Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 16.21


לֹא־תִטַּע לְךָ אֲשֵׁרָה כָּל־עֵץ אֵצֶל מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃Thou shalt not plant thee an Asherah of any kind of tree beside the altar of the LORD thy God, which thou shalt make thee.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.16-4.19, 6.11, 7.12-7.13, 20.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃ 4.17. תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.18. תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.19. וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 6.11. וּבָתִּים מְלֵאִים כָּל־טוּב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מִלֵּאתָ וּבֹרֹת חֲצוּבִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָצַבְתָּ כְּרָמִים וְזֵיתִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נָטָעְתָּ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 7.12. וְהָיָה עֵקֶב תִּשְׁמְעוּן אֵת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הָאֵלֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְשָׁמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת־הַבְּרִית וְאֶת־הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 7.13. וַאֲהֵבְךָ וּבֵרַכְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ וּבֵרַךְ פְּרִי־בִטְנְךָ וּפְרִי־אַדְמָתֶךָ דְּגָנְךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ שְׁגַר־אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ׃ 20.6. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יְחַלְּלֶנּוּ׃ 4.16. lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female," 4.17. the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven," 4.18. the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; ." 4.19. and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven." 6.11. and houses full of all good things, which thou didst not fill, and cisterns hewn out, which thou the didst not hew, vineyards and olive-trees, which thou didst not plant, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied—" 7.12. And it shall come to pass, because ye hearken to these ordices, and keep, and do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep with thee the covet and the mercy which He swore unto thy fathers," 7.13. and He will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee; He will also bless the fruit of thy body and the fruit of thy land, thy corn and thy wine and thine oil, the increase of thy kine and the young of thy flock, in the land which He swore unto thy fathers to give thee." 20.6. And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not used the fruit thereof? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man use the fruit thereof."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.10, 15.17-15.18, 20.4, 20.20, 25.38-25.39, 27.20, 30.7-30.8, 34.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 25.38. וּמַלְקָחֶיהָ וּמַחְתֹּתֶיהָ זָהָב טָהוֹר׃ 25.39. כִּכָּר זָהָב טָהוֹר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 34.13. כִּי אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָם תִּתֹּצוּן וְאֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּן וְאֶת־אֲשֵׁרָיו תִּכְרֹתוּן׃ 13.10. Thou shalt therefore keep this ordice in its season from year to year." 15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established." 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.20. Ye shall not make with Me—gods of silver, or gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you." 25.38. And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold." 25.39. of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels." 27.20. And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations." 34.13. But ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and ye shall cut down their Asherim."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.8-2.9, 9.20, 21.33, 31.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.9. וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃ 21.33. וַיִּטַּע אֶשֶׁל בִּבְאֵר שָׁבַע וַיִּקְרָא־שָׁם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה אֵל עוֹלָם׃ 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 2.9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 21.33. And Abraham planted a tamarisk-tree in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the Everlasting God."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.7, 2.15, 2.23-2.24, 12.1, 14.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי זָנְתָה אִמָּם הֹבִישָׁה הוֹרָתָם כִּי אָמְרָה אֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבַי נֹתְנֵי לַחְמִי וּמֵימַי צַמְרִי וּפִשְׁתִּי שַׁמְנִי וְשִׁקּוּיָי׃ 2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.23. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶעֱנֶה נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶעֱנֶה אֶת־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהֵם יַעֲנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.24. וְהָאָרֶץ תַּעֲנֶה אֶת־הַדָּגָן וְאֶת־הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַיִּצְהָר וְהֵם יַעֲנוּ אֶת־יִזְרְעֶאל׃ 12.1. וְאָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עֹד אוֹשִׁיבְךָ בָאֳהָלִים כִּימֵי מוֹעֵד׃ 12.1. סְבָבֻנִי בְכַחַשׁ אֶפְרַיִם וּבְמִרְמָה בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה עֹד רָד עִם־אֵל וְעִם־קְדוֹשִׁים נֶאֱמָן׃ 14.9. אֶפְרַיִם מַה־לִּי עוֹד לָעֲצַבִּים אֲנִי עָנִיתִי וַאֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ אֲנִי כִּבְרוֹשׁ רַעֲנָן מִמֶּנִּי פֶּרְיְךָ נִמְצָא׃ 2.7. For their mother hath played the harlot, She that conceived them hath done shamefully; For she said: ‘I will go after my lovers, That give me my bread and my water, My wool and my flax, mine oil and my drink.’" 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD." 2.23. And it shall come to pass in that day, I will respond, saith the LORD, I will respond to the heavens, And they shall respond to the earth;" 2.24. And the earth shall respond to the corn, and the wine, and the oil; And they shall respond to Jezreel." 12.1. Ephraim compasseth Me about with lies, And the house of Israel with deceit; And Judah is yet wayward towards God, And towards the Holy One who is faithful." 14.9. Ephraim [shall say]: ‘What have I to do any more with idols?’ As for Me, I respond and look on him; I am like a leafy cypress-tree; From Me is thy fruit found."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 27.1, 40.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.1. אִם־עַל־שַׁדַּי יִתְעַנָּג יִקְרָא אֱלוֹהַּ בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 27.1. וַיֹּסֶף אִיּוֹב שְׂאֵת מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר׃ 27.1. And Job again took up his parable, and said:" 40.30. Will the bands of fishermen make a banquet of him? Will they part him among the merchants?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 6.9, 6.12-6.13, 19.4, 19.23, 24.2-24.3, 26.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִמֶּנָּה יֹאכְלוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מַצּוֹת תֵּאָכֵל בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ בַּחֲצַר אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד יֹאכְלוּהָ׃ 6.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 6.13. זֶה קָרְבַּן אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת מִנְחָה תָּמִיד מַחֲצִיתָהּ בַּבֹּקֶר וּמַחֲצִיתָהּ בָּעָרֶב׃ 19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 24.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד׃ 24.2. שֶׁבֶר תַּחַת שֶׁבֶר עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן כַּאֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מוּם בָּאָדָם כֵּן יִנָּתֶן בּוֹ׃ 24.3. מִחוּץ לְפָרֹכֶת הָעֵדֻת בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַעֲרֹךְ אֹתוֹ אַהֲרֹן מֵעֶרֶב עַד־בֹּקֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃ 6.9. And that which is left thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat; it shall be eaten without leaven in a holy place; in the court of the tent of meeting they shall eat it." 6.12. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 6.13. This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in the day when he is anointed: the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering perpetually, half of it in the morning, and half thereof in the evening." 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 24.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 24.3. Without the veil of the testimony, in the tent of meeting, shall Aaron order it from evening to morning before the LORD continually; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations." 26.1. Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 73.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

73.14. וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל־הַיּוֹם וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לַבְּקָרִים׃ 73.14. For all the day have I been plagued, And my chastisement came every morning."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 11.5, 16.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 16.33. וַיַּעַשׂ אַחְאָב אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה וַיּוֹסֶף אַחְאָב לַעֲשׂוֹת לְהַכְעִיס אֶת־יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִכֹּל מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנָיו׃ 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites." 16.33. And Ahab made the Asherah; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God of Israel, than all the kings of Israel that were before him."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 3.3, 12.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.3. וְנֵר אֱלֹהִים טֶרֶם יִכְבֶּה וּשְׁמוּאֵל שֹׁכֵב בְּהֵיכַל יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם אֲרוֹן אֱלֹהִים׃ 3.3. and the lamp of God had not yet gone out in the temple of the Lord, where the ark of God was, and Shemu᾽el was laid down to sleep;" 12.10. And they cried to the Lord, and said, We have sinned, because we have forsaken the Lord, and have served the Ba῾alim and the ῾Ashtarot: but now deliver us out of the hand of our enemies, and we will serve Thee."
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 10.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.6. וַיֹּסִפוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבְּעָלִים וְאֶת־הָעַשְׁתָּרוֹת וְאֶת־אֱלֹהֵי אֲרָם וְאֶת־אֱלֹהֵי צִידוֹן וְאֵת אֱלֹהֵי מוֹאָב וְאֵת אֱלֹהֵי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן וְאֵת אֱלֹהֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא עֲבָדוּהוּ׃ 10.6. And the children of Yisra᾽el continued to do evil in the sight of the Lord, and served the Ba῾alim, and the ῾Ashtarot, and the gods of Aram, and the gods of Żidon, and the gods of Mo᾽av, and the gods of the children of ῾Ammon, and the gods of the Pelishtim, and forsook the Lord, and served him not."
11. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.19-1.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.19. For when our fathers were being led captive to Persia, the pious priests of that time took some of the fire of the altar and secretly hid it in the hollow of a dry cistern, where they took such precautions that the place was unknown to any one.' 1.20. But after many years had passed, when it pleased God, Nehemiah, having been commissioned by the king of Persia, sent the descendants of the priests who had hidden the fire to get it. And when they reported to us that they had not found fire but thick liquid, he ordered them to dip it out and bring it.' 1.21. And when the materials for the sacrifices were presented, Nehemiah ordered the priests to sprinkle the liquid on the wood and what was laid upon it.' 1.22. When this was done and some time had passed and the sun, which had been clouded over, shone out, a great fire blazed up, so that all marveled.'
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 114 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

114. We have now then described the hospitable temper of the man, which was as it were a sort of addition to set off his greater virtue; but his virtue was piety towards God, concerning which we have spoken before, the most evident instance of which is to be found in his conduct now recorded towards the strangers;
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.74-1.75, 1.285 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.74. But there is no grove of plantation in the space which surrounds it, in accordance with the prohibitions of the law, which for many reasons forbid this. In the first place, because a building which is truly a temple does not aim at pleasure and seductive allurements, but at a rigid and austere sanctity. Secondly, because it is not proper that those things which conduce to the verdure of trees should be introduced, such as the dung of irrational animals and of men. Thirdly, because those trees which do not admit of cultivation are of no use, but are as the poets say, the burden of the earth; while those which do admit of cultivation, and which are productive of wholesome fruit, draw off the attention of the fickle-minded from the thoughts of the respect due to the holy place itself, and to the ceremonies in which they are engaged. 1.75. And besides these reasons, shady places and dense thickets are places of refuge for evil doers, since by their enveloping them in darkness they give them safety and enable them, as from an ambuscade, suddenly to fall upon any whom they choose to attack. But wide spaces, open and uncovered in every direction, where there is nothing which can hinder the sight, are the most suitable for the distinct sight of all those who enter and remain in the temple.XIV. 1.285. The law says, "A fire shall be kept burning on the altar which shall never be extinguished, but shall be kept burning for Ever."{39}{#le 6:9.} I think with great reason and propriety; for, since the graces of God are everlasting, and unceasing, and uninterrupted, which we now enjoy day and night, and since the symbol of gratitude is the sacred flame, it is fitting that it should be kindled, and that it should remain unextinguished for ever.
15. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.48-1.52, 1.56-1.61 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.48. And some one may ask here, why, since it is a pious action to imitate the works of God, it is forbidden to me to plant a grove near the altar, and yet God plants a paradise? For Moses says, "You shall not plant a grove for yourself; you shall not make for yourself any tree which is near the altar of the Lord your God." What then are we to say? That it is right for God to plant and to build up the virtues in the soul. 1.49. But the selfish and atheistical mind, thinking itself equal with God while it appears to be doing something, is found in reality to be rather suffering. And though God sows and plants good things in the soul, the mind which says, "I plant," is acting impiously. You shall not plant therefore where God is planting: but if, O mind, you fix plants in the soul, take care to plant only such trees as bear fruit, and not a grove; for in a grove there are trees of a character to bear cultivation, and also wild trees. But to plant vice, which is unproductive in the soul, along with cultivated and fertile virtue, is the act of a doublenatured and confused leprosy. 1.50. If, however, you bring into the same place things which ought not to be mingled together, you must separate and disjoin them from the pure and incorrupt nature which is accustomed to make blameless offerings to God; and this is his altar; for it is inconsistent with this to say that there is any such thing as a work of the soul, when all things are referred to God, and to mingle barren things with those which are productive; for this would be faulty: but they are blameless things which are offered to God. 1.51. If therefore you transgress any one of these laws, O soul! you will be injuring yourself, not God. On this account God says, "You shall not plant for yourself:" for no one works for God, and especially what is evil does not. And again, Moses adds: "You shall not make for yourself." And in another place he says, "You shall not make gods of silver with me, and you shall not make gods of gold for yourselves." For he who conceives either that God has any distinctive quality, or that he is not one, or that he is not uncreated and imperishable, or that he is not unchangeable, injures himself and not God. "For you shall not make them for yourselves," is what he says. For we must conceive that God is free from distinctive qualities, and imperishable, and unchangeable; and he who does not conceive thus of him is filling his own soul with false and atheistical opinions. 1.52. Do you not see that--even though God were to conduct us to virtue, and though when we had been thus conducted we were to plant no tree which was barren, but only such as produce fruit, he would still command us to purify its impurity, that is to say, the appearing to plant. For he here orders us to cut away vain opinions; and vain opinions are a thing impure by nature. XVI. 1.56. And God caused to rise out of the earth every tree which is pleasant to the sight and good for food, and the tree of life he raised in the middle of the Paradise, and also the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." He here gives a sketch of the trees of virtue which he plants in the soul. And these are the particular virtues, and the energies in accordance with them, and the good and successful actions, and the things which by the philosophers are called fitting; 1.57. these are the plants of the Paradise. Nevertheless, he describes the characteristics of these same trees, showing that that which is desirable to be beheld is likewise most excellent to be enjoyed. For of the arts some are theoretical and not practical, such as geometry and astronomy. Some, again, are practical and not theoretical, such as the art of the architect, of the smith, and all those which are called mechanical arts. But virtue is both theoretical and practical; for it takes in theory, since the road which leads to it is philosophy in three of its parts--the reasoning, and the moral, and the physical part. It also includes action; for virtue is art conversant about the whole of life; and in life all actions are exhibited. 1.58. Still, although it takes in both theory and practice, nevertheless it is most excellent in each particular. For the theory of virtue is thoroughly excellent, and its practice and observation is a worthy object to contend for. On which account Moses says that the tree was pleasant to the sight, which is a symbol of theoretical excellence; and likewise good for food, which is a token of useful and practical good. XVIII. 1.59. But the tree of life is that most general virtue which some people call goodness; from which the particular virtues are derived, and of which they are composed. And it is on this account that it is placed in the centre of the Paradise; having the most comprehensive place of all, in order that, like a king, it may be guarded by the trees on each side of it. But some say that it is the heart that is meant by the tree of life; since that is the cause of life, and since that has its position in the middle of the body, as being, according to them, the domit part of the body. But these men ought to be made aware that they are expounding a doctrine which has more reference to medical than to natural science. But we, as has been said before, affirm that by the tree of life is meant the most general virtue. 1.60. And of this tree Moses expressly says, that it is placed in the middle of the paradise; but as to the other tree, that namely of the knowledge of good and evil, he has not specified whether it is within or outside of the Paradise; but after he has used the following expression, "and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil," he says no more, not mentioning where it is placed, in order that any one who is uninitiated in the principles of natural philosophy, may not be made to marvel at his knowledge. 1.61. What then must we say? That this tree is both in the Paradise and also out of it. As to its essence, indeed, in it; but as to its power, out of it. How so? The domit portion of us is capable of receiving everything, and resembles wax, which is capable of receiving every impression, whether good or bad. In reference to which fact, that supplanter Jacob makes a confession where he says, "all these things were made for Me." For the unspeakable formations and impression of all the things in the universe, are all borne forward into, and comprehended by the soul, which is only one. When, therefore that receives the impression of perfect virtue, it has become the tree of life; but when it has received the impression of vice, it has then become the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and vice and all evil have been banished from the divine company. Therefore the domit power which has received it is in the Paradise according to its essence; for there is in it that characteristic of virtue, which is akin to the Paradise. But again, according to its power it is not in it, because the form of virtue is inconsistent with the divine operations;
16. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 96 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

96. and cisterns prepared before-hand intimate the rewards which fall to the lot of some for their labour, while they are given spontaneously to others, being channels of heavenly and wholesome waters and well prepared treasures for the preservation of the virtues before mentioned, by means of which joy is shed over the perfect heart, irradiating it all over with the light of truth. Again, when Moses speaks of the vineyards, he means them as an emblem of cheerfulness, and the olive gardens as a symbol of light.
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.159, 3.199 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.159. 4. The high priest is indeed adorned with the same garments that we have described, without abating one; only over these he puts on a vestment of a blue color. This also is a long robe, reaching to his feet, [in our language it is called Meeir,] and is tied round with a girdle, embroidered with the same colors and flowers as the former, with a mixture of gold interwoven. 3.199. but incense was to be offered twice a day, both before sun-rising and at sun-setting. They were also to keep oil already purified for the lamps; three of which were to give light all day long, upon the sacred candlestick, before God, and the rest were to be lighted at the evening.
18. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.198-1.199 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.198. There is about the middle of the city, a wall of stone, the length of which is five hundred feet, and the breadth a hundred cubits, with double cloisters; wherein there is a square altar, not made of hewn stone, but composed of white stones gathered together, having each side twenty cubits long, and its altitude ten cubits. Hard by it is a large edifice, wherein there is an altar and a candlestick, both of gold, and in weight two talents; 1.199. upon these there is a light that is never extinguished, neither by night nor by day. There is no image, nor any thing, nor any donations therein; nothing at all is there planted, neither grove, nor any thing of that sort. The priests abide therein both nights and days, performing certain purifications, and drinking not the least drop of wine while they are in the temple.”
19. Mishnah, Hagigah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. How did they undertake the purification of the Temple court? They immersed the vessels which were in the Temple, and they say to them: “Be cautious lest you touch the table or menorah and defile them.” All the vessels that were in the Temple had second and third sets, so that if the first was defiled, they might bring a second set in its place. All the vessels that were in the Temple required immersion, except the altar of gold and the altar of bronze, for they are like the ground, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: because they were overlaid [with metal]."
20. Mishnah, Tamid, 3.9, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.9. The one who had been chosen for clearing the ashes from the inner altar went in carrying the teni which he set down in front of it, and he scooped up the ash in his fists and put it into it, and in the end he swept up what was left into it, and then he left it there and went out. The one who had been chosen to clear the ashes from the menorah went in. If he found the two eastern lights burning, he cleared the ash from the rest and left these two burning. If he found that these two had gone out, he cleared away their ash and kindled them from those which were still lit and then he cleared the ash from the rest. There was a stone in front of the candlestick with three steps on which the priest stood in order to trim the lights. He left the kuz on the second step and went out." 6.1. They began to ascend the steps of the Sanctuary. Those who had won the right to clear the ashes from the inner altar and from the candlestick went in front. The one who won the right to clear the inner altar went in and took the teni and bowed down and went out again. The one who had been chosen to clear the candlestick went in, and if he found the two eastern lights still burning he cleared out the eastern one and left the western one burning, since from it he lit the candlestick for the evening. If he found that this one had gone out, he cleared the ash away and lit it from the altar of burnt-offering. He then took the kuz from the second step and bowed down and went out."
21. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 43.7, 49.4, 54.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

43.7. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ (בראשית יד, יט), מִמִּי קְנָאָן, רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַב כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר כְּאִינָשׁ דַּאֲמַר פְּלַן עֵינוֹהִי יָאֵי, שַׂעֲרֵיהּ יָאֵי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, וּמִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִין הָיָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם אִמְּרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי לֹא הָיָה שְׁמִי נִכָּר לִבְרִיּוֹתַי וְהִכַּרְתָּ אוֹתִי בִּבְרִיּוֹתַי, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ אַתָּה שֻׁתָּף עִמִּי בִּבְרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: קוֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ. 49.4. כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה (בראשית יח, יט), רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זוֹ הוֹבְרָיָא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי זוֹ בִּקּוּר חוֹלִים. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מִתְּחִלָּה צֶדֶק לְבַסּוֹף מִשְׁפָּט. הָא כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, מִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִים אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, אָמַר לָהֶם אִמְרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אִם מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו וּבְרִיךְ, הֲוָה אָכֵיל וְשָׁתֵי וְאָזֵיל, וְאִי לָא הֲוָה מְקַבֵּל עֲלֵיהּ וּבָרִיךְ, הֲוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ הַב מַה דַּעֲלָךְ. וְאָמַר מָה אִית לָךְ עָלַי, הֲוָה אֲמַר לֵיהּ, חַד קְסִיט דַּחֲמַר בַּעֲשָׂרָה פּוֹלָרִין, וְחַד לִיטְרָא דְּקוֹפָר בַּעֲשָׂרָה פוֹלָרִין, וְחַד עִגּוּל דְּרִפְתָּא בַּעֲשָׂרָה פוֹלָרִין. מַאן יָהֵיב לָךְ חַמְרָא בְּמַדְבְּרָא, מַאי יָהֵיב לָךְ קוֹפָר בְּמַדְבְּרָא, מַאן יָהֵיב לָךְ עִגּוּלָא בְּמַדְבְּרָא. מִן דַּהֲוָה חָמֵי הַהִיא עַקְתָא דַּהֲוָה עָקֵי לֵיהּ, הֲוָה אָמַר בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב לְכַתְּחִלָּה צְדָקָה וּלְבַסּוֹף מִשְׁפָּט. (בראשית יח, יט): לְמַעַן הָבִיא ה' עַל אַבְרָהָם וגו', תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר, כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בֵּן יָגֵעַ בַּתּוֹרָה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא מֵת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: לְמַעַן הָבִיא ה' עַל אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' עָלָיו. 54.6. וַיִּטַּע אֵשֶׁל בִּבְאֵר שָׁבַע וגו' (בראשית כא, לג), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר אֵשֶׁל פַּרְדֵּס, שְׁאַל מַה תִּשְׁאַל, תְּאֵנִים וַעֲנָבִים וְרִמּוֹנִים. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר אֵשֶׁל פֻּנְדָּק, שְׁאַל מַה תִּשְׁאַל, עִגּוּלָא, קֹּפָּר, חֲמַר, בֵּעִין. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן אֵשֶׁל סַנְהֶדְרִין, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמואל א כב, ו): וְשָׁאוּל יוֹשֵׁב בַּגִּבְעָה תַּחַת הָאֵשֶׁל בָּרָמָה, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה דְּאָמַר אֵשֶׁל פֻּנְדָּק, אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, וּמִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין אָמַר לוֹן בְּרִיכוּ, וְהֵן אָמְרִין מַה נֵימוֹר, וַאֲמַר לְהוֹן, בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית כא, לג): וַיִּקְרָא שָׁם בְּשֵׁם ה' אֵל עוֹלָם. (בראשית כא, לד): וַיָּגָר אַבְרָהָם בְּאֶרֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּים יָמִים רַבִּים, רַבִּים מֵאוֹתָן שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּחֶבְרוֹן, בְּחֶבְרוֹן עָשָׂה עֶשְׂרִים וְחָמֵשׁ שָׁנָה וְכָאן עָשָׂה עֶשְׂרִים וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים.
23. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

6b. מנין שלא יושיט אדם כוס של יין לנזיר ואבר מן החי לבני נח ת"ל (ויקרא יט, יד) ולפני עור לא תתן מכשול והא הכא דכי לא יהבינן ליה שקלי איהו וקעבר משום לפני עור לא תתן מכשול,הב"ע דקאי בתרי עברי נהרא דיקא נמי דקתני לא יושיט ולא קתני לא יתן ש"מ,איבעיא להו נשא ונתן מאי ר' יוחנן אמר נשא ונתן אסור ר"ל אמר נשא ונתן מותר איתיביה רבי יוחנן לריש לקיש אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים נשא ונתן אסורין מאי לאו לפני אידיהן לא אידיהן דוקא,א"ד איתיביה ר"ש בן לקיש לרבי יוחנן אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים נשא ונתן אסור אידיהן אין לפני אידיהן לא תנא אידי ואידי אידיהן קרי ליה,תניא כוותיה דר"ל כשאמרו אסור לשאת ולתת עמהם לא אסרו אלא בדבר המתקיים אבל בדבר שאינו מתקיים לא ואפילו בדבר המתקיים נשא ונתן מותר תני רב זביד בדבי רבי אושעיא דבר שאין מתקיים מוכרין להם אבל אין לוקחין מהם,ההוא מינאה דשדר ליה דינרא קיסרנאה לרבי יהודה נשיאה ביום אידו הוה יתיב ריש לקיש קמיה אמר היכי אעביד אשקליה אזיל ומודה לא אשקליה הויא ליה איבה א"ל ריש לקיש טול וזרוק אותו לבור בפניו אמר כל שכן דהויא ליה איבה כלאחר יד הוא דקאמינא:,להשאילן ולשאול מהן כו': בשלמא להשאילן דקא מרווח להו אבל לשאול מהן מעוטי קא ממעט להו אמר אביי גזרה לשאול מהן אטו להשאילן רבא אמר כולה משום דאזיל ומודה הוא:,להלוותם וללוות מהן: בשלמא להלוותם משום דקא מרווח להו אלא ללוות מהן אמאי אמר אביי גזרה ללוות מהן אטו להלוותם רבא אמר כולה משום דאזיל ומודה הוא:,לפורען ולפרוע מהן כו': בשלמא לפורען משום דקא מרווח להו אלא לפרוע מהן מעוטי ממעט להו אמר אביי גזירה לפרוע מהן אטו לפורען רבא אמר כולה משום דאזיל ומודה הוא,וצריכי דאי תנא לשאת ולתת עמהן משום דקא מרווח להו ואזיל ומודה אבל לשאול מהן דמעוטי קא ממעט להו שפיר דמי,ואי תנא לשאול מהן משום דחשיבא ליה מילתא ואזיל ומודה אבל ללוות מהן צערא בעלמא אית ליה אמר תוב לא הדרי זוזי,ואי תנא ללוות מהן משום דקאמר בעל כרחיה מיפרענא והשתא מיהא אזיל ומודה אבל ליפרע מהן דתו לא הדרי זוזי אימא צערא אית ליה ולא אזיל ומודה צריכא,רבי יהודה אומר נפרעין מהן כו': ולית ליה לרבי יהודה אף על פי שמיצר עכשיו שמח הוא לאחר זמן,והתניא רבי יהודה אומר אשה לא תסוד במועד מפני שניוול הוא לה ומודה ר' יהודה בסיד שיכולה לקפלו במועד שטופלתו במועד אע"פ שמצירה עכשיו שמחה היא לאחר זמן,אר"נ בר יצחק הנח להלכות מועד דכולהו מיצר עכשיו שמחה לאחר זמן רבינא אמר עובד כוכבים לענין פרעון לעולם מיצר,מתניתין דלא כר' יהושע בן קרחה דתניא ריב"ק אומר מלוה בשטר אין נפרעין מהן מלוה על פה נפרעין מהן מפני שהוא כמציל מידם,יתיב רב יוסף אחוריה דר' אבא ויתיב רבי אבא קמיה דרב הונא ויתיב וקאמר הלכתא כרבי יהושע בן קרחה והלכתא כר' יהודה,הלכתא כרבי יהושע הא דאמרן כר' יהודה דתניא הנותן צמר לצבע לצבוע לו אדום וצבעו שחור שחור וצבעו אדום 6b. bFrom whereis it derived bthat a person may not extend a cup of wine to a nazirite,who is prohibited from drinking wine, bandthat he may not extend ba limbsevered bfrom a living animal to descendants of Noah? The verse states: “And you shall not put a stumbling block before the blind”(Leviticus 19:14). bBut here,in both cases, bif one does not give it to him, he can take it himself, andyet the one who provides it to him btransgresses due tothe prohibition: b“You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind.” /b,The Gemara answers: bHere we are dealing witha case bwhere they are standing onthe btwo sidesof ba river,and therefore the recipient could not have taken it himself. Since his help was instrumental, the one who conveyed the item has violated the prohibition of putting a stumbling block before the blind. The Gemara adds: The language of the ibaraita bis also precise, as it teaches:A person bmay not extend, and it does not teach: One may not give. Learn fromthe usage of the term extend that the ibaraitais referring to one located on one side of a river, who extends the item to the one on the other side.,§ bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If one ignored the injunction of the mishna and bengaged in businesswith gentiles before their festival, bwhatis the status of the profit that he earned? bRabbi Yoḥa says:If he bengaged in business,it is bprohibitedto derive benefit from his profits. bReish Lakish says:If he bengaged in business,it is bpermittedto derive benefit from his profits. bRabbi Yoḥa raised an objection to Reish Lakishfrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe festivals of gentiles,if one bengaged in business,these profits are bprohibited. What, is it notreferring to one who engages in business with gentiles bbefore their festivals?Reish Lakish responded: bNo,the ibaraitais referring to business conducted bspecificallyduring btheir festivals. /b, bThere arethose bwho saythat there is a different version of the above exchange. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish raised an objection to Rabbi Yoḥafrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to bthe festivals of gentiles,if one bengaged in businessthese profits are bprohibited.Isn’t it correct to infer from the ibaraitathat if the business occurred during btheir festivals, yes,deriving benefit from the profits is prohibited, but if it took place bbefore their festivals, no,it is not prohibited? Rabbi Yoḥa responded: bNo; the itannacallsboth bthis,the days before the festival, band that,the festival itself: bTheir festivals. /b,The Gemara notes that it bis taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Reish Lakish: Whenthe Sages bsaidthat it is bprohibited to engage withthe gentiles bin business, they prohibitedit bonly inthe case of ban item that endures. But with regard to an item that does not endure,it is bnotprohibited. bAnd even with regard to an item that endures,if one bdid engage in businesswith gentiles, deriving benefit from the profits is bpermitted. Rav Zevid taughta ibaraita bfrom the school of Rabbi Oshaya:With regard to ban item that does not endure, one may sellit bto them, but one may not buyit bfrom them. /b,The Gemara relates: There was an incident involving ba certain heretic who sent a Caesarean dinar to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia on the day ofthe heretic’s bfestival.Rabbi Yehuda Nesia bsaidto bReish Lakish,who bwas sitting before him: What shall I do?If bI takethe dinar, bhe will go and thankhis idol for the success of his endeavor, but if bI do not takethe dinar, bhe will harbor enmitytoward me. bReish Lakish said to him: Takeit band throw it into a pit in the presence ofthe heretic. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia bsaid: All the more so,this will cause bhim to harbor enmitytoward me. Reish Lakish explained: bI said,i.e., I meant, bthatyou should throw it bin an unusual manner,so that it looks as though the dinar inadvertently fell from your hand into the pit.,§ The mishna teaches that it is prohibited bto lend themitems band to borrowitems bfrom themduring the three days preceding their festivals. The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited bto lendthe items bto them, asthis bcauses themto have ba profit. Butwhy is it prohibited bto borrowthe items bfrom themduring this period? Doesn’t this serve to breduce for themthe property they possess during the festival? bAbaye said:The Sages issued ba decreethat it is prohibited bto borrowthe items bfrom them due tothe concern that he might come bto lendthe items bto them. Rava said: All of it,lending and borrowing, bisprohibited for the same reason, basin either situation the gentile might bgo and give thanksto his idol, as he will be pleased that the Jew was forced to borrow the items from him.,The mishna further teaches that it is prohibited bto lendmoney bto them or to borrowmoney bfrom them.The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited bto lendmoney bto them, asthis bcauses themto have ba profit. Butif one wants bto borrowmoney bfrom them, whyis it prohibited? bAbaye said:The Sages issued ba decreethat it is prohibited bto borrowmoney bfrom them, due tothe concern that he might come bto lendmoney bto them. Rava said: Allof it, lending and borrowing money, is prohibited for the same reason, basin either situation the gentile bwill go and give thanksto his object of idol worship.,The mishna also teaches that it is prohibited bto repay debtsowed to bthem and to collect payment of their debts.Once again, the Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited bto repay debtsowed bto them, asgiving them the money at this time bcauses themto have ba profit. Butwhy is it prohibited bto collect payment of their debts?Doesn’t this serve to breduce theirfortune? bAbaye said:The Sages issued ba decreethat it is prohibited bto collect debts from them, due tothe concern that he might come bto repay their debts. Rava said: All of it,repaying and collecting debts, is prohibited for the same reason, basin either situation the gentile might bgo and give thanksto his idol for having had sufficient funds to pay his debts.,The Gemara notes: bAndall of the prohibitions listed in the mishna bare necessary. As, ifthe mishna had btaughtonly that it is prohibited bto engage with them in business,one could have said that the reason for the prohibition is bbecause it causesthe gentile to have ba profit, and he will go and give thanksto his idol. bButwith regard to bborrowingitems bfrom them, whichserves to breduce for themthe property they possess during the festival, one may bwelldo so., bAnd ifthe mishna had further btaughtonly that it is prohibited bto borrowitems bfrom them,one might have thought that this is bbecause the matter is significant tothe gentile, as he is pleased that the Jew is forced to borrow items from him, bandtherefore he might bgo and give thanks. Butit might have been supposed that bto borrowmoney bfrom themis permitted, as bthere is only distress forthe gentile when he lends money, as he would bsay:My bmoney will not return to me again,since the borrower may never repay the loan., bAnd ifthe mishna had btaughtin addition only that it is prohibited bto borrowmoney bfrom them,one might have thought that this is bbecausethe gentile bsays: I willforcibly bcollect paymentfrom the Jew bagainst his will,by means of the promissory note, band now in any event hewill bgo and give thanksthat the Jew is forced to borrow money from him. bButwith regard to bcollecting payment from them, asthis bmoney will never return to him again,one might bsaythat bhe has distressabout paying back the debt, bandhe will bnot go and give thanks.Since one might have reached these conclusions, it is bnecessaryfor the mishna to state each ruling explicitly.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: One may collectthe brepaymentof debts bfrom them,because this causes the gentile distress. The Gemara asks: bAnd doesn’t Rabbi Yehuda acceptthe principle that beven though he is distressed now, he will be happy afterward? /b, bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda says: A woman may not apply limeto her skin bduringthe intermediate days of bthe Festivalin order to remove bodily hair and soften her skin, bbecausethis temporarily bdisfigures heruntil the lime is removed. bAnd Rabbi Yehuda concedes with regard to lime that she can peel off duringthe intermediate days of bthe Festival that she may apply it onthe intermediate days of bthe Festival,as beven though she is distressed now,as the lime renders her unattractive, bshe will be happy afterward,when the lime is removed and she becomes more attractive. It is evident from this ibaraitathat Rabbi Yehuda does take into account the joy that will be experienced at a later time with regard to permitting an action now., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin response: bLeaveaside bthe ihalakhotofthe intermediate days of ba Festival.These cannot be compared to other cases, baswith regard to ballthe labors permitted on a Festival this is the reason for the leniency: Although bhe is distressedby performing them bnow,as they involve effort and trouble, bhe will be happy afterwardon the Festival itself that he has performed them, when he enjoys the benefits of the labor he has performed. Due to the joy they will bring him on the Festival, these labors are permitted. bRavina saidthat there is a different answer: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that bwith regard to repayinga debt ba gentile is always distressed,even after the fact. But in general, Rabbi Yehuda does take into account the joy that will be experienced at a later time.,The Gemara notes: bThe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,as it states that one may not collect payment from a gentile during the three days preceding their festivals, without differentiating between various cases. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:In the case of ba loan witha promissory bnote, one may not collect payment fromgentiles before their festivals, as one can demand repayment of the debt by presenting the promissory note in his possession at a later stage. By contrast, in the case of ba loan by oralagreement, bone may collect payment from them, because he isconsidered bas one who salvages money from them,since he has no promissory note and cannot be sure that the gentile will repay the loan at another time.,The Gemara relates: bRav Yosef sat behind Rabbi Abbain the study hall, band Rabbi Abba sat before Rav Huna,as a student before his teacher. bAndRav Huna bsat and saidthe following statements: bThe ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, and the ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b,The Gemara explains: As for the statement that bthe ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,this is referring to bthat which we saidwith regard to collecting a loan by oral agreement from gentiles during the days preceding their festivals. As for the statement that the ihalakhais bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,this is bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iBava Kamma100b): In the case of bone who gives wool to a dyer to dyeit bred for him andinstead bhe dyed it black,or one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it bblack andinstead bhe dyed it red, /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. הוחל שבועתו של אבימלך דכתיב (בראשית כא, כג) אם תשקר לי ולניני ולנכדי,(שופטים יג, כד) ויגדל הנער ויברכהו ה' במה ברכו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שברכו באמתו אמתו כבני אדם וזרעו כנחל שוטף,(שופטים טז, כח) ויקרא שמשון אל ה' ויאמר ה' אלהים זכרני נא וחזקני נא אך הפעם הזה ואנקמה נקם אחת משתי עיני מפלשתים אמר רב אמר שמשון לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זכור לי עשרים (ושתים) שנה ששפטתי את ישראל ולא אמרתי לאחד מהם העבר לי מקל ממקום למקום,(שופטים טו, ד) וילך שמשון וילכד שלש מאות שועלים מאי שנא שועלים אמר רבי איבו בר נגדי א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר שמשון יבא מי שחוזר לאחוריו ויפרע מפלשתים שחזרו בשבועתן,תניא א"ר שמעון החסיד בין כתיפיו של שמשון ששים אמה היה שנאמר (שופטים טז, ג) וישכב שמשון עד חצי הלילה ויקם בחצי הלילה ויאחז בדלתות שער העיר ובשתי המזוזות ויסעם עם הבריח וישם על כתיפיו וגמירי דאין דלתות עזה פחותות מששים אמה,(שופטים טז, כא) ויהי טוחן בבית האסורים א"ר יוחנן אין טחינה אלא לשון עבירה וכן הוא אומר (איוב לא, י) תטחן לאחר אשתי מלמד שכל אחד ואחד הביא לו את אשתו לבית האסורים כדי שתתעבר הימנו אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי קמי דשתי חמרא חמרא קמי רפוקא גרידיא דובלא,וא"ר יוחנן כל המזנה אשתו מזננת עליו שנאמר (איוב לא, ט) אם נפתה לבי על אשה ועל פתח רעי ארבתי וכתיב תטחן לאחר אשתי ועליה יכרעון אחרין והיינו דאמרי אינשי איהו בי קארי ואיתתיה בי בוציני,וא"ר יוחנן שמשון דן את ישראל כאביהם שבשמים שנאמר (בראשית מט, טז) דן ידין עמו כאחד וגו' וא"ר יוחנן שמשון על שמו של הקב"ה נקרא שנאמר (תהלים פד, יב) כי שמש ומגן ה' אלהים וגו' אלא מעתה לא ימחה אלא מעין שמו של הקב"ה מה הקב"ה מגין על כל העולם כולו אף שמשון מגין בדורו על ישראל,וא"ר יוחנן בלעם חיגר ברגלו אחת היה שנאמר (במדבר כג, ג) וילך שפי שמשון חיגר בשתי רגליו היה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יז) שפיפן עלי ארח,ת"ר חמשה נבראו מעין דוגמא של מעלה וכולן לקו בהן שמשון בכחו שאול בצוארו אבשלום בשערו צדקיה בעיניו אסא ברגליו,שמשון בכחו דכתיב (שופטים טז, יט) ויסר כחו מעליו,שאול בצוארו דכתיב (שמואל א לא, ד) ויקח שאול את החרב ויפל עליה,אבשלום בשערו כדבעינן למימר קמן צדקיה בעיניו דכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ז) ואת עיני צדקיהו עור ,אסא ברגליו דכתיב (מלכים א טו, כג) רק לעת זקנתו חלה את רגליו ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שאחזתו פדגרא א"ל מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן לרב נחמן היכי דמי פדגרא א"ל כמחט בבשר החי מנא ידע איכא דאמרי מיחש הוה חש ביה ואיכא דאמרי מרביה שמע ליה וא"ד (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו ובריתו להודיעם,דרש רבא מפני מה נענש אסא מפני שעשה אנגריא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר (מלכים א טו, כב) והמלך אסא השמיע את כל יהודה אין נקי מאי אין נקי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו חתן מחדרו וכלה מחופתה,כתיב (שופטים יד, א) וירד שמשון תמנתה וכתיב (בראשית לח, יג) הנה חמיך עולה תמנתה א"ר אלעזר שמשון שנתגנה בה כתיב ביה ירידה יהודה שנתעלה בה כתיב ביה עליה,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר שתי תמנאות היו חדא בירידה וחדא בעליה,רב פפא אמר חדא תמנה הואי דאתי מהאי גיסא ירידה ודאתי מהאי גיסא עליה כגון ורדוניא ובי בארי ושוקא דנרש,(בראשית לח, יד) ותשב בפתח עינים א"ר אלכסנדרי מלמד שהלכה וישבה לה בפתחו של אברהם אבינו מקום שכל עינים צופות לראותו ר' חנין א"ר מקום הוא ששמו עינים וכן הוא אומר (יהושע טו, לד) תפוח והעינם,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר שנתנה עינים לדבריה כשתבעה אמר לה שמא נכרית את אמרה ליה גיורת אני שמא אשת איש את אמרה ליה פנויה אני שמא קיבל בך אביך קידושין אמרה ליה יתומה אני שמא טמאה את אמרה ליה טהורה אני,(בראשית כא, לג) ויטע אשל בבאר שבע אמר ריש לקיש מלמד שעשה פרדס ונטע בו כל מיני מגדים,רבי יהודה ורבי נחמיה חד אמר פרדס וחד אמר פונדק בשלמא למ"ד פרדס היינו דכתיב ויטע אלא למ"ד פונדק מאי ויטע כדכתיב (דניאל יא, מה) ויטע אהלי אפדנו וגו',ויקרא שם בשם ה' אל עולם אמר ריש לקיש אל תיקרי ויקרא 10a. Samson’s parents were being told that bthe oath of Abimelech,king of the Philistines, bwas negated, as it is writtenthat Abimelech said to our forefather Abraham: “Now therefore swear unto me here by God bthat you will not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son’s son;but according to the kindness that I have done unto you, you shall do to me, and to the land wherein you have sojourned” (Genesis 21:23). The oath of the descendants of Abraham was no longer binding since the Philistines broke their oath by subjugating the Jewish people.,The verse states: “And the woman bore a son, and called his name Samson; band the child grew, and the Lord blessed him”(Judges 13:24). The Gemara asks: bWith what did He bless him? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It means bthat He blessed him with regard to his penis,that despite his youth bhis penisshould function blikethat of physically mature bmen, andthat bhis seedshould be blike an overflowing river. /b,Prior to Samson’s death, the verse states: b“And Samson called unto the Lord, and said: Lord God, remember me, I pray to You, and strengthen me, I pray to You, only this once,O God, bthat I may be this once avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes”(Judges 16:28). bRav saidthat bSamson said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, rememberon bmybehalf the btwenty-two years that I judged the Jewish peoplewithout receiving any reward, band I did noteven bsay to any one of them: Move a stick for me fromone bplace toanother bplace. /b,The verse states earlier: b“And Samson went and caught three hundred foxes,and took torches, and turned tail to tail, and put a torch in the midst between every two tails” (Judges 15:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bfoxesthan any other animal, that he chose them for this purpose? bRabbi Aivu bar Nagdi saysthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Samson said: Letthe animal bthat goes in reversewhen it tries to escape, i.e., the fox, bcome and exact punishment from the Philistines, who reneged on their oaththat Abimelech swore to Abraham., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon the Pious said:The width bbetween the shoulders of Samson was sixty cubits, as it is stated: “And Samson lay till midnight, and arose at midnight, and grabbed hold of the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and plucked them up, bar and all, and put them upon his shoulders,and carried them up to the top of the mountain that is before Hebron” (Judges 16:3). The verse indicates that the width of the gate of the city of Gaza was equal to the width of Samson’s shoulders, band it is learnedas a tradition bthat doorsof the gate bof Gaza were no less than sixty cubitswide.,With regard to Samson’s capture, the verse states: “And the Philistines laid hold on him, and put out his eyes; and they brought him down to Gaza, and bound him with fetters of brass; band he did grind in the prison-house”(Judges 16:21). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Grinding is nothing otherthan ba language of a transgressionof sexual intercourse, band sothe verse bsays: “Then let my wife grind unto another man”(Job 31:10). This bteaches that each and everyPhilistine man bbrought his wife to the prison in order that she should be impregnated bySamson. bRav Pappa said: Thisis an example of the folk saying bthat people say: Before a wine drinker,bring bwine; before one who digs in the ground,bring bfigs.So too, Samson, who married Philistine women, was brought more Philistine women while in prison., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to banyone who commits adultery, his wife commits adultery against him, as it is stated: “If my heart has been enticed unto a woman, and I have lain in wait at my neighbor’s door”(Job 31:9), band it is written: “Then let my wife grind unto another man and may strangers kneel over her”(Job 31:10). bAnd thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: He isfound bamong the pumpkins [ ikarei /i] and his wife among the zucchinis [ ibutzinei /i],which are similar types of vegetables. In other words, she acts the same way that he does., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Samson judged the Jewish people as their Father in Heavendoes, with complete justice, bas it is stated: “Dan shall judge his people, as oneof the tribes of Israel” (Genesis 49:16), which is interpreted to mean that Samson, from the tribe of Dan, judges his people just as God, Who is “One.” bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Samson [ iShimshon /i] is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “For the Lord God is a sun [ ishemesh /i] and a shield”(Psalms 84:12). The Gemara comments: bIf that is so,then his name bshould not be erasedjust like other sanctified names are not erased. bRather,he is not called by the name of God but his name bis akin to the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He,for bjust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, protects the entire world, so too Samson, in his generation, protected all the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Balaam was lame in one of his legs, as it is statedwith regard to him: b“And he went, limping [ ishefi /i]”(Numbers 23:3). bSamson was lame inboth of bhis two legs, as it is statedthat when Jacob mentioned the tribe of Dan in the prophecy that pertained to Samson, he referred to him as: “Dan shall be a serpent in the way, ba horned snake [ ishefifon /i] in the path”(Genesis 49:17), which is double ishefi /i, i.e., doubly lame.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFiveindividuals bwere createdwith a characteristic that is bakin to a representation of theOne on bHigh, and they were all stricken by thatcharacteristic. bSamsonwas glorified bin his strength, Saul in his neck(see I Samuel 9:2), bAbsalom in his hair, Zedekiah in his eyes,and bAsa in his feet. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bSamsonwas stricken bby his strength,which led to his demise, bas it is written:“And she made him sleep upon her knees; and she called for a man and had the seven locks of his head shaved off; and she began to afflict him, band his strength went from him”(Judges 16:19)., bSaulwas smitten bin his neck, as it is written:“Then said Saul to his armor-bearer: Draw your sword, and thrust me through with it; lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and make a mock of me. But his armor-bearer would not; for he was sore afraid. bTherefore, Saul took his sword and fell upon it”(I Samuel 31:4); he fell with his neck upon the sword., bAbsalomwas stricken bin his hair, as we will state later. Zedekiahwas stricken bin his eyes, as it is written:“And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, band put out the eyes of Zedekiah,and bound him in fetters, and carried him to Babylon” (II Kings 25:7)., bAsawas stricken bin his feet, as it is written:“Now the rest of all the acts of Asa, and all his might, and all that he did, and the cities that he built, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? bBut in the time of his old age he was diseased in his feet”(I Kings 15:23). bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:This indicates bthat gout [ ipadagra /i] grabbed hold of him. Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said to Rav Naḥman: What are the circumstancesof bgout?What pain does it involve? bHe said to him:It feels blike a needleinserted binto living flesh.The Gemara asks: bFrom where did he know this?The Gemara answers: bSome saythat he himself bsuffered from thiscondition, band some saythat bhe heard it from his teacher, and some saythat he knew it through divine inspiration, as it stated: b“The secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him; and His covet, to make them know it”(Psalms 25:14)., bRava taught: For whatreason was bAsa punishedin his feet? bBecause he made Torah scholars perform forced labor [ iangarya /i], as it is stated: “Then King Asa made a proclamation unto all Judah; none was exempted;and they carried away the stones of Ramah and the timber thereof, with which Baasa had built, and King Asa built with them Geba of Benjamin and Mizpah” (I Kings 15:22). The superfluous expression “unto all” indicates that the proclamation was issued to beveryone, includingTorah scholars. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the next phrase in the verse: b“None was exempted [ iein naki /i]”? Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:This includes beven a bridegroom from his chamber and a bride from her canopy,as the verse states with regard to a bridegroom: “He shall be free [ inaki /i] for his house one year” (Deuteronomy 24:5).,§ bIt is writtenwith regard to Samson: b“And Samson went down to Timnah,and saw a woman in Timnah of the daughters of the Philistines” (Judges 14:1), band it is writtenin the Torah passage concerning the incident of Judah and Tamar: “And it was told to Tamar, saying: bBehold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnahto sheer his sheep” (Genesis 38:13). The verses contain an apparent contradiction as to whether Timnah was a place to which one must descend or a place to which one must ascend. bRabbi Elazar says:These terms do not refer to the manner of traveling to Timnah but are used figuratively. Concerning bSamson, who was disgraced therein Timnah, the term indicating bdescent is written with regard to hisjourney. Concerning bJudah, who was elevated there,the term indicating bascent is written with regard to hisjourney., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysdifferently: bThere were twocities named bTimnah, onewas reached bby descentinto a valley, band onewas reached bby ascent. /b, bRav Pappa saiddifferently: bThere was one Timnah,and it was located on the slope of a mountain. One bwho came from this sidereached it by bdescent, andone bwho came from that sidereached it by bascent.The Gemara presents examples of such cities: bFor example: Vardonia, and Bei Varei, and the market of Neresh. /b,The verse states with regard to Tamar: “And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, band sat in the entrance of Enaim [ ibefetaḥ einayim /i],which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife” (Genesis 38:14). The iamora’imdispute the meaning of the word ieinayim /i. bRabbi Alexandri says:This bteaches that she went and she sat at the entranceof the home bof Abraham our forefather, a place that all eyes hope to see it,as she was certain that Judah would pass there. bRabbi Ḥaninsays that bRav says:It is ba place called Enaim, and similarlythe verse bstatesin the list of cities in Eretz Yisrael in the portion of Judah: b“Tappuah and Enam”(Joshua 15:34)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: She provided eyes [ ieinayim /i] for her statements,i.e., with her words she provided an opening [ ipetaḥ /i] for Judah to solicit her. bWhenJudah bsolicited herto engage in sexual intercourse with him, bhefirst attempted to verify her status and bsaid to her:Are byou perhaps are a gentile? She said to him: I am a convert.He asked: bPerhaps you are a married woman? She said to him: I am an unmarried woman.He asked: bPerhaps your father accepted betrothal for youand you are unaware of it? bShe said to him: I am an orphan.He asked: bMaybe you are impure? She said to him: I am pure. /b,The Gemara discusses Abraham’s house: It is written: b“And he planted an ieshelin Beersheba,and called there on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God” (Genesis 21:33). bReish Lakish says:This bteaches thatAbraham bmade an orchard and planted in it all kinds of sweet things. /b,The tanna’im bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Neḥemyadisagree as to the meaning of the word “ ieshel /i.” bOne saidthat it means ban orchard [ ipardes /i], and one saidthat it means ban inn [ ipundak /i].The Gemara continues: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat it means ban orchard, this is what is written: “And he planted,”and this is suitable language for an orchard. bBut according to the one who saidthat he opened ban inn, what isthe meaning of the phrase b“and he planted”?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And he shall plant [ ivayitta /i] the tents of his palacebetween the seas and the beauteous holy mountain; and he shall come to his end, and none shall help him” (Daniel 11:45), indicating that the word vayitta, and he planted, is also used to indicate pitching tents.,The verse there states: “And he planted an ieshelin Beersheba, band called there [ ivayyikra /i] on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God”(Genesis 21:33). bReish Lakish said: Do not readthis word literally as b“ ivayyikra /i,”and he called
25. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39b. חמצן עד יום מותו,אמר רבה בר (בר) שילא מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ד) אלהי פלטני מיד רשע מכף מעול וחומץ רבא אמר מהכא (ישעיהו א, יז) למדו היטב דרשו משפט אשרו חמוץ אשרו חמוץ ואל תאשרו חומץ,תנו רבנן אותה שנה שמת בה שמעון הצדיק אמר להם בשנה זו הוא מת אמרו לו מניין אתה יודע אמר להם בכל יום הכפורים היה מזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש לבנים ועטוף לבנים נכנס עמי ויצא עמי והיום נזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש שחורים ועטוף שחורים נכנס עמי ולא יצא עמי אחר הרגל חלה שבעה ימים ומת,ונמנעו אחיו הכהנים מלברך בשם,ת"ר ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית לא היה גורל עולה בימין ולא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין ולא היה נר מערבי דולק,והיו דלתות ההיכל נפתחות מאליהן עד שגער בהן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר לו היכל היכל מפני מה אתה מבעית עצמך יודע אני בך שסופך עתיד ליחרב וכבר נתנבא עליך זכריה בן עדוא (זכריה יא, א) פתח לבנון דלתיך ותאכל אש בארזיך,אמר רבי יצחק בן טבלאי למה נקרא שמו לבנון שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה למה נקרא שמו יער דכתיב (מלכים א י, יז) בית יער הלבנון לומר לך מה יער מלבלב אף בית המקדש מלבלב דאמר רב הושעיא בשעה שבנה שלמה בית המקדש נטע בו כל מיני מגדים של זהב והיו מוציאין פירות בזמניהן וכיון שהרוח מנשבת בהן היו נושרין פירותיהן שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו ומהן היתה פרנסה לכהונה,וכיון שנכנסו עובדי כוכבים להיכל יבשו שנאמר (נחום א, ד) ופרח לבנון אומלל ועתיד הקב"ה להחזירה לנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לה, ב) פרוח תפרח ותגל אף גילת ורנן כבוד הלבנון נתן לה,נתנן על שני השעירים תנו רבנן עשר פעמים מזכיר כהן גדול את השם בו ביום ג' בוידוי ראשון ושלשה בוידוי שני ושלשה בשעיר המשתלח ואחד בגורלות,וכבר אמר השם ונשמע קולו ביריחו אמר רבה בר בר חנה מירושלים ליריחו עשרה פרסאות,וציר דלתות ההיכל נשמע בשמונה תחומי שבת עזים שביריחו היו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת נשים שביריחו אינן צריכות להתבשם מריח קטורת כלה שבירושלים אינה צריכה להתקשט מריח קטורת,אמר רבי (יוסי בן דולגאי) עזים היו לאבא בהרי (מכמר) והיו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד פעם אחת הלכתי לשילה והרחתי ריח קטורת מבין כותליה,אמר ר' ינאי עליית גורל מתוך קלפי מעכבת הנחה אינה מעכבת ורבי יוחנן אמר אף עלייה אינה מעכבת,אליבא דרבי יהודה דאמר דברים הנעשין בבגדי לבן מבחוץ לא מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא כי פליגי אליבא דר' נחמיה מ"ד מעכבא כר' נחמיה ומאן דאמר לא מעכבא הני מילי עבודה הגרלה לאו עבודה היא,איכא דאמרי,אליבא דרבי נחמיה דאמר מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דמעכבא,כי פליגי אליבא דר' יהודה מאן דאמר לא מעכבא כרבי יהודה ומאן דאמר מעכבא שאני הכא דתנא ביה קרא אשר עלה אשר עלה תרי זימני,מיתיבי מצוה להגריל ואם לא הגריל כשר,בשלמא להך לישנא דאמרת אליבא דרבי יהודה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא הא מני רבי יהודה היא 39b. ba robber [ iḥamtzan /i] until the day of his death. /b, bRabba bar bar Sheila said: What is the versethat indicates that a iḥamtzanis a robber? The verse states: b“O, my God, rescue me out of the hand of wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and robbing man [ iḥometz /i]”(Psalms 71:4). bRava said: From here: “Learn to do well, seek justice, strengthen the robbed [ iḥamotz /i]”(Isaiah 1:17), which teaches that one should bstrengthen the robbed, but not strengthen the robber. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:During bthe year in which Shimon HaTzaddik died, he said to them,his associates: bIn this year, he will die,euphemistically referring to himself. bThey said to him: How do you know? He said to them:In previous years, bon every Yom Kippur,upon entering the Holy of Holies, bI was met,in a prophetic vision, bby an old man who was dressed in white, andhis head was bwrapped up in white,and bhe would enterthe Holy of Holies bwith me, and he would leave with me. But today, I was met by an old man who was dressed in black, andhis head was bwrapped up in black,and bhe enteredthe Holy of Holies bwith me,but bhe did not leave with me.He understood this to be a sign that his death was impending. Indeed, bafter the festivalof iSukkot /i, bhe was ill for seven days and died. /b,Without the presence of Shimon HaTzaddik among them, the Jewish people were no longer worthy of the many miracles that had occurred during his lifetime. For this reason, following his death, bhis brethren, the priests, refrained from blessingthe Jewish people bwith theexplicit bname of Godin the priestly blessing., bThe Sages taught:During the tenure of Shimon HaTzaddik, the lot for God always arose in the High Priest’s right hand; after his death, it occurred only occasionally; but during the bforty years prior to the destruction of theSecond bTemple,the blotfor God bdid not arise in theHigh Priest’s brighthand at all. So too, bthe strip of crimsonwool that was tied to the head of the goat that was sent to Azazel bdid not turn white, and the westernmost lampof the candelabrum bdid not burncontinually., bAnd the doors of the Sanctuary opened by themselvesas a sign that they would soon be opened by enemies, buntil Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai scolded them. He said tothe Sanctuary: bSanctuary, Sanctuary, why do you frighten yourselfwith these signs? bI know about you that you will ultimately be destroyed, and Zechariah, son of Ido, has already prophesied concerning you: “Open your doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour your cedars”(Zechariah 11:1), Lebanon being an appellation for the Temple., bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavlai said: Why isthe Temple bcalled Lebanon [ iLevanon /i]? Because it whitens [ imalbin /i] the Jewish people’s sins,alluded to by the root ilavan /i, meaning white., bRav Zutra bar Toviya said: Why isthe Temple bcalled: Forest, as it is written: “The house of the forest of Lebanon”(I Kings 10:17)? bTo tell you: Just as a forest blooms, so too the Temple blooms. As Rav Hoshaya said: When Solomon built the Temple, he planted in it all kinds of sweet fruittrees made bof gold, andmiraculously these bbrought forth fruit in their season. And when the wind blew upon them, their fruit would fall off, as it is stated: “May his fruits rustle like Lebanon”(Psalms 72:16). bAnd throughselling these golden fruits to the public, bthere was a source of income for the priesthood. /b, bBut once thegentile bnations entered the Sanctuarythe golden trees bwithered, as it states “And the blossoms of Lebanon wither”(Nahum 1:4). bAnd in the futurehour of redemption, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, will restorethem bto us as it is stated: “It shall blossom abundantly, it shall also rejoice and shout, the glory of Lebanon will be given to it”(Isaiah 35:2).,§ The mishna states that after selecting the two lots, the High Priest bplacesthem bupon the two goats.Upon placing the lot for God upon the appropriate goat, he says: For God, as a sin-offering. This is just one of the occasions on which he mentions God’s name, as bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta( iYoma2:2): bThe High Priest mentions the nameof God bten times on that day: Threetimes bduring the first confession; and threetimes bduring the second confession,over the bull; band threetimes when he confesses over bthe scapegoatto Azazel; band onetime bwith the lots,when placing the lot for God upon the goat., bAnd there alreadywas an incident when the High Priest bsaid the nameof God and bhis voicewas so strong that it bwas heardeven bin Jericho. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said:The distance bfrom Jerusalem to Jericho is ten parasangs.Despite the great distance, his voice was miraculously heard there.,The Gemara describes similar miracles in which events in the Temple were sensed a great distance away. bAndthe sound of bthe doors of the Sanctuaryopening bwas heardfrom a distance of beight Shabbat limits,which is eight imil /i. Furthermore, bgoats that were in Jericho would sneeze fromsmelling bthe fragrance of the incensethat burned in the Temple; the bwomen that were in Jericho did not need to perfume themselves,since they were perfumed by the bfragranceof the bincense,which reached there; ba bride that was in Jerusalem did not need to adorn herselfwith perfumes, since she was perfumed by the bfragranceof the bincense,which filled the air of Jerusalem., bRabbi Yosei ben Dolgai said: Father had goats in the hills of Mikhmar,a district some distance from Jerusalem, band they would sneeze fromsmelling bthe fragrance of the incense.Similarly, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: An old man reported to me: One time I went tothe ruins of the Tabernacle in bShiloh, and I smelled the smell of the incense from between its walls.The Tabernacle stood there during the period of the Judges, and more than a thousand years had passed since its destruction.,§ bRabbi Yannai said:The bdrawing of the lot from inside the receptacle is an indispensablepart of the service, as it determines which goat will be for God and which for Azazel. However, the actual bplacingof the lots upon the goats bis not indispensable. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: Eventhe bdrawing of the lotsfrom inside the receptacle bis not indispensable,since the High Priest may designate the goats himself, without employing the lottery.,The Gemara explains the dispute: bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidthat bmatters that are performed inthe bwhite garments outsideof the Holy of Holies bare not indispensable, everyone agrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensable,since it is held outside the Holy of Holies. bWhen they disagree, it is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya.He holds that all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are indispensable. bThe one who saidthe drawing of the lots bis indispensableholds bin accordance withthe straightforward application of the principle of bRabbi Neḥemya. And the one who saidthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensableclaims that bthisprinciple bappliesonly with regard btomatters that are classified as a Temple bservice.The bdrawing of the lots is nota Temple bservice,therefore it is indispensable, even according to Rabbi Neḥemya’s principle., bSome saya different version of the dispute:, bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya, who saidthat all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are bindispensable, everyone agrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis indispensable. /b, bWhen they disagree, it is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that matters that are performed in the white garments outside of the Holy of Holies are not indispensable. bThe one who saidthat the drawing of the lots bis not indispensableholds bin accordance withthe straightforward application of the principle of bRabbi Yehuda. And the one who saidthat the drawing of the lots bis indispensableclaims that although Rabbi Yehuda’s principle is generally true, bit is different here,in the case of the lottery, bbecause the verse repeatedthe phrase b“which came up”(Leviticus 16:9) b“which came up”(Leviticus 16:10) btwo times.In the laws of sacrifices, a repeated phrase indicates the matter is indispensable.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: bIt is a mitzva to drawthe lots, band ifthe High Priest bdid not draw the lotsbut instead designated the goats without using the lots, the designation bis valid. /b,The Gemara considers the opinion presented in the ibaraita /i: bGranted, according to thatfirst bversionof the dispute, bin which you said: In accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda everyone,i.e., Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Yoḥa, bagrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensable,in accordance with bwhoseopinion bis this ibaraitataught? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,according to all opinions.
26. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

27. Origen, On Jeremiah (Homilies 1-11), 4.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, as planter Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
abun r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
allegory Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 237
altar Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186
angels Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 479
antiochus, n. Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1106
aqiva r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
aristotle Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
ashera Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
asherah/asherah Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 24
azriel (r.), ba͑al Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
baer, isaac Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 117
beth-el, mythmaking within Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
brother of the soul, soul and Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
cleansing Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
date palm Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 24
deuteronomy Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
djed column/pillar Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 24
eden Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
exegesis, figurative Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512, 513
exegesis, heresy as erroneous exegesis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 513
exodus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
figures of speech, synonyms Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
god, planter Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
goodenough, erwin r. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 117
heresy, alterity/otherness/exteriority of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512, 513
heresy, exclusion of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512
heresy, interior to church Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512, 513
hubert, henri Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 117
idolatry Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
imagery, sowing/planting Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
israel, rebellion of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
israel, repentance of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
israel Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
jericho Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 319
judah, judahite Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 319
leviticus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
maccabees (books) Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1106
mattathias Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1106
mauss, marcel Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 117
middot Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 163
mind Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
moon Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
mosaic, figurative Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
narrative Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186
near eastern parallels, canaanite Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
near eastern parallels, mesopotamian Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
nehemiah, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186
oil, olive Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 137
ordinary duties Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
origen, exclusive account of sects and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512
origen, tension between exclusive and inclusive accounts of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512, 513
paradise Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 237; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
passions, freedom of/impassibility Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
passions, trees of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
philo Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 237; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 117
philosophy Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 237
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
prayer Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
procurator Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 479
pseudo-hecataeus, on the jews, jewish education Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 163
pseudo-hecataeus, on the jews, knowledge of temple Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 163
r. aqiva Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 479
resh laqish Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 479
road of moral insight/virtue/wisdom Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
second commandment Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 479
shimon ben lakish, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186
sol (helios), solar worship Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 319
soul, disease of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 216
stone vessels Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 137
symbol' Faßbeck and Killebrew, Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili (2016) 319
tamarisk Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 24
temple, as cosmos, in philo Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 117
temple (jerusalem), altars Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 163
temple (jerusalem), golden lamp Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 163
temple (jerusalem), pseudo-hecataeus on Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 163
tertullian Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
thematic continuity Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
thematic innovation Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
tree, of death Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 24
tree, sacred Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 24
valentinians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 513
virtue Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 237
virtues Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2019) 86
wall painting Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
yehudah ha-nasi, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186
yohanan r. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 266
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), hosea Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 90
ἀλήθεια Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512
ἀσεβής Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 513
ἄκαρπος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 512, 513
– abraham Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186
– coherence Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 186