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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.22


אַךְ כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֶת־הַצְּבִי וְאֶת־הָאַיָּל כֵּן תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יַחְדָּו יֹאכְלֶנּוּ׃Howbeit as the gazelle and as the hart is eaten, so thou shalt eat thereof; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof alike.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.8, 12.15-12.16, 12.20-12.21, 12.23-12.25, 12.27, 14.5, 14.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.8. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים פֹּה הַיּוֹם אִישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 12.15. רַק בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תִּזְבַּח וְאָכַלְתָּ בָשָׂר כְּבִרְכַּת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יֹאכְלֶנּוּ כַּצְּבִי וְכָאַיָּל׃ 12.16. רַק הַדָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 12.21. כִּי־יִרְחַק מִמְּךָ הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָשׂוּם שְׁמוֹ שָׁם וְזָבַחְתָּ מִבְּקָרְךָ וּמִצֹּאנְךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה לְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּכֹל אַוַּת נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 12.23. רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְלֹא־תֹאכַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָׂר׃ 12.24. לֹא תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 12.25. לֹא תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ כִּי־תַעֲשֶׂה הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 12.27. וְעָשִׂיתָ עֹלֹתֶיךָ הַבָּשָׂר וְהַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְדַם־זְבָחֶיךָ יִשָּׁפֵךְ עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַבָּשָׂר תֹּאכֵל׃ 14.5. אַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וְאַקּוֹ וְדִישֹׁן וּתְאוֹ וָזָמֶר׃ 14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 12.8. Ye shall not do after all that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes;" 12.15. Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh within all thy gates, after all the desire of thy soul, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which He hath given thee; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the gazelle, and as of the hart." 12.16. Only ye shall not eat the blood; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water." 12.20. When the LORD thy God shall enlarge thy border, as He hath promised thee, and thou shalt say: ‘I will eat flesh’, because thy soul desireth to eat flesh; thou mayest eat flesh, after all the desire of thy soul." 12.21. If the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to put His name there be too far from thee, then thou shalt kill of thy herd and of thy flock, which the LORD hath given thee, as I have commanded thee, and thou shalt eat within thy gates, after all the desire of thy soul." 12.23. Only be stedfast in not eating the blood; for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh." 12.24. Thou shalt not eat it; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water." 12.25. Thou shalt not eat it; that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee, when thou shalt do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD." 12.27. and thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the LORD thy God; and the blood of thy sacrifices shall be poured out against the altar of the LORD thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh." 14.5. the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the antelope, and the mountain-sheep." 14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.11-13.13, 22.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃ 13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee," 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s." 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem." 22.30. And ye shall be holy men unto Me; therefore ye shall not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.24-11.25, 11.31, 11.39-11.40, 14.34-14.47, 17.10-17.16, 19.23-19.25, 22.3-22.9, 23.12-23.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.24. וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.25. וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.31. אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.39. וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 14.34. כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה וְנָתַתִּי נֶגַע צָרַעַת בְּבֵית אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם׃ 14.35. וּבָא אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הַבַּיִת וְהִגִּיד לַכֹּהֵן לֵאמֹר כְּנֶגַע נִרְאָה לִי בַּבָּיִת׃ 14.36. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וּפִנּוּ אֶת־הַבַּיִת בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן לִרְאוֹת אֶת־הַנֶּגַע וְלֹא יִטְמָא כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בַּבָּיִת וְאַחַר כֵּן יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן לִרְאוֹת אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 14.37. וְרָאָה אֶת־הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה הַנֶּגַע בְּקִירֹת הַבַּיִת שְׁקַעֲרוּרֹת יְרַקְרַקֹּת אוֹ אֲדַמְדַּמֹּת וּמַרְאֵיהֶן שָׁפָל מִן־הַקִּיר׃ 14.38. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַבַּיִת אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבָּיִת וְהִסְגִּיר אֶת־הַבַּיִת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 14.39. וְשָׁב הַכֹּהֵן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְרָאָה וְהִנֵּה פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בְּקִירֹת הַבָּיִת׃ 14.41. וְאֶת־הַבַּיִת יַקְצִעַ מִבַּיִת סָבִיב וְשָׁפְכוּ אֶת־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר הִקְצוּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.42. וְלָקְחוּ אֲבָנִים אֲחֵרוֹת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֶל־תַּחַת הָאֲבָנִים וְעָפָר אַחֵר יִקַּח וְטָח אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 14.43. וְאִם־יָשׁוּב הַנֶּגַע וּפָרַח בַּבַּיִת אַחַר חִלֵּץ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים וְאַחֲרֵי הִקְצוֹת אֶת־הַבַּיִת וְאַחֲרֵי הִטּוֹחַ׃ 14.44. וּבָא הַכֹּהֵן וְרָאָה וְהִנֵּה פָּשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בַּבָּיִת צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת הִוא בַּבַּיִת טָמֵא הוּא׃ 14.45. וְנָתַץ אֶת־הַבַּיִת אֶת־אֲבָנָיו וְאֶת־עֵצָיו וְאֵת כָּל־עֲפַר הַבָּיִת וְהוֹצִיא אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.46. וְהַבָּא אֶל־הַבַּיִת כָּל־יְמֵי הִסְגִּיר אֹתוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 14.47. וְהַשֹּׁכֵב בַּבַּיִת יְכַבֵּס אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְהָאֹכֵל בַּבַּיִת יְכַבֵּס אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 22.3. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.3. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.4. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע׃ 22.5. אוֹ־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל־שֶׁרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ אוֹ בְאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ׃ 22.6. נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע־בּוֹ וְטָמְאָה עַד־הָעָרֶב וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי אִם־רָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם׃ 22.7. וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי לַחְמוֹ הוּא׃ 22.8. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 23.12. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם בְּיוֹם הֲנִיפְכֶם אֶת־הָעֹמֶר כֶּבֶשׂ תָּמִים בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה לַיהוָה׃ 23.13. וּמִנְחָתוֹ שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ וְנִסְכֹּה יַיִן רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 23.14. וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד־עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה עַד הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־קָרְבַּן אֱלֹהֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 23.15. וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת מִיּוֹם הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה׃ 23.16. עַד מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת הַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה לַיהוָה׃ 23.17. מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאּוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה שְׁתַּיִם שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת תִּהְיֶינָה חָמֵץ תֵּאָפֶינָה בִּכּוּרִים לַיהוָה׃ 23.18. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עַל־הַלֶּחֶם שִׁבְעַת כְּבָשִׂים תְּמִימִם בְּנֵי שָׁנָה וּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד וְאֵילִם שְׁנָיִם יִהְיוּ עֹלָה לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 11.24. And by these ye shall become unclean; whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until even." 11.25. And whosoever beareth aught of the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even." 11.31. These are they which are unclean to you among all that swarm; whosoever doth touch them, when they are dead, shall be unclean until the even." 11.39. And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die, he that toucheth the carcass thereof shall be unclean until the even." 11.40. And he that eateth of the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; he also that beareth the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even." 14.34. When ye are come into the land of Canaan, which I give to you for a possession, and I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession;" 14.35. then he that owneth the house shall come and tell the priest, saying: ‘There seemeth to me to be as it were a plague in the house.’" 14.36. And the priest shall command that they empty the house, before the priest go in to see the plague, that all that is in the house be not made unclean; and afterward the priest shall go in to see the house." 14.37. And he shall look on the plague, and, behold, if the plague be in the walls of the house with hollow streaks, greenish or reddish, and the appearance thereof be lower than the wall;" 14.38. then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house, and shut up the house seven days." 14.39. And the priest shall come again the seventh day, and shall look; and, behold, if the plague be spread in the walls of the house;" 14.40. then the priest shall command that they take out the stones in which the plague is, and cast them into an unclean place without the city." 14.41. And he shall cause the house to be scraped within round about, and they shall pour out the mortar that they scrape off without the city into an unclean place." 14.42. And they shall take other stones, and put them in the place of those stones; and he shall take other mortar, and shall plaster the house." 14.43. And if the plague come again, and break out in the house, after that the stones have been taken out, and after the house hath been scraped, and after it is plastered;" 14.44. then the priest shall come in and look; and, behold, if the plague be spread in the house, it is a maligt leprosy in the house: it is unclean." 14.45. And he shall break down the house, the stones of it, and the timber thereof, and all the mortar of the house; and he shall carry them forth out of the city into an unclean place." 14.46. Moreover he that goeth into the house all the while that it is shut up shall be unclean until the even." 14.47. And he that lieth in the house shall wash his clothes; and he that eateth in the house shall wash his clothes." 17.10. And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood." 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 22.3. Say unto them: Whosoever he be of all your seed throughout your generations, that approacheth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from before Me: I am the LORD." 22.4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath an issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any one that is unclean by the dead; or from whomsoever the flow of seed goeth out;" 22.5. or whosoever toucheth any swarming thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever uncleanness he hath;" 22.6. the soul that toucheth any such shall be unclean until the even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he bathe his flesh in water." 22.7. And when the sun is down, he shall be clean; and afterward he may eat of the holy things, because it is his bread." 22.8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith: I am the LORD." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them." 23.12. And in the day when ye wave the sheaf, ye shall offer a he-lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt-offering unto the LORD." 23.13. And the meal-offering thereof shall be two tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour; and the drink-offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of a hin." 23.14. And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor fresh ears, until this selfsame day, until ye have brought the offering of your God; it is a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings." 23.15. And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete;" 23.16. even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto the LORD." 23.17. Ye shall bring out of your dwellings two wave-loaves of two tenth parts of an ephah; they shall be of fine flour, they shall be baked with leaven, for first-fruits unto the LORD." 23.18. And ye shall present with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams; they shall be a burnt-offering unto the LORD, with their meal-offering, and their drink-offerings, even an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.31, 12.10-12.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.31. וְרוּחַ נָסַע מֵאֵת יְהוָה וַיָּגָז שַׂלְוִים מִן־הַיָּם וַיִּטֹּשׁ עַל־הַמַּחֲנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ יוֹם כֹּה וּכְדֶרֶךְ יוֹם כֹּה סְבִיבוֹת הַמַּחֲנֶה וּכְאַמָּתַיִם עַל־פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בִּי אֲדֹנִי אַל־נָא תָשֵׁת עָלֵינוּ חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר נוֹאַלְנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ׃ 12.12. אַל־נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת אֲשֶׁר בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם אִמּוֹ וַיֵּאָכֵל חֲצִי בְשָׂרוֹ׃ 12.13. וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר אֵל נָא רְפָא נָא לָהּ׃ 12.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאָבִיהָ יָרֹק יָרַק בְּפָנֶיהָ הֲלֹא תִכָּלֵם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּסָּגֵר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחַר תֵּאָסֵף׃ 12.15. וַתִּסָּגֵר מִרְיָם מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהָעָם לֹא נָסַע עַד־הֵאָסֵף מִרְיָם׃ 11.31. And there went forth a wind from the LORD, and brought across quails from the sea, and let them fall by the camp, about a day’s journey on this side, and a day’s journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth." 12.10. And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous." 12.11. And Aaron said unto Moses: ‘Oh my lord, lay not, I pray thee, sin upon us, for that we have done foolishly, and for that we have sinned." 12.12. Let her not, I pray, be as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother’s womb.’" 12.13. And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘Heal her now, O God, I beseech Thee.’" 12.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘If her father had but spit in her face, should she not hide in shame seven days? let her be shut up without the camp seven days, and after that she shall be brought in again.’" 12.15. And Miriam was shut up without the camp seven days; and the people journeyed not till Miriam was brought in again."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.3. עֲשָׂרָה בָקָר בְּרִאִים וְעֶשְׂרִים בָּקָר רְעִי וּמֵאָה צֹאן לְבַד מֵאַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וּבַרְבֻּרִים אֲבוּסִים׃ 5.3. לְבַד מִשָּׂרֵי הַנִּצָּבִים לִשְׁלֹמֹה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמְּלָאכָה שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת הָרֹדִים בָּעָם הָעֹשִׂים בַּמְּלָאכָה׃ 5.3. ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, beside harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 2.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.18. וַיִּהְיוּ־שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי צְרוּיָה יוֹאָב וַאֲבִישַׁי וַעֲשָׂהאֵל וַעֲשָׂהאֵל קַל בְּרַגְלָיו כְּאַחַד הַצְּבָיִם אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 2.18. And there were three sons of Żeruya there, Yo᾽av, and Avishay and ῾Asa᾽el: and ῾Asa᾽el was as light of foot as a wild gazelle."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 13.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.14. וְהָיָה כִּצְבִי מֻדָּח וּכְצֹאן וְאֵין מְקַבֵּץ אִישׁ אֶל־עַמּוֹ יִפְנוּ וְאִישׁ אֶל־אַרְצוֹ יָנוּסוּ׃ 13.14. And it shall come to pass, that as the chased gazelle, And as sheep that no man gathereth, They shall turn every man to his own people, And shall flee every man to his own land."
9. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 27.16, 27.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

27.16. Whoever betrays secrets destroys confidence,and he will never find a congenial friend. 27.18. For as a man destroys his enemy,so you have destroyed the friendship of your neighbor.
10. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.80, 4.91, 4.126-4.131 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.80. But of all the passions there is not one so grievous as a covetous desire of what one has not got, of things which are in appearance good, but not in reality; a desire which produces grievous anxieties which are hard to satisfy; for such a passion puts the reason to flight, and banishes it to a great distance, involving the soul in great difficulties, while the object which is desired flies away contemptuously, retreating not with its back but with its face to one; 4.91. When it affects the parts about the belly it makes men gluttonous, insatiable, intemperate, debauched, admirers of a profligate life, delighting in drunkenness, and epicurism, slaves to strong wine, and fish, and meat, pursuers of feasts and tables, wallowing like greedy dogs; owing to all which things their lives are rendered miserable and accursed, and they are reduced to an existence more grievous than any death. 4.126. The lawgiver blames some persons of his time as gluttons, and as believing that the mere indulgence of luxury is the happiest of all possible conditions, not being content to live in this manner only in cities in which there were abundant supplies and stores of all kinds of necessary things, but carrying their effeminacy even into pathless and untrodden deserts, and choosing in them also to have markets for fish and meat, and all things which can contribute to an easy life: 4.127. then, when a scarcity arose, they assembled together and raised an outcry, and looked miserable, and with shameless audacity impeached their ruler, and did not desist from creating disturbances till they obtained what they desired; and they obtained it to their destruction, for two reasons: first of all, that it might be shown that all things are possible to God, who can find a way in the most difficult and apparently hopeless circumstances; and secondly, that punishment might fall on those who were intemperate in their gluttonous appetites, and obstinate resisters of holiness. 4.128. For a vast cloud being Raised{28}{#ex 16:13.} out of the sea showered down quails about the time of sunrise, and the camp and all the district around it for a day's journey for a well-girt active man was overshadowed all about with the Birds.{29}{#nu 11:31.} And the height of the flight of the birds was distant from the ground a height of about two cubits, in order that they might be easily caught. 4.129. It would have been natural therefore for them, being amazed at the marvellous nature of the prodigy which they beheld, to be satisfied with the sight, and being filled with piety to nourish their souls on that, and to abstain from eating flesh; but these men, on the contrary, stirred up their desires even more than before, and pursued these birds as the greatest good imaginable, and catching hold of them with both their hands filled their bosoms; then, having stored them up in their tents, they sallied forth to catch others, for immoderate covetousness has no limit. And when they had collected every description of food they devoured it insatiably, being about, vain-minded generation that they were, to perish by their own fulness; 4.130. and indeed at no distant time they did perish by the purging of their bile, {30}{#nu 11:20.} so that the place itself derived its name from the calamity which fell upon them, for it was called the graves of their lust, {31}{see #Nu 11:34: "And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people that lusted."} than which there is not in the soul, as the scripture teaches, us, any greater evil. 4.131. For which reason Moses says with great beauty in his recommendations, "Let not every man do that which seemeth good to his own Eyes,"{32}{#de 11:8.} which is equivalent to saying, let not any one gratify his own desire, but let each person seek to please God, and the world, and nature, and wise men, repudiating self-love, if he would become a good and virtuous man.XXV.
11. New Testament, Acts, 10.1-11.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

73b. רב מרי בר רחל משכן ליה ההוא נכרי ביתא הדר זבנה לרבא נטר תריסר ירחי שתא שקל אגר ביתא אמטי ליה לרבא אמר ליה האי דלא אמטאי למר אגר ביתא עד האידנא דסתם משכנתא שתא אי בעי נכרי לסלקי לא הוה מצי מסלק לי השתא לשקול מר אגר ביתא,א"ל אי הוה ידענא דהוה ממושכן ליה למר לא הוה זביננא ליה השתא כדיניהם עבדינן לך כל אימת דלא מסלקי בזוזי לא שקיל אגר ביתא אנא נמי לא שקילנא מינך אגר ביתא עד דמסלקנא לך בזוזי,אמר ליה רבא מברניש לרב אשי חזי מר רבנן דקא אכלי רביתא דיהבי זוזי אחמרא בתשרי ומבחרי לה בטבת,אמר ליה אינהו נמי אחמרא קא יהבי אחלא לא קא יהבי מעיקרא דחמרא חמרא דחלא חלא ההיא שעתא הוא דקמבחרי,רבינא הוה יהיב זוזי לבני אקרא דשנוותא ושפכי ליה טפי כופיתא אתא לקמיה דרב אשי אמר ליה מי שרי אמר ליה אין אחולי הוא דקא מחלי גבך,אמר ליה הא ארעא לאו דידהו היא אמר ליה ארעא לטסקא משעבדא ומלכא אמר מאן דיהיב טסקא ליכול ארעא,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא חזי מר הני רבנן דיהבי זוזי אכרגא דאינשי ומשעבדי בהו טפי אמר ליה השתא איכו שכיבא לא אמרי לכו הא מילתא הכי אמר רב ששת מוהרקייהו דהני בטפסא דמלכא מנח ומלכא אמר מאן דלא יהיב כרגא לשתעביד למאן דיהיב כרגא,רב סעורם אחוה דרבא הוה תקיף אינשי דלא מעלו ומעייל להו בגוהרקא דרבא אמר ליה רבא שפיר קא עבדת דתנינא ראית שאינו נוהג כשורה מנין שאתה רשאי להשתעבד בו תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כה, מו) לעולם בהם תעבודו ובאחיכם יכול אפילו נוהג כשורה ת"ל (ויקרא כה, מו) ובאחיכם בני ישראל איש באחיו וגו',אמר רב חמא האי מאן דיהיב זוזי לחבריה למיזבן ליה חמרא ופשע ולא זבין ליה משלם ליה כדקא אזיל אפרוותא דזולשפט,אמר אמימר אמריתא לשמעתא קמיה דרב זביד מנהרדעא אמר כי קאמר רב חמא הני מילי ביין סתם אבל ביין זה לא מי יימר דמזבני ליה ניהליה,רב אשי אמר אפי' יין סתם נמי לא מאי טעמא אסמכתא היא ואסמכתא לא קניא,ולרב אשי מאי שנא מהא דתנן אם אוביר ולא אעביד אשלם במיטבא התם בידו 73b. The Gemara relates: bA certain gentile mortgaged a house to Rav Mari bar Raḥelfor a loan that Rav Mari had provided him. bAfterward,the gentile bsoldthe house bto Rava.Rav Mari bwaitedfor btwelve monthsof bthe yearto pass, btookthe amount of money necessary to pay brentfor bthe houseand bbrought it to Rava,who was now the owner of the house. Rav Mari bsaid toRava: bThisfact bthat I did not bring the rentalfee for bthe house to the Master until nowis bbecausean bunspecified mortgageis in effect for a period of bone year. Ifthat bgentile wanted to removeme from the house by paying back the loan, bhe could not remove mefrom it until now. Consequently, the house actually belonged to me for that year, and I was not required to pay rent. Now, since the gentile can remove me from the house by repaying the loan, the house belongs to you. Therefore, blet the Master now take the rentalfee for bthe housefor the coming year.,Rava bsaid to him: Had I known thatthis house bwas mortgaged to the Master, I would not have purchased itat all, as I would have given you the chance to purchase it first. bNow,therefore, bI will act toward you according to the lawof the gentiles, as I assumed the rights previously held by the gentile. According to gentile law, bas long asthe borrower bdoes not removethe lender bbypaying back the bmoney,he also bdoes not take a rentalfee for bthe house,as there is no prohibition against a gentile paying or receiving interest. Therefore, bI too will not take a rentalfee for bthe house from you until I remove you byforcing the gentile to pay the bmoneythat is owed to you.,The Gemara relates: bRava of Barnish said to Rav Ashi: The Master sees the Sages who consume interest, as they givepeople bmoney for wine inthe month of bTishrei, and they selectthe wine later, binthe month of bTevet.Had they taken the wine immediately upon payment, there is a chance that it would have spoiled. Now, in return for paying for the wine in advance, they receive the benefit of guaranteeing that the wine they receive will not be spoiled. Rava of Barnish understood that this benefit, received in exchange for advance payment, is a form of interest.,Rav Ashi bsaid to him: They too gavethe money at the outset bfor wine,but bthey did not giveit bfor vinegar. That which was wine at the outset isstill bwine,and bthatwhich became bvinegar was vinegarwhen they paid for it but they did not know it. bIt was at that timeof selection bthat theymerely bselectedthe wine that they had paid for previously. Since they agreed to buy wine, not vinegar, the benefit of actually receiving wine does not constitute interest.,The Gemara relates: bRavina would give moneyin advance bto the people of the fortress [ iakra /i] atthe river bShanvatain order to buy wine to be supplied after the grape harvest, bandwhen they supplied the wine bthey would pour an extra jug [ ikufita /i]of wine bfor himas a gift, although there was no stipulation between them requiring this. Ravina bcame before Rav Ashito ask whether this involved interest. Ravina bsaid to him: Is it permittedto do this? Rav Ashi bsaid to him: Yes,it is permitted, as bthey forgopayment for the extra wine bto yourbenefit in order to maintain good relations with you. Since the additional wine is not provided as consideration for the advance payment, there is no problem of interest.,Ravina bsaid to him: But the land is not theirs.The people of the fortress at Shanvata worked land belonging to others who abandoned their fields because they could not pay the real estate taxes. The people of the fortress paid the taxes and were therefore able to use the fields. Ravina was concerned that perhaps they did not own the grapes and were therefore unable to forgo payment for the additional amount as it did not belong to them. Rav Ashi bsaid to him: The land is lienedto the king baspayment for the btaxes [ iletaska /i], and the king says: Whoever pays the tax may consumethe produce of bthe land.Consequently, the ones who pay the taxes have ownership of the wine by dint of the law of the kingdom.,The Gemara relates that bRav Pappa said to Rava:Let bthe Master see these Sages who pay money for the tax [ iakarga /i] onbehalf of other bpeople andafterward bmake them work morethan is reasonable for the amount of money they paid. Rava bsaid to him: Now, if I were dead I could not saythe explanation of bthis matter to you,so it is good that you asked me while I am still alive, as I know that bthis is what Rav Sheshet said: The document [ imoharkayyhu /i]of servitude bof thesepeople blies in the treasury of the king,i.e., all of his subjects are considered his servants, band the king said: The one who does not pay the head tax shall serve the one who does pay the head tax,and consequently, by dint of the law of the kingdom they can have them work as much as they want.,The Gemara relates: bRav Se’oram, the brother of Rava, would forcefullyseize bpeople who were notacting bproperly andhave them bcarry Rava’s sedan chair. Rava said to him: You acted correctly, as we learn: If you seea Jew bwho does not behave properly, from whereis it derived bthat you are permitted to have him workas a slave? bThe verse states: “of them you may take your slaves forever; and over your brothers”(Leviticus 25:46). It is derived from the conjunctive “and” linking the two clauses of the verse that there are circumstances where it is permitted to treat a fellow Jew as if he were a slave. One bmighthave thought that this is the ihalakha beven ifa Jew bacts properly.To counter this, bthe verse statesin the continuation: b“And over your brothers the children of Israelyou shall not rule, bone over another,with rigor.”, bRav Ḥama said:With regard to bone who gave money to another to purchase wine for him, andthe other, i.e., the agent, bwas negligent and did not purchaseit bfor him,the agent bmust paythe one who gave him the money baccording to the goingrate of wine bin the portcity bof Zolshefat,where the main wine market was located, and he must purchase the wine according to the price in that market even if it is more expensive than the amount he was given initially., bAmeimar said: I said this ihalakhabefore Rav Zevid of Neharde’a,and when he heard it bhe said: When Rav Ḥama saidthis, he said bthat statement ina case where the buyer asked the agent to purchase bwine without specificationconcerning exactly which wine he wanted. bBut ifhe said to the agent: Buy bthisspecific bwinefor me, the agent who neglected to buy the wine is bnotobligated to buy it at a higher price later, as when he was sent to buy it initially, bwho says thatthe owner bwould have sold it to him?The one who gave the money to the agent was aware of the fact that the agent may not be able to successfully purchase that specific wine. Consequently, the obligation of the agent is simply to return the money, and nothing may be added to that sum, due to the prohibition of interest., bRav Ashi said: Evenif he asked the agent to buy wine bwithout specification,the agent is balso notobligated to buy wine later for more than the amount he was given. bWhat is the reasonfor this? The implicit obligation that the agent accepted upon himself, to pay the one who hired him with wine of a higher value than the amount of money he received, bis a transaction with inconclusive consent [ iasmakhta /i],as any situation where one will have to pay more money than he received is similar to the payment of a fine, bandthe acceptance of ban iasmakhtadoes not effect acquisition,as his acceptance is assumed to be insincere.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording bto Rav Ashi,in bwhatway bisthis case bdifferent from that which we learnedin a mishna (104a) concerning a rental agreement for land, in which a sharecropper agreed to cultivate a field in return for a share of the produce and wrote: bIf I letthe field blie fallow and do not cultivateit, bI will pay with the best /b-quality produce? In that case, the sharecropper agreed to pay the amount he caused the owner to lose due to his lack of activity, and it was not ruled an iasmakhta /i. The Gemara answers: bThere,the matter is bin his power,as he can decide whether to work the field or not to work it.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. מעת לעת של הנחה,תנן אם אבדו הרי זה חושש מעת לעת בשלמא למ"ד מעת לעת של בדיקה שפיר,אלא למ"ד מעת לעת של הנחה האי מעת לעת עד מעת לעת מיבעי ליה קשיא:,דברי ר' אלעזר: אמר ר' אלעזר חלוקין עליו חביריו על רבי אלעזר דתנן מקוה שנמדד ונמצא חסר כל טהרות שנעשו על גביו למפרע בין ברשות היחיד בין ברה"ר טמאות,פשיטא דחלוקין מהו דתימא מאי למפרע מעת לעת קמ"ל:,רבי יהודה אומר בג' פרקים כו': תנא בקידום של מוצאי החג של תקופה,תניא ר' יהודה אומר בג' פרקים מוכרין את התבואה לפני הזרע ובשעת הזרע ובפרוס הפסח ובשלשה פרקים מוכרין את היין בפרוס הפסח ובפרוס עצרת ובפרוס החג ושמן מעצרת ואילך למאי הלכתא אמר רבא ואיתימא רב פפא לשותפין מכאן ואילך מאי אמר רבא כל יומא פירקיה הוא,(יונה ד, ח) ויהי כזרוח השמש וימן אלהים רוח קדים חרישית מאי חרישית אמר רב יהודה בשעה שמנשבת עושה תלמים תלמים בים,א"ל רבה אי הכי היינו דכתיב (יונה ד, ח) ותך השמש על ראש יונה ויתעלף אלא אמר רבה בשעה שמנשבת משתקת כל הרוחות מפניה והיינו דכתיב (איוב לז, יז) אשר בגדיך חמים בהשקט ארץ מדרום א"ר תחליפא בר רב חסדא א"ר חסדא אימתי בגדיך חמים בשעה שהשקיט ארץ מדרום שבשעה שמנשבת משתקת כל הרוחות מפניה,רב הונא ורב חסדא הוו יתבי חליף ואזיל גניבא עלייהו אמר חד לחבריה ניקום מקמיה דבר אוריין הוא א"ל אידך מקמי פלגאה ניקום אדהכי אתא איהו לגבייהו אמר להו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה ברוחות,אמר להו הכי אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב ד' רוחות מנשבות בכל יום ורוח צפונית מנשבת עם כולן שאלמלא כן אין העולם מתקיים אפילו שעה אחת ורוח דרומית קשה מכולן ואלמלא בן נץ מעמידה מחרבת כל העולם כולו מפניה שנאמר (איוב לט, כו) המבינתך יאבר נץ יפרש כנפיו לתימן,רבא ורב נחמן בר יצחק הוו יתבי הוה חליף ואזיל רב נחמן בר יעקב דיתיב בגוהרקא דדהבא ופריס עליה סרבלא דכרתי רבא אזל לגביה רב נחמן בר יצחק לא אזל לגביה אמר דלמא מאינשי דבי ריש גלותא נינהו רבא צריך להו אנא לא צריכנא להו,כדחזא דרב נחמן בר יעקב הוה אזיל לגביה גלי לדרעיה אמר שדיא נשיב אמר רבא הכי אמר רב אשה מפלת בו ושמואל אמר אפי' מרגלית שבים מרקבת בו ר' יוחנן אמר אפי' שכבת זרע שבמעי אשה מסרחת בו,אמר רב נחמן [בר יצחק] ושלשתן מקרא אחד דרשו (הושע יג, טו) כי הוא בין אחים יפריא יבוא קדים רוח ה' ממדבר עולה ויבוש מקורו וגו' יבוש מקורו זו מקורה של אשה ויחרב מעיינו זה שכבת זרע שבמעי אשה הוא ישסה אוצר כל כלי חמדה זו מרגלית שבים,אמר רבא עדי סוראה הוא דדייקי קראי מאי כי הוא בין אחים יפריא אמר רבא אפילו 31b. It means bfrom the timethat it was bset aside until thesame btimethe day after it was set aside. In other words, he must be concerned about all of the untithed produce that he had rendered fit after the first twenty-four hour period from when he set aside the produce or money had passed., bWe learnedin the mishna: bIfhe discovers that bthey were lost,then bhe must be concernedthat the produce or money that he set aside was lost bfrom the time until thesame btime. Granted, according to the one who saidthat this means bfrom the timeit was bcheckedand found to be lost buntil thesame btimeof day on the previous day, it works out bwell,as the wine is presumed to have turned to vinegar from that moment., bBut according to the one who saidthat this means bfrom the timethat it was bset aside until thesame btimethe day after it was set aside, bthisexpression: bFrom the time until thesame btime,is imprecise, as the presumption is that the wine turned to vinegar dating back to the day after it had been set aside. Therefore, it bshould havesaid: One is concerned going back buntilthen bfrom the timeit was set aside bto thesame btimethe following day, i.e., twenty-four hours after it had been set aside. The Gemara comments: The wording of the mishna is bdifficultaccording to that opinion.,The mishna teaches that this is bthe statement ofthe itanna bRabbi Elazar.The iamora bRabbi Elazar says: Rabbi Elazar’s colleagues disagree with him, as we learnedin a mishna ( iMikvaot2:2): In the case of ba ritual baththat was known to have contained the requisite forty ise’a /i, bwhich wasthen bmeasured and found deficientin its quantity of water, ball pure items that had been renderedpure bin it, retroactiveto when the ritual bath was last measured, bwhetherthis ritual bath is found bin the private domain or in the public domain, are impure. /b,The Gemara comments: It bis obvious thatthose who ascribe to the statement of that mishna bdisagreewith Rabbi Elazar the itanna /i. What novel idea is Rabbi Elazar the iamorateaching? The Gemara answers: It is necessary blest you saythat bwhatthe term bretroactiveis referring to is any item that was immersed and purified bfrom the timeit was found to be deficient buntil thesame btimethe previous day, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar. Therefore, he bteaches usthat in fact they disagree and deem impure all items immersed from the time that the ritual bath had last been checked.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says:One checks the wine bat three timesduring the year. One of these times is when the east wind blows at the conclusion of the festival of iSukkot /i. A Sage btaught:It is checked bwhen the east wind blows at the conclusion of the festivalof iSukkot binthe bseasonof iTishrei /i, i.e., autumn. However, if the summer continues until the festival of iSukkot /i, then in the event of this unusual occurrence one does not check the wine., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yehuda saysthat bat three timesduring the year bone sells the grain: Beforethe time of bthe sowing, and during the time of the sowing, and before thefestival of bPassover. And at three timesof the year bone sells the wine: Before thefestival of bPassover, and beforethe festival of iShavuot /i, and before the festivalof iSukkot /i. bAnd oilis sold bfromthe festival of iShavuotand onward.The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iwas this stated? One may sell these products whenever he so desires. bRava said, and some saythat it was bRav Pappawho said: This ihalakhawas stated bwith regard to partners,as one partner may sell these products without the permission of the other only at these times of the year. At other times, he must first receive permission from his partner. bFrom thispoint bforward,i.e., after the latest of the three times has passed, bwhatis the ihalakha /i? bRava said: Every day is its timeto be sold.,§ Having mentioned the east wind, the Gemara quotes a related verse: b“And it came to pass, when the sun arose, that God prepared a vehement [ iḥarishit /i] east wind”(Jonah 4:8). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word b“ iḥarishit /i”? Rav Yehuda says:It means a wind that plows [ iḥoreshet /i], as bat the time thatthe wind bblows, it forms many furrows in the sea,as though it were plowing the sea., bRabba said to him: If that is so,then bthat which is writtenin the continuation of the verse: b“And the sun beat upon the head of Jonah and he fainted”(Jonah 4:8), is difficult; it seems from the continuation of the verse that the wind was not extremely hot, not strong. bRather, Rabba says: At the time that it blows, it silences all the winds before it.Therefore, it is called iḥarishit /i, because all other winds are silent [ imaḥarishot /i] before it. Since only this wind was blowing, it became very hot. bAnd this is as it is written: “You whose garments are hot, when the earth is still by reason of the south wind”(Job 37:17). bRabbi Taḥalifa bar Rav Ḥisda saysthat bRav Ḥisda saysin explanation of this verse: bWhen are your garments hot,i.e., when is there the greatest heat? It is bwhen the earth is still by reason of the south wind, as at the time thatthe southern wind bblows, it silences all the winds before it. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav Huna and Rav Ḥisda were sitting,and bGeneiva passed by them. One said to the other: Let us stand before him, as he is a son ofthe bTorah. The other said to him: Shall we stand before a quarrelsomeperson? bIn the meantime,Geneiva bcame to themand bsaid to them: With what were you dealingwhen you were sitting together? bThey said to him:We were dealing bwith winds. /b, bHe said to them: This is what Rav Ḥa bar Rava saysthat bRav says: Four winds blow on each day, and the north wind blowstogether bwith each ofthe other three; bas, if this were not soand the northern wind did not blow, then bthe world would not survivefor beven one hour. And the south wind is harsher than all of them, and were it notfor the angel called bBen Netz,who bstops itfrom blowing even harder, then it would bdestroy the entire world before it, as it is stated: “Does the hawk [ inetz /i] soar by your wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?”(Job 39:26).,The Gemara also relates that bRava and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak were sitting,and bRav Naḥman bar Ya’akov was passingby them bwhile sitting on a gilt carriage [ igoharka /i] andwith ba green cloak [ isarbela /i] spread over him. Rava went to him,but bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not go to him. He said: Perhaps they are members of the house of the Exilarch. Rava needs them,but bI do not need them. /b, bWhen he saw that it was Rav Naḥman bar Ya’akov, healso bwent to him.Rav Naḥman bar Ya’akov buncovered his armdue to the heat and bsaid:The wind called bShadya is blowing. Rava saysthat bthis iswhat bRav saysabout this wind: bA woman miscarries in itswake. bAnd Shmuel says: Even a pearl [ imargalit /i] that is in the sea decomposes in itswake. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Even the semen that is in a woman’s womb putrefies in itswake., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak,who was present, bsaidabout their statements: bAnd the three of them derivedtheir statements bfrom one verse,as it is stated: b“For though he be fruitful among the reed-plants, an east wind shall come, the wind of the Lord coming up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry,and his fountain shall be dried up; he shall spoil the treasure of all precious vessels” (Hosea 13:15). The statement that a woman miscarries in its wake is based on the phrase b“His spring shall become dry,”as bthisis referring to ba woman’s womb.With regard to the phrase b“And his fountain shall be dried up,” thisis referring to the bsemen that is in a woman’s womb.And with regard to the phrase b“He shall spoil the treasure of all precious vessels,” thisis referring to ba pearl in the sea. /b, bRava says: ThisSage bis from Sura, as they are precisewith bverses.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: b“Though he be fruitful [ iyafri /i] among the reed-plants”? Rava said: Even /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

99b. זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) [סביסקי]:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) [רבי יוחנן אמר] אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם 99b. bSing every day, sing every day,i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. bRav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says:From bwhat verseis this derived? It is bas it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. bHe laborsin Torah bin this place,this world, band his Torah labors for him in another place,the World-to-Come., bRabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil”(Job 5:7). Based on this verse, bI do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth,speech, or bwhether he was created for the toil of labor. Whenthe verse bstates: “For his mouth presses upon him”(Proverbs 16:26), byou must saythat bhe was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not knowwith regard to the toil of the mouth bwhether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. Whenthe verse bstates: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth”(Joshua 1:8), byou must saythat bhe was created for the toil of Torah. And that isthe meaning of bwhat Rava said: All bodies are like receptaclesto store items until use. bHappy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah. /b,The verse states: b“He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding”(Proverbs 6:32). bReish Lakish says: This isa reference to bone who studies Torah intermittently,who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, bas it is statedabout words of Torah: b“For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips”(Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat with regard to the verse: b“But the person who acts high-handedly,whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), bthisis a reference to bManasseh ben Hezekiah,king of Israel, bwho would sit and teach flawedinterpretations of Torah bnarratives. /b,Manasseh bsaid: But did Moses need to write onlyinsignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”(Genesis 36:22), or: b“And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz,son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found iduda’imin the field”(Genesis 30:14)? bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes”(Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import., bAnd aboutManasseh ben Hezekiah bit is stated explicitly in thetexts of btradition,the Prophets: b“Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope”(Isaiah 5:18). bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says:This is a reference to bthe evil inclination. Initially, it seems likea flimsy bspinning [ ikuveya /i] thread and ultimately it seems likea sturdy bcart rope. /b,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse bthat we came todiscuss, bin any event, what isthe significance of the phrase in the verse b“And Lotan’s sister was Timna”?The Gemara explains: bTimna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan”(Genesis 36:29), and: b“The chief of Timna”(Genesis 36:40), band each chief isa member of ba monarchy,albeit bwithout a crown.That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna bsought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said,referring to herself: bIt is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation.Ultimately, bAmalek,son of Eliphaz, bemerged from her,and that tribe bafflicted the Jewish people. What is the reasonthat the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact bthat they should not have rejected herwhen she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant., b“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest”(Genesis 30:14). bRava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, saysthat bRav says: From hereit can be seen bthat the righteous do not extend their handsto engage bin robberyeven of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless iduda’im /i. The verse continues: b“And he found iduda’imin the field.”The Gemara asks: bWhat are iduda’im /i? Rav says:They are a plant called iyavruḥei /i. Levi says:They are bviolets. Rabbi Yonatan says:They are iseviskei /i. /b,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, bRabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages inthe study of bTorah for its own sake introduces peace into theheavenly bentourage above and into theearthly bentourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ ima’uzi /i], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me”(Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called ioz /i, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were., bRav says:It is bas though he built a palace ofheaven babove and ofearth bbelow, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth,and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. bRabbi Yoḥa says:One who engages in Torah study balso protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advancesthe coming of bthe redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.” /b, bReish Lakish said:With regard to banyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he formedthat student, bas it is stated:“And Abram took Sarai his wife… band the souls that they formed in Haran”(Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. bRabbi Elazar says:It is bas though he fashioned [ iasa’an /i] the words of Torahthemselves, bas it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, iva’asitem otam /i”(Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. bRava says:It is bas though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “ iVa’asitem otam /i.” Do not read“ iva’asitem botam/i b”as: And you shall fashion them; brather,read it as iva’asitem batem/i b,meaning: You shall fashion yourself., bRabbi Abbahu says:With regard to banyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself, bas it is stated:“And the Lord said to Moses… band your rod, with which you struck the river,take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). bAndwas it bMoseswho bstruckthe river? bBut isn’tit written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that bAaron struckthe river? bRather,that verse serves bto say to you: Anyone who causes another toengage in ba matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he performed ithimself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include ban iepikoros /i. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt ischaracterized as one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately,due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one bwho interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like whatindividual does such a person conduct himself? He is blike Manasseh, son of Hezekiah,who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives., bAnd there are those who teachthis dispute bwith regard to the latter clauseof the ibaraita /i: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: bOne who interprets the Torahinappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. bRav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: Thisis bone who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Thisis bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bone who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar ischaracterized as the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna. bBut according to the one who saysthat bone who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar isthe one mentioned in the ibaraitawho binterprets the Torahinappropriately, how would he characterize the iepikoros /imentioned in the mishna? bLike whomdoes he conduct himself? bRav Yosef says:It is referring to one who conducts himself blike those who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bThey readthe Bible bfor theirown benefit and bthey studythe Mishna bfor theirown benefit., bAbaye said to him: Thatperson who questions the benefit provided by Sages is balsoin the category of one bwho interprets the Torahinappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, bas it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth”(Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too concludethe same concept bfrom it, as it is stated:“If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, bthen I will spare the entire place for their sakes”(Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside., bRather,the iepikorosmentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself blike one who sits before his teacher and a ihalakha /ithat he learned bfrom another place happens to fallinto his consciousness bandthe student bsays: This is what we say there, and he does not saydeferentially: bThis is what the Master said,even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. bRava said:The term iepikorosis referring to one who conducts himself blike those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say:In bwhatmanner bhave the Sages benefited uswith all their Torah study? bNever /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. נזדמן לו אדם אחד שהיה מכוער ביותר אמר לו שלום עליך רבי ולא החזיר לו אמר לו ריקה כמה מכוער אותו האיש שמא כל בני עירך מכוערין כמותך אמר לו איני יודע אלא לך ואמור לאומן שעשאני כמה מכוער כלי זה שעשית כיון שידע בעצמו שחטא ירד מן החמור ונשתטח לפניו ואמר לו נעניתי לך מחול לי אמר לו איני מוחל לך עד שתלך לאומן שעשאני ואמור לו כמה מכוער כלי זה שעשית,היה מטייל אחריו עד שהגיע לעירו יצאו בני עירו לקראתו והיו אומרים לו שלום עליך רבי רבי מורי מורי אמר להם למי אתם קורין רבי רבי אמרו לו לזה שמטייל אחריך אמר להם אם זה רבי אל ירבו כמותו בישראל אמרו לו מפני מה אמר להם כך וכך עשה לי אמרו לו אעפ"כ מחול לו שאדם גדול בתורה הוא,אמר להם בשבילכם הריני מוחל לו ובלבד שלא יהא רגיל לעשות כן מיד נכנס רבי אלעזר בן רבי שמעון ודרש לעולם יהא אדם רך כקנה ואל יהא קשה כארז ולפיכך זכה קנה ליטול הימנה קולמוס לכתוב בו ספר תורה תפילין ומזוזות:,וכן עיר שיש בה דבר או מפולת כו': תנו רבנן מפולת שאמרו בריאות ולא רעועות שאינן ראויות ליפול ולא הראויות ליפול,הי ניהו בריאות הי ניהו שאינן ראויות ליפול הי ניהו רעועות הי ניהו ראויות ליפול לא צריכא דנפלו מחמת גובהייהו אי נמי דקיימן אגודא דנהרא,כי ההיא אשיתא רעועה דהואי בנהרדעא דלא הוה חליף רב ושמואל תותה אע"ג דקיימא באתרה תליסר שנין יומא חד איקלע רב אדא בר אהבה להתם אמר ליה שמואל לרב ניתי מר נקיף אמר ליה לא צריכנא האידנא דאיכא רב אדא בר אהבה בהדן דנפיש זכותיה ולא מסתפינא,רב הונא הוה ליה ההוא חמרא בההוא ביתא רעיעא ובעי לפנוייה עייליה לרב אדא בר אהבה להתם משכי' בשמעתא עד דפנייה בתר דנפק נפל ביתא ארגיש רב אדא בר אהבה איקפד,סבר לה כי הא דאמר רבי ינאי לעולם אל יעמוד אדם במקום סכנה ויאמר עושין לי נס שמא אין עושין לו נס ואם תימצי לומר עושין לו נס מנכין לו מזכיותיו אמר רב חנן מאי קרא דכתיב (בראשית לב, יא) קטנתי מכל החסדים ומכל האמת,מאי הוה עובדיה דרב אדא בר אהבה כי הא דאתמר שאלו תלמידיו (את רבי זירא ואמרי לה) לרב אדא בר אהבה במה הארכת ימים אמר להם מימי לא הקפדתי בתוך ביתי ולא צעדתי בפני מי שגדול ממני,ולא הרהרתי במבואות המטונפות ולא הלכתי ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא ששתי בתקלת חברי ולא קראתי לחבירי בהכינתו ואמרי לה בחניכתו,אמר ליה רבא לרפרם בר פפא לימא לן מר מהני מילי מעלייתא דהוה עביד רב הונא אמר ליה בינקותיה לא דכירנא בסיבותיה דכירנא דכל יומא דעיבא הוו מפקין ליה בגוהרקא דדהבא וסייר לה לכולה מתא וכל אשיתא דהוות רעיעתא הוה סתר לה אי אפשר למרה בני לה ואי לא אפשר בני לה איהו מדידיה,וכל פניא דמעלי שבתא הוה משדר שלוחא לשוקא וכל ירקא דהוה פייש להו לגינאי זבין ליה ושדי ליה לנהרא וליתביה לעניים זמנין דסמכא דעתייהו ולא אתו למיזבן ולשדייה לבהמה קסבר מאכל אדם אין מאכילין לבהמה,ולא ליזבניה כלל נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא,כי הוה ליה מילתא דאסותא הוי מלי כוזא דמיא ותלי ליה בסיפא דביתא ואמר כל דבעי ליתי ולישקול ואיכא דאמרי מילתא דשיבתא הוה גמיר והוה מנח כוזא דמיא ודלי ליה ואמר כל דצריך ליתי וליעול דלא לסתכן,כי הוה כרך ריפתא הוה פתח לבביה ואמר כל מאן דצריך ליתי וליכול אמר רבא כולהו מצינא מקיימנא לבר מהא דלא מצינא למיעבד 20b. bHe happenedupon ban exceedingly ugly person,who bsaid to him: Greetings to you, my rabbi, butRabbi Elazar bdid not returnhis greeting. Instead, Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: Worthless [ ireika /i]person, bhow ugly is that man. Are all the people of your city as ugly as you?The man bsaid to him: I do not know, but youshould bgo and say to the Craftsman Who made me: How ugly is the vessel you made. WhenRabbi Elazar brealized that hehad bsinnedand insulted this man merely on account of his appearance, bhe descended from his donkey and prostrated himself before him, and he said tothe man: bI have sinned against you; forgive me.The man bsaid to him: I will not forgive you go until you go to the Craftsman Who made me and say: How ugly is the vessel you made. /b, bHe walked behindthe man, trying to appease him, buntil they reachedRabbi Elazar’s bcity. The people of his city came out to greet him, saying to him: Greetings to you, my rabbi, my rabbi, my master, my master.The man bsaid to them: Who are you calling my rabbi, my rabbi? They said to him: To this man, who is walking behind you. He said to them: If thisman bis a rabbi, may there not be many like him among the Jewish people. They asked him: For whatreason do you say this? He bsaid to them: He did such and such to me. They said to him: Even so,forgive him, bas he is a great Torah scholar. /b, bHe said to them: For your sakes I forgive him, provided thathe accepts upon himself bnot to become accustomed to behave like this. Immediately, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, entered the study hall and taught: A person should always be soft like a reed and he should not be stiff like a cedar,as one who is proud like a cedar is likely to sin. bAnd therefore,due to its gentle qualities, the breed meritedthat ba quill is taken from it to write with it a Torah scroll, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAnd likewise,if a bcity isafflicted bby pestilence or collapsing buildings,that city fasts and sounds the alarm, and all of its surrounding areas fast but they do not sound the alarm. Rabbi Akiva says: They sound the alarm but they do not fast. bThe Sages taught:These collapsing buildings bto whichthe Sages breferredare those of bsturdy and not dilapidatedwalls; they have walls bthat are not ready to fall, and not those that are ready to fall. /b,The Gemara expresses puzzlement with regard to the wording of the ibaraita /i: bWhat are soundwalls; bwhat arewalls bthat are not ready to fall; what are dilapidatedwalls; bwhat are those that are ready to fall?The elements in each pair of walls are apparently the same, and the ibaraitais repetitive. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto specify that in the case of walls bthat fell due to their height,i.e., they are sound but also ready to fall, due to their excessive height. bAlternatively,the ibaraitais referring to a case bwherethe walls bwere positioned on a riverbank,as they are likely to fall despite the fact that they are not dilapidated, as the riverbank itself is unstable.,The Gemara relates: This is blike thatdilapidated wall bthat was in Neharde’a, under which Rav and Shmuel would not pass, although it stood in place thirteen years. One day Rav Adda bar Ahava happenedto come bthereand walked with them. As they passed the wall, bShmuel said to Rav: Come, Master, let us circumventthis wall, so that we do not stand beneath it. Rav bsaid to him:It is bnot necessaryto do so btoday, as Rav Adda bar Ahava is with us, whose merit is great, andtherefore bI am not afraidof its collapse.,The Gemara relates another incident. bRav Huna had a certainquantity of bwine in a certain dilapidated house and he wanted to move it,but he was afraid that the building would collapse upon his entry. bHe brought Rav Adda bar Ahava to there,to the ramshackle house, and bhe draggedout a discussion with bhimconcerning a matter of ihalakhauntil they had removedall the wine. bAs soon as they exited, the building collapsed. Rav Adda bar Ahava realizedwhat had happened band became angry. /b,The Gemara explains: Rav Adda bar Ahava bholds in accordance with thisstatement, bas Rabbi Yannai said: A person should never stand in a place of danger and say: A miracle will be performed for me,and I will escape unharmed, blest a miracle is not performed for him. And if you saythat ba miraclewill be bperformed for him, they will deduct it from his merits. Rav Ḥa said: What is the versethat alludes to this idea? bAs it is written: “I have become small from all the mercies and all the truththat You have showed Your servant” (Genesis 32:11). In other words, the more benevolence one receives from God, the more his merit is reduced.,After recounting stories that reflect Rav Adda bar Ahava’s great merit, the Gemara asks: bWhat werethe exceptional deeds bof Rav Adda bar Ahava?The Gemara reports that they are bas it is stated:The students of Rabbi Zeira asked him, and some say that bthe students of Rav Adda bar Ahava asked him: To whatdo you attribute byour longevity? He said to them: In all my days I did not become angry with my household, and I never walked before someone greater than myself;rather, I always gave him the honor of walking before me.,Rav Adda bar Ahava continued: bAnd I did not thinkabout matters of Torah bin filthy alleyways; and I did not walk four cubits withoutengaging in bTorah and withoutdonning bphylacteries; and Iwould bnot fall asleep in the study hall, neither a deep sleep nor a brief nap; and Iwould bnot rejoice in the mishap of my colleague; and Iwould bnot call my colleague by his nickname. And some saythat he said: I would bnot call my colleague by hisderogatory bfamily name. /b,§ The Gemara relates another story about the righteous deeds of the Sages involving a dilapidated wall. bRava said to Rafram bar Pappa: Let the Master tell us some of those finedeeds bthat Rav Huna performed. He said to him: I do not rememberwhat he did bin his youth, butthe deeds bof his old age I remember. As on every cloudy day they would take him out in a golden carriage [ iguharka /i], and he would survey the entire city. Andhe would command bthat every unstable wallbe btorn down,lest it fall in the rain and hurt someone. bIf its owner was ableto build another, Rav Huna would instruct him bto rebuild it. And if he was unableto rebuild it, Rav Huna would bbuild it himself with his own money. /b,Rafram bar Pappa further relates: bAnd every Shabbat eve,in the bafternoon,Rav Huna bwould send a messenger to the marketplace, and he would purchase all the vegetables that were left with the gardenerswho sold their crops, band throwthem binto the river.The Gemara asks: bButwhy did he throw out the vegetables? bLet him give them to the poor.The Gemara answers: If he did this, the poor would bsometimes relyon the fact that Rav Huna would hand out vegetables, band they would not come to purchaseany. This would ruin the gardeners’ livelihood. The Gemara further asks: bAnd let him throw them to the animals.The Gemara answers: bHe holdsthat bhuman foodmay bnot be fed to animals,as this is a display of contempt for the food.,The Gemara objects: bButif Rav Huna could not use them in any way, he should bnot purchasethe vegetables bat all.The Gemara answers: If nothing is done, byouwould have been bfoundto have caused ba stumbling block for them in the future.If the vegetable sellers see that some of their produce is left unsold, the next week they will not bring enough for Shabbat. Therefore, Rav Huna made sure that the vegetables were all bought, so that the sellers would continue to bring them.,Another custom of Rav Huna was bthat when he hada new bmedicine, he would filla water bjugwith the medicine band hang it from the doorpost of his house, saying: All who need, let him come and takefrom this new medicine. bAnd there arethose bwho say: He had a remedyagainst the demon bShivtathat he knew by btradition,that one must wash his hands for protection against this evil spirit. bAndto this end, bhe would place a water jug and hangit by the door, bsaying: Anyone who needs, let him cometo the house and wash his hands, so bthat he will not be in danger. /b,The Gemara further relates: bWhenRav Huna bwould eat bread, he would open the doorsto his house, bsaying: Whoever needs, let him come in and eat. Rava said: I can fulfill all thesecustoms of Rav Huna, bexcept for this one, which I cannot do, /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
animal imagery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
antithesis Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
aqdamut millin Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
aramaic Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
babylonia and iraq Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
bible Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
blood, and consumption Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
blood-rites Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 337, 338
codicology Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
consecration Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
consumption, permissibility of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
dedication Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
egypt Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
food, cleanness of Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 337, 338
genizah Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
gluttons, gluttony Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
god, consumption by Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
hallel Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 413
holiness, profanity, profanation, consecration Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 54
hope Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
households, and temple Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 337, 338
hubert, henri Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
hullin Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 337, 338
hunting Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
hymn Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
israel/israelite Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
israel/palestine/holy land/zion Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
mauss, marcel Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
meat-eating Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 337, 338
moses Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
nishmat Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
parallelism Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
permission (hatarah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
persia Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
piyyut/poetry Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
prohibition' Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 99
quail Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
quarreling Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
reconciliation Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
religious ideas/theology/relations with Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 164
sacrifice, non-ritual slaughter Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 54
scribe Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
secrets/confidences, keeping/betraying Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
shame Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 108
targum Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 324
temple, as metaphor for household Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 337, 338
wound Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 186
ṭhwr Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 413
ṭmʾ Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 413