)., bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“For the bed is too short for spreading”? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan saysthat it means: bFor his bed is too narrow for two colleagues to spread upon it together,as it is impossible that service of God and idol worship will coexist there. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“and the covering [ imasekha /i] too narrow [ itzara /i]for when he gathers himself [ ikehitkanes /i]”? bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: When Rabbi Yonatan would reach this verse he would cry. He about whom it is written: “He gathers [ ikones /i] the waters of the sea like a rampart”(Psalms 33:7), bshall a graven image [ imasekha /i] be a rival [ itzara /i]? /b, bAhaz nullified theTemple bservice and sealed the Torah,prohibiting its study, bas it is stated: “Bind up the testimony, seal the Torah among my disciples”(Isaiah 8:16). bManasseh excised the mentionsof God’s names from sacred books band destroyed the altar. Amon burned the Torah and sacrificed a gecko,an impure creeping animal, bupon the altar. Ahaz permittedengaging in sexual intercourse with bforbidden relatives,and announced that marriage between those relatives is permitted. bManassehexploited that pronouncement and bengaged in sexual intercourse with his sister. /b, bAmon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother, as it is stated: “But Amon increased his guilt”(II Chronicles 33:23), indicating that he performed a greater and more disgraceful transgression than anyone else. bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazardisagreed about his transgression; bone says that he burned the Torah, and one says that he engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother. His mother said to him: Do you have any pleasureby engaging in intercourse bfrom the place from which you emerged? He said to her: I am doingthis bonly to express insolence to my Creator,not for my pleasure., bWhen Jehoiakim camealong and reigned, bhe said:My bpredecessors did not knowhow bto express insolence toGod. bDo we needGod beven for his light?Since bwe have iparvayimgold that we usethat shines, bletGod btake His lightfrom the world. bThey said to him: Aren’t the silver and the gold His, as it is stated: “The silver is mine and the gold is mine says the Lord of hosts”(Haggai 2:8)? Jehoiakim bsaid to them: He has already given it to us, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, but the earth He has given to the children of men”(Psalms 115:16).,§ bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: For whatreason bdidthe itanna’im bnot enumerate Jehoiakimamong the kings who have no share in the World-to-Come? One would imagine that he has no share in the World-to-Come, bbecause it is written concerning him: “And the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim and his abominations that he did, and that which was found on him”(II Chronicles 36:8). The Gemara explains: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“and that which was found on him”? Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazardisagree; bone says that he etched the name of idols on his penisdue to his devotion to them, band one says that he etched the name of Heaven on his penisin a display of contempt.,Rabba bar Mari bsaid toRava: bWith regard tothe list of bkings, I did not hearwhy Jehoiakim was excluded; but bwith regard tothe list of bcommoners, I heardwhy a certain sinner was excluded. bFor whatreason bdidthe itanna’im bnot enumerate Micahamong those with no share in the World-to-Come? After all, he crafted idols that the Jewish people worshipped (see Judges, chapter 17). It is bdue tothe fact bthat his breadwas bavailable for passersby, as it is stated: All those who pass by the Levites.He would provide sustece to all hosted in his house.,With regard to that which is written: b“And He shall pass through the sea with affliction and shall strike the waves in the sea”(Zechariah 10:11), bRabbi Yoḥa says: Thisaffliction is a reference to bthe idol of Micah,as Micah passed through the sea during the exodus from Egypt. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says:The distance bfrom Gerav,where Micah resided, bto Shiloh,where the Tabernacle was at that time, bwas three imil /i, and the smoke from the arrangementof wood on the altar in Shiloh band the smokefrom the worship bof the idol of Micah would intermingle with each other. /b, bThe ministering angels sought to dismiss himfrom the world. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Leave him, as his bread is available for travelers. And it is for this matter,the sin of Micah’s idol, that bthe peopleinvolved in the incident of bthe concubine in Gibeah were punished.The tribes of Israel waged war with the tribe of Benjamin and forty thousand of them were killed. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: You did not protest for My honorand took no action to destroy Micah’s idol, but byou protested for the honor ofone of bflesh and bloodwho was killed? Therefore, the other tribes were initially unsuccessful, and many of their soldiers were killed., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma: Great is eating, as it distanced two clans from the Jewish people, as it is stated:“An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the bLord…because they met you not with bread and with water”(Deuteronomy 23:4–5). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa himself says:Food bdistances the near, and draws near the distant, and averts eyes from the wicked,sparing them from punishment, band causes the Divine Presence to rest on the prophets of the Baal; and an unwittingtransgression bwith regard to itis at times bconsidered an intentionaltransgression.,The Gemara elaborates: The fact that it bdistances the nearis derived
48. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47a. אין לי אלא בארץ בח"ל מנין תלמוד לומר אתך בכל מקום שאתך אם כן מה ת"ל בארץ בארץ צריך להביא ראיה בח"ל אין צריך להביא ראיה דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים אומרים בין בארץ בין בחוצה לארץ צריך להביא ראיה,בא הוא ועדיו עמו קרא למה לי אמר רב ששת דאמרי שמענו שנתגייר בב"ד של פלוני סד"א לא ליהמנייהו קמ"ל,בארץ אין לי אלא בארץ בח"ל מנין ת"ל אתך בכל מקום שאתך והא אפיקתיה חדא מאתך וחדא מעמך,וחכ"א בין בארץ בין בח"ל צריך להביא ראיה ואלא הא כתיב בארץ,ההוא מיבעי ליה דאפילו בארץ מקבלים גרים דסד"א משום טיבותא דארץ ישראל קמגיירי והשתא נמי דליכא טיבותא איכא לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני קמ"ל,א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן הלכה בין בארץ בין בח"ל צריך להביא ראיה פשיטא יחיד ורבים הלכה כרבים מהו דתימא מסתבר טעמא דרבי יהודה דקמסייעי ליה קראי קמ"ל,ת"ר (דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק בין איש ובין אחיו ובין גרו מכאן א"ר יהודה גר שנתגייר בב"ד הרי זה גר בינו לבין עצמו אינו גר,מעשה באחד שבא לפני רבי יהודה ואמר לו נתגיירתי ביני לבין עצמי א"ל רבי יהודה יש לך עדים אמר ליה לאו יש לך בנים א"ל הן א"ל נאמן אתה לפסול את עצמך ואי אתה נאמן לפסול את בניך,[ומי] א"ר יהודה אבנים לא מהימן והתניא (דברים כא, יז) יכיר יכירנו לאחרים מכאן א"ר יהודה נאמן אדם לומר זה בני בכור וכשם שנאמן לומר זה בני בכור כך נאמן לומר בני זה בן גרושה הוא או בן חלוצה הוא וחכ"א אינו נאמן,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק ה"ק ליה לדבריך עובד כוכבים אתה ואין עדות לעובד כוכבים רבינא אמר הכי קאמר ליה יש לך בנים הן יש לך בני בנים הן א"ל נאמן אתה לפסול בניך ואי אתה נאמן לפסול בני בניך,תניא נמי הכי ר' יהודה אומר נאמן אדם לומר על בנו קטן ואין נאמן על בנו גדול ואמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לא קטן קטן ממש ולא גדול גדול ממש אלא קטן ויש לו בנים זהו גדול גדול ואין לו בנים זהו קטן,והלכתא כוותיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק והתניא כוותיה דרבינא ההוא לענין יכיר איתמר,תנו רבנן גר שבא להתגייר בזמן הזה אומרים לו מה ראית שבאת להתגייר אי אתה יודע שישראל בזמן הזה דוויים דחופים סחופים ומטורפין ויסורין באין עליהם אם אומר יודע אני ואיני כדאי מקבלין אותו מיד,ומודיעין אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות ומודיעין אותו עון לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני ומודיעין אותו ענשן של מצות אומרים לו הוי יודע שעד שלא באת למדה זו אכלת חלב אי אתה ענוש כרת חללת שבת אי אתה ענוש סקילה ועכשיו אכלת חלב ענוש כרת חללת שבת ענוש סקילה,וכשם שמודיעין אותו ענשן של מצות כך מודיעין אותו מתן שכרן אומרים לו הוי יודע שהעולם הבא אינו עשוי אלא לצדיקים וישראל בזמן הזה אינם יכולים לקבל 47a. bI havederived bonlythat a convert is accepted bin EretzYisrael; bfrom wheredo I derive that also boutsideof bEretzYisrael he is to be accepted? bThe verse states “with you,”which indicates that bin any place that he is with you,you should accept him. bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: In the land?This indicates that bin EretzYisrael bhe needs to bring evidencethat he is a convert, bbut outsideof bEretzYisrael bhe does not need to bring evidencethat he is a convert; rather, his claim is accepted. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Whetherhe is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutsideof bEretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: In the case when bhe came andbrought bwitnessesto his conversion bwith him, why do Ineed ba verseto teach that he is accepted? In all cases, the testimony of witnesses is fully relied upon. bRav Sheshet said:The case is bwhere they say: We heard that he converted inthe bcourtof bso-and-so,but they did not witness the actual conversion. And it is necessary to teach this because it could benter your mind to saythat bthey should not be relied upon;therefore, the verse bteaches usthat they are relied upon.,As cited above, the latter clause of the ibaraitastates: “With you binyour bland”(Leviticus 19:33). bI havederived bonlythat a convert is accepted bin EretzYisrael; bfrom wheredo I derive that also boutsideof bEretzYisrael he is to be accepted? bThe verse states: “With you,”which indicates that bin any place that he is with you,you should accept him. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t youalready bexpound thatphrase in the first clause of the ibaraitato teach that one doesn’t accept the claims of an individual that he is a valid convert? The Gemara explains: bOneof these ihalakhotis derived from the phrase b“with you”in the verse cited, bandthe other boneis derived from the phrase b“with you”in a subsequent verse (Leviticus 25:35).,The ibaraitastates: bAnd the Rabbis say: Whetherhe is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutsideof bEretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t “inyour bland” writtenin the verse? How can the Rabbis deny any distinction between the ihalakhainside and outside of Eretz Yisrael?,The Gemara explains: bThatphrase bis necessaryto teach bthat even in EretzYisrael, the Jewish people should baccept converts, as it could enter your mind to saythat it is only bfor the sake ofbenefiting from bthe goodness of Eretz Yisrael,and not for the sake of Heaven, that bthey are converting,and therefore they should not be accepted. bAndit could also enter your mind to say that even bnowadays, whenGod’s blessing has ceased and bthere is nolonger btheoriginal bgoodnessfrom which to benefit, one should still suspect their purity of motives because bthere arethe bgleanings,the bforgotten sheaves, andthe bcornersof fields, band the poor man’s tithefrom which they would benefit by converting. Therefore, the verse bteaches usthat they are accepted even in Eretz Yisrael., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The ihalakha /iis that bwhethera convert is bin EretzYisrael bor whetherhe is boutside of EretzYisrael, bhe needs to bring evidence.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis bobvious;in all disputes between ban individualSage band manySages the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of the bmanySages. The Gemara explains: It is necessary to state this blest you saythat bRabbi Yehuda’s reasonis more blogical, being that the verse supports himwhen it states: “In your land.” Therefore, it is necessary for Rabbi Yoḥa to bteach usthat the ihalakhais not in accordance with his opinion., bThe Sages taught:The verse states that Moses charged the judges of a court: b“And judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the convert with him”(Deuteronomy 1:16). bFrom here,based on the mention of a convert in the context of judgment in a court, bRabbi Yehuda said:A potential bconvert who converts in a court is avalid bconvert.However, if he converts bin private, he is not a convert. /b,The Gemara relates: There was ban incident involving onewho was presumed to be Jewish bwho came before Rabbi Yehuda and said to him: I converted in private,and therefore I am not actually Jewish. bRabbi Yehuda said to him:Do byou have witnessesto support your claim? bHe said to him: No.Rabbi Yehuda asked: Do byou have children? He said to him: Yes.Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: You are deemed crediblein order bto render yourself unfitto marry a Jewish woman by claiming that you are a gentile, bbut you are not deemed crediblein order bto render your children unfit. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut did Rabbi Yehudaactually bsaythat bwith regard tohis bchildren he is not deemed credible? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“He shall acknowledge [ iyakir /i]the firstborn, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he has” (Deuteronomy 21:17). The phrase “he shall acknowledge” is apparently superfluous. It is therefore expounded to teach that the father is deemed credible so that bhe can identify him [ iyakirenu /i] to others. From here Rabbi Yehuda said: A man is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, and just as he is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, sotoo, a priest bis deemed credible to say: This son of mine is a son of a divorced womanand myself, borto say: He is ba son of a iḥalutza /iand myself, and therefore he is disqualified due to flawed lineage [ iḥalal /i]. bAnd the Rabbis say: He is not deemed credible.If Rabbi Yehuda holds that a father is deemed credible to render his children unfit, why did he rule otherwise in the case of the convert?, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat bthis is whatRabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: According to your statement you are a gentile, and there is no testimony for a gentile,as a gentile is a disqualified witness. Consequently, you cannot testify about the status of your children and render them unfit. bRavina saidthat bthis is whatRabbi Yehuda bsaid to him:Do byou have children? He said: Yes. He said to him:Do byou have grandchildren?He said: bYes. He said to him: You are deemed crediblein order bto render your children unfit,based on the phrase “he shall acknowledge,” bbut you are not deemed crediblein order bto render your grandchildren unfit,as the verse affords a father credibility only with respect to his children., bThisopinion of Ravina bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda says: A man is deemed credible to say about his minor sonthat he is unfit, bbut he is not deemed credible to say about his adult sonthat he is unfit. bAndin explanation of the ibaraita /i, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The reference to ba minorson does bnotmean one who is bliterally a minor,who has not yet reached majority, bandthe reference to ban adultson does bnotmean one who is bliterally an adult,who has reached majority; brather, a minor who has children, this iswhat the ibaraitais referring to as ban adult,and ban adult who does not have children, this iswhat the ibaraitais referring to as ba minor. /b,The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Ravina?If there is a ibaraitathat supports his opinion, the ihalakhashould be in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara explains: bThat ibaraita bwas stated concerning the matter of “he shall acknowledge,”that a father is deemed credible to render his son unfit; however, if one claims he is a gentile, he is not deemed credible to say the same about his son.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to a potential bconvert who comes toa court in order to bconvert, at the present time,when the Jews are in exile, the judges of the court bsay to him: What did you see thatmotivated byouto bcome to convert? Don’t you know that the Jewish people at the present time are anguished, suppressed, despised, and harassed, and hardships arefrequently bvisited upon them? If he says: I know, andalthough bI am unworthyof joining the Jewish people and sharing in their sorrow, I nevertheless desire to do so, then the court baccepts him immediatelyto begin the conversion process., bAndthe judges of the court binform himof bsome of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot, and they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field, bandabout the bpoor man’s tithe. And they inform himof bthe punishment fortransgressing bthe mitzvot,as follows: bThey say to him: Be aware that before you came to this statusand converted, bhad you eaten forbidden fat, you would not be punished by ikaret /i,and bhad you profaned Shabbat, you would not be punished by stoning,since these prohibitions do not apply to gentiles. bBut now,once converted, if byou have eaten forbidden fat you are punished by ikaret /i,and if byou have profaned Shabbat, you are punished by stoning. /b, bAnd just as they inform himabout the bpunishment fortransgressing the bmitzvot, sotoo, bthey inform himabout the breward granted forfulfilling bthem. They say to him: Be aware that the World-to-Come is made only for the righteous,and if you observe the mitzvot you will merit it, bandbe aware that bthe Jewish people, at the present time, are unable to receivetheir full reward in this world;
49. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.23.16-2.23.18 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

2.23.16. So they went up and threw down the just man, and said to each other, 'Let us stone James the Just.' And they began to stone him, for he was not killed by the fall; but he turned and knelt down and said, 'I entreat you, Lord God our Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.' 2.23.17. And while they were thus stoning him one of the priests of the sons of Rechab, the son of the Rechabites, who are mentioned by Jeremiah the prophet, cried out, saying, 'Stop. What are you doing? The just one prays for you.' 2.23.18. And one of them, who was a fuller, took the club with which he beat out clothes and struck the just man on the head. And thus he suffered martyrdom. And they buried him on the spot, by the temple, and his monument still remains by the temple. He became a true witness, both to Jews and Greeks, that Jesus is the Christ. And immediately Vespasian besieged them.
50. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 16.8.2, 16.8.4, 16.8.13 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

51. Anon., 4 Baruch, 8.2

8.2. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Rise up -- you and the people -- and come to the Jordan and say to the people: Let anyone who desires the Lord forsake the works of Babylon.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 448
adultery,biblical law Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
adultery,death penalty Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
adultery Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 448
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
animals,sacred Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 218
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
apostolate,(com)mission Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
ascetics,pre-constantine König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
asia minor Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
bible Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
blasphemer Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 218
bread König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
chosen people Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 43
christian clerics Brooten (1982), Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue, 48
chrysostom,john Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 43
claudius,roman emperor,expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 404, 406, 545
cosmos/cosmic Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
court,of three Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
creation Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
creator Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
death penalty,beheading Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
death penalty,biblical law Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
death penalty,stoning Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 189
death penalty Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
demiurge Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
divorce,joseph and mary Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 189
divorce,procedure Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 190
divorce,public Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 190
drunkenness König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
egyptian Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
egyptians Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 218
execution Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
father,fatherhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 184, 300
father Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
fornication,death penalty Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
fornication,priests daughter Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
gellius,aulus,gospels,eating and drinking in König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
gentile Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
gluttony König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
graeco-roman (law/custom) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
graeco-roman (world/period) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
greece Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
herod Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
idolatry,golden calf Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 218
irrationality of torah,rabbinic responses to Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 258, 259
isaac,willingness to give up his life Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 43
jesus König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
jewish-christian tradition,custom Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
john the baptist König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
josephus Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
judah Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
lucretius,luke,gospel of König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
lynching Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
maker Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
mary (mother of jesus),fornication Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 189
masoretic text Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
mildenhall treasure König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
moses Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 446, 448
parents Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 184
paul (saul) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
pentateuch Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
pharisees König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
philo,on the torah as rational Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 258, 259
philo of alexandria Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 243
platonism,platonists Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 300
polemic Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 43
priest,daughter of Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
rabbis,rabbinic literature Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
rationality of torah,in 4 maccabees Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 259
rationality of torah,in rabbinic sources Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 258, 259
rebellious son Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
repentance Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 446
roman,law Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
sacrilegium Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
short recension of 4 baruch Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 448
solomon Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
sotah Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 176
stephen Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 448
stoning Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 446, 448; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
strangulation Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
summary justice,jewish Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
tamar Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
tannaim,tannaitic law,judaism,period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
temple,herodian warning inscription Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
temple,purity Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
temple,purity required of entrants Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
temple,regulations Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 492
ten commandments Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 184
testament of solomon Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
testimony,law of,(zadokite fragments) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
torah Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 446
trial,liability to be tried Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
vice and virtue lists Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 51
virtue and law,and the torah Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 258, 259
wilderness/desert Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 446
wine' König (2012), Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture, 131
witnesses,qualifications of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
witnesses,single (one) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
witnesses,three Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84
witnesses,two Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 84