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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.9


וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי אֶל־תָּצַר אֶת־מוֹאָב וְאַל־תִּתְגָּר בָּם מִלְחָמָה כִּי לֹא־אֶתֵּן לְךָ מֵאַרְצוֹ יְרֻשָּׁה כִּי לִבְנֵי־לוֹט נָתַתִּי אֶת־עָר יְרֻשָּׁה׃And the LORD said unto me: ‘Be not at enmity with Moab, neither contend with them in battle; for I will not give thee of his land for a possession; because I have given Ar unto the children of Lot for a possession.—


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.15, 10.17, 20.15, 33.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.15. הַמּוֹלִיכֲךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב וְצִמָּאוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־מָיִם הַמּוֹצִיא לְךָ מַיִם מִצּוּר הַחַלָּמִישׁ׃ 10.17. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַנּוֹרָא אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשָּׂא פָנִים וְלֹא יִקַּח שֹׁחַד׃ 20.15. כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־הֶעָרִים הָרְחֹקֹת מִמְּךָ מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מֵעָרֵי הַגּוֹיִם־הָאֵלֶּה הֵנָּה׃ 33.4. תּוֹרָה צִוָּה־לָנוּ מֹשֶׁה מוֹרָשָׁה קְהִלַּת יַעֲקֹב׃ 8.15. who led thee through the great and dreadful wilderness, wherein were serpents, fiery serpents, and scorpions, and thirsty ground where was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint;" 10.17. For the LORD your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the awful, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward." 20.15. Thus shalt thou do unto all the cities which are very far off from thee, which are not of the cities of these nations." 33.4. Moses commanded us a law, An inheritance of the congregation of Jacob."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.8-3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden." 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 75.8, 75.13, 88.8, 95.4, 98.3, 105.22, 144.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

75.8. כִּי־אֱלֹהִים שֹׁפֵט זֶה יַשְׁפִּיל וְזֶה יָרִים׃ 88.8. עָלַי סָמְכָה חֲמָתֶךָ וְכָל־מִשְׁבָּרֶיךָ עִנִּיתָ סֶּלָה׃ 95.4. אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ מֶחְקְרֵי־אָרֶץ וְתוֹעֲפוֹת הָרִים לוֹ׃ 105.22. לֶאְסֹר שָׂרָיו בְּנַפְשׁוֹ וּזְקֵנָיו יְחַכֵּם׃ 144.6. בְּרוֹק בָּרָק וּתְפִיצֵם שְׁלַח חִצֶּיךָ וּתְהֻמֵּם׃ 75.8. For God is judge; He putteth down one, and lifteth up another." 88.8. Thy wrath lieth hard upon me, And all Thy waves Thou pressest down. Selah" 95.4. In whose hand are the depths of the earth; The heights of the mountains are His also." 105.22. To bind his princes at his pleasure, And teach his elders wisdom." 144.6. Cast forth lightning, and scatter them; Send out Thine arrows, and discomfit them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.7. אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא׃ 1.7. They are terrible and dreadful; Their law and their majesty proceed from themselves."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 4.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 16.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.25. כִּי גָדוֹל יְהוָה וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד וְנוֹרָא הוּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִים׃ 16.25. For great is the LORD, and highly to be praised; He also is to be feared above all gods."
7. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 1.5, 4.14, 9.32 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.5. וָאֹמַר אָנָּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וָחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 9.32. וְעַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל הַגִּבּוֹר וְהַנּוֹרָא שׁוֹמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד אַל־יִמְעַט לְפָנֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־הַתְּלָאָה אֲשֶׁר־מְצָאַתְנוּ לִמְלָכֵינוּ לְשָׂרֵינוּ וּלְכֹהֲנֵינוּ וְלִנְבִיאֵנוּ וְלַאֲבֹתֵינוּ וּלְכָל־עַמֶּךָ מִימֵי מַלְכֵי אַשּׁוּר עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 1.5. and said: ‘I beseech Thee, O LORD, the God of heaven, the great and awful God, that keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments;" 9.32. Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and the awful God, who keepest covet and mercy, let not all the travail seem little before Thee, that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and on our fathers, and on all Thy people, since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day."
8. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.31, 7.7, 9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.31. אַנְתְּה מַלְכָּא חָזֵה הֲוַיְתָ וַאֲלוּ צְלֵם חַד שַׂגִּיא צַלְמָא דִּכֵּן רַב וְזִיוֵהּ יַתִּיר קָאֵם לְקָבְלָךְ וְרֵוֵהּ דְּחִיל׃ 7.7. בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רביעיה [רְבִיעָאָה] דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָא וְשִׁנַּיִן דִּי־פַרְזֶל לַהּ רַבְרְבָן אָכְלָה וּמַדֱּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא ברגליה [בְּרַגְלַהּ] רָפְסָה וְהִיא מְשַׁנְּיָה מִן־כָּל־חֵיוָתָא דִּי קָדָמַיהּ וְקַרְנַיִן עֲשַׂר לַהּ׃ 9.4. וָאֶתְפַּלְלָה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהַי וָאֶתְוַדֶּה וָאֹמְרָה אָנָּא אֲדֹנָי הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 2.31. Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was surpassing, stood before thee; and the appearance thereof was terrible." 7.7. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns." 9.4. And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made confession, and said: ‘O Lord, the great and awful God, who keepest covet and mercy with them that love Thee and keep Thy commandments,"
9. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.24, 3.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.24. Taking them all, he departed to his own land. He committed deeds of murder,and spoke with great arrogance. 3.25. Then Judas and his brothers began to be feared, and terror fell upon the Gentiles round about them.
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.8, 9.18, 43.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. She dwells with all flesh according to his gift,and he supplied her to those who love him. 9.18. A babbler is feared in his city,and the man who is reckless in speech will be hated.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.8, 9.18, 10.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.8. therefore no one who utters unrighteous things will escape notice,and justice, when it punishes, will not pass him by. 9.18. And thus the paths of those on earth were set right,and men were taught what pleases thee,and were saved by wisdom. 10.16. She entered the soul of a servant of the Lord,and withstood dread kings with wonders and signs.
12. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 37.5 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
14. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 357 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

15. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15a. ועל ידי שלשה בני קרח,ירמיה כתב ספרו וספר מלכים וקינות חזקיה וסיעתו כתבו (ימש"ק סימן) ישעיה משלי שיר השירים וקהלת אנשי כנסת הגדולה כתבו (קנד"ג סימן) יחזקאל ושנים עשר דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא כתב ספרו ויחס של דברי הימים עד לו,מסייעא ליה לרב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא עלה עזרא מבבל עד שיחס עצמו ועלה ומאן אסקיה נחמיה בן חכליה,אמר מר יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה תניא כמאן דאמר שמונה פסוקים שבתורה יהושע כתבן דתניא (דברים לד, ה) וימת שם משה עבד ה' אפשר משה (מת) וכתב וימת שם משה אלא עד כאן כתב משה מכאן ואילך כתב יהושע דברי ר"י ואמרי לה ר' נחמיה,אמר לו ר"ש אפשר ס"ת חסר אות אחת וכתיב (דברים לא, כו) לקוח את ספר התורה הזה אלא עד כאן הקב"ה אומר ומשה אומר וכותב מכאן ואילך הקב"ה אומר ומשה כותב בדמע כמו שנאמר להלן (ירמיהו לו, יח) ויאמר להם ברוך מפיו יקרא אלי את כל הדברים האלה ואני כותב על הספר בדיו,כמאן אזלא הא דא"ר יהושע בר אבא אמר רב גידל אמר רב שמונה פסוקים שבתורה יחיד קורא אותן לימא (ר"י היא) ודלא כר"ש אפילו תימא ר"ש הואיל ואשתנו אשתנו:,יהושע כתב ספרו והכתיב (יהושע כד, כט) וימת יהושע בן נון עבד ה' דאסקיה אלעזר והכתיב (יהושע כד, לג) ואלעזר בן אהרן מת דאסקיה פנחס,שמואל כתב ספרו והכתיב (שמואל א כח, ג) ושמואל מת דאסקיה גד החוזה ונתן הנביא,דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים וליחשוב נמי איתן האזרחי אמר רב איתן האזרחי זה הוא אברהם כתיב הכא (תהלים פט, א) איתן האזרחי וכתיב התם (ישעיהו מא, ב) מי העיר ממזרח צדק [וגו'],קא חשיב משה וקא חשיב הימן והאמר רב הימן זה משה כתיב הכא הימן וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, ז) בכל ביתי נאמן הוא תרי הימן הוו,משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב מסייעא ליה לר' לוי בר לחמא דא"ר לוי בר לחמא איוב בימי משה היה כתיב הכא (איוב יט, כג) מי יתן אפוא ויכתבון מלי וכתיב התם (שמות לג, טז) ובמה יודע אפוא,ואימא בימי יצחק דכתיב (בראשית כז, לג) מי אפוא הוא הצד ציד ואימא בימי יעקב דכתיב (בראשית מג, יא) אם כן אפוא זאת עשו ואימא בימי יוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, טז) איפה הם רועים,לא ס"ד דכתיב (איוב יט, כג) מי יתן בספר ויוחקו ומשה הוא דאיקרי מחוקק דכתיב (דברים לג, כא) וירא ראשית לו כי שם חלקת מחוקק ספון,רבא אמר איוב בימי מרגלים היה כתיב הכא (איוב א, א) איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו וכתיב התם (במדבר יג, כ) היש בה עץ מי דמי הכא עוץ התם עץ הכי קאמר להו משה לישראל ישנו לאותו אדם ששנותיו ארוכות כעץ ומגין על דורו כעץ,יתיב ההוא מרבנן קמיה דר' שמואל בר נחמני ויתיב וקאמר איוב לא היה ולא נברא אלא משל היה אמר ליה עליך אמר קרא איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו,אלא מעתה (שמואל ב יב, ג) ולרש אין כל כי אם כבשה אחת קטנה אשר קנה ויחיה וגו' מי הוה אלא משל בעלמא הכא נמי משל בעלמא א"כ שמו ושם עירו למה,רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו איוב מעולי גולה היה ובית מדרשו בטבריא היה מיתיבי ימי שנותיו של איוב משעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד שיצאו 15a. band by the three sons of Korah. /b, bJeremiah wrote his own book, and the book of Kings, and Lamentations. Hezekiah and his colleagues wrotethe following, and ba mnemonicto remember which books they wrote is iyod /i, imem /i, ishin /i, ikuf /i: Isaiah [ iYeshaya /i], Proverbs [ iMishlei /i], Song of Songs [ iShir HaShirim /i], and Ecclesiastes [ iKohelet /i]. The members of the Great Assembly wrotethe following, and ba mnemonicto remember these books is ikuf /i, inun /i, idalet /i, igimmel /i: Ezekiel [ iYeḥezkel], and the Twelve Prophets [ iSheneim Asar /i], Daniel[iDaniel /i], band the Scroll of Esther [ iMegillat Ester /i]. Ezra wrote his own book and the genealogy ofthe book of bChronicles until hisperiod.,The Gemara comments: This bsupports Rav, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Ezra did not ascend from Babyloniato Eretz Yisrael buntil he established his own genealogy, andafter that he bascended.This genealogy is what is written in the book of Chronicles. bAnd who completedthe book of Chronicles for the generations following Ezra? bNehemiah, son of Hacaliah. /b,The Gemara elaborates on the particulars of this ibaraita /i: bThe Master saidabove that bJoshua wrote his own book and eight verses of the Torah.The Gemara comments: This ibaraita bis taught in accordance with the one who says thatit was bJoshuawho bwrote thelast beight verses in the Torah.This point is subject to a tannaitic dispute, bas it is taughtin another ibaraita /i: b“And Moses the servant of the Lord died there”(Deuteronomy 34:5); bis it possible thatafter bMoses died, hehimself bwrote “And Moses died there”? Rather, Moses wrotethe entire Torah buntil this point,and bJoshua wrote from thispoint bforward;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And some saythat bRabbi Neḥemyastated this opinion., bRabbi Shimon said to him: Is it possiblethat the bTorah scroll was missing a single letter? But it is written: “Take this Torah scroll”(Deuteronomy 31:26), indicating that the Torah was complete as is and that nothing further would be added to it. bRather, until this point the Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses repeatedafter Him band wrotethe text. bFrom thispoint bforward,with respect to Moses’ death, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, dictated and Moses wrote with tears.The fact that the Torah was written by way of dictation can be seen blater, as it is statedconcerning the writing of the Prophets: b“And Baruch said to them: He dictated all these words to me, and I wrote them with ink in the scroll”(Jeremiah 36:18).,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rabbi Yehoshua bar Abba saysthat bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says:When the Torah is read publicly in the synagogue, boneperson breads thelast beight verses in the Torah,and that section may not be divided between two readers? bShall we saythat bthis isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda and not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon,as according to Rabbi Shimon these verses are an integral part of the Torah, written by Moses just like the rest? The Gemara answers: bEvenif byou saythat this was said in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, since they differfrom the rest of the Torah in one way, as Moses wrote them with tears, bthey differfrom the rest of the Torah in this way as well, i.e., they may not be divided between two readers.,It is stated in the ibaraitathat bJoshua wrote his own book.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtentoward the end of the book: b“And Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died”(Joshua 24:29)? Is it possible that Joshua wrote this? The Gemara answers: Aaron’s son bEleazar completed it.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t italso bwritten: “And Eleazar, son of Aaron, died”(Joshua 24:33)? The Gemara answers: bPinehas completed it. /b,It is also stated in the ibaraitathat bSamuel wrote his own book.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “And Samuel died”(I Samuel 28:3)? The Gemara answers: bGad the seer and Nathan the prophet finished it. /b,It is further stated that bDavid wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten elders,whom the ibaraitaproceeds to list. The Gemara asks: bButthen blet it also count Ethan the Ezrahiteamong the contributors to the book of Psalms, as it is he who is credited with Psalms, chapter 89. bRav says: Ethan the Ezrahite isthe same person as bAbraham.Proof for this is the fact that bit is written here:“A Maskil of bEthan the Ezrahite”(Psalms 89:1), band it is written there: “Who raised up one from the east [ imizraḥ /i], whom righteousnessmet wherever he set his foot” (Isaiah 41:2). The latter verse is understood as referring to Abraham, who came from the east, and for that reason he is called Ethan the Ezrahite in the former verse.,The Gemara asks: The ibaraita bcounts Mosesamong the ten elders whose works are included in the book of Psalms, band italso bcounts Heman. But doesn’t Rav say:The bHemanmentioned in the Bible (I Kings 5:11) bisthe same person as bMoses?This is proven by the fact that bit is written here: “Heman”(Psalms 88:1), which is Aramaic for trusted, band it is written thereabout Moses: b“For he is the trusted one in all My house”(Numbers 12:7). The Gemara answers: bThere were two Hemans,one of whom was Moses, and the other a Temple singer from among the descendants of Samuel.,The ibaraitafurther states that bMoses wrote his own book,i.e., the Torah, bthe portion of Balaam, andthe book of bJob. This supports Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma, as Rabbi Levi bar Laḥma says: Joblived bin the time of Moses. It is written herewith regard to Job: b“Oh, that my words were written now [ ieifo /i]”(Job 19:23), band it is written therein Moses’ words to God: b“For in what shall it be known here [ ieifo /i]”(Exodus 33:16). The unusual use of the word ieifoin these two places indicates that Job and Moses lived in the same generation.,The Gemara comments: bButif that is the proof, bsaythat Job lived bin the time of Isaac, as it is writtenin connection with Isaac: b“Who then [ ieifo /i] is he that has taken venison”(Genesis 27:33). bOr saythat he lived bin the time of Jacob, as it is writtenwith respect to Jacob: b“If it must be so now [ ieifo /i], do this”(Genesis 43:11). bOr saythat he lived bin the time of Joseph, as it is writtenwith respect to Joseph: “Tell me, I pray you, bwhere [ ieifo /i] are they feeding their flocks?”(Genesis 37:16).,The Gemara answers: It could bnot enter your mindto say this, bas it is writtenin the continuation of the previously mentioned verse: b“Oh, thatmy words bwere inscribed [ iveyuḥaku /i] in a book”(Job 19:23), band it is Moses who is called the inscriber, as it is writtenwith regard to him: b“And he provided the first part for himself, for there was the inscriber’s [ imeḥokek /i] portion reserved”(Deuteronomy 33:21)., bRava says: Joblived bat the time of the spieswhom Moses sent to scout the land of Canaan. This is proven by the fact that bit is written here: “There was a man in the land of Utz, whose name was Job”(Job 1:1), band it is written therein the account of the spies: b“Whether there are trees [ ieitz /i] in it”(Numbers 13:20). The Gemara asks: bIs it comparable? Herethe word that is used is iUtz /i,whereas btherethe word is ieitz /i.The Gemara answers: bThis is what Moses said to Israel,i.e., to the spies: bIs that mannamed Job still alive, bhe whose years are as long asthe years bof a tree and who protects his generation like a tree?This is why the allusion to him here is through the word ieitz /i, rather than iUtz /i.,The Gemara relates that bone of the Sages sat before Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani and he sat and said: Job never existed and was never created;there was never such a person as Job. bRather,his story bwas a parable.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani bsaid to him:In rebuttal bto you, the verse states: “There was a man in the Land of Utz whose name was Job”(Job 1:1), which indicates that such a man did indeed exist.,The Gemara asks: bBut if that is so,that the words “there was” prove that Job existed, what shall we say about the parable that Natan the prophet presented to David: “There were two men in one city; the one rich and the other poor. The rich man had very many flocks and herds, bbut the poor man had nothing except one little lamb, which he had bought and reared”(II Samuel 12:3)? bWas therereally such a person? bRather, it was merely a parable; here too it is merely a parable.The Gemara answers: bIf so,that it is a parable, bwhystate bhis name and the name of his city?Rather, Job was clearly a real person.,The Gemara cites another opinion with regard to the time when Job lived. bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: Job was among those who ascended from the exileto Eretz Yisrael at the start of the Second Temple period, band his house of study was in Tiberias.The Gemara braises an objectionfrom what is taught in a ibaraita /i: bThe days of Job’s lifeextended bfrom when Israel entered Egypt until they left,indicating that this is the period during which he lived and not, as suggested, in the early days of the Second Temple.
16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. דאם כן נכתוב קרא להאי רעהו גבי מועד:,שור של ישראל שנגח שור של כנעני פטור: אמרי ממה נפשך אי רעהו דוקא דכנעני כי נגח דישראל נמי ליפטר ואי רעהו לאו דוקא אפילו דישראל כי נגח דכנעני נחייב,א"ר אבהו אמר קרא (חבקוק ג, ו) עמד וימודד ארץ ראה ויתר גוים ראה שבע מצות שקיבלו עליהם בני נח כיון שלא קיימו עמד והתיר ממונן לישראל,רבי יוחנן אמר מהכא (דברים לג, ב) הופיע מהר פארן מפארן הופיע ממונם לישראל,תניא נמי הכי שור של ישראל שנגח שור של כנעני פטור שור של כנעני שנגח שור של ישראל בין תם בין מועד משלם נזק שלם שנאמר עמד וימודד ארץ ראה ויתר גוים ואומר הופיע מהר פארן,מאי ואומר,וכי תימא האי עמד וימודד ארץ מבעי' ליה לכדרב מתנה וכדרב יוסף ת"ש הופיע מהר פארן מפארן הופיע ממונן לישראל מאי דרב מתנה דא"ר מתנה עמד וימודד ארץ ראה וכו' מה ראה ראה שבע מצות שנצטוו עליהן בני נח ולא קיימום עמד והגלה אותם מעל אדמתם,ומאי משמע דהאי ויתר לישנא דאגלויי הוא כתיב הכא ויתר גוים וכתיב התם (ויקרא יא, כא) לנתר בהן על הארץ ומתרגם לקפצא בהון על ארעא,מאי דרב יוסף דא"ר יוסף עמד וימודד ארץ ראה וכו' מה ראה ראה שבע מצות שקיבלו עליהם בני נח ולא קיימום עמד והתירן להם,איתגורי אתגר א"כ מצינו חוטא נשכר אמר מר בריה דרבנא לומר שאפילו מקיימין אותן אין מקבלין עליהן שכר,ולא והתניא ר"מ אומר מנין שאפילו נכרי ועוסק בתורה שהוא ככהן גדול ת"ל (ויקרא יח, ה) אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם כהנים ולוים וישראלים לא נאמר אלא אדם הא למדת שאפילו נכרי ועוסק בתורה הרי הוא ככהן גדול,אמרי אין מקבלים עליהן שכר כמצווה ועושה אלא כמי שאינו מצווה ועושה דא"ר חנינא גדול המצווה ועושה יותר ממי שאינו מצווה ועושה:,ת"ר וכבר שלחה מלכות רומי שני סרדיוטות אצל חכמי ישראל למדונו תורתכם קראו ושנו ושלשו בשעת פטירתן אמרו להם דקדקנו בכל תורתכם ואמת הוא חוץ מדבר זה שאתם אומרים שור של ישראל שנגח שור של כנעני פטור של כנעני שנגח שור של ישראל בין תם בין מועד משלם נזק שלם,ממ"נ אי רעהו דוקא אפילו דכנעני כי נגח דישראל ליפטר ואי רעהו לאו דוקא אפילו דישראל כי נגח דכנעני לחייב ודבר זה אין אנו מודיעים אותו למלכות,רב שמואל בר יהודה שכיבא ליה ברתא אמרו ליה רבנן לעולא קום ניזל נינחמיה אמר להו מאי אית לי גבי נחמתא דבבלאי דגידופא הוא דאמרי מאי אפשר למיעבד הא אפשר למיעבד עבדי,אזל הוא לחודאי גביה א"ל (דברים ב, ב) ויאמר ה' (אל משה) אל תצר את מואב ואל תתגר בם מלחמה וכי מה עלה על דעתו של משה לעשות מלחמה שלא ברשות אלא נשא משה ק"ו בעצמו אמר ומה מדינים שלא באו אלא לעזור את מואב אמרה תורה (במדבר כה, יז) צרור את המדינים והכיתם אותם 38a. bBecause if so,if one whose ox gores a consecrated ox is exempt from liability, blet the verse write thisphrase: b“of another,” with regard tothe case of ba forewarnedox. One could then infer that the owner is exempt from liability in the case of an innocuous ox as well, as the liability with regard to an innocuous ox is less severe than with regard to a forewarned ox. The stating of this exemption specifically in the context of an innocuous ox indicates that the exemption is only concerning the leniency stated in the verse, that if the gored ox belongs to another person, the owner of the belligerent ox is liable to pay only half the cost of the damage.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to ban ox of a Jew that gored the ox of a gentile,the owner of the belligerent ox is bexemptfrom liability; whereas if a gentile’s ox gores a Jew’s ox, the owner is liable to pay the full cost of the damage. The Sages bsaid:This statement is difficult bwhichever way youlook at it. bIfthe phrase b“of another”is meant in ba precisemanner, and therefore the liability applies only if his ox gores the ox of another Jew, bwhen a gentile’sox bgores that of a Jew he should also be exemptfrom liability. bAnd ifthe phrase b“of another”is bnotmeant in ba precisemanner, then beven when a Jew’sox bgores that of a gentilethe owner of the belligerent ox bshould be liable. /b, bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the reason for this ruling is that bthe verse states: “He stood and shook the earth; He beheld, and made the nations tremble [ ivayyatter /i]”(Habakkuk 3:6). This is homiletically interpreted to mean that God bsaw the seven mitzvot that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselvesto fulfill, and bsince they did not fulfillthem, bHe arose and permitted [ ivehittir /i] their money to the Jewish people,so that in certain cases Jews are not liable for damage caused to gentiles., bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat the source for this ihalakhais bfrom here:It is stated in reference to the giving of the Torah: “The Lord came from Sinai and rose from Seir unto them; bHe appeared from Mount Paran”(Deuteronomy 33:2), which is homiletically interpreted to mean: bFromthe time God came from Mount bParan,when giving the Torah, bthe money ofthe gentile nations bappeared,i.e., it was revealed and granted bto the Jewish people. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ban ox of a Jew that gored the ox of a gentile,the owner of the belligerent ox is bexemptfrom liability. By contrast, with regard to ban ox of a gentile that gored the ox of a Jew, whetherit was binnocuous or forewarned,the owner of the belligerent ox bpays the fullcost of the bdamage, as it is stated: “He stood and shook the earth; He beheld, and made the nations tremble.” Andanother verse bstates: “He appeared from Mount Paran.” /b,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the reason the ibaraitaadds: bAndanother verse bstates,indicating that the first verse is not a sufficient source?,The Gemara explains that this is how the ibaraitais to be understood: bAnd if you would saythat bthisverse: b“He stood and shook the earth” is necessary toexpress bthat which Rav Mattana and Rav Yosefderived from the verse, bcomeand bhearanother source: b“He appeared from Mount Paran,”meaning: bFrom Paran their money appeared to the Jewish people. What is Rav Mattana’sexposition? It is bas Rav Mattana says: “He stood and shook the earth.” What did He see? He saw the seven mitzvot that the descendants of Noah were commanded but did not fulfill,and bHe arose and exiled them from their landon account of their transgressions., bAnd from where mayit bbe inferred that thisterm ivayyatteris a term of exile? It is written here: “And made the nations tremble [ ivayyatter /i]”(Habakkuk 3:6), band it is written there: “ iLenatterupon the earth”(Leviticus 11:21), bwhich is translatedinto Aramaic as: b“To leap upon the earth.”Apparently, the root inun /i, itav /i, ireish /i, common to both words, indicates uprooting from one place to another., bWhat is Rav Yosef’sexposition? It is bas Rav Yosef says: “He stood and shook the earth; He beheld.” What did He see? He saw the seven mitzvot that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves and did not fulfill,so bHe arose and permittedtheir prohibitions bto them. /b,The Gemara asks: bDid theythereby bprofit,in that their prohibitions became permitted to them? bIf so, we have found a transgressorwho bis rewarded. Mar, son of Rabbana, says:This is not to say that for them to transgress their mitzvot is no longer a sin; rather, it is bto say that even if they fulfill them, they do not receive reward forfulfilling bthem. /b,The Gemara asks: bButdo they bnotreceive reward for fulfilling those mitzvot? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: From whereis it derived bthat even a gentile who engages in Torah isconsidered blike a High Priest? The verse stateswith regard to the mitzvot: b“Which if a person does, he shall live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). It bis not stated:Which if bpriests and Levites and Israelitesdo, they shall live by them, bbut rather: A person,indicating that all people are included. bYou have therefore learned that even a gentile who engages in Torahstudy bisconsidered blike a High Priest. /b,The Sages bsaidin response: Rav Yosef meant that bthey do not receive the reward asdoes bone who is commandedto perform a mitzva band performsit, bbut asdoes bone who is not commandedto perform a mitzva band performsit anyway. bAs Rabbi Ḥanina says:One who is bcommanded and performsa mitzva bis greater thanone who bis not commanded and performsit., bThe Sages taughtthe following story in the context of the aforementioned ihalakha /i: bAnd the Roman kingdom once sent two military officials [ isardeyotot /i] to the Sages of Israel,and ordered them in the name of the king: bTeach us your Torah.The officials breadthe Torah, band repeatedit, bandrepeated it again, reading it for the bthirdtime. bAt the time of their departure, they said tothe Sages: bWe have examined your entire Torah and it is true, except for thisone bmatter that you state,i.e., that with regard to ban ox of a Jew that gored the ox of a gentile,the owner is bexemptfrom liability, whereas with regard to the ox bof a gentile that gored the ox of a Jew, whetherit was binnocuous or forewarned,the owner bpays the fullcost of the bdamage. /b,The officials’ reasoning was that this ihalakhais difficult bwhichever way youlook at it. bIfthe phrase b“of another”is meant in ba precisemanner, that the owners of both oxen must both be Jewish, then beven whenthe ox bof a gentile gores the ox of a Jewthe owner of the ox bshould be exemptfrom liability. bAnd ifthe phrase b“of another”is bnotmeant in ba precisemanner, and the oxen of all are included, then beven whenthe ox bof a Jew gores the ox of a gentilethe owner bshould be liable.They added: bBut we will not inform this matter to the kingdom;having acknowledged that the entire Torah is true, we will not reveal this ruling, as it will displease the kingdom.,§ Incidentally, it is related that bthe daughterof bRav Shmuel bar Yehuda died. The Sages said to Ulla: Arise; let us go console him.Ulla bsaid to them: Whatbusiness bdo I have with the consolation of Babylonians, which isactually bheresy? As, they saywhile consoling mourners: bWhat can be done?This seems to suggest that bif it were possible to dosomething, acting against the Almighty’s decree, bthey would doso, which is tantamount to heresy. Therefore, Ulla declined to accompany the Babylonian Sages.,Ulla therefore bwent toconsole Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda bby himself,and bsaid to him:The verse states: b“And the Lord said to me, do not be at enmity with Moab, neither contend with them in battle”(Deuteronomy 2:9). bWhat entered Moses’s mind,that God had to warn him not to undertake a particular action? Did it enter his mind bto wage warwith the Moabites bwithout permission? Rather, Moses reasoned an ia fortiori /iinference bby himself, saying: And ifwith regard to bthe Midianites, who came only to help the Moabitesharm the Jewish people (see Numbers, chapter 22), bthe Torah said: “Harass the Midianites and smite them”(Numbers 25:17)
17. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39a. (יחזקאל יח, ב) אבות יאכלו בוסר ושיני בנים תקהינה (ויקרא יט, לו) מאזני צדק אבני צדק (משלי יא, ח) צדיק מצרה נחלץ ויבא רשע תחתיו,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל אלהיכם גנב הוא דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויפל ה' אלהים תרדמה על האדם ויישן אמרה ליה ברתיה שבקיה דאנא מהדרנא ליה אמרה ליה תנו לי דוכוס אחד א"ל למה ליך ליסטין באו עלינו הלילה ונטלו ממנו קיתון של כסף והניחו לנו קיתון של זהב אמר לה ולוואי שיבא עלינו בכל יום ולא יפה היה לו לאדם הראשון שנטלו ממנו צלע אחת ונתנו לו שפחה לשמשו,אמר לה הכי קאמינא אלא לשקליה בהדיא אמרה ליה אייתו לי אומצא דבישרא אייתו לה אותבה תותי בחשא אפיקתה אמרה ליה אכול מהאי אמר לה מאיסא לי אמרה ליה ואדם הראשון נמי אי הות שקילה בהדיא הוה מאיסא ליה,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל ידענא אלהייכו מאי קא עביד (והיכן יתיב) איתנגד ואיתנח א"ל מאי האי א"ל בן אחד יש לי בכרכי הים ויש לי גיעגועים עליו בעינא דמחוית ליה ניהלי אמר מי ידענא היכא ניהו א"ל דאיכא בארעא לא ידעת דאיכא בשמיא ידעת,אמר ליה כופר לרבן גמליאל כתיב (תהלים קמז, ד) מונה מספר לכוכבים מאי רבותיה אנא מצינא למימנא כוכבי אייתי חבושי שדינהו בארבילא וקא מהדר להו אמר ליה מנינהו א"ל אוקמינהו א"ל רקיע נמי הכי הדרא,איכא דאמרי הכי א"ל מני לי כוכבי א"ל אימא לי ככיך ושיניך כמה הוה שדא ידיה לפומיה וקא מני להו א"ל דאיכא בפומיך לא ידעת דאיכא ברקיעא ידעת,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל מי שברא הרים לא ברא רוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אלא מעתה גבי אדם דכתיב ויברא וייצר הכי נמי מי שברא זה לא ברא זה,טפח על טפח יש בו באדם ושני נקבים יש בו מי שברא זה לא ברא זה שנאמר (תהלים צד, ט) הנוטע אוזן הלא ישמע ואם יוצר עין הלא יביט א"ל אין א"ל ובשעת מיתה כולן נתפייסו,א"ל ההוא אמגושא לאמימר מפלגך לעילאי דהורמיז מפלגך לתתאי דאהורמיז א"ל א"כ היכי שביק ליה אהורמיז להורמיז לעבורי מיא בארעיה,אמר ליה קיסר לר' תנחום תא ליהוו כולן לעמא חד אמר לחיי אנן דמהלינן לא מצינן מיהוי כוותייכו אתון מהליתו והוו כוותן א"ל מימר שפיר קאמרת מיהו כל דזכי למלכא לשדיוה לביבר שדיוה לביבר ולא אכלוה א"ל ההוא מינא האי דלא אכלוה משום דלא כפין הוא שדיוה ליה לדידיה ואכלוה,א"ל כופר לר"ג אמריתו כל בי עשרה שכינתא שריא כמה שכינתא איכא קרייה לשמעיה מחא ביה באפתקא א"ל אמאי על שמשא בביתיה דכופר א"ל שמשא אכולי עלמא ניחא ומה שמשא דחד מן אלף אלפי רבוא שמשי דקמי קודשא בריך הוא ניחא לכולי עלמא שכינתא דקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אלהיכם גחכן הוא דקאמר ליה ליחזקאל (יחזקאל ד, ד) שכב על צדך השמאלי וכתיב (יחזקאל ד, ו) ושכבת על צדך הימני אתא ההוא תלמידא א"ל מ"ט דשביעתא א"ל השתא אמינא לכו מילתא דשויא לתרוייהו,אמר הקב"ה לישראל זרעו שש והשמיטו שבע כדי שתדעו שהארץ שלי היא והן לא עשו כן אלא חטאו וגלו מנהגו של עולם מלך בשר ודם שסרחה עליו מדינה אם אכזרי הוא הורג את כולן אם רחמן הוא הורג חצים אם רחמן מלא רחמים הוא מייסר הגדולים שבהן ביסורין אף כך הקב"ה מייסר את יחזקאל כדי למרק עונותיהם של ישראל,א"ל ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אלהיכם כהן הוא דכתיב (שמות כה, ב) ויקחו לי תרומה כי קבריה למשה במאי טביל וכי תימא במיא והכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יב) מי מדד בשעלו מים,א"ל בנורא טביל דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, טו) כי הנה ה' באש יבא ומי סלקא טבילותא בנורא א"ל אדרבה עיקר טבילותא בנורא הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, כג) וכל אשר לא יבא באש תעבירו במים,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי אבינא כתיב (שמואל ב ז, כג) מי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ מאי רבותייהו אתון נמי ערביתו בהדן דכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יז) כל הגוים כאין נגדו אמר ליה מדידכו אסהידו עלן דכתיב 39a. And they are the parables concerning the following verses: b“The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge”(Ezekiel 18:2); b“Just balances, just weights /b…shall you have” (Leviticus 19:36); and b“The righteous is delivered out of trouble, and the wicked comes in his stead”(Proverbs 11:8).,§ bTheRoman bemperor said to Rabban Gamliel: Your God is a thief, as it is written: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man and he slept;and He took one of his sides, and closed up the place with flesh instead” (Genesis 2:21). bThe daughter ofthe emperor bsaid toRabban Gamliel: bLeave him, as I will respond to him. She saidto her father: bProvide one commander [ idukhus /i] for meto avenge someone’s wrongdoing. The emperor bsaid to her: Why do you needhim? She said to him: bArmed bandits came to us thispast bnight, and took a silver jug [ ikiton /i] from us, and left a golden jug for us.The emperor bsaid to her:If so, bwould it be thatarmed bandits such as these bwould come to us every day.She said to him: bAnd was it notsimilarly bgood for Adam the firstman bthatGod btook a side from him and gave him a maidservant to serve him? /b,The emperor bsaid to her: This is what I was saying: Butif it is good for Adam, bletGod btakehis side from him bin the open,not during the time of his deep sleep, like a thief. bShe said to him: Bring mea slice of braw meat. They brought it to her. She placed it under the embers,and bremoved itafter it was roasted. bShe said to him: Eat from thismeat. The emperor bsaid to her: It is repulsive to me.Although he knew that this is how meat is prepared, seeing the raw meat made it repulsive to him. bShe said to him:With regard to bAdam the firstman bas well, hadGod btaken herfrom him bin the open, she would have been repulsive to him.Therefore God acted while Adam was asleep., bThe emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: I know your God, what He does and where He sits.Meanwhile, the emperor bwas moaning and groaning.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Whatis bthis?Why are you in distress? The emperor bsaid to him: I have one son in the cities overseas and I miss him.Rabban Gamliel said to him: bI want you to show him to me.The emperor bsaid: Do I know where he is?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him:If byou do not know that which is on earth,is it possible that byou do know that which is in the heavens? /b, bThe emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: It is writtenin praise of the Lord: b“He counts the number of the stars;He gives them all their names” (Psalms 147:4). bWhat is His greatness? I canalso bcount the stars.Rabban Gamliel bbrought quinces, put them in a sieve, and spun them. He saidto the emperor: bCount them.The emperor bsaid to him: Stand them stillso that I can count them. Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him:The bfirmament also revolves like this,therefore you cannot count the stars in it., bSome saythat bthis iswhat the emperor bsaid to him: I have counted the stars.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Tell me how many teeth and incisors youhave. The emperor bput his hand in his mouth and was counting them.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: You do not know what is in your mouth,but byou do know what is in the firmament? /b, bThe emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: He Who created mountains did not create wind,rather two separate gods created them, bas it is stated: “For, lo, He forms mountains and creates wind”(Amos 4:13); one is described with the verb “forms,” and the other with the verb “creates.” Rabban Gamliel said to him: bIf that is so,then bwith regard to Adam, as it is writtenconcerning him: b“AndGod bcreated”(Genesis 1:27), and also: b“Andthe Lord God bformed”(Genesis 2:7), bso tooshould one say that bHe who created this did not create that? /b,If you will claim that different gods created different parts of Adam, that will not suffice. bA person has one handbreadth by one handbreadthof facial countece, with btwotypes of borifices in it,eyes and ears. Should one say that bHe who created this did not create that; as it is stated: “He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?”(Psalms 94:9)? The verse employs two verbs for the eyes and ears alone. The emperor bsaid to him: Yes,different gods created different parts of the face. Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: And at the moment of death, are they all appeased?Do all these gods agree as one that the time arrived for the person to die?,The Gemara relates: bA certain magus said to Ameimar: From your midpoint and upis in the domain bof Hurmiz,the god of good, who created the significant and important parts of the body, and bfrom your midpoint and downis in the domain bof Ahurmiz,the god of bad. Ameimar bsaid to him: If so, how does Ahurmiz allow Hurmiz to urinate in his territory?A person drinks with his mouth, which is in his upper half, and urinates from below.,The Gemara relates: bThe emperor said to Rabbi Tanḥum: Come, let us all be one people.Rabbi Tanḥum bsaid: Very well.But bwe, who are circumcised, cannot becomeuncircumcised bas youare; byouall bcircumciseyourselves band become like us.The emperor bsaid toRabbi Tanḥum: In terms of the logic of your bstatement, you are saying well, but anyone who bests the kingin a debate bis thrown to the enclosure [ ilabeivar /i]of wild animals. bThey threw him to the enclosure butthe animals bdid not eat him,as God protected him. bA certain heretic said tothe emperor: bThisincident, bthat they did not eat him,happened bbecause they are not hungry. Theythen bthrew theheretic into the enclosure bandthe animals bate him. /b, bThe emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You saythat bthe Divine Presence dwellsin bany place where there are tenadult male Jews. He asked, sarcastically: bHow many Divine Presences are there?Rabban Gamliel bsummoned the servantof the emperor and bhit him on his neck [ ibe’appatka /i].Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Whydid you allow bthe sunto benter the house of the emperor? The emperor said to him: The sun rests upon all the world;no one can prevent it from shining. Rabban Gamliel said to him: bAnd if the sun, which is one of ten thousand attendants that are before the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests upon all the world, the Divine Presence of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more sorests upon the world., bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: Your God is a jester, as He said to Ezekielthe prophet: b“Lie on your left side”(Ezekiel 4:4), bandit bisalso bwritten: “Lie on your right side”(Ezekiel 4:6); God had Ezekiel turn from side to side, apparently for comic effect. In the meantime, ba certain student camebefore Rabbi Abbahu and bsaid to him: What is the reason forthe mitzva of bthe SabbaticalYear? Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to them: Now I will tell you something that is fit for the two of you. /b,Rabbi Abbahu continued: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: Sowfor bsixyears, band withholdsowing during the bseventhyear, bso that that you will know that the land is Mine. Butthe Jewish people bdid not do so; rather, they sinned and wereconsequently bexiled. The manner of the worldis that in the case of ba flesh-and-blood king whose province sinned against him, if he is cruel, he kills them all; if he is compassionate, he killsonly bhalf of them;and bif he is compassionateand bis full of compassion, he afflicts the leaders among them with suffering.Rabbi Abbahu continues: bSotoo in bthiscase, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, afflicts Ezekiel in order to cleanse the sins of the Jewish people.God instructed him to lie down and suffer the same number of days as the number of years that the Jewish people did not observe the ihalakhotof the Sabbatical Year., bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: Your God is a priest, as it is written: “That they take for Me an offering [ iteruma /i]”(Exodus 25:2), and iterumais given to the priests. He asked, sarcastically: bWhen He buried Moses, in whatritual bath bdid He immerse?A priest who contracts impurity from a corpse must immerse in order to be able to partake of iteruma /i. bAnd if you would saythat He immersed bin water, but isn’t it written: “Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand”(Isaiah 40:12), that all waters of the world fit in the palm of God, so He could not immerse in them.,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: He immersed in fire, as it is written: “For, behold, the Lord will come in fire”(Isaiah 66:15). The heretic said to him: bBut is immersion in fire effective?Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: On the contrary, the mainform of bimmersion is in fire, as it is writtenwith regard to the removal of non-kosher substances absorbed in a vessel: b“And all that abides not the fire you shall make to go through the water”(Numbers 31:23), indicating that fire purifies more than water does., bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Avina: It is written: “And who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the earth”(II Samuel 7:23). The heretic asked: bWhat is your greatness? You are also mixed together with us, as it is written: “All nations before Him are as nothing;they are counted by Him less than nothing and vanity” (Isaiah 40:17). Rabbi Avina bsaid to him: One of yours,the gentile prophet Balaam, bhasalready btestified for us, as it is written: /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35a. וילכו ויבאו א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מקיש הליכה לביאה מה ביאה בעצה רעה אף הליכה בעצה רעה,(במדבר יג, כז) ויספרו לו ויאמרו באנו וגו' וכתיב אפס כי עז העם אמר רבי יוחנן (סימן אמ"ת לבד"ו לוי"ה) משום ר"מ כל לשון הרע שאין בו דבר אמת בתחילתו אין מתקיים בסופו,(במדבר יג, ל) ויהס כלב את העם אל משה אמר רבה שהסיתן בדברים,פתח יהושע דקא משתעי אמרי ליה דין ראש קטיעה ימלל,אמר אי משתעינא אמרי בי מילתא וחסמין לי אמר להן וכי זו בלבד עשה לנו בן עמרם סברי בגנותיה קא משתעי אישתיקו,אמר להו הוציאנו ממצרים וקרע לנו את הים והאכילנו את המן אם יאמר עשו סולמות ועלו לרקיע לא נשמע לו (במדבר יג, ל) עלה נעלה וירשנו אותה וגו',והאנשים אשר עלו עמו אמרו לא נוכל וגו' אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דבר גדול דברו מרגלים באותה שעה כי חזק הוא ממנו אל תקרי ממנו אלא ממנו כביכול אפילו בעל הבית אינו יכול להוציא כליו משם,(במדבר יג, לב) ארץ אוכלת יושביה היא דרש רבא אמר הקב"ה אני חשבתיה לטובה והם חשבו לרעה אני חשבתיה לטובה דכל היכא דמטו מת חשיבא דידהו כי היכי דניטרדו ולא לשאלו אבתרייהו ואיכא דאמרי איוב נח נפשיה ואטרידו כולי עלמא בהספידא הם חשבו לרעה ארץ אוכלת יושביה היא,(במדבר יג, לג) ונהי בעינינו כחגבים וכן היינו וגו' אמר רב משרשיא מרגלים שקרי הוו בשלמא ונהי בעינינו כחגבים לחיי אלא וכן היינו בעיניהם מנא הוו ידעי,ולא היא כי הוו מברי אבילי תותי ארזי הוו מברי וכי חזינהו סלקו יתבי באילני שמעי דקאמרי קחזינן אינשי דדמו לקמצי באילני,(במדבר יד, א) ותשא כל העדה ויתנו את קולם ויבכו אמר רבה אמר רבי יוחנן אותו היום [ערב] תשעה באב היה אמר הקב"ה הן בכו בכיה של חנם ואני אקבע להם בכיה לדורות,ויאמרו כל העדה לרגום אותם באבנים וכתיב (במדבר יד, י) וכבוד ה' נראה באהל מועד אמר רבי חייא בר אבא מלמד שנטלו אבנים וזרקום כלפי מעלה,(במדבר יד, לז) וימותו האנשים מוציאי דבת הארץ רעה במגפה אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש שמתו מיתה משונה אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא מלמד שנשתרבב לשונם ונפל על טיבורם והיו תולעים יוצאות מלשונם ונכנסות בטיבורם ומטיבורם ונכנסות בלשונם ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר באסכרה מתו,וכיון שעלה האחרון שבישראל מן הירדן חזרו מים למקומן שנאמר (יהושע ד, יח) ויהי בעלות הכהנים נושאי ארון ברית ה' מתוך הירדן נתקו כפות רגלי הכהנים אל החרבה וישובו מי הירדן למקומם וילכו כתמול שלשום על כל גדותיו,נמצא ארון ונושאיו וכהנים מצד אחד וישראל מצד אחד נשא ארון את נושאיו ועבר שנאמר (יהושע ד, יא) ויהי כאשר תם כל העם לעבור ויעבור ארון ה' והכהנים לפני העם,ועל דבר זה נענש עוזא שנאמר (דברי הימים א יג, ט) ויבאו עד גורן כידון וישלח עוזא את ידו לאחוז את הארון אמר לו הקב"ה עוזא נושאיו נשא עצמו לא כל שכן,(שמואל ב ו, ז) ויחר אף ה' בעוזא ויכהו שם על השל וגו' רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר על עסקי שלו וחד אמר שעשה צרכיו בפניו,(שמואל ב ו, ז) וימת שם עם ארון האלהים א"ר יוחנן עוזא בא לעוה"ב שנאמר עם ארון האלהים מה ארון לעולם קיים אף עוזא בא לעוה"ב,(שמואל ב ו, ח) ויחר לדוד על אשר פרץ ה' פרץ בעוזא א"ר אלעזר שנשתנו פניו כחררה,אלא מעתה כל היכא דכתיב ויחר ה"נ התם כתיב אף הכא לא כתיב אף,דרש רבא מפני מה נענש דוד מפני שקרא לדברי תורה זמירות שנאמר (תהלים קיט, נד) זמירות היו לי חוקיך בבית מגורי,אמר לו הקב"ה ד"ת שכתוב בהן (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו אתה קורא אותן זמירות הריני מכשילך בדבר שאפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו דכתיב (במדבר ז, ט) ולבני קהת לא נתן כי עבודת הקודש וגו' ואיהו אתייה בעגלתא,(שמואל א ו, יט) ויך באנשי בית שמש כי ראו בארון משום דראו ויך (אלהים) רבי אבהו ורבי אלעזר חד אמר קוצרין ומשתחוים היו וחד אמר מילי נמי אמור 35a. bAnd they went and they came”(Numbers 13:25–26). bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:This verse blikenstheir bgoing totheir bcoming. Just astheir bcomingback was bwith wicked counsel, so too,their bgoingto Eretz Yisrael was bwith wicked counsel. /b,The Torah states: b“And they told him, and said: We cameto the land to which you sent us, and it also flows with milk and honey” (Numbers 13:27), bandthen bit is written: “However the peoplethat dwell in the land bare fierce”(Numbers 13:28). Why did the spies praise the land and then slander it? bRabbi Yoḥa saysthree statements bin the name of Rabbi Meir,represented by the bmnemonicdevice: bTruth, alone, borrowing.The first statement answers this question: bAny slander that does not begin with a truthful statement ultimately does not stand,i.e., it is not accepted by others.,The verse states: b“And Caleb stilled [ ivayyahas /i] the people toward Moses”(Numbers 13:30). bRabba says:This means bthat he persuaded them [ ihesitan /i] withhis bwords. iVayyahasand ihesitanshare the same root in Hebrew.,How did he do so? bJoshua beganto address the people, and bas he was speaking they said to him: Should thisperson, who has ba severed head,as he has no children, bspeakto the people about entering Eretz Yisrael?,Caleb bsaidto himself: bIf I speak they willalso bsay something about me and stop mefrom speaking. He began to speak and bsaid to them: Andis bthisthe bonlything that bthe son of Amram,Moses, bhas done to us? They thoughtthat he wanted bto relatesomething bto the discredit ofMoses, and bthey were silent. /b, bHethen bsaid to them: He took us out of Egypt, and split the sea for us, and fed us the manna. If he saysto us: bBuild ladders and climb to the heavens, should we not listen to him? “We should go up at once,”even to the heavens, b“and possess it”(Numbers 13:30).,The verses continue: b“But the men that went up with him said: We are not ableto go up against the people; as they are stronger than us” (Numbers 13:31). bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: The spies said a serious statement at that moment.When they said: b“They are stronger,” do not readthe phrase as: Stronger bthan us [ imimmennu /i],but bratherread it as: Stronger bthan Him [ imimmennu /i],meaning that beven the Homeowner,God, bis unable to remove His belongings from there, as it were.The spies were speaking heresy and claiming that the Canaanites were stronger than God Himself.,The spies said: b“It is a land that consumes its inhabitants”(Numbers 13:32). bRava taught: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I intendedthe land to appear to consume its inhabitants bfortheir own bgood, but they consideredthis proof that the land was bbad. I intendedit bfortheir bgoodby causing many people to die there so bthat anywhere thatthe spies barrived, the most important of them died, so thatthe Canaanites bwould be preoccupiedwith mourning band would not inquire about them. And there arethose bwho saythat God caused bJobto bdieat that time, band everyonein Canaan bwas preoccupied withhis beulogy,and did not pay attention to the spies. However, the spies bconsideredthis proof that the land was bbadand said: b“It is a land that consumes its inhabitants.” /b,The spies said: b“And we were like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and so were wein their eyes” (Numbers 13:33). bRav Mesharshiyya says: The spies were liars. Granted,to say: b“We were like grasshoppers in our own eyes,” is well, butto say: b“And so were we in their eyes,” from wherecould btheyhave bknownthis?,The Gemara responds: bButthat bis not so,as bwhenthe Canaanites bwere having the mourners’ meal, they had the meal beneath cedar trees, and whenthe spies bsaw them they climbed upthe btreesand bsat inthem. From there bthey heardthe Canaanites bsaying: We see people wholook blike grasshoppers in the trees. /b,The verse states: b“And all the congregation lifted up their voice and cried”(Numbers 14:1). bRabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: That day was the eve of the Ninth of Av,and bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said:On that day bthey wept a gratuitous weeping, so I will establishthat day bfor themas a day of bweeping forthe future bgenerations. /b,The verse states: b“But all the congregation bade stone them with stones”(Numbers 14:10), band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“When the glory of the Lord appeared in the Tent of Meeting”(Numbers 14:10). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says:This bteaches that they took stones and threw them upwardas if to throw them at God.,The verse states: b“And those men who brought out an evil report of the land, died by the plague before the Lord”(Numbers 14:37). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This means bthat they died an unusual death. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saysthat bRabbi Sheila Ish Kefar Temarta taught:This bteaches that their tongues were stretched outfrom their mouths band fell upon their navels, and worms were crawling out of their tongues and entering their navels, andworms were likewise coming bout of their navels and entering their tongues.This is the painful death that they suffered. bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: They died of diphtheria,which causes one to choke to death.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the entry of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael. bAnd once the last one of the Jewish people ascended out of the Jordan, the water returned to its place, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, as the priests that bore the Ark of the Covet of the Lord came up out of the midst of the Jordan, as soon as the soles of the priests’ feet were drawn up unto the dry ground, that the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, and went over all its banks, as it had before”(Joshua 4:18). The Gemara understands that the priests who carried the Ark stood in the water until all of the Jewish people passed through the Jordan. Once all the Jewish people had reached the other side of the Jordan, the priests stepped back from the water and the Jordan returned to its natural state., bIt followsthat bthe Ark and its bearers and the priestswere bon one sideof the Jordan, the east side, bandthe rest of bthe Jewish peoplewere bon the other side,the west side. Subsequently, bthe Ark carried its bearersin the air band crossedthe Jordan, bas it is stated: “When all the people were completely passed over, the Ark of the Lord passed on, and the priests, before the people”(Joshua 4:11)., bAnd over this matter Uzzah was punishedfor not taking proper care of the Ark, bas it is stated: “And when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon, Uzzah put forth his hand to hold the Ark;for the oxen stumbled” (I Chronicles 13:9). bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Uzzah,the Ark bcarried its bearerswhen it crossed the Jordan; ball the more sois it bnotclear that it can carry bitself? /b,§ The verse states: b“And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah; andGod bsmote him there for his error [ ihashal /i]”(II Samuel 6:7). bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazardisagreed over the interpretation of this verse. bOne says:God smote him bfor his forgetfulness [ ishalo /i],because he did not remember that the Ark can carry itself. bAnd one says:God smote him bbecause helifted the edges [ ishulayyim /i] of his garment in front of the Ark and brelieved himself in its presence. /b,The verse states: b“And he died there with the Ark of God”(II Samuel 6:7). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Uzzah entered the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With the Ark of God.” Just as the Ark exists forever, so too, Uzzah entered the World-to-Come. /b,The verse states: b“And David was displeased [ ivayyiḥar /i] because the Lord had broken forth upon Uzzah”(II Samuel 6:8). bRabbi Elazar says: iVayyiḥarmeans bthat his face changedcolors and darkened blike baked bread [ iḥarara /i]from displeasure.,The Gemara questions this statement: bIf that is so, anywhere thatthe word ivayyiḥaris written,including when it is referring to God, should it be interpreted this way bas well?The Gemara answers: bThere, it is written:“And bthe angerof the Lord was kindled [ ivayyiḥar af]” (II Samuel 6:7), whereas bhere, the anger [ iaf] is not written,but only ivayyiḥar /i. Therefore it is interpreted differently., bRava taught: For whatreason bwas David punishedwith Uzzah’s death? He was punished bbecause he called matters of Torah: Songs, as it is stated: “Your statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimage”(Psalms 119:54)., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Matters of Torahare so difficult and demanding bthat it is written: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone”(Proverbs 23:5), i.e., one whose eyes stray from the Torah even for a moment will forget it, and byou callthem bsongs?For this reason bI will cause you to stumble in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is writtenwith regard to the wagons brought to the Tabernacle: b“And to the descendants of Kohath he did not give, because the service of the holy thingsbelongs to them; they carry them upon their shoulders” (Numbers 7:9). bAndalthough the Ark clearly must be carried on people’s shoulders, David erred and bbrought it in a wagon. /b,§ When the Philistines returned the Ark during the period of Samuel, it is stated: b“And He smote of the men of Beit Shemesh because they had gazed upon the Ark of the Lord”(I Samuel 6:19). The Gemara asks: bBecause they gazedupon it, bGod smotethem? Why did their action warrant this punishment? bRabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazardisagreed with regard to the interpretation of the verse. bOne saysthat they were punished because bthey were reapingtheir crops band prostrating themselvesat the same time; they did not stop working in reverence for the Ark. bAnd one saysthat bthey also spokedenigrating bwords: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexander the great Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
allotment, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
allotment, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
ammon Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 228, 229
amoraim, babylonian, attitude to moses, torah Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
ascent, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
babylon/babylonia/babylonian Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
babylonian rabbis, sages, comments on moses Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
babylonian rabbis, sages, lack of emphasis on concept of divine origin of torah Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
children, children (grandchildren), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 520
daniel, vision of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
darius Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
day, cosmic ordering, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
dium Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
egypt Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
ethiopians Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
fig Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
gaza Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
glory, lord, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
god, light of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
god, walking of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
horses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
incest Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 228, 229
jaddua Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
jerusalem Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
judah Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 229
judah (bar ilai), rabbi Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 71
kunin, s Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 229
manasseh Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
mishnah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 71
moab, moabites Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 228, 229
moon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
moses Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 229
myth, mythology' Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 229
nebuchadnezzar Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
nikaso Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
palestinian rabbis, sages, concept of torah as of divine origin Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
paradise, walls of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
parmenion Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
plagues (seventy) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
regions, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
samaritans Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
sanballat Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
seventy languages Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 71
shame Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
soul, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
torah, study of, palestinian rabbis concept of divine origins Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
torah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 71
torah of moses, rabbinic avoidance of phrase Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
torah of moses, use of term Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 97
trumpet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
tyre Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 134
vision, daniel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
voice, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
voice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 345
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485