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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 15.2-15.4


לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹאכֲלֶנּוּ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he hath lent unto his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother; because the LORD’S release hath been proclaimed.


וְזֶה דְּבַר הַשְּׁמִטָּה שָׁמוֹט כָּל־בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר יַשֶּׁה בְּרֵעֵהוּ לֹא־יִגֹּשׂ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־אָחִיו כִּי־קָרָא שְׁמִטָּה לַיהוָה׃And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he hath lent unto his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother; because the LORD’S release hath been proclaimed.


אֶת־הַנָּכְרִי תִּגֹּשׂ וַאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֶת־אָחִיךָ תַּשְׁמֵט יָדֶךָ׃Of a foreigner thou mayest exact it; but whatsoever of thine is with thy brother thy hand shall release.


אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה־בְּךָ אֶבְיוֹן כִּי־בָרֵךְ יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן־לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃Howbeit there shall be no needy among you—for the LORD will surely bless thee in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it—


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.8-12.11, 15.1, 15.3-15.12, 15.14-15.15, 15.17, 16.1-16.12, 16.15-16.16, 17.8, 24.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 12.9. כִּי לֹא־בָּאתֶם עַד־עָתָּה אֶל־הַמְּנוּחָה וְאֶל־הַנַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 12.11. וְהָיָה הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בּוֹ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם שָׁמָּה תָבִיאוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם עוֹלֹתֵיכֶם וְזִבְחֵיכֶם מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם וּתְרֻמַת יֶדְכֶם וְכֹל מִבְחַר נִדְרֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּדְּרוּ לַיהוָה׃ 15.1. מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע־שָׁנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁמִטָּה׃ 15.1. נָתוֹן תִּתֵּן לוֹ וְלֹא־יֵרַע לְבָבְךָ בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֶׂךָ וּבְכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ׃ 15.3. אֶת־הַנָּכְרִי תִּגֹּשׂ וַאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֶת־אָחִיךָ תַּשְׁמֵט יָדֶךָ׃ 15.4. אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה־בְּךָ אֶבְיוֹן כִּי־בָרֵךְ יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן־לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 15.5. רַק אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 15.6. כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בֵּרַכְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לָךְ וְהַעֲבַטְתָּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאַתָּה לֹא תַעֲבֹט וּמָשַׁלְתָּ בְּגוֹיִם רַבִּים וּבְךָ לֹא יִמְשֹׁלוּ׃ 15.7. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אֶבְיוֹן מֵאַחַד אַחֶיךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא תְאַמֵּץ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְלֹא תִקְפֹּץ אֶת־יָדְךָ מֵאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן׃ 15.8. כִּי־פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לוֹ וְהַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ׃ 15.9. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה דָבָר עִם־לְבָבְךָ בְלִיַּעַל לֵאמֹר קָרְבָה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְרָעָה עֵינְךָ בְּאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן וְלֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 15.11. כִּי לֹא־יֶחְדַּל אֶבְיוֹן מִקֶּרֶב הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לֵאמֹר פָּתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לְאָחִיךָ לַעֲנִיֶּךָ וּלְאֶבְיֹנְךָ בְּאַרְצֶךָ׃ 15.12. כִּי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ אָחִיךָ הָעִבְרִי אוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת תְּשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ׃ 15.14. הַעֲנֵיק תַּעֲנִיק לוֹ מִצֹּאנְךָ וּמִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ אֲשֶׁר בֵּרַכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּתֶּן־לוֹ׃ 15.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה הַיּוֹם׃ 15.17. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־הַמַּרְצֵעַ וְנָתַתָּה בְאָזְנוֹ וּבַדֶּלֶת וְהָיָה לְךָ עֶבֶד עוֹלָם וְאַף לַאֲמָתְךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה־כֵּן׃ 16.1. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב וְעָשִׂיתָ פֶּסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב הוֹצִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָיְלָה׃ 16.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ חַג שָׁבֻעוֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִסַּת נִדְבַת יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּתֵּן כַּאֲשֶׁר יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 16.2. וְזָבַחְתָּ פֶּסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ צֹאן וּבָקָר בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃ 16.2. צֶדֶק צֶדֶק תִּרְדֹּף לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה וְיָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 16.3. לֹא־תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל־עָלָיו מַצּוֹת לֶחֶם עֹנִי כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר אֶת־יוֹם צֵאתְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 16.4. וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלְךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְלֹא־יָלִין מִן־הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר תִּזְבַּח בָּעֶרֶב בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן לַבֹּקֶר׃ 16.5. לֹא תוּכַל לִזְבֹּחַ אֶת־הַפָּסַח בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 16.6. כִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם תִּזְבַּח אֶת־הַפֶּסַח בָּעָרֶב כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 16.7. וּבִשַּׁלְתָּ וְאָכַלְתָּ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ וּפָנִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר וְהָלַכְתָּ לְאֹהָלֶיךָ׃ 16.8. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עֲצֶרֶת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה׃ 16.9. שִׁבְעָה שָׁבֻעֹת תִּסְפָּר־לָךְ מֵהָחֵל חֶרְמֵשׁ בַּקָּמָה תָּחֵל לִסְפֹּר שִׁבְעָה שָׁבֻעוֹת׃ 16.11. וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְהַלֵּוִי אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃ 16.12. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּמִצְרָיִם וְשָׁמַרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 16.15. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תָּחֹג לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל תְּבוּאָתְךָ וּבְכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵחַ׃ 16.16. שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר בְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת וּבְחַג הַשָּׁבֻעוֹת וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה רֵיקָם׃ 17.8. כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;" 12.9. for ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the LORD your God giveth thee." 12.10. But when ye go over the Jordan, and dwell in the land which the LORD your God causeth you to inherit, and He giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety;" 12.11. then it shall come to pass that the place which the LORD your God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there, thither shall ye bring all that I command you: your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which ye vow unto the LORD." 15.1. At the end of every seven years thou shalt make a release." 15.3. of a foreigner thou mayest exact it; but whatsoever of thine is with thy brother thy hand shall release." 15.4. Howbeit there shall be no needy among you—for the LORD will surely bless thee in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it—" 15.5. if only thou diligently hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all this commandment which I command thee this day." 15.6. For the LORD thy God will bless thee, as He promised thee; and thou shalt lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not borrow; and thou shalt rule over many nations, but they shall not rule over thee." 15.7. If there be among you a needy man, one of thy brethren, within any of thy gates, in thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother;" 15.8. but thou shalt surely open thy hand unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which he wanteth." 15.9. Beware that there be not a base thought in thy heart, saying: ‘The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand’; and thine eye be evil against thy needy brother, and thou give him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin in thee." 15.10. Thou shalt surely give him, and thy heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him; because that for this thing the LORD thy God will bless thee in all thy work, and in all that thou puttest thy hand unto." 15.11. For the poor shall never cease out of the land; therefore I command thee, saying: ‘Thou shalt surely open thy hand unto thy poor and needy brother, in thy land.’" 15.12. If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years; and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee." 15.14. thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flock, and out of thy threshing-floor, and out of thy winepress; of that wherewith the LORD thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him." 15.15. And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God redeemed thee; therefore I command thee this thing to-day." 15.17. then thou shalt take an awl, and thrust it through his ear and into the door, and he shall be thy bondman for ever. And also unto thy bondwoman thou shalt do likewise." 16.1. Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God; for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night." 16.2. And thou shalt sacrifice the passover-offering unto the LORD thy God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the LORD shall choose to cause His name to dwell there." 16.3. Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt; that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life." 16.4. And there shall be no leaven seen with thee in all they borders seven days; neither shall any of the flesh, which thou sacrificest the first day at even, remain all night until the morning." 16.5. Thou mayest not sacrifice the passover-offering within any of thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee;" 16.6. but at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover-offering at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt." 16.7. And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose; and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents." 16.8. Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread; and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the LORD thy God; thou shalt do no work therein." 16.9. Seven weeks shalt thou number unto thee; from the time the sickle is first put to the standing corn shalt thou begin to number seven weeks." 16.10. And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks unto the LORD thy God after the measure of the freewill-offering of thy hand, which thou shalt give, according as the LORD thy God blesseth thee." 16.11. And thou shalt rejoice before the LORD thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite that is within they gates, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are in the midst of thee, in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there." 16.12. And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt; and thou shalt observe and do these statutes." 16.15. Seven days shalt thou keep a feast unto the LORD thy God in the place which the LORD shall choose; because the LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thine increase, and in all the work of thy hands, and thou shalt be altogether joyful." 16.16. Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the LORD empty;" 17.8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.2-21.11, 22.24, 23.10-23.12, 32.14, 32.32, 34.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.3. אִם־כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁת עָלָיו׃ 21.3. אִם־בְּגַפּוֹ יָבֹא בְּגַפּוֹ יֵצֵא אִם־בַּעַל אִשָּׁה הוּא וְיָצְאָה אִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 21.4. אִם־אֲדֹנָיו יִתֶּן־לוֹ אִשָּׁה וְיָלְדָה־לוֹ בָנִים אוֹ בָנוֹת הָאִשָּׁה וִילָדֶיהָ תִּהְיֶה לַאדֹנֶיהָ וְהוּא יֵצֵא בְגַפּוֹ׃ 21.5. וְאִם־אָמֹר יֹאמַר הָעֶבֶד אָהַבְתִּי אֶת־אֲדֹנִי אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי וְאֶת־בָּנָי לֹא אֵצֵא חָפְשִׁי׃ 21.6. וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֲדֹנָיו אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֶל־הַדֶּלֶת אוֹ אֶל־הַמְּזוּזָה וְרָצַע אֲדֹנָיו אֶת־אָזְנוֹ בַּמַּרְצֵעַ וַעֲבָדוֹ לְעֹלָם׃ 21.7. וְכִי־יִמְכֹּר אִישׁ אֶת־בִּתּוֹ לְאָמָה לֹא תֵצֵא כְּצֵאת הָעֲבָדִים׃ 21.8. אִם־רָעָה בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] יְעָדָהּ וְהֶפְדָּהּ לְעַם נָכְרִי לֹא־יִמְשֹׁל לְמָכְרָהּ בְּבִגְדוֹ־בָהּ׃ 21.9. וְאִם־לִבְנוֹ יִיעָדֶנָּה כְּמִשְׁפַּט הַבָּנוֹת יַעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ׃ 21.11. וְאִם־שְׁלָשׁ־אֵלֶּה לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה לָהּ וְיָצְאָה חִנָּם אֵין כָּסֶף׃ 22.24. אִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃ 23.11. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ וְאָכְלוּ אֶבְיֹנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְיִתְרָם תֹּאכַל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכַרְמְךָ לְזֵיתֶךָ׃ 23.12. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂיךָ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ וְיִנָּפֵשׁ בֶּן־אֲמָתְךָ וְהַגֵּר׃ 32.14. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה עַל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 34.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲדֹנָי יֵלֶךְ־נָא אֲדֹנָי בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא וְסָלַחְתָּ לַעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְחַטָּאתֵנוּ וּנְחַלְתָּנוּ׃ 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.3. If he come in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he be married, then his wife shall go out with him." 21.4. If his master give him a wife, and she bear him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself." 21.5. But if the servant shall plainly say: I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free;" 21.6. then his master shall bring him unto God, and shall bring him to the door, or unto the door-post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever." 21.7. And if a man sell his daughter to be a maid-servant, she shall not go out as the men-servants do." 21.8. If she please not her master, who hath espoused her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed; to sell her unto a foreign people he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her." 21.9. And if he espouse her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters." 21.10. If he take him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights, shall he not diminish." 21.11. And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out for nothing, without money." 22.24. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest." 23.10. And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and gather in the increase thereof;" 23.11. but the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of thy people may eat; and what they leave the beast of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard." 23.12. Six days thou shalt do thy work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest; that thine ox and thine ass may have rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed." 32.14. And the LORD repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people." 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’" 34.9. And he said: ‘If now I have found grace in Thy sight, O Lord, let the Lord, I pray Thee, go in the midst of us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for Thine inheritance.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.1-2.3, 6.6, 25.6, 41.51 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 2.2. וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 2.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁמוֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָדָם לֹא־מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.3. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 25.6. וְלִבְנֵי הַפִּילַגְשִׁים אֲשֶׁר לְאַבְרָהָם נָתַן אַבְרָהָם מַתָּנֹת וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם מֵעַל יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ בְּעוֹדֶנּוּ חַי קֵדְמָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ קֶדֶם׃ 41.51. וַיִּקְרָא יוֹסֵף אֶת־שֵׁם הַבְּכוֹר מְנַשֶּׁה כִּי־נַשַּׁנִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־עֲמָלִי וְאֵת כָּל־בֵּית אָבִי׃ 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." 2.2. And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made." 2.3. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 25.6. But unto the sons of the concubines, that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country." 41.51. And Joseph called the name of the first-born Manasseh: ‘for God hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father’s house.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 11.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25.1, 25.3-25.8, 25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.1. וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ יוֹבֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר׃ 25.3. שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ׃ 25.3. וְאִם לֹא־יִגָּאֵל עַד־מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת לַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל׃ 25.4. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ׃ 25.4. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר׃ 25.5. אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצוֹר וְאֶת־עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר שְׁנַת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ׃ 25.5. וְחִשַּׁב עִם־קֹנֵהוּ מִשְּׁנַת הִמָּכְרוֹ לוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְהָיָה כֶּסֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ׃ 25.6. וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ וְלִשְׂכִירְךָ וּלְתוֹשָׁבְךָ הַגָּרִים עִמָּךְ׃ 25.7. וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצֶךָ תִּהְיֶה כָל־תְּבוּאָתָהּ לֶאֱכֹל׃ 25.8. וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.13. בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל הַזֹּאת תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃ 25.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying:" 25.3. Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the produce thereof." 25.4. But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard." 25.5. That which groweth of itself of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, and the grapes of thy undressed vine thou shalt not gather; it shall be a year of solemn rest for the land." 25.6. And the sabbath-produce of the land shall be for food for you: for thee, and for thy servant and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant and for the settler by thy side that sojourn with thee;" 25.7. and for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food." 25.8. And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and there shall be unto thee the days of seven sabbaths of years, even forty and nine years." 25.13. In this year of jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 24.15-24.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.15. וַיִּשָּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר נְאֻם בִּלְעָם בְּנוֹ בְעֹר וּנְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר שְׁתֻם הָעָיִן׃ 24.16. נְאֻם שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וְיֹדֵעַ דַּעַת עֶלְיוֹן מַחֲזֵה שַׁדַּי יֶחֱזֶה נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם׃ 24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 24.18. וְהָיָה אֱדוֹם יְרֵשָׁה וְהָיָה יְרֵשָׁה שֵׂעִיר אֹיְבָיו וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֹשֶׂה חָיִל׃ 24.19. וְיֵרְדְּ מִיַּעֲקֹב וְהֶאֱבִיד שָׂרִיד מֵעִיר׃ 24.15. And he took up his parable, and said: The saying of Balaam the son of Beor, And the saying of the man whose eye is opened;" 24.16. The saying of him who heareth the words of God, And knoweth the knowledge of the Most High, Who seeth the vision of the Almighty, Fallen down, yet with opened eyes:" 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth." 24.18. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also, even his enemies, shall be a possession; While Israel doeth valiantly." 24.19. And out of Jacob shall one have dominion, And shall destroy the remt from the city."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 37.12, 51.11, 110.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.12. זֹמֵם רָשָׁע לַצַּדִּיק וְחֹרֵק עָלָיו שִׁנָּיו׃ 51.11. הַסְתֵּר פָּנֶיךָ מֵחֲטָאָי וְכָל־עֲוֺנֹתַי מְחֵה׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 37.12. The wicked plotteth against the righteous, and gnasheth at him with his teeth." 51.11. Hide Thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities." 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3, 8, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 24.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.16. וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְשַׁחֲתָהּ וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית בָּעָם רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הָיָה עִם־גֹּרֶן האורנה [הָאֲרַוְנָה] הַיְבֻסִי׃ 24.16. And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Yerushalayim to destroy it, the Lord relented of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough: stay now thy hand. And the angel of the Lord was by the threshingplace of Aravna the Yevusi."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 24.17, 44.21, 52.7, 61.1-61.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.17. פַּחַד וָפַחַת וָפָח עָלֶיךָ יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ׃ 44.21. זְכָר־אֵלֶּה יַעֲקֹב וְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי עַבְדִּי־אָתָּה יְצַרְתִּיךָ עֶבֶד־לִי אַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תִנָּשֵׁנִי׃ 52.7. מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם מְבַשֵּׂר טוֹב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיּוֹן מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 24.17. Terror, and the pit, and the trap, are upon thee, O inhabitant of the earth." 44.21. Remember these things, O Jacob, And Israel, for thou art My servant; I have formed thee, thou art Mine own servant; O Israel, thou shouldest not forget Me." 52.7. How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of the messenger of good tidings, That announceth peace, the harbinger of good tidings, That announceth salvation; That saith unto Zion: ‘Thy God reigneth! ’" 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;" 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory."
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 26.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26.19. הֶהָמֵת הֱמִתֻהוּ חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֲלֹא יָרֵא אֶת־יְהוָה וַיְחַל אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עֲלֵיהֶם וַאֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים רָעָה גְדוֹלָה עַל־נַפְשׁוֹתֵינוּ׃ 26.19. Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him at all to death? did he not fear the LORD, and entreat the favour of the LORD, and the LORD repented Him of the evil which He had pronounced against them? Thus might we procure great evil against our own souls.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6, 2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 5, 7, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Anon., Jubilees, 2.8-2.10, 4.21, 6.28-6.31, 6.36, 50.1-50.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 4.21. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 50.1. And after this law I made known to thee the days of the Sabbaths in the desert of Sin[ai], which is between Elim and Sinai. 50.2. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in the sabbaths of years: 50.3. but the year thereof have I not told thee till ye enter the land which ye are to possess.
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.10-3.12, 10.17-10.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.10-3.12, 10.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 4.15, 7.19-7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 4.15, 7.19-7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.24-9.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.24. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל־עַמְּךָ וְעַל־עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם [וּלְהָתֵם] חטאות [חַטָּאת] וּלְכַפֵּר עָוֺן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים׃ 9.25. וְתֵדַע וְתַשְׂכֵּל מִן־מֹצָא דָבָר לְהָשִׁיב וְלִבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַד־מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעָה וְשָׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם תָּשׁוּב וְנִבְנְתָה רְחוֹב וְחָרוּץ וּבְצוֹק הָעִתִּים׃ 9.24. Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place." 9.25. Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again, with broad place and moat, but in troublous times."
21. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 28.1-28.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

28.1. He that takes vengeance will suffer vengeance from the Lord,and he will firmly establish his sins. 28.1. In proportion to the fuel for the fire, so will be the burning,and in proportion to the obstinacy of strife will be the burning;in proportion to the strength of the man will be his anger,and in proportion to his wealth he will heighten his wrath. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 28.3. Does a man harbor anger against another,and yet seek for healing from the Lord? 28.4. Does he have no mercy toward a man like himself,and yet pray for his own sins? 28.5. If he himself, being flesh, maintains wrath,who will make expiation for his sins?
22. Septuagint, Judith, 10.3-10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

91. For although the seventh day is a lesson to teach us the power which exists in the uncreated God, and also that the creature is entitled to rest from his labours, it does not follow that on that account we may abrogate the laws which are established respecting it, so as to light a fire, or till land, or carry burdens, or bring accusations, or conduct suits at law, or demand a restoration of a deposit, or exact the repayment of a debt, or do any other of the things which are usually permitted at times which are not days of festival.
24. Anon., Didache, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. New Testament, Luke, 16.1, 16.8-16.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.1. He also said to his disciples, "There was a certain rich man who had a manager. An accusation was made to him that this man was wasting his possessions. 16.8. His lord commended the dishonest manager because he had done wisely, for the sons of this world are, in their own generation, wiser than the sons of the light. 16.9. I tell you, make for yourselves friends by means of unrighteous mammon, so that when you fail, they may receive you into the eternal tents. 16.10. He who is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much. He who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 16.11. If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? 16.12. If you have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? 16.13. No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to one, and despise the other. You aren't able to serve God and mammon.
26. New Testament, Mark, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins.
27. New Testament, Matthew, 6.9, 6.11-6.14, 6.32, 7.11, 18.28, 18.30, 18.34, 23.16-23.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.32. For the Gentiles seek after all these things, for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. 7.11. If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him! 18.28. But that servant went out, and found one of his fellow servants, who owed him one hundred denarii, and he grabbed him, and took him by the throat, saying, 'Pay me what you owe!' 18.30. He would not, but went and cast him into prison, until he should pay back that which was due. 18.34. His lord was angry, and delivered him to the tormentors, until he should pay all that was due to him. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.'
28. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

36a. דמדרינן ליה ברבים הניחא למאן דאמר נדר שהודר ברבים אין לו הפרה אלא למאן דאמר יש לו הפרה מאי איכא למימר,דמדרינן ליה על דעת רבים דאמר אמימר הלכתא אפילו למאן דאמר נדר שהודר ברבים יש לו הפרה על דעת רבים אין לו הפרה,והני מילי לדבר הרשות אבל לדבר מצוה יש לו הפרה כי ההוא מקרי דרדקי דאדריה רב אחא על דעת רבים דהוה פשע בינוקי ואהדריה רבינא דלא אישתכח דדייק כוותיה:,והעדים חותמין על הגט מפני תיקון העולם: מפני תיקון העולם דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לב, מד) וכתוב בספר וחתום,אמר רבה לא צריכא לרבי אלעזר דאמר עדי מסירה כרתי תקינו רבנן עדי חתימה מפני תיקון העולם דזמנין דמייתי סהדי אי נמי זימנין דאזלי למדינת הים,רב יוסף אמר אפי' תימא לר' מאיר התקינו שיהא עדים מפרשין שמותיהן בגיטין מפני תיקון העולם,כדתניא בראשונה היה כותב אני פלוני חתמתי עד אם כתב ידו יוצא ממקום אחר כשר ואם לאו פסול,אמר רבן גמליאל תקנה גדולה התקינו שיהיו מפרשין שמותיהן בגיטין מפני תיקון העולם,ובסימנא לא והא רב צייר כורא ורבי חנינא צייר חרותא רב חסדא סמך ורב הושעיא עין רבה בר רב הונא צייר מכותא שאני רבנן דבקיאין סימנייהו,מעיקרא במאי אפקעינהו בדיסקי:,הלל התקין פרוסבול וכו': תנן התם פרוסבול אינו משמט זה אחד מן הדברים שהתקין הלל הזקן שראה את העם שנמנעו מלהלוות זה את זה ועברו על מה שכתוב בתורה (דברים טו, ט) השמר לך פן יהיה דבר עם לבבך בליעל וגו' עמד והתקין פרוסבול,וזה הוא גופו של פרוסבול מוסרני לכם פלוני דיינין שבמקום פלוני שכל חוב שיש לי אצל פלוני שאגבנו כל זמן שארצה והדיינים חותמים למטה או העדים,ומי איכא מידי דמדאורייתא משמטא שביעית והתקין הלל דלא משמטא אמר אביי בשביעית בזמן הזה ורבי היא,דתניא רבי אומר (דברים טו, ב) וזה דבר השמיטה שמוט בשתי שמיטות הכתוב מדבר אחת שמיטת קרקע ואחת שמיטת כספים בזמן שאתה משמט קרקע אתה משמט כספים בזמן שאי אתה משמט קרקע אי אתה משמט כספים 36a. The Gemara answers bthat we administer the vowto the priest bin public.The Gemara asks: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat ba vow that was taken in public has nopossibility of bnullificationby a halakhic authority, bbut according to the one who says it hasthe possibility of bnullification, what can be said? /b,The Gemara answers bthat we administer the vow tothe priest based bon the consent of the public,making it a type of vow that cannot be dissolved without their consent. bAs Ameimar said,the ihalakha /iis as follows: bEven according to the one who saysthat ba vow that was taken in public hasthe possibility of bnullification,if it was taken based bon the consent of the public,it bhas nopossibility of bnullification. /b,The Gemara comments: bAnd this matter appliesonly to when the nullification of a vow is in order to enable one btoperform ban optional matter, but toenable one to perform ba matter of a mitzva, it hasthe possibility of bnullification.This is blikethe incident involving ba certain teacher of children,upon bwhom Rav Aḥa administered a vowbased bon the consent of the publicto cease teaching, bas he was negligent with regard to the childrenby hitting them too much. bAnd Ravinahad his vow nullified and breinstated him, as they did not findanother teacher bwho was as meticulous as hewas.,§ The mishna taught: bAnd the witnesses sign the bill of divorce for the betterment of the world.The Gemara asks: Is the reason that the witnesses sign the bill of divorce bfor the betterment of the world? It is by Torah lawthat they must sign, bas it is written: “And subscribe the deeds, and signthem, and call witnesses” (Jeremiah 32:44)., bRabba said: No,it is bnecessary according tothe opinion of bRabbi Elazar, who says: Witnesses of the transmissionof the bill of divorce beffectthe divorce, and not the witnesses who sign the bill of divorce, and by Torah law it does not need to be signed. Nevertheless, bthe Sages instituted signatory witnesses for the betterment of the world, as sometimesit occurs bthat the witnesseswho witnessed the transmission of the bill of divorce bdie, or sometimesit occurs bthat they go overseas,and the validity of the bill of divorce may be contested. Since they are not present, there are no witnesses who can ratify the bill of divorce. Once the Sages instituted that the witnesses’ signatures appear on the bill of divorce, then the bill of divorce can be ratified by authenticating their signatures., bRav Yosef said: Youcan beven saythat it is baccording tothe opinion of bRabbi Meir,that signatory witnesses on the bill of divorce effect the divorce, and the mishna should be understood as follows: bThey instituted that the witnesses must specify theirfull bnames on bills of divorceand not merely sign the document, bfor the betterment of the world. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:13): bAt first,the witness bwould writeonly: bI, so-and-so, signedas ba witness,but they did not state their full names. Therefore, the only way to identify the witness was to see if an identical signature could be found on a different document that had been ratified in court. Therefore, bifanother copy of a witness’s bsignature is produced from elsewhere,i.e., another court document, it is bvalid, but if not,then the bill of divorce is binvalideven though it is possible that he was a valid witness, and as a result of this women were left unable to remarry., bRabban Gamliel said: They instituted a great ordice thatthe witnesses bmust specify theirfull bnames on bills of divorce,stating that they are so-and-so, son of so-and-so, and other identifying features, bfor the betterment of the world.This made it possible to easily clarify who the witnesses were and to ratify the bill of divorce by finding acquaintances of the witnesses who recognized their signatures.,The Gemara asks: bButis it bnotsufficient to sign bwitha pictorial bmark? But Rav drew a fishinstead of a signature, band Rabbi Ḥanina drew a palm branch[iḥaruta/b]; bRav Ḥisdadrew the letter isamekh /i, and Rav Hoshayadrew the letter iayin /i;and bRabba bar Rav Huna drew a sail[imakota/b]. None of these Sages would sign their actual names. The Gemara answers: bThe Sages are different, aseveryone is bwell versed in theirpictorial bmarks. /b,The Gemara asks: bInitially, with what did they publicizethese marks, as they could not use them in place of signatures before people were well versed in them? The Gemara answers: They initially used their marks bin letters,where there is no legal requirement to sign their names. Once it became known that they would use these marks as their signatures, they were able to use them as signatures even on legal documents.,§ The mishna taught that bHillelthe Elder binstituted a document that prevents the SabbaticalYear bfrom abrogating an outstanding debt [ iprosbol /i]. We learnedin a mishna bthere( iShevi’it10:3): If one writes ba iprosbol /i,the Sabbatical Year bdoes not abrogatedebt. bThis is one of the matters that Hillel the Elder instituted because he saw thatthe people of bthe nation were refraining from lending to one anotheraround the time of the Sabbatical Year, as they were concerned that the debtor would not repay the loan, band they violated that which is written in the Torah: “Beware that there be not a base thought in your heart,saying: The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and your eye be evil against your needy brother, and you give him nothing” (Deuteronomy 15:9). bHe arose and institutedthe iprosbol /iso that it would also be possible to collect those debts in order to ensure that people would continue to give loans., bAnd this is the essence of thetext of the iprosbol /i: I transfer to you, so-and-sothe bjudges, who are in such and such a place,so bthat I will collect any debt that I am owed by so-and-so whenever I wish,as the court now has the right to collect the debts. bAnd the judges or the witnesses sign below,and this is sufficient. The creditor will then be able to collect the debt on behalf of the court, and the court can give it to him.,The Gemara asks about the iprosbolitself: bBut is there anythinglike this, bwhere by Torah law the SabbaticalYear bcancelsthe debt bbut Hillel instituted that it does not cancelthe debt? bAbaye said:The ibaraitais referring bto the SabbaticalYear bin the present,and bit isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The verse states in the context of the cancellation of debts: b“And this is the manner of the abrogation: He shall abrogate”(Deuteronomy 15:2). bThe verse speaks of twotypes of babrogation: Oneis bthe release of land and oneis the babrogation of monetarydebts. Since the two are equated, one can learn the following: bAt a time when you release land,when the Jubilee Year is practiced, byou abrogate monetarydebts; bat a time when you do not release land,such as the present time, when the Jubilee Year is no longer practiced, byoualso bdo not abrogate monetarydebts.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham (abram) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 176
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 176
atonement Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243
avery-peck, alan, on shebiit Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 4
belial Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 123; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 103
belief Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
ben sira Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 100
berman, saul Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20
bernstein, moshe Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 262
biblical referents, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 73, 80
borrowing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 101, 102, 108
bread Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97, 102
calculation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122
calendar Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122
canaan(ites) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 176
chronology of biblical events VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 103
clothing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
creditor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
crops Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 176
damascus document Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 21
david Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 123
davies, w. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 176
day of atonement Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 103
debt, remission of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243
debt-slavery, suspension or annulment Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 105
debts, remittance of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 100, 101, 102, 108
debts Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97, 101, 102
discourses of divine law, in biblical literature Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20, 21
divine law, in biblical israel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20, 21
eating Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
eden, in the land Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 4
eden, localization of Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 4
eden, restored Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
elites, creditors Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 105
eternity Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
evil Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
exodus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
food Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
forgiveness, of sins Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97, 102
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97
glory Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
guidelines, sociorhetorical Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
guilt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 101
halakhah, theology of Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
halberstam, chaya Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 21
ilfa Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 56
immutability, of divine law, and rabbinic rejection of Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 296
innovation through exegesis in rabbinic sources, through legislation in rabbinic sources Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 296
israel, in halakhic theology Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
israel, israelite Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
israel, restoration to the land Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 56
jubilee Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243
jubilee periods VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 103
land of israel, sabbatical year Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 4
land of israel Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
landowners, tenants Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 105
landowners Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 105
lefebvre, michael Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20
levinson, bernard Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20
melchizedek VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 103
melchizedek (melkisedek) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 123
mevin Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
neighbor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
oppressor Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
poor Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 56
positive divine law (biblical) Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20, 21
poverty Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
praise Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 102
programmatic Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
prozbul as legal fiction, as uprooting biblical law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 296
punishment Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
punishment intergenerational Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20
qumran, historical interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 258
qumran, scriptural interpretation at Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 258, 262
qumran, techniques used Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 262
qumran, thematic association Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 262
regulations pertaining to Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243
remission, model of debt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 100
remission, of debt Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97, 100
rent, remission Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 105
rhetoric of religious antiquity (rra ) Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
sabbath/shabbat Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 101
sabbath Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122
sabbatical year/sabbath year Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97, 100, 101, 108
sabbatical year Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243; Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 4
sage Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
scripture, and halakhah Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
shebiit Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 4
sin Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97, 101, 102
son, firstborn (~) Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
sovereign Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 100
spirit Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243
testing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97
tetragrammaton Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 243
textures, ideological Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
textures, sacred Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
textures Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 3
theagenes of rhegium, thematic association at qumran Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 262
threat Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
time Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 122
torah Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 105
trespasses Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 97
uprooting torah law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 296
wealth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
will, as grounding biblical divine law' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 21
will, as grounding biblical divine law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 20
wisdom, practitioner of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 108
wisdom Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 100, 108
yohanan Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 56