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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6278
Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 11.14


וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11, 13.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 6.4, 6.8-6.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה נָאוָה כִּירוּשָׁלִָם אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.8. שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְּלָכוֹת וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר׃ 6.9. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְלוּהָ׃ 6.4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, Comely as Jerusalem, Terrible as an army with banners. 6.8. There are threescore queens, And fourscore concubines, And maidens without number. 6.9. My dove, my undefiled, is but one; She is the only one of her mother; She is the choice one of her that bore her. The daughters saw her, and called her happy; Yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her. 6.10. Who is she that looketh forth as the dawn, Fair as the moon, Clear as the sun, Terrible as an army with banners?
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.26, 4.36, 5, 5.1, 5.1-6.3, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 6, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 7.13, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.12, 9.26, 10, 10.18, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.28, 12.17, 14.23, 18.4, 24.19, 24.21, 26.12, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 28.9, 28.10, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.26, 28.27, 28.28, 28.29, 28.30, 28.31, 28.32, 28.33, 28.34, 28.35, 28.36, 28.37, 28.38, 28.39, 28.40, 28.41, 28.42, 28.43, 28.44, 28.45, 28.46, 28.47, 28.48, 28.49, 28.50, 28.51, 28.52, 28.53, 28.54, 28.55, 28.56, 28.57, 28.58, 28.59, 28.60, 28.61, 28.62, 28.63, 28.64, 28.65, 28.66, 28.67, 28.68, 30.15, 30.16, 30.17, 30.18, 30.19, 32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.43, 13.1-13.16, 20.1-20.14, 29.38-29.42, 33.11, 34.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.43. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 13.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 13.1. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־הַחֻקָּה הַזֹּאת לְמוֹעֲדָהּ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה׃ 13.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מִסֻּכֹּת וַיַּחֲנוּ בְאֵתָם בִּקְצֵה הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 13.2. קַדֶּשׁ־לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר כָּל־רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה לִי הוּא׃ 13.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם זָכוֹר אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיא יְהֹוָה אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל חָמֵץ׃ 13.4. הַיּוֹם אַתֶּם יֹצְאִים בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב׃ 13.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה׃ 13.6. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצֹּת וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי חַג לַיהוָה׃ 13.7. מַצּוֹת יֵאָכֵל אֵת שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ חָמֵץ וְלֹא־יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלֶךָ׃ 13.8. וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.9. וְהָיָה לְךָ לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְךָ וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ לְמַעַן תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ כִּי בְּיָד חֲזָקָה הוֹצִאֲךָ יְהֹוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃ 13.14. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ בִנְךָ מָחָר לֵאמֹר מַה־זֹּאת וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 13.15. וַיְהִי כִּי־הִקְשָׁה פַרְעֹה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ וַיַּהֲרֹג יְהֹוָה כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבְּכֹר אָדָם וְעַד־בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה עַל־כֵּן אֲנִי זֹבֵחַ לַיהוָה כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם הַזְּכָרִים וְכָל־בְּכוֹר בָּנַי אֶפְדֶּה׃ 13.16. וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 29.38. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם תָּמִיד׃ 29.39. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 29.41. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 29.42. עֹלַת תָּמִיד לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם שָׁמָּה לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ שָׁם׃ 33.11. וְדִבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ וְשָׁב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וּמְשָׁרְתוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן נַעַר לֹא יָמִישׁ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹהֶל׃ 34.22. וְחַג שָׁבֻעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים וְחַג הָאָסִיף תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.43. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘This is the ordice of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof;" 13.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 13.2. ’Sanctify unto Me all the first-born, whatsoever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast, it is Mine.’" 13.3. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place; there shall no leavened bread be eaten." 13.4. This day ye go forth in the month Abib." 13.5. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which He swore unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month." 13.6. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD." 13.7. Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee, in all thy borders." 13.8. And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt." 13.9. And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the law of the LORD may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt." 13.10. Thou shalt therefore keep this ordice in its season from year to year." 13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee," 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s." 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem." 13.14. And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying: What is this? that thou shalt say unto him: By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage;" 13.15. and it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man, and the first-born of beast; therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the womb, being males; but all the first-born of my sons I redeem." 13.16. And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between your eyes; for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.’" 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 29.38. Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar: two lambs of the first year day by day continually." 29.39. The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk." 29.40. And with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink-offering." 29.41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk, and shalt do thereto according to the meal-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.42. It shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations at the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD, where I will meet with you, to speak there unto thee." 33.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he would return into the camp; but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent." 34.22. And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, even of the first-fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the turn of the year."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.7, 2.15, 2.19-2.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי זָנְתָה אִמָּם הֹבִישָׁה הוֹרָתָם כִּי אָמְרָה אֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבַי נֹתְנֵי לַחְמִי וּמֵימַי צַמְרִי וּפִשְׁתִּי שַׁמְנִי וְשִׁקּוּיָי׃ 2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.19. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַבְּעָלִים מִפִּיהָ וְלֹא־יִזָּכְרוּ עוֹד בִּשְׁמָם׃ 2.7. For their mother hath played the harlot, She that conceived them hath done shamefully; For she said: ‘I will go after my lovers, That give me my bread and my water, My wool and my flax, mine oil and my drink.’" 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD." 2.19. For I will take away the names of the Baalim out of her mouth, And they shall no more be mentioned by their name." 2.20. And in that day will I make a covet for them With the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven, And with the creeping things of the ground; And I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the land, And will make them to lie down safely."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 5.10, 37.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.6. כִּי לַשֶּׁלַג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ וְגֶשֶׁם מָטָר וְגֶשֶׁם מִטְרוֹת עֻזּוֹ׃ 5.10. Who giveth rain upon the earth, And sendeth waters upon the fields;" 37.6. For He saith to the snow: ‘Fall thou on the earth’; Likewise to the shower of rain, and to the showers of His mighty rain."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 6.12-6.13, 7.8, 19.9-19.10, 23.14, 23.22, 24.6-24.7, 26.18-26.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.12. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 6.13. זֶה קָרְבַּן אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת מִנְחָה תָּמִיד מַחֲצִיתָהּ בַּבֹּקֶר וּמַחֲצִיתָהּ בָּעָרֶב׃ 7.8. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־עֹלַת אִישׁ עוֹר הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 23.14. וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד־עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה עַד הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־קָרְבַּן אֱלֹהֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 23.22. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא־תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ בְּקֻצְרֶךָ וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 24.6. וְשַׂמְתָּ אוֹתָם שְׁתַּיִם מַעֲרָכוֹת שֵׁשׁ הַמַּעֲרָכֶת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַטָּהֹר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 24.7. וְנָתַתָּ עַל־הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת לְבֹנָה זַכָּה וְהָיְתָה לַלֶּחֶם לְאַזְכָּרָה אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 26.18. וְאִם־עַד־אֵלֶּה לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי וְיָסַפְתִּי לְיַסְּרָה אֶתְכֶם שֶׁבַע עַל־חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם׃ 26.19. וְשָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־גְּאוֹן עֻזְּכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם כַּבַּרְזֶל וְאֶת־אַרְצְכֶם כַּנְּחֻשָׁה׃ 6.12. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 6.13. This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in the day when he is anointed: the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering perpetually, half of it in the morning, and half thereof in the evening." 7.8. And the priest that offereth any man’s burnt-offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering which he hath offered." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 23.14. And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor fresh ears, until this selfsame day, until ye have brought the offering of your God; it is a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings." 23.22. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest; thou shalt leave them for the poor, and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 24.6. And thou shalt set them in two rows, six in a row, upon the pure table before the LORD." 24.7. And thou shalt put pure frankincense with each row, that it may be to the bread for a memorial-part, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 26.18. And if ye will not yet for these things hearken unto Me, then I will chastise you seven times more for your sins." 26.19. And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass." 26.20. And your strength shall be spent in vain; for your land shall not yield her produce, neither shall the trees of the land yield their fruit."
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.3-4.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.4. וְיָשְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחַת גַּפְנוֹ וְתַחַת תְּאֵנָתוֹ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד כִּי־פִי יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת דִּבֵּר׃ 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 4.4. But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree; And none shall make them afraid; For the mouth of the LORD of hosts hath spoken."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.24-6.26, 15.37-15.41, 18.12, 28.1-28.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.12. כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃ 28.1. עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 28.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 28.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִימִם שְׁנַיִם לַיּוֹם עֹלָה תָמִיד׃ 28.3. שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 28.4. אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 28.5. וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 28.6. עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 28.7. וְנִסְכּוֹ רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַיהוָה׃ 28.8. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 18.12. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them." 28.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season." 28.3. And thou shalt say unto them: This is the offering made by fire which ye shall bring unto the LORD: he-lambs of the first year without blemish, two day by day, for a continual burnt-offering." 28.4. The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at dusk;" 28.5. and the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil." 28.6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was offered in mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 28.7. And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of a hin for the one lamb; in the holy place shalt thou pour out a drink-offering of strong drink unto the LORD." 28.8. And the other lamb shalt thou present at dusk; as the meal-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt present it, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD."
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. וצפן [יִצְפֹּן] לַיְשָׁרִים תּוּשִׁיָּה מָגֵן לְהֹלְכֵי תֹם׃ 2.7. He layeth up sound wisdom for the upright, He is a shield to them that walk in integrity;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 12.1, 51.20, 104.15, 119.164 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 12.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־הַשְּׁמִינִית מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד׃ 104.15. וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ לְהַצְהִיל פָּנִים מִשָּׁמֶן וְלֶחֶם לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד׃ 119.164. שֶׁבַע בַּיּוֹם הִלַּלְתִּיךָ עַל מִשְׁפְּטֵי צִדְקֶךָ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 12.1. For the Leader; on the Sheminith. A Psalm of David." 51.20. Do good in Thy favour unto Zion; build Thou the walls of Jerusalem." 104.15. And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, Making the face brighter than oil, And bread that stayeth man's heart." 119.164. Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of Thy righteous ordices."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 1.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַתָּשָׁב נָעֳמִי וְרוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה כַלָּתָהּ עִמָּהּ הַשָּׁבָה מִשְּׂדֵי מוֹאָב וְהֵמָּה בָּאוּ בֵּית לֶחֶם בִּתְחִלַּת קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים׃ 1.22. So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter-in-law, with her, who returned out of the field of Moab—and they came to Beth-lehem in the beginning of barley harvest."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 7.48, 8.35-8.36, 17.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.48. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר בֵּית יְהוָה אֵת מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים זָהָב׃ 8.35. בְּהֵעָצֵר שָׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וּמֵחַטָּאתָם יְשׁוּבוּן כִּי תַעֲנֵם׃ 8.36. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עֲבָדֶיךָ וְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי תוֹרֵם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ וְנָתַתָּה מָטָר עַל־אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לְעַמְּךָ לְנַחֲלָה׃ 17.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד אֶל־אַחְאָב חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם־יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר כִּי אִם־לְפִי דְבָרִי׃ 17.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ צָרְפַתָה וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פֶּתַח הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת עֵצִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר קְחִי־נָא לִי מְעַט־מַיִם בַּכְּלִי וְאֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 7.48. And Solomon made all the vessels that were in the house of the LORD: the golden altar, and the table whereupon the showbread was, of gold;" 8.35. When heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, when they do sin against Thee; if they pray toward this place, and confess Thy name, and turn from their sin, when Thou dost afflict them;" 8.36. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy servants, and of Thy people Israel, when Thou teachest them the good way wherein they should walk; and send rain upon Thy land, which Thou hast given to Thy people for an inheritance." 17.1. And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the settlers of Gilead, said unto Ahab: ‘As the LORD, the God of Israel, liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 12.17, 25.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.17. הֲלוֹא קְצִיר־חִטִּים הַיּוֹם אֶקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וְיִתֵּן קֹלוֹת וּמָטָר וּדְעוּ וּרְאוּ כִּי־רָעַתְכֶם רַבָּה אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לִשְׁאוֹל לָכֶם מֶלֶךְ׃ 25.18. וַתְּמַהֵר אבוגיל [אֲבִיגַיִל] וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי־יַיִן וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן עשוות [עֲשׂוּיֹת] וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים וַתָּשֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים׃ 12.17. Is it not wheat harvest today? I will call to the Lord, and he shall send thunder and rain; that you may know and see that your wickedness is great, which you have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking for a king for yourselves." 25.18. Then Avigayil made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready prepared, and five measures of parched corn, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses."
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.3, 2.5, 2.12, 18.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וַיֵּצְאוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בֵּית־אֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃ 2.5. וַיִּגְּשׁוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בִּירִיחוֹ אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃ 2.12. וֶאֱלִישָׁע רֹאֶה וְהוּא מְצַעֵק אָבִי אָבִי רֶכֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרָשָׁיו וְלֹא רָאָהוּ עוֹד וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם לִשְׁנַיִם קְרָעִים׃ 18.32. עַד־בֹּאִי וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ כְּאַרְצְכֶם אֶרֶץ דָּגָן וְתִירוֹשׁ אֶרֶץ לֶחֶם וּכְרָמִים אֶרֶץ זֵית יִצְהָר וּדְבַשׁ וִחְיוּ וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כִּי־יַסִּית אֶתְכֶם לֵאמֹר יְהוָה יַצִּילֵנוּ׃ 2.3. And the sons of the prophets that were at Beth-el came forth to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he said: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’—" 2.5. And the sons of the prophets that were at Jericho came near to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he answered: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’—" 2.12. And Elisha saw it, and he cried: ‘My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof! ’ And he saw him no more; and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces." 18.32. until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of olive-trees and of honey, that ye may live, and not die; and hearken not unto Hezekiah, when he persuadeth you, saying: The LORD will deliver us."
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.21. הָרֵי בַגִּלְבֹּעַ אַל־טַל וְאַל־מָטָר עֲלֵיכֶם וּשְׂדֵי תְרוּמֹת כִּי שָׁם נִגְעַל מָגֵן גִּבּוֹרִים מָגֵן שָׁאוּל בְּלִי מָשִׁיחַ בַּשָּׁמֶן׃ 1.21. Mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let there be rain, upon you, nor fields of offerings: for there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away, the shield of Sha᾽ul, as though not anointed with oil."
17. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.7, 5.11, 6.6, 9.13-9.14 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

4.7. וְגַם אָנֹכִי מָנַעְתִּי מִכֶּם אֶת־הַגֶּשֶׁם בְּעוֹד שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים לַקָּצִיר וְהִמְטַרְתִּי עַל־עִיר אֶחָת וְעַל־עִיר אַחַת לֹא אַמְטִיר חֶלְקָה אַחַת תִּמָּטֵר וְחֶלְקָה אֲשֶׁר־לֹא־תַמְטִיר עָלֶיהָ תִּיבָשׁ׃ 5.11. לָכֵן יַעַן בּוֹשַׁסְכֶם עַל־דָּל וּמַשְׂאַת־בַּר תִּקְחוּ מִמֶּנּוּ בָּתֵּי גָזִית בְּנִיתֶם וְלֹא־תֵשְׁבוּ בָם כַּרְמֵי־חֶמֶד נְטַעְתֶּם וְלֹא תִשְׁתּוּ אֶת־יֵינָם׃ 6.6. הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ וְלֹא נֶחְלוּ עַל־שֵׁבֶר יוֹסֵף 9.13. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְנִגַּשׁ חוֹרֵשׁ בַּקֹּצֵר וְדֹרֵךְ עֲנָבִים בְּמֹשֵׁךְ הַזָּרַע וְהִטִּיפוּ הֶהָרִים עָסִיס וְכָל־הַגְּבָעוֹת תִּתְמוֹגַגְנָה׃ 9.14. וְשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־שְׁבוּת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבָנוּ עָרִים נְשַׁמּוֹת וְיָשָׁבוּ וְנָטְעוּ כְרָמִים וְשָׁתוּ אֶת־יֵינָם וְעָשׂוּ גַנּוֹת וְאָכְלוּ אֶת־פְּרִיהֶם׃ 4.7. And I also have withholden the rain from you, When there were yet three months to the harvest; And I caused it to rain upon one city, And caused it not to rain upon another city; One piece was rained upon, And the piece whereupon it rained not withered." 5.11. Therefore, because ye trample upon the poor, And take from him exactions of wheat; Ye have built houses of hewn stone, But ye shall not dwell in them, Ye have planted pleasant vineyards, But ye shall not drink wine thereof." 6.6. That drink wine in bowls, And anoint themselves with the chief ointments; But they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph." 9.13. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, That the plowman shall overtake the reaper, And the treader of grapes him that soweth seed; And the mountains shall drop sweet wine, And all the hills shall melt." 9.14. And I will turn the captivity of My people Israel, And they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; And they shall plant vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; They shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them."
18. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.6, 30.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.6. מִכַּף־רֶגֶל וְעַד־רֹאשׁ אֵין־בּוֹ מְתֹם פֶּצַע וְחַבּוּרָה וּמַכָּה טְרִיָּה לֹא־זֹרוּ וְלֹא חֻבָּשׁוּ וְלֹא רֻכְּכָה בַּשָּׁמֶן׃ 30.23. וְנָתַן מְטַר זַרְעֲךָ אֲשֶׁר־תִּזְרַע אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה וְלֶחֶם תְּבוּאַת הָאֲדָמָה וְהָיָה דָשֵׁן וְשָׁמֵן יִרְעֶה מִקְנֶיךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כַּר נִרְחָב׃ 1.6. From the sole of the foot even unto the head There is no soundness in it; But wounds, and bruises, and festering sores: They have not been pressed, neither bound up, Neither mollified with oil." 30.23. And He will give the rain for thy seed, wherewith thou sowest the ground, And bread of the increase of the ground, and it shall be fat and plenteous; In that day shall thy cattle feed in large pastures."
19. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.3, 5.10-5.17, 31.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.3. וַיִּמָּנְעוּ רְבִבִים וּמַלְקוֹשׁ לוֹא הָיָה וּמֵצַח אִשָּׁה זוֹנָה הָיָה לָךְ מֵאַנְתְּ הִכָּלֵם׃ 5.11. כִּי בָגוֹד בָּגְדוּ בִּי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית יְהוּדָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 5.12. כִּחֲשׁוּ בַּיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא־הוּא וְלֹא־תָבוֹא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה וְחֶרֶב וְרָעָב לוֹא נִרְאֶה׃ 5.13. וְהַנְּבִיאִים יִהְיוּ לְרוּחַ וְהַדִּבֵּר אֵין בָּהֶם כֹּה יֵעָשֶׂה לָהֶם׃ 5.14. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת יַעַן דַּבֶּרְכֶם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה הִנְנִי נֹתֵן דְּבָרַי בְּפִיךָ לְאֵשׁ וְהָעָם הַזֶּה עֵצִים וַאֲכָלָתַם׃ 5.15. הִנְנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיכֶם גּוֹי מִמֶּרְחָק בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה גּוֹי אֵיתָן הוּא גּוֹי מֵעוֹלָם הוּא גּוֹי לֹא־תֵדַע לְשֹׁנוֹ וְלֹא תִשְׁמַע מַה־יְדַבֵּר׃ 5.16. אַשְׁפָּתוֹ כְּקֶבֶר פָּתוּחַ כֻּלָּם גִּבּוֹרִים׃ 5.17. וְאָכַל קְצִירְךָ וְלַחְמֶךָ יֹאכְלוּ בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנוֹתֶיךָ יֹאכַל צֹאנְךָ וּבְקָרֶךָ יֹאכַל גַּפְנְךָ וּתְאֵנָתֶךָ יְרֹשֵׁשׁ עָרֵי מִבְצָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בּוֹטֵחַ בָּהֵנָּה בֶּחָרֶב׃ 31.12. וּבָאוּ וְרִנְּנוּ בִמְרוֹם־צִיּוֹן וְנָהֲרוּ אֶל־טוּב יְהוָה עַל־דָּגָן וְעַל־תִּירֹשׁ וְעַל־יִצְהָר וְעַל־בְּנֵי־צֹאן וּבָקָר וְהָיְתָה נַפְשָׁם כְּגַן רָוֶה וְלֹא־יוֹסִיפוּ לְדַאֲבָה עוֹד׃ 3.3. Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there hath been no latter rain; yet thou hadst a harlot’s forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed." 5.10. Go ye up into her rows, and destroy, But make not a full end; Take away her shoots; For they are not the LORD’S." 5.11. For the house of Israel and the house of Judah Have dealt very treacherously against Me, Saith the LORD." 5.12. They have belied the LORD, And said: ‘It is not He, Neither shall evil come upon us; Neither shall we see sword nor famine;" 5.13. And the prophets shall become wind, And the word is not in them; Thus be it done unto them.’" 5.14. Wherefore thus saith the LORD, the God of hosts: Because ye speak this word, Behold, I will make My words in thy mouth fire, And this people wood, and it shall devour them." 5.15. Lo, I will bring a nation upon you from far, O house of Israel, saith the LORD; It is an enduring nation, It is an ancient nation, A nation whose language thou knowest not, Neither understandest what they say." 5.16. Their quiver is an open sepulchre, They are all mighty men." 5.17. And they shall eat up thy harvest, and thy bread, They shall eat up thy sons and thy daughters, They shall eat up thy flocks and thy herds, They shall eat up thy vines and thy fig-trees; They shall batter thy fortified cities, Wherein thou trusteth, with the sword." 31.12. And they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, And shall flow unto the goodness of the LORD, To the corn, and to the wine, and to the oil, And to the young of the flock and of the herd; And their soul shall be as a watered garden, And they shall not pine any more at all."
20. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן הַזֹּאת תִּהְיֶה־בָּנוּ לְעֵדָה כִּי־הִיא שָׁמְעָה אֵת כָּל־אִמְרֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עִמָּנוּ וְהָיְתָה בָכֶם לְעֵדָה פֶּן־תְּכַחֲשׁוּן בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 24.27. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Behold, this stone shall be a witness against us; for it hath heard all the words of the LORD which He spoke unto us; it shall be therefore a witness against you, lest ye deny your God.’"
21. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.9-4.15, 34.27-34.28, 36.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.9. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ חִטִּין וּשְׂעֹרִים וּפוֹל וַעֲדָשִׁים וְדֹחַן וְכֻסְּמִים וְנָתַתָּה אוֹתָם בִּכְלִי אֶחָד וְעָשִׂיתָ אוֹתָם לְךָ לְלָחֶם מִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה שׁוֹכֵב עַל־צִדְּךָ שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת וְתִשְׁעִים יוֹם תֹּאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 4.11. וּמַיִם בִּמְשׂוּרָה תִשְׁתֶּה שִׁשִּׁית הַהִין מֵעֵת עַד־עֵת תִּשְׁתֶּה׃ 4.12. וְעֻגַת שְׂעֹרִים תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה וְהִיא בְּגֶלְלֵי צֵאַת הָאָדָם תְּעֻגֶנָה לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה כָּכָה יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־לַחְמָם טָמֵא בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אַדִּיחֵם שָׁם׃ 4.14. וָאֹמַר אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה נַפְשִׁי לֹא מְטֻמָּאָה וּנְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא־אָכַלְתִּי מִנְּעוּרַי וְעַד־עַתָּה וְלֹא־בָא בְּפִי בְּשַׂר פִּגּוּל׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־צפועי [צְפִיעֵי] הַבָּקָר תַּחַת גֶּלְלֵי הָאָדָם וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־לַחְמְךָ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 34.27. וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃ 34.28. וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד בַּז לַגּוֹיִם וְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלֵם וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 36.8. וְאַתֶּם הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַנְפְּכֶם תִּתֵּנוּ וּפֶרְיְכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ לְעַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי קֵרְבוּ לָבוֹא׃ 4.9. Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentils, and millet, and spelt, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof; according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, even three hundred and ninety days, shalt thou eat thereof." 4.10. And thy food which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day; from time to time shalt thou eat it." 4.11. Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of a hin; from time to time shalt thou drink." 4.12. And thou shalt eat it as barley cakes, and thou shalt bake it in their sight with dung that cometh out of man.’" 4.13. And the LORD said: ‘Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their bread unclean, among the nations whither I will drive them.’" 4.14. Then said I: ‘Ah Lord GOD! behold, my soul hath not been polluted; for from my youth up even till now have I not eaten of that which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts; neither came there abhorred flesh into my mouth.’" 4.15. Then He said unto me: ‘See, I have given thee cow’s dung for man’s dung, and thou shalt prepare thy bread thereon.’" 34.27. And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them." 34.28. And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the earth devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid." 36.8. But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My people Israel; for they are at hand to come."
22. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 1.10-1.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.11. וָאֶקְרָא חֹרֶב עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְעַל־הֶהָרִים וְעַל־הַדָּגָן וְעַל־הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְעַל־הַיִּצְהָר וְעַל אֲשֶׁר תּוֹצִיא הָאֲדָמָה וְעַל־הָאָדָם וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָה וְעַל כָּל־יְגִיעַ כַּפָּיִם׃ 1.10. Therefore over you the heaven hath kept back, so that there is no dew, and the earth hath kept back her produce." 1.11. And I called for a drought upon the land, and upon the mountains, and upon the corn, and upon the wine, and upon the oil, and upon that which the ground bringeth forth, and upon men, and upon cattle, and upon all the labour of the hands.’"
23. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 883 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

883. οὐδὲν προτιμῶ σου. φορῶ γὰρ πριάμενος
24. Euripides, Trojan Women, 893, 892 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 2.15, 29.11, 31.5 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וַאֲנַחְנוּ נִכְרֹת עֵצִים מִן־הַלְּבָנוֹן כְּכָל־צָרְכֶּךָ וּנְבִיאֵם לְךָ רַפְסֹדוֹת עַל־יָם יָפוֹ וְאַתָּה תַּעֲלֶה אֹתָם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 29.11. בָּנַי עַתָּה אַל־תִּשָּׁלוּ כִּי־בָכֶם בָּחַר יְהוָה לַעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו לְשָׁרְתוֹ וְלִהְיוֹת לוֹ מְשָׁרְתִים וּמַקְטִרִים׃ 31.5. וְכִפְרֹץ הַדָּבָר הִרְבּוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל רֵאשִׁית דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר וּדְבַשׁ וְכֹל תְּבוּאַת שָׂדֶה וּמַעְשַׂר הַכֹּל לָרֹב הֵבִיאוּ׃ 2.15. and we will cut wood out of Lebanon, as much as thou shalt need; and we will bring it to thee in floats by sea to Joppa; and thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem.’" 29.11. My sons, be not now negligent; for the LORD hath chosen you to stand before Him, to minister unto Him, and that ye should be His ministers, and offer unto Him.’" 31.5. And as soon as the commandment came abroad, the children of Israel gave in abundance the first-fruits of corn, wine, and oil, and honey, and of all the increase of the field; and the tithe of all things brought they in abundantly."
26. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 9.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.7. לֵךְ אֱכֹל בְּשִׂמְחָה לַחְמֶךָ וּשֲׁתֵה בְלֶב־טוֹב יֵינֶךָ כִּי כְבָר רָצָה הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־מַעֲשֶׂיךָ׃ 9.7. Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, And drink thy wine with a merry heart; For God hath already accepted thy works."
27. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.39 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.39. וְהָיָה הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן עִם־הַלְוִיִּם בַּעְשֵׂר הַלְוִיִּם וְהַלְוִיִּם יַעֲלוּ אֶת־מַעֲשַׂר הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לְבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־הַלְּשָׁכוֹת לְבֵית הָאוֹצָר׃ 10.39. And the priest the son of Aaron shall be with the Levites, when the Levites take tithes; and the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the tithes unto the house of our God, to the chambers, into the treasure-house. ."
28. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 8.12, 10.1, 14.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.12. כִּי־זֶרַע הַשָּׁלוֹם הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וְהַשָּׁמַיִם יִתְּנוּ טַלָּם וְהִנְחַלְתִּי אֶת־שְׁאֵרִית הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה׃ 10.1. שַׁאֲלוּ מֵיְהוָה מָטָר בְּעֵת מַלְקוֹשׁ יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה חֲזִיזִים וּמְטַר־גֶּשֶׁם יִתֵּן לָהֶם לְאִישׁ עֵשֶׂב בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 10.1. וַהֲשִׁיבוֹתִים מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וּמֵאַשּׁוּר אֲקַבְּצֵם וְאֶל־אֶרֶץ גִּלְעָד וּלְבָנוֹן אֲבִיאֵם וְלֹא יִמָּצֵא לָהֶם׃ 14.17. וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַעֲלֶה מֵאֵת מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם יִהְיֶה הַגָּשֶׁם׃ 8.12. For as the seed of peace, the vine shall give her fruit, and the ground shall give her increase, and the heavens shall give their dew; and I will cause the remt of this people to inherit all these things." 10.1. Ask ye of the LORD rain in the time of the latter rain, Even of the LORD that maketh lightnings; And He will give them showers of rain, To every one grass in the field." 14.17. And it shall be, that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain."
29. Aristotle, On The Universe, 6 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

30. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11, 13.2 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
31. Anon., 1 Enoch, 76.5, 76.12, 76.14, 91.13, 96.5, 100.12, 102.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

76.5. And the first wind from those portals, called the east wind, comes forth through the first portal which is in the east, inclining towards the south: from it come forth desolation, drought, heat 76.12. And after these [four] are the west winds: through the first portal adjoining the north come forth dew and hoar-frost, and cold and snow and frost. And from the middle portal come forth dew and rain, and prosperity and blessing; and through the last portal which adjoins the south come forth drought and desolation, and burning and destruction. And the twelve portals of the four quarters of the heaven are therewith completed, and all their laws and all their plagues and all their benefactions have I shown to thee, my son Methuselah. 91.13. And at its close they shall acquire houses through their righteousness, And a house shall be built for the Great King in glory for evermore 96.5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might. 100.12. hall be mindful of your sins. And now give presents to the rain that it be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, when it has received gold and silver from you that it may descend. When the hoar-frost and snow with their chilliness, and all the snow-storms with all their plagues fall upon you, in those days ye shall not be able to stand before them. 102.9. I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content to eat and drink, and rob and sin, and strip men naked, and
32. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q503, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 43.13-43.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

34. Septuagint, Judith, 9.10, 10.7, 10.14, 10.19, 10.23, 11.13, 12.1-12.4, 12.15, 13.10, 16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her 10.14. When the men heard her words, and observed her face -- she was in their eyes marvelously beautiful -- they said to her 10.19. And they marveled at her beauty, and admired the Israelites, judging them by her, and every one said to his neighbor, "Who can despise these people, who have women like this among them? Surely not a man of them had better be left alive, for if we let them go they will be able to ensnare the whole world! 10.23. And when Judith came into the presence of Holofernes and his servants, they all marveled at the beauty of her face; and she prostrated herself and made obeisance to him, and his slaves raised her up. 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me. 12.3. Holofernes said to her, "If your supply runs out, where can we get more like it for you? For none of your people is here with us. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 12.15. So she got up and arrayed herself in all her woman's finery, and her maid went and spread on the ground for her before Holofernes the soft fleeces which she had received from Bagoas for her daily use, so that she might recline on them when she ate. 13.10. who placed it in her food bag. Then the two of them went out together, as they were accustomed to go for prayer; and they passed through the camp and circled around the valley and went up the mountain to Bethulia and came to its gates. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck.
35. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.28. to make it known that one must rise before the sun to give thee thanks,and must pray to thee at the dawning of the light;
36. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.591-3.594 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian 3.594. By Lycus's wondrous water, falling prone
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

113. The planets too, and the corresponding host of fixed stars, are arrayed in seven divisions, displaying a very great sympathy with the air and the earth. For they turn the air towards the times, that are called the seasons of the year, causing in each of them innumerable changes by calm weather, and pleasant breezes, and clouds, and irresistible blasts of wind. And again, they make rivers to overflow and to subside, and turn plains into lakes; and again, on the contrary, they dry up the waters: they also cause the alterations of the seas, when they receded, and return with a reflux. For at times, when the tide recedes on a sudden, an extensive line of shore occupies what is usually a wide gulf of sea; and in a short time afterwards, the waters are brought back, and there appears a sea, sailed over, not by shallow boats, but by ships of exceeding great burden. And they also give increase and perfection to all the terrestrial animals and plants which produce fruit, endowing each with a nature to last a long time, so that new plants may flourish and come to maturity; ùthe old ones having passed away, in order to provide an abundant supply of necessary things. XXXIX.
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 27 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. And they are accustomed to pray twice every day, at morning and at evening; when the sun is rising entreating God that the happiness of the coming day may be real happiness, so that their minds may be filled with heavenly light, and when the sun is setting they pray that their soul, being entirely lightened and relieved of the burden of the outward senses, and of the appropriate object of these outward senses, may be able to trace out truth existing in its own consistory and council chamber.
39. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.5-29.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.196, 4.207, 4.209-4.213, 13.398-13.405, 13.408-13.419, 13.430, 13.432, 15.425 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.196. 4. Accordingly, I shall now first describe this form of government which was agreeable to the dignity and virtue of Moses; and shall thereby inform those that read these Antiquities, what our original settlements were, and shall then proceed to the remaining histories. Now those settlements are all still in writing, as he left them; and we shall add nothing by way of ornament, nor any thing besides what Moses left us; 4.207. 10. Let no one blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem such; nor may any one steal what belongs to strange temples, nor take away the gifts that are dedicated to any god. 4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither; 4.211. that so there may always be within their minds that intention of the laws which they have despised and broken, and have thereby been the causes of their own mischief. Let the children also learn the laws, as the first thing they are taught, which will be the best thing they can be taught, and will be the cause of their future felicity. 4.212. 13. Let every one commemorate before God the benefits which he bestowed upon them at their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and this twice every day, both when the day begins and when the hour of sleep comes on, gratitude being in its own nature a just thing, and serving not only by way of return for past, but also by way of invitation of future favors. 4.213. They are also to inscribe the principal blessings they have received from God upon their doors, and show the same remembrance of them upon their arms; as also they are to bear on their forehead and their arm those wonders which declare the power of God, and his good-will towards them, that God’s readiness to bless them may appear every where conspicuous about them. 13.398. 5. After this, king Alexander, although he fell into a distemper by hard drinking, and had a quartan ague, which held him three years, yet would not leave off going out with his army, till he was quite spent with the labors he had undergone, and died in the bounds of Ragaba, a fortress beyond Jordan. 13.399. But when his queen saw that he was ready to die, and had no longer any hopes of surviving, she came to him weeping and lamenting, and bewailed herself and her sons on the desolate condition they should be left in; and said to him, “To whom dost thou thus leave me and my children, who are destitute of all other supports, and this when thou knowest how much ill-will thy nation bears thee?” 13.401. after this she should go in triumph, as upon a victory, to Jerusalem, and put some of her authority into the hands of the Pharisees; for that they would commend her for the honor she had done them, and would reconcile the nation to her for he told her they had great authority among the Jews, both to do hurt to such as they hated, and to bring advantages to those to whom they were friendly disposed; 13.402. for that they are then believed best of all by the multitude when they speak any severe thing against others, though it be only out of envy at them. And he said that it was by their means that he had incurred the displeasure of the nation, whom indeed he had injured. 13.403. “Do thou, therefore,” said he, “when thou art come to Jerusalem, send for the leading men among them, and show them my body, and with great appearance of sincerity, give them leave to use it as they themselves please, whether they will dishonor the dead body by refusing it burial, as having severely suffered by my means, or whether in their anger they will offer any other injury to that body. Promise them also that thou wilt do nothing without them in the affairs of the kingdom. 13.404. If thou dost but say this to them, I shall have the honor of a more glorious funeral from them than thou couldst have made for me; and when it is in their power to abuse my dead body, they will do it no injury at all, and thou wilt rule in safety.” So when he had given his wife this advice, he died, after he had reigned twenty-seven years, and lived fifty years within one. 13.405. 1. So Alexandra, when she had taken the fortress, acted as her husband had suggested to her, and spake to the Pharisees, and put all things into their power, both as to the dead body, and as to the affairs of the kingdom, and thereby pacified their anger against Alexander, and made them bear goodwill and friendship to him; 13.408. 2. So she made Hyrcanus high priest, because he was the elder, but much more because he cared not to meddle with politics, and permitted the Pharisees to do every thing; to whom also she ordered the multitude to be obedient. She also restored again those practices which the Pharisees had introduced, according to the traditions of their forefathers, and which her father-in-law, Hyrcanus, had abrogated. 13.409. So she had indeed the name of the regent, but the Pharisees had the authority; for it was they who restored such as had been banished, and set such as were prisoners at liberty, and, to say all at once, they differed in nothing from lords. However, the queen also took care of the affairs of the kingdom, and got together a great body of mercenary soldiers, and increased her own army to such a degree, that she became terrible to the neighboring tyrants, and took hostages of them: 13.411. till the men that were the most potent came into the palace, and Aristobulus with them, for he seemed to be displeased at what was done; and it appeared openly, that if he had an opportunity, he would not permit his mother to go on so. These put the queen in mind what great dangers they had gone through, and great things they had done, whereby they had demonstrated the firmness of their fidelity to their master, insomuch that they had received the greatest marks of favor from him; 13.412. and they begged of her, that she would not utterly blast their hopes, as it now happened, that when they had escaped the hazards that arose from their [open] enemies, they were to be cut off at home by their [private] enemies, like brute beasts, without any help whatsoever. 13.413. They said also, that if their adversaries would be satisfied with those that had been slain already, they would take what had been done patiently, on account of their natural love to their governors; but if they must expect the same for the future also, they implored of her a dismission from her service; for they could not bear to think of attempting any method for their deliverance without her, but would rather die willingly before the palace gate, in case she would not forgive them. 13.414. And that it was a great shame, both for themselves and for the queen, that when they were neglected by her, they should come under the lash of her husband’s enemies; for that Aretas, the Arabian king, and the monarchs, would give any reward, if they could get such men as foreign auxiliaries, to whom their very names, before their voices be heard, may perhaps be terrible; 13.415. but if they could not obtain this their second request, and if she had determined to prefer the Pharisees before them, they still insisted that she would place them every one in her fortresses; for if some fatal demon hath a constant spite against Alexander’s house, they would be willing to bear their part, and to live in a private station there. 13.416. 3. As these men said thus, and called upon Alexander’s ghost for commiseration of those already slain, and those in danger of it, all the bystanders brake out into tears. But Aristobulus chiefly made manifest what were his sentiments, and used many reproachful expressions to his mother, [saying,] 13.417. “Nay, indeed, the case is this, that they have been themselves the authors of their own calamities, who have permitted a woman who, against reason, was mad with ambition, to reign over them, when there were sons in the flower of their age fitter for it.” So Alexandra, not knowing what to do with any decency, committed the fortresses to them, all but Hyrcania, and Alexandrium, and Macherus, where her principal treasures were. 13.418. After a little while also, she sent her son Aristobulus with an army to Damascus against Ptolemy, who was called Menneus, who was such a bad neighbor to the city; but he did nothing considerable there, and so returned home. 13.419. 4. About this time news was brought that Tigranes, the king of Armenia, had made an irruption into Syria with five hundred thousand soldiers, and was coming against Judea. This news, as may well be supposed, terrified the queen and the nation. Accordingly, they sent him many and very valuable presents, as also ambassadors, and that as he was besieging Ptolemais; 13.432. and, indeed, her management during her administration while she was alive, was such as filled the palace after her death with calamities and disturbance. However, although this had been her way of governing, she preserved the nation in peace. And this is the conclusion of the affairs of, Alexandra. 15.425. It is also reported, that during the time that the temple was building, it did not rain in the daytime, but that the showers fell in the nights, so that the work was not hindered. And this our fathers have delivered to us; nor is it incredible, if any one have regard to the manifestations of God. And thus was performed the work of the rebuilding of the temple.
41. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.108, 1.110-1.113, 1.118, 2.592 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.108. Nor was he mistaken as to his expectations; for this woman kept the dominion, by the opinion that the people had of her piety; for she chiefly studied the ancient customs of her country, and cast those men out of the government that offended against their holy laws. 1.111. Now, Alexandra hearkened to them to an extraordinary degree, as being herself a woman of great piety towards God. But these Pharisees artfully insinuated themselves into her favor by little and little, and became themselves the real administrators of the public affairs: they banished and reduced whom they pleased; they bound and loosed [men] at their pleasure; and, to say all at once, they had the enjoyment of the royal authority, whilst the expenses and the difficulties of it belonged to Alexandra. 1.112. She was a sagacious woman in the management of great affairs, and intent always upon gathering soldiers together; so that she increased the army the one half, and procured a great body of foreign troops, till her own nation became not only very powerful at home, but terrible also to foreign potentates, while she governed other people, and the Pharisees governed her. 1.113. 3. Accordingly, they themselves slew Diogenes, a person of figure, and one that had been a friend to Alexander; and accused him as having assisted the king with his advice, for crucifying the eight hundred men [before mentioned]. They also prevailed with Alexandra to put to death the rest of those who had irritated him against them. Now, she was so superstitious as to comply with their desires, and accordingly they slew whom they pleased themselves. 1.118. and besides this, upon Hyrcanus’s complaint to his mother, she compassionated his case, and put Aristobulus’s wife and sons under restraint in Antonia, which was a fortress that joined to the north part of the temple. It was, as I have already said, of old called the Citadel; but afterwards got the name of Antonia, when Antony was lord [of the East], just as the other cities, Sebaste and Agrippias, had their names changed, and these given them from Sebastus and Agrippa. 2.592. o he bought four amphorae with such Tyrian money as was of the value of four Attic drachmae, and sold every half-amphora at the same price. And as Galilee was very fruitful in oil, and was peculiarly so at that time, by sending away great quantities, and having the sole privilege so to do, he gathered an immense sum of money together, which money he immediately used to the disadvantage of him who gave him that privilege;
42. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them."
43. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1-1.2, 2.2, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression." 1.2. From what time may one recite the Shema in the morning?From the time that one can distinguish between blue and white. Rabbi Eliezer says: between blue and green. And he must finish it by sunrise. Rabbi Joshua says: until the third hour of the day, for such is the custom of the children of kings, to rise at the third hour. If one recites the Shema later he loses nothing, like one who reads in the Torah." 2.2. These are the breaks between the sections: between the first blessing and the second, between the second and “Shema,” between “Shema” and “And it shall come to pass if you listen” between “And it shall come to pass if you listen” and “And the Lord said” and between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” (true and firm). Rabbi Judah says: between “And the Lord said” and “Emet veYatziv” one should not interrupt. Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah said: Why was the section of “Shema” placed before that of “And it shall come to pass if you listen”? So that one should first accept upon himself the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven and then take upon himself the yoke of the commandments. Why does the section of “And it shall come to pass if you listen” come before that of “And the Lord said”? Because “And it shall come to pass if you listen” is customary during both day and night, whereas [the section] “And the Lord said” is customary only during the day." 4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour."
44. Mishnah, Shabbat, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. They may not kindle [the Shabbat light] with [terumah] oil [which must be] burnt on festivals. Rabbi Ishmael says: they may not light with tar, because of the honor of the Shabbat. But the sages permit with all oils: with sesame oil, nut oil, radish oil, fish oil, gourd oil, tar and naphtha. Rabbi Tarfon says: they don’t light with anything but olive oil."
45. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.1-7.2, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The following may be recited in any language:the section concerning the sotah, the confession made at the presentation of tithes, the shema, the prayer (the amidah), the grace after meals, the oath concerning testimony, the oath concerning a deposit." 7.2. The following are recited in the holy tongue (Hebrew):The reading made at the offering of the firstfruits, The recitation at halitzah, The blessings and curses, The priestly blessing, The blessing of the high priest, The section of the king, The section of the calf whose neck is broken, And the priest anointed [to accompany the army] in battle when he speaks to the people." 7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
46. Mishnah, Tamid, 3.8, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.6, 6.1, 6.3, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar." 4.2. He did not use to break the leg, but he made a hole in it at the [knee-] joint and suspended it from there. He then began to flay it until he came to the breast. When he came to the breast he cut off the head and gave it to the one who merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He then cut off the legs [up to the knees] and gave them to the one who merited [bringing them onto the ramp]. He then finished the flaying. He tore out the heart and squeezed out the blood in it. He then cut off the forelegs and gave them to the one who merited [bringing them onto the ramp]. He then went back to the right leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who merited [to bring it onto the ramp], and the two testicles with it. He then tore it [the remaining carcass] open so that it was all exposed before him. He took the fat and put it on top of the place where the head had been severed. He took the innards and gave them to the one to who had merited washing them. The stomach was washed very thoroughly in the washing chamber, while the entrails were washed at least three times on marble tables which stood between the pillars." 4.3. He then took a knife and separated the lung from the liver and the finger of the liver from the liver, but he did not remove it from its place. He cut out the breast and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He came to the right flank and cut into it as far as the spine, without touching the spine, until he came to the place between two small ribs. He cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the liver attached to it. He then came to the neck, and he left two ribs on each side of it, cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the windpipe and the heart and the lung attached to it. He then came to the left flank in which he left the two thin ribs above and two thin ribs below; and he had done similarly with the other flank. Thus he left two on each side above and two on each side below. He cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], and the spine with it and the spleen attached to it. This was really the largest piece, but the right flank was called the largest, because the liver was attached to it. He then came to the tail bone, which he cut off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], along with the tail, the finger of the liver and the two kidneys. He then took the left leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. Thus they were all standing in a row with the limbs in their hands The first had the head and the [right] hind leg. The head was in his right hand with its nose towards his arm, its horns between his fingers, and the place where it was severed turned upwards with the fat covering it. The right leg was in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The second had the two fore legs, the right leg in his right hand and the left leg in his left hand, the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The third had the tail bone and the other hind leg, the tail bone in his right hand with the tail hanging between his fingers and the finger of the liver and the two kidneys with it, and the left hind leg in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The fourth had the breast and the neck, the breast in his right hand and the neck in his left hand, its ribs being between two of his fingers. The fifth had the two flanks, the right one in his right hand, and the left one in his left hand, with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The sixth had the innards on a platter with the knees on top of them. The seventh had the fine flour. The eighth had the griddle cakes. The ninth had the wine. They went and placed them on the lower half of the ramp on its western side, and salted them (see Leviticus 2:13). They then came down and went to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recite the Shema." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 5.2. He said to them: those who are new to the incense come and draw lots, and who ever won, won. He then said: new and old, come and draw lots to see who shall take up the limbs from the ascent to the altar. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: the one who brought the limbs on to the ascent also takes them up to the altar." 5.3. He then handed them over to the attendants, who stripped them of their garments, and they would leave on them only the pants. There were windows there on which was inscribed the name of the garment to which each was assigned." 5.4. The one who had been selected to offer the incense took up the ladle, which was in shape like a big tarkav of gold, and it held three kavs, And the [small] dish was in the middle of it, heaped up with incense. This had a covering, over which was spread a piece of cloth." 5.5. The priest who had won the firepan, would take the silver pan and ascend to the top of the altar and clear away the live coals to this side and that, and he would rake [the coals]. He then went down and poured them into a gold [firepan]. About a kav of the coals was spilt, and these he swept into the channel. On Shabbat he used to put an overturned pot on them. This pot was a large vessel which could hold a letekh. It had two chains; with one he used to draw it down, and with the other he used to hold it above so that it should not roll over. It was used for three purposes for placing over live coals, and over a [dead] creeping thing on Shabbat, and for drawing down the ashes from the top of the altar." 5.6. When they came between the Sanctuary and the altar, one took the magrefah and threw it between the Sanctuary and the altar. People could not hear one another speak in Jerusalem from the noise of the magrefah. It served three purposes: When a priest heard the sound of it he knew that his fellow priests were going in to bow down, and he would run to join them. When a Levite heard the noise he knew that his fellow Levites were going in to sing, and he would run to join them. And the head of the Ma’amad used to make the unclean stand in the east gate." 6.1. They began to ascend the steps of the Sanctuary. Those who had won the right to clear the ashes from the inner altar and from the candlestick went in front. The one who won the right to clear the inner altar went in and took the teni and bowed down and went out again. The one who had been chosen to clear the candlestick went in, and if he found the two eastern lights still burning he cleared out the eastern one and left the western one burning, since from it he lit the candlestick for the evening. If he found that this one had gone out, he cleared the ash away and lit it from the altar of burnt-offering. He then took the kuz from the second step and bowed down and went out." 6.3. The one who had won the right to the incense took the dish from the middle of the spoon and gave it to his friend or his relative. If some of it spilled into the spoon, he would put it into his hands. They used to instruct him: Be careful not to begin immediately in front of you or else you may burn yourself. He then began to scatter the incense and [after finishing] went out. The one who burned the incense did not do so until the superintendent said to him: burn the incense. If it was the high priest who burned: he would say to him: Sir, high priest, burn the incense. Everyone left and he burned the incense and bowed down and went out." 7.1. When the high priest went in to bow down, three priests supported him, one by his right and one by his left and one by the precious stones. When the superintendent heard the sound of the footsteps of the high priest as he was about to go out [from the Sanctuary], he raised the curtain for him. He went in, bowed down and went out, and then his fellow priests went in and bowed down and went out." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
47. Mishnah, Shekalim, 4.2, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. The [red] heifer and the scapegoat and the strip of scarlet came out of the appropriation of the chamber. The ramp for the [red] heifer and the ramp for the scapegoat and the strip of scarlet which was between its horns, and [the maintece of] the pool of water and the wall of the city and its towers and all the needs of the city came out of the remainder in the chamber. Abba Shaul says: the ramp for the [red] cow the high priests made out of their own [means]." 6.2. It once happened that a priest who was busy [there] noticed that the floor [of the wood storage area] was different from the others. He went and told it to his friend but before he had time to finish his words his soul departed. Then they knew for certain that there the Ark was hidden."
48. New Testament, Luke, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple.
49. New Testament, Mark, 5.1-5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit 5.3. who had his dwelling in the tombs. Nobody could bind him any more, not even with chains 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 5.5. Always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 5.6. When he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and bowed down to him 5.7. and crying out with a loud voice, he said, "What have I to do with you, Jesus, you Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, don't torment me. 5.8. For he said to him, "Come out of the man, you unclean spirit! 5.9. He asked him, "What is your name?"He said to him, "My name is Legion, for we are many. 5.10. He begged him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5.11. Now there was on the mountainside a great herd of pigs feeding. 5.12. All the demons begged him, saying, "Send us into the pigs, that we may enter into them. 5.13. At once Jesus gave them permission. The unclean spirits came out and entered into the pigs. The herd of about two thousand rushed down the steep bank into the sea, and they were drowned in the sea.
50. New Testament, Matthew, 2.9-2.10, 10.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. They, having heard the king, went their way; and behold, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the young child was. 2.10. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. 10.37. He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and he who loves son or daughter more than me isn't worthy of me.
51. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 91.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

91.4. וְיוֹסֵף הוּא הַשַּׁלִּיט וגו' (בראשית מב, ו), שָׁלשׁ גְּזֵרוֹת גָּזַר, שֶׁלֹא יִכָּנֵס עֶבֶד לְמִצְרַיִם, וְשֶׁלֹא יִכָּנֵס אָדָם בִּשְׁנֵי חֲמוֹרִים, וְשֶׁלֹא יוֹלִיכוּ חֲמָרִים תְּבוּאָה מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, שֶׁלֹא יִכָּנֵס אָדָם עַד שֶׁלֹא יִכְתֹּב שְׁמוֹ וְשֵׁם אָבִיו וְשֵׁם זְקֵנוֹ. וַהֲוָה תַּמָּן מְנַשֶּׁה קָאֵים מְקַבֵּל פִּתְקִין, אָמְרִין נֵעוֹל וְנֶחֱמֵי אִי אַשְׁכְּחָן יָתֵיהּ טָעוּן לָן בְּמַדָּיו דְּמִכְסָא, הָא טַב, וְאִם לָאו בְּצַפְרָא נֶחֱמֵי מַה נַּעֲבֹד.
52. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 32.15 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32.15. Eretz Yisrael — "the L-rd your G-d afflicts you … for the L-rd your G-d brings you to a good land.
53. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, 7.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56. Tertullian, On Prayer, 29.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
58. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. bHowever, if you say that theywould omit: Who creates light, and bwould recite: An abounding love,on bwhatbasis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. bPerhapsthe fact bthat they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived,as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. bHowever,afterward, bwhen the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before iShema /idoes not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: bAnd ifthis ihalakhais bbased on inference,and not on an explicit statement, bwhatof it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: bIfthis conclusion bwere based on an inference,one could say that bactually they recited: An abounding love, and when the timeto recite: bWho creates light arrived, they would recite it.In that case, bwhatis the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother?Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite bthecorrect border of the blessingsdoes not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple bread the Ten Commandments,along with the sections of iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoa /i, iVaYomer /i, True and Firm, iAvoda,and the priestly benediction. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Even in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthey sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this mannerevery day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), bbut they had already abolishedrecitation of the Ten Commandments bdue to the grievance of the heretics,who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recitethe Ten Commandments bin this manner, but they had already abolishedtheir recitation bdue to the grievance of the heretics. /b,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as bRabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this inthe city of bSura,but bRav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,So too, bAmeimar thought to institute this inthe city of bNeharde’a. Rav Ashi,the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, bsaid to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b,We learned in a mishna in tractate iTamidthat bon Shabbat a single blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bsingle blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said:As they finished their service, bthe outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b,We learned in the mishna: bWherethe Sages bsaidto recite ba longblessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: bObviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer,i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, bandupon realizing that it was wine, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bwine:Who creates the fruit of the vine, bhe fulfilledhis obligation. In that case, beven had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be,as he originally intended, bhewould have bfulfilledhis obligation, bas we learnedin a mishna: bIf onerecited the general blessing: bBy Whose word all things came to be, over allfood items, bhe fulfilledhis obligation after the fact, even if iab initioanother blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., bHowever in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine,meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, bandupon realizing that it was beer bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited over bbeer:By Whose word all things came to be, bwhatis the ihalakha /i?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: bDo we follow the essenceof the blessing, the first section, bor do we follow the conclusionof the blessing?, bCome and heara proof from what was taught in a ibaraitawith regard to a similar case: If, in bthe morning prayer /b, one bbeganthe blessings prior to the recitation of iShemaappropriately bwith: Who creates light, and concluded withthe formula of the evening prayer: bWho brings on evenings, he did not fulfillhis obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and bcommenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilledhis obligation.,Similarly, if, in bthe evening prayer /b, bone commencedthe recitation of iShema bwith: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfillhis obligation. If bone commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilledhis obligation.,The ibaraitasummarizes that bthe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: bThere,in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, bit is different, as one recites: Blessed /b…Who bforms the radiant lights,and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. bThis works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is notconsidered ba blessing,and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. bHowever, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention ofGod’s bsovereignty,i.e., our God, King of the universe, bis notconsidered ba blessing, what can be saidto distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: bRather,Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. bSince Rabba bar Ulla said:Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day,the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and bwhen one recites the blessingwith God’s name bandmentions God’s bsovereignty at the beginning of the blessing,it refers bto bothday and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: bCome and hearanother solution based on what we learned bin the latter clauseof the ibaraitacited above: bThe general principle is: Everything follows the conclusionof the blessing. bWhat doesthe phrase: The general principle is, come bto includebeyond the detailed example cited in the ibaraita /i? bDoes it not come to includethe case bthat we stated,that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the principle is cited bto includea case of bbread and dates.The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstancesof the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? bIf you say thatit is a case bwhere one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking it was dates;then, upon realizing that it was bread, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, isn’t that our dilemma,as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: bNo; thisgeneral principle bisonly bnecessaryto teach a special bcase /b, bwhere one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commencedreciting the blessing bthinking they were bread.Upon realizing that they were dates, bhe concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover dates.In that case bhe fulfilledhis obligation, as beven had he concludedthe blessing bwith thatwhich is recited bover bread, hewould have bfulfilled his obligation. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is bbecause dates also providea person bsustece.While iab initioone should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the ibaraitaestablished the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. brThe Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with iShema /i., bRabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ iemet veyatziv /i]at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows iShema bin the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ iemet ve’emuna /i] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation.An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, bas it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights”(Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., bAnd Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bowsin the appropriate places, bhe bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when hesubsequently bstands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b, bShmuel,who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, bsaid: What is Rav’s reasonfor saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? bAs it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed”(Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara braises an objectionbased on what we learned in praise of a priest: b“And he was afraid before My name”(Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: bIs it written: At My name? Before My name, is written,meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: bShmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows whenhe says: bBlessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he saysGod’s bname. /b
59. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. באונס כאן ברצון ואיבעית אימא הא והא באונס ול"ק כאן באשת כהן כאן באשת ישראל,(זכריה ח, י) וליוצא ולבא אין שלום אמר רב כיון שיוצא אדם מדבר הלכה לדבר מקרא שוב אין לו שלום,ושמואל אמר זה הפורש מתלמוד למשנה ור' יוחנן אמר אפילו מש"ס לש"ס:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big היתר נדרים פורחין באויר ואין להם על מה שיסמכו,הלכות שבת חגיגות והמעילות הרי הם כהררים התלוין בשערה שהן מקרא מועט והלכות מרובות הדינין והעבודות הטהרות והטמאות ועריות יש להן על מה שיסמכו והן הן גופי תורה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא רבי אליעזר אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (ויקרא כז, ב) כי יפליא (במדבר ו, ב) כי יפליא שתי פעמים אחת הפלאה לאיסור ואחת הפלאה להיתר,רבי יהושע אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (תהלים צה, יא) אשר נשבעתי באפי באפי נשבעתי וחזרתי בי,ר' יצחק אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (שמות לה, ה) כל נדיב לבו חנניה בן אחי רבי יהושע אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (תהלים קיט, קו) נשבעתי ואקיימה לשמור משפטי צדקך,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אי הואי התם אמרי להו דידי עדיפא מדידכו שנאמר (במדבר ל, ג) לא יחל דברו הוא אינו מוחל אבל אחרים מוחלין לו אמר רבא לכולהו אית להו פירכא לבר מדשמואל דלית ליה פירכא,דאי מדר' אליעזר דלמא כדרבי יהודה שאמר משום ר' טרפון דתניא רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי טרפון לעולם אין אחד מהם נזיר שלא ניתנה נזירות אלא להפלאה,אי מדר' יהושע דלמא הכי קאמר באפי נשבעתי ולא הדרנא בי אי מדרבי יצחק דלמא לאפוקי מדשמואל דאמר שמואל גמר בלבו צריך שיוציא בשפתיו והא קמ"ל דאע"ג דלא הוציא בשפתיו,אי מדחנניה בן אחי רבי יהושע דלמא כרב גידל אמר רב דאמר רב גידל אמר רב מנין שנשבעין לקיים את המצוה שנאמר נשבעתי ואקיימה לשמור משפטי צדקך,אלא דשמואל לית ליה פירכא אמר רבא ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק היינו דאמרי אינשי טבא חדא פלפלתא חריפתא ממלי צנא דקרי:,הלכות שבת: מיכתב כתיבן לא צריכא לכדר' אבא דאמר רבי אבא החופר גומא בשבת ואין צריך אלא לעפרה פטור עליה,כמאן כרבי שמעון דאמר מלאכה שאינה צריכה לגופה פטור עליה,אפילו תימא לרבי יהודה התם מתקן הכא מקלקל הוא,מאי כהררין התלויין בשערה 10a. bwith a rape,in which case it is not prohibited for the woman to return to her husband. bThere,it is referring to a woman who had relations bwillfully,and therefore she is forbidden to her husband. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthis and thatare both dealing bwith a rape, andit is still bnot difficult. Here,where the transgression cannot be rectified, it is referring btoone who raped bthe wife of a priest,as it is forbidden for a priest to have relations with his wife once she has intercourse with any other man, even unwillingly. bThere,it is referring btoone who raped bthe wife of an Israelite,in which case there is no prohibition against her returning to her husband.,Since the Gemara mentioned a Torah scholar who abandons the study of Torah, it cites a relevant verse: b“Neither was there any peace to him that went out or came indue to the adversary” (Zechariah 8:10). bRav said: Once a person leavesthe study bof ihalakha /i,i.e., Mishna and Gemara, even bforthe study bof the Torahitself, bhe will no longer have peace.The verses of the Torah are often obscure and it is difficult to learn ihalakhadirectly from them without the aid of the interpretations of the Talmud., bAnd Shmuel said: Thisis referring to bone who leavesthe study bof Talmud tolearn bMishna.Whereas the reasoning of the Talmud is relatively clear, the Mishna cites legal rulings without explaining their reasoning. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:The verse applies bevento one who leaves the study bofone bTalmud forthe other bTalmud,i.e., who leaves off his study of the Jerusalem Talmud to begin the Babylonian Talmud, as he will encounter difficulties with the new style of learning., strongMISHNA: /strong Incidental to the Festival peace-offering, the mishna describes the nature of various areas of Torah study. The ihalakhotof the bdissolution of vows,when one requests from a Sage to dissolve them, bfly in the air and have nothing to support them,as these ihalakhotare not mentioned explicitly in the Torah. There is only a slight allusion to the dissolution of vows in the Torah, which is taught by the Sages as part of the oral tradition., bThe ihalakhotof Shabbat, Festival peace /b-offerings, band misuseof consecrated property bare like mountains suspended by a hair, as theyhave blittlewritten about them in bthe Torah, andyet the details of their ihalakhotare numerous.The details of bmonetary law,sacrificial brites, ritual purity and impurity, andthe ihalakhotof bthose with whom relations are forbiddenall bhave something to support them,i.e., there is ample basis in the Torah for these ihalakhot /i, band these are the essential parts of Torah. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said:The ihalakhotof the dissolution of vows bhave something to support them, as it is stated: “Whena man shall bclearly uttera vow” (Leviticus 27:2), and: b“Wheneither man or woman shall bclearly uttera vow” (Numbers 6:2), i.e., the words “clearly utter” appear btwice. One clear utterance is for prohibition,i.e., when one states his intention to accept the vow, band one clear utterance is for dissolution,when he provides the Sage with a reason why the vow should no longer apply. This is an allusion in the Torah to the annulment of vows., bRabbi Yehoshualikewise bsays:These ihalakhot bhave something to support them, as it is stated: “Wherefore I swore in My wrath”(Psalms 95:11), meaning: bIn my wrath I swore, and I retracted.This is the basis for the dissolution of vows, in which the one who uttered the vow tells the Sage that he regrets it, as he did so in a moment of anger., bRabbi Yitzḥak says:These ihalakhot bhave something to support them, as it is stated: “Whoever is of a willing heart,let him bring it” (Exodus 35:5). This verse indicates that as long as one retains the same desire to fulfill the vow, he must continue to fulfill it, but if he regrets taking the vow he may arrange for it to be dissolved. bḤaya, son of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother,also bsays: They have something to support them, as it is stated: “I have sworn, and have fulfilled it, to observe your righteous ordices”(Psalms 119:106). This verse indicates that certain oaths need not be fulfilled, i.e., those that have been dissolved., bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: If I had been there,sitting with those Sages, I would have bsaid to them: Mysource bis better than yours, as it is stated: “He shall not nullify his word”(Numbers 30:3), from which it may be inferred: bHehimself bcannot nullify his word; however, others,i.e., a Sage, bmay nullifyit bfor himby dissolving his vow. bRava said: For all ofthe suggested sources for the dissolution of vows bthere isa possible brefutation, except for that of Shmuel, for which there is no refutation. /b,Rava elaborates. bAs, ifit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Eliezer, perhapsthe phrase: “Clearly utter” should be understood bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidan alternative interpretation bin the name of Rabbi Tarfon. As it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to two people who are arguing whether or not someone who passed before them is a nazirite, each of them declaring that if he is correct he himself will become a nazirite, bRabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Tarfon: Actually, neither of them is a nazirite, as naziriteship is effected only bymeans of ba clear utteranceand neither party is certain they will be a nazirite at the time of their utterance. He derives this ihalakhafrom this phrase: “Clearly utter.”,Similarly, bifit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Yehoshua, perhaps this is whatthe verse bis saying: In my wrath I swore and I do not take it back,despite the fact that it was stated in a moment of anger. bIfit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Yitzḥak, perhapsthe phrase “a willing heart” comes bto excludethe statement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel said:If bone decided in his heartbut did not verbalize a vow, it is insufficient, as bhe must verbally expressit. bAndtherefore bthisphrase bteaches us that even though he did not verbally expressthe vow he is still obligated to fulfill it.,Finally, bifit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Ḥaya, son of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother, perhapsthe phrase “and fulfilled it” should be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Giddel,who said that bRav saida different interpretation of this verse. bAs Rav Giddel saidthat bRav said: From whereis it derived bthatalthough one is already obligated to fulfill all mitzvot bone may take an oath to fulfill a mitzva,and this is not considered an oath taken in vain? bAs it is stated: “I have sworn, and have fulfilled it, to observe Your righteous ordices”(Psalms 119:106).,Rav concludes. bHowever,for bShmuel’ssource bthere is no refutation. Rava said,and bsome sayit was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwho said: bThisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: One spicy pepper is better than a basketful of squash,as the single pepper has more flavor than all the squash combined.,§ The mishna stated that bthe ihalakhotof Shabbatare like mountains suspended by a hair. The Gemara asks: But the ihalakhotof Shabbat bare written,i.e., the prohibition against performing labor is explicit in the Torah. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto say this bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Abba. As Rabbi Abba said: One who digs a hole on Shabbat onlybecause he bneeds its dirtand not for the hole itself bis exempt fromliability for that act, as this is not the labor of digging prohibited on Shabbat by Torah law.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion did Rabbi Abba issue this ruling? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, who said:One who performs on Shabbat ba laborthat is bnot necessary for its own sake,i.e., he performs the labor for a purpose other than the direct result of the action, is bexempt fromliability bfor it. /b,The Gemara offers an alternative possibility. This ruling can be explained bevenif byou saythat Rabbi Abba holds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,that one is liable for a labor that is not necessary for its own sake. bThere,in other cases, Rabbi Yehuda deems one liable because his purpose is bcreative. Here,where one is digging the hole for the dirt, the purpose bis destructive,as the action damages the ground. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda concedes that in this case he is exempt.,The Gemara returns to the mishna. bWhatthen does the mishna mean by the phrase: bLike mountains suspended by a hair? /b
60. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. בקינוח סעודה אמרו כל ימיו לא היה נותר בעזרה,צווחה שלישית שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס אלישמע בן פיכאי תלמידו של פנחס וישמש בכהונה גדולה,צווחה רביעית פתחו שערים והוציאו יששכר איש כפר ברקאי שמכבד עצמו ומבזה קדשי שמים מאי הוי עביד הוה כריך שיראי על ידיה והוה עביד עבודה,מאי סליקא ליה ינאי מלכא ומלכתא הוו יתבין מלכא אמר גדיא יאי ומלכתא אמרה אימרא יאי אמרו נשייליה ליששכר איש כפר ברקאי דכהן גדול הוא וקים ליה קדירה,שיילוהו א"ל אי גדיא יאי ייסק לתמידא בהדי דאמר אחוי בידיה אמר להון מלכא הואיל ואחוי בידיה קוצו לידיה דימינא יהיב שוחדא קציוה לידיה שמאלא שמע מלכא אמר ליקצו נמי לידיה דימינא אמר רב יוסף בריך רחמנא דשקליה ליששכר איש כפר ברקאי למטרפסיה,אמר רב אשי ולא הוה תני ליה דתנן כבשים קודמין לעזים בכל מקום יכול מפני שמובחרין ת"ל (ויקרא ד, לב) ואם כבש מלמד ששניהן שקולין כאחת,רבינא אמר אפילו מקרא נמי לא קרא דכתיב (ויקרא ג, ז\יב) אם כבש אם עז:,א"ר אלעזר א"ר חנינא תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יג) וכל בניך למודי ה' ורב שלום בניך:, br br big strongהדרן עלך המביא אשם וסליקא לה מסכת כריתות /strong /big br br
61. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. אלא חיה אבל שאר נשים מניחין,ר' אלעזר אמר אפילו שאר הנשים דכתיב (במדבר כ, א) ותמת שם מרים ותקבר שם סמוך למיתה קבורה,ואמר ר' אלעזר אף מרים בנשיקה מתה אתיא שם שם ממשה ומפני מה לא נאמר בה על פי ה' מפני שגנאי הדבר לאומרו,א"ר אמי למה נסמכה מיתת מרים לפרשת פרה אדומה לומר לך מה פרה אדומה מכפרת אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת א"ר אלעזר למה נסמכה מיתת אהרן לבגדי כהונה מה בגדי כהונה מכפרין אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת,ת"ר מת פתאום זו היא מיתה חטופה חלה יום אחד ומת זו היא מיתה דחופה ר' חנניא בן גמליאל אומר זו היא מיתת מגפה שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, טז) בן אדם הנני לוקח ממך את מחמד עיניך במגפה וכתיב (יחזקאל כד, יח) ואדבר אל העם בבקר ותמת אשתי בערב,שני ימים ומת זו היא מיתה דחויה ג' גערה ארבעה נזיפה חמשה זו היא מיתת כל אדם,א"ר חנין מאי קרא (דברים לא, יד) הן קרבו ימיך למות הן חד קרבו תרי ימיך תרי הא חמשה הן חד שכן בלשון יוני קורין לאחת הן,מת בחמשים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת חמשים ושתים שנה זו היא מיתתו של שמואל הרמתי ששים זו היא מיתה בידי שמים,אמר מר זוטרא מאי קרא דכתיב (איוב ה, כו) תבא בכלח אלי קבר בכלח בגימטריא שיתין הוו,שבעים שיבה שמונים גבורות דכתיב (תהלים צ, י) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה אמר רבה מחמשים ועד ששים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת והאי דלא חשיב להו משום כבודו של שמואל הרמתי,רב יוסף כי הוה בר שיתין עבד להו יומא טבא לרבנן אמר נפקי לי מכרת א"ל אביי נהי דנפק ליה מר מכרת דשני מכרת דיומי מי נפיק מר א"ל נקוט לך מיהא פלגא בידך,רב הונא נח נפשיה פתאום הוו קא דייגי רבנן תנא להו זוגא דמהדייב לא שנו אלא שלא הגיע לגבורות אבל הגיע לגבורות זו היא מיתת נשיקה,אמר רבא חיי בני ומזוני לא בזכותא תליא מילתא אלא במזלא תליא מילתא דהא רבה ורב חסדא תרוייהו רבנן צדיקי הוו מר מצלי ואתי מיטרא ומר מצלי ואתי מיטרא,רב חסדא חיה תשעין ותרתין שנין רבה חיה ארבעין בי רב חסדא שיתין הלולי בי רבה שיתין תיכלי,בי רב חסדא סמידא לכלבי ולא מתבעי בי רבה נהמא דשערי לאינשי ולא משתכח,ואמר רבא הני תלת מילי בעאי קמי שמיא תרתי יהבו לי חדא לא יהבו לי חוכמתיה דרב הונא ועותריה דרב חסדא ויהבו לי ענותנותיה דרבה בר רב הונא לא יהבו לי,רב שעורים אחוה דרבא הוה יתיב קמיה דרבא חזייה דהוה קא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו שושביניה הוא א"ל כיון דאימסר מזלא לא אשגח בי א"ל ליתחזי לי מר איתחזי ליה א"ל הוה ליה למר צערא א"ל כי ריבדא דכוסילתא,רבא הוה יתיב קמיה דר"נ חזייה דקא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו אדם חשוב הוא א"ל מאן חשיב מאן ספין מאן רקיע,א"ל ליתחזי לי מר אתחזי ליה א"ל ה"ל למר צערא א"ל כמישחל בניתא מחלבא ואי אמר לי הקב"ה זיל בההוא עלמא כד הוית לא בעינא דנפיש בעיתותיה,רבי אלעזר הוה קאכיל תרומה איתחזי ליה א"ל תרומה קא אכילנא ולאו קודש איקרי חלפא ליה שעתא,רב ששת איתחזי ליה בשוקא אמר ליה בשוקא כבהמה איתא לגבי ביתא,רב אשי איתחזי ליה בשוקא א"ל איתרח לי תלתין יומין ואהדרי לתלמודאי דאמריתו אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ביום תלתין אתא אמר ליה מאי כולי האי קא דחקא רגליה דבר נתן ואין מלכות נוגעת בחבירתה אפילו כמלא נימא,רב חסדא לא הוה יכיל ליה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק יתיב בארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתק ויכיל ליה,ר' חייא לא הוה מצי למיקרבא ליה יומא חד אידמי ליה כעניא אתא טריף אבבא א"ל אפיק לי ריפתא אפיקו ליה א"ל ולאו קא מרחם מר אעניא אההוא גברא אמאי לא קא מרחם מר גלי ליה אחוי ליה שוטא דנורא אמצי ליה נפשיה: 28a. with regard to ba womanwho died bin childbirth,and therefore continues to bleed. bButthe biers of bother women may be set downin the street., bRabbi Elazar said: Eventhe biers of bother womenmust not be set down in the street, bas it is written: “And Miriam died there and was buried there”(Numbers 20:1), which teaches that bthesite of her bburial was close tothe place of her bdeath.Therefore, it is preferable to bury a woman as close as possible to the place where she died.,With regard to that same verse bRabbi Elazar saidfurther: bMiriam also died bythe divine bkiss,just like her brother Moses. What is the source for this? bThis is derivedthrough a verbal analogy between the word b“there”stated with regard to Miriam and the word b“there”mentioned bwith regard to Moses.With regard to Moses it says: “So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab by the mouth of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 34:5). bFor whatreason bwas it notexplicitly bstated with regard to her,as it is stated with regard to Moses, that she died b“by the mouth of the Lord”?It is bbecause it would be unseemly to say such a thing,that a woman died by way of a divine kiss, and therefore it is not said explicitly., bRabbi Ami said: Why wasthe Torah portion that describes the bdeath of Miriam juxtaposed to the portiondealing with bthe red heifer? To tell you: Just as the red heifer atonesfor sin, bso too, the death of the righteous atonesfor sin. bRabbi Elazar said: Why wasthe Torah portion that describes the bdeath of Aaron juxtaposed tothe portion discussing bthe priestly garments?This teaches that bjust as the priestly garments atonefor sin, bso too, the death of the righteous atonesfor sin.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: If one bdies suddenlywithout having been sick, bthis is deaththrough bsnatching.If he bbecame sick for a day and died, this is an expedited death. Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel says: This is death at a stroke, as it is stated: “Son of man, behold, I am about to take away from you the delight of your eyes at a stroke”(Ezekiel 24:16). bAndwhen this prophecy is fulfilled bit is written: “So I spoke to the people in the morning and at evening my wife died”(Ezekiel 24:18).,If he was sick for btwo days and died, this is a quickened death.If he was sick for bthreedays and died, this is a death of brebuke.If he died after being sick for bfourdays, this is a death of breprimand.If one died after a sickness lasting bfivedays, bthis is theordinary bdeath of all people. /b, bRabbi Ḥanin said: What is the versefrom which this is derived? It is stated: b“Behold, your days approach that you must die”(Deuteronomy 31:14). This verse is expounded in the following manner: b“Behold [ ihen /i]”indicates bone; “approach [ ikarvu /i],”a plural term, indicates btwo; “your days [ iyamekha /i],”also a plural term, indicates another btwo;and therefore in total bthis is five.How does the word ihen /iindicate bone? Because in the Greek language they callthe number bone ihen /i. /b,The Gemara discusses the significance of death at different ages: If one bdies whenhe is bfifty yearsold, bthis is death through ikaret /i,the divine punishment of excision, meted out for the most serious transgressions. If he dies when he is bfifty-two yearsold, bthis is the death of Samuel from Ramah.If he dies at the age of bsixty, this is death at the hand of Heaven. /b, bMar Zutra said: What is the versefrom which this is derived? bAs it is written: “You shall come to your grave in a ripe age [ ibekhelaḥ /i]”(Job 5:26). The word b“ripe age” [ ibekhelaḥ /i] has the numerical value of sixty,and it is alluded to there that dying at this age involves a divine punishment.,One who dies at the age of bseventyhas reached bold age.One who dies at the age of beightydies in bstrength, as it is written: “The days of our years are seventy, or if by reason of strength, eighty years”(Psalms 90:10). bRabba said:Not only is death at the age of fifty a sign of ikaret /i, but even death bfrom fifty to sixty yearsof age bis death by ikaret /i. Andthe reason that ball of these years were not countedin connection with ikaretis bdue to the honor of Samuel from Ramah,who died at the age of fifty-two.,The Gemara relates that bwhen Rav Yosef turned sixty he made a holiday for the Sages.Explaining the cause for his celebration, bhe said: I have passedthe age of ikaret /i. Abaye said to him: Master,even bthough you have passed the ikaretof years, have you, Master, escaped the ikaretof days?As previously mentioned, sudden death is also considered to be a form of ikaret /i. bHe said to him: Grasp at least half in your hand,for I have at least escaped one type of ikaret /i.,It was related that bRav Huna died suddenly,and bthe Sages were concernedthat this was a bad sign. The Sage bZuga from Hadayeiv taught themthe following: bThey taughtthese principles bonly whenthe deceased bhad not reachedthe age of bstrength,i.e., eighty. bBut if he had reachedthe age of bstrengthand then died suddenly, bthis is death by way of adivine bkiss. /b, bRava said:Length of blife, children, and sustece do not depend onone’s bmerit, but rather they depend upon fate. As, Rabba and Rav Ḥisda were both pious Sages;one bSagewould bprayduring a drought band rain would fall, andthe other bSagewould bpray and rain would fall. /b,And nevertheless, their lives were very different. bRav Ḥisda lived for ninety-two years,whereas bRabba lived foronly bfortyyears. bThe house of Rav Ḥisdacelebrated bsixty wedding feasts,whereas the bhouse of Rabbaexperienced bsixty calamities.In other words, many fortuitous events took place in the house of Rav Ḥisda and the opposite occurred in the house of Rabba., bIn the house of Rav Ḥisdathere was bread from bthe finest flour [ isemida /i]even bfor the dogs, and it was not asked after,as there was so much food. bIn the house of Rabba,on the other hand, there was coarse bbarley breadeven bfor people, and it was not foundin sufficient quantities. This shows that the length of life, children, and sustece all depend not upon one’s merit, but upon fate.,Apropos Rav Ḥisda’s great wealth, the Gemara reports that bRava said: These three things I requested from Heaven, twoof which bwere given to me,and bone was not given to me:I requested the bwisdom of Rav Huna and the wealth of Rav Ḥisda and they were given to me.I also requested the bhumility of Rabba bar Rav Huna,but bit was not given to me. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion of the deaths of the righteous. bRav Seorim, Rava’s brother, sat before Rava,and bhe saw thatRava bwas dozing,i.e., about to die. Rava bsaid tohis brother: bMaster, tell him,the Angel of Death, bnot to torment me.Knowing that Rava was not afraid of the Angel of Death, Rav Seorim bsaid tohim: bMaster, are you not a friend ofthe Angel of Death? Rava bsaid to him: Sincemy bfate has been handed overto him, and it has been decreed that I shall die, the Angel of Death bno longer pays heed to me.Rav Seorim bsaid toRava: bMaster, appear to mein a dream after your death. And Rava bappeared to him.Rav Seorim bsaid toRava: bMaster, did you have painin death? bHe said to him: Like the prickof the knife bwhen letting blood. /b,It was similarly related that bRava sat before Rav Naḥman,and bhe saw thatRav Naḥman bwas dozing,i.e., slipping into death. Rav Naḥman bsaid toRava: bMaster, tellthe Angel of Death bnot to torment me.Rava bsaid to him: Master, are you not an important personwho is respected in Heaven? Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:In the supernal world bwho is important? Who is honorable? Who is complete? /b,Rava bsaid toRav Naḥman: bMaster, appear to mein a dream after your death. And bhe appeared to him.Rava bsaid to him: Master, did you have painin death? Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Like the removal of hair from milk,which is a most gentle process. But nevertheless, bwere the Holy One, Blessed be He, to say to me: Goback bto that world,the physical world, bas you were, I would not want to go, for the fear ofthe Angel of Death bis great.And I would not want to go through such a terrifying experience a second time.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Elazar wasonce beating iteruma /i,when the Angel of Death bappeared to him. He said tothe Angel of Death: bI am eating iteruma /i; is it not called sacred?It would be inappropriate for me to die now and thereby defile this sacred iteruma /i. The Angel of Death accepted his argument and left him. bThe moment passed,and he lived for some time afterward.,It was similarly related that the Angel of Death once bappeared to Rav Sheshet in the marketplace.Rav Sheshet bsaid tothe Angel of Death: Shall I die bin the market like an animal? Come tomy bhouseand kill me there like a human being.,So too, the Angel of Death bappeared to Rav Ashi in the marketplace.Rav Ashi bsaid tothe Angel of Death: bGive me thirty days so that I may review my studies, for you sayabove: bFortunate is he who comes hereto Heaven bwith his learning in his hand. On the thirtieth daythe Angel of Death bcameto take him. Rav Ashi bsaid tothe Angel of Death: bWhat is all of this?Why are you in such a hurry to take me? Why can you not postpone my death? He said to him: bThe foot ofRav Huna bbar Natan is pushingyou, as he is ready to succeed you as the leader of the generation, band one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, evenby bone hairbreadth.Therefore, you cannot live any longer.,The Angel of Death bwas unableto take bRav Ḥisda because his mouth was never silent from study.So the Angel of Death bwentand bsat on the cedarcolumn that supported the roof of bthe study hall of the Sages. The cedar cracked andRav Ḥisda bwas silentfor a moment, as he was startled by the sound. At that point the Angel of Death was bable totake bhim. /b,The Angel of Death bcould not come near Rabbi Ḥiyya,owing to his righteousness. bOne daythe Angel of Death bappeared to him as a poor person. He came and knocked on the door. He said toRabbi Ḥiyya: bBring out bread for me,and bhe took outbread bfor him.The Angel of Death then bsaidto Rabbi Ḥiyya: bMaster, do you not have mercy on a poor person? Why, then, do you not have mercy upon that man,i.e., upon me, and give me what I want? The Angel of Death then brevealedhis identity bto him,and bshowed him a fiery rodin order to confirm that he was the Angel of Death. At this point Rav Ḥiyya bsurrenderedhimself bto him. /b
62. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. נימא תלתא תנאי הוו לא תרי תנאי הוו ותנא קמא דר' שמעון היינו ר' יוסי ותנא קמא דר' יוסי היינו ר' שמעון ומאי אף אקמייתא,ת"ר בן בוהיין נתן פיאה לירק ובא אביו ומצאן לעניים שהיו טעונין ירק ועומדין על פתח הגינה אמר להם בני השליכו מעליכם ואני נותן לכם כפליים במעושר לא מפני שעיני צרה אלא מפני שאמרו חכמים אין נותנין פיאה לירק,למה ליה למימרא להו לא מפני שעיני צרה כי היכי דלא לימרו דחויי קא מדחי לן,ת"ר בראשונה היו מניחין עורות קדשים בלשכת בית הפרוה לערב היו מחלקין אותן לאנשי בית אב והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע התקינו שיהיו מחלקין אותן מערב שבת לע"ש דאתיין כולהו משמרות ושקלן בהדדי,ועדיין היו גדולי כהונה נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שחיפו את ההיכל כולו בטבלאות של זהב שהן אמה על אמה כעובי דינר זהב ולרגל היו מקפלין אותן ומניחין אותן על גב מעלה בהר הבית כדי שיהו עולי רגלים רואין שמלאכתם נאה ואין בה דלם,תנא אבא שאול אומר קורות של שקמה היו ביריחו והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,עליהם ועל כיוצא בהם אמר אבא שאול בן בטנית משום אבא יוסף בן חנין אוי לי מבית בייתוס אוי לי מאלתן אוי לי מבית חנין אוי לי מלחישתן אוי לי מבית קתרוס אוי לי מקולמוסן אוי לי מבית ישמעאל בן פיאכי אוי לי מאגרופן שהם כהנים גדולים ובניהן גיזברין וחתניהם אמרכלין ועבדיהן חובטין את העם במקלות,תנו רבנן ארבע צווחות צוחה עזרה ראשונה צאו מכאן בני עלי שטימאו היכל ה' ועוד צווחה צא מיכן יששכר איש כפר ברקאי שמכבד את עצמו ומחלל קדשי שמים דהוה כריך ידיה בשיראי ועביד עבודה,ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס ישמעאל בן פיאכי תלמידו של פנחס וישמש בכהונה גדולה ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס יוחנן בן נרבאי תלמידו של פנקאי וימלא כריסו מקדשי שמים,אמרו עליו על יוחנן בן נרבאי שהיה אוכל ג' מאות עגלים ושותה ג' מאות גרבי יין ואוכל ארבעים סאה גוזלות בקינוח סעודה אמרו כל ימיו של יוחנן בן נרבאי לא נמצא נותר במקדש מאי סלקא ביה ביששכר איש כפר ברקאי אמרי מלכא ומלכתא הוו יתבי מלכא אמר גדיא יאי ומלכתא אמרה אימרא יאי אמרו מאן מוכח כהן גדול דקא מסיק קרבנות כל יומא אתא איהו 57a. bLet us saythat bthere are three itanna’im /iwho dispute this point: The two unattributed opinions, each of which is referring to two vegetables, and the opinion common to Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon that includes all three vegetables. The Gemara rejects this: bNo, there areonly btwo itanna’im /iwho dispute the point, band the first itanna /iwhose opinion appears before the opinion of bRabbi Shimon is Rabbi Yosei. And the first itanna /iwhose opinion appears before the opinion of bRabbi Yosei is Rabbi Shimon. And whatis the meaning of the word bevenin both their statements? They agree with regard to bthe firstvegetable, turnips; however, they disagree with regard to the second, and replace it with another vegetable.,The Gemara cites an episode from the iTosefta /i. bThe Sages taught: The sonof a man named bBohayan designatedfor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a garden bof vegetables, and his fatherBohayan bfound the poor ladenwith bvegetables and standing at the opening of the gardenon their way out. bHe said to them: My sons, castthe vegetables that you have gathered bfrom upon yourselves and I will give you twicethe amount in btithedproduce, and you will be no worse off. bNot because I begrudgeyou what you have taken. bRather, it is because the Sages say: One does not designatefor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a garden bof vegetables.Therefore, the vegetables that you took require tithing.,The Gemara asks: bWhywas it necessary bfor him to say to them: Not because I begrudgeyou what you have taken? It would have been sufficient to offer them tithed produce. The Gemara answers that he said it bso they would not say: He is putting us off,taking what we collected now, but later he will not fulfill his commitment.,Apropos the people of Jericho, the Gemara relates that powerful people would steal wood from them. bThe Sages taught: Initially,the priests bwould place the hidesthat were flayed from animals bconsecratedas offerings of the most sacred order, which were given to the priests, bin the Parva chamber. In the evening, they would distribute them to the members of the familyof priests serving in the Temple that day. bAnd the powerfulpriests among them would btake them by forcebefore they could be distributed. The Rabbis bdecreed that they would distribute them each Shabbat eve,because then ball thefamilies of both priestly bwatches came and tooktheir part btogether.All the families from both the watch that was beginning its service and the one ending its service were together when they divided the hides. The powerful priests were unable to take the hides by force., bYet still the prominent priestsby virtue of their lineage bwould take them by force.Due to their prominence, the members of the rest of the watch dared not challenge them. When they realized that there was no equitable distribution, bthe ownersof the sacrifices ( iMe’iri /i) barose and consecratedthe hides bto Heavenso the priests could not take them.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed before they had plated the entire sanctuary with golden tabletswith the proceeds from the redemption and sale of the hides. These plates bwere one cubit by one cubit and as thick as a golden dinar. Andwhen the people assembled bfor theFestival bpilgrimage they would removethe tablets band place them on a stair of the Temple Mount so that the pilgrims would see that the craftsmanshipof the tablets bwas beautiful and without flaw [ idalam /i].Afterward they replaced the tablets in the Sanctuary., bIt wassimilarly btaughtthat bAbba Shaul says: There were sycamore tree trunks in Jericho, and powerful people would take themfrom their owners bby force. The owners stood and consecratedthese trunks bto Heaven.It was with regard to these trunks and the branches that grew from them that the residents of Jericho acted against the will of the Sages., bWith regard tothe prominent priests band those like them, Abba Shaul ben Batnit said in the name of Abba Yosef ben Ḥanin: Woe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Baitos, woe is me due to their clubs. Woe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Ḥanin; woe is me due to their whispersand the rumors they spread. bWoe is me due tothe High Priests of bthe house of Katros; woe is me due to their pensthat they use to write lies. bWoe is me due tothe servants of the High Priests of bthe house of Yishmael ben Piakhi; woe is me due to their fists.The power of these households stemmed from the fact bthatthe fathers bwere High Priests, and their sons werethe Temple btreasurers, and their sons-in-law wereTemple boverseers [ iamarkalin /i]. And their servants strike the people with clubs,and otherwise act inappropriately.,Apropos the critique of several prominent priests, the Gemara relates that bthe Sages taught:The people in btheTemple bcourtyardall bcried four cries,as they were in agreement over various issues ( iPardes Rimonim /i). The bfirstcry was: bLeave here, sons of Eli, who defiled God’s Sanctuary(see I Samuel 2:22). Subsequently the priesthood was transferred to the house of Zadok. bAnd an additional cry: Leave here, Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai, who honors himself and desecratesthe items bconsecratedto bHeaven.Due to his delicate nature and his disrespect for the Temple service, he would bwraphis hands bin silk [ ishirai /i] and perform the service.This would invalidate the service because the silk was an interposition between his hands and the Temple vessels. Furthermore, his conduct demeaned the Temple service, as he demonstrated that he was unwilling to dirty his hands for it., bAndthe people in btheTemple bcourtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and letthe righteous bYishmael ben Piakhi, the student of Pinehasben Elazar the priest, benter and serve as High Priest,although the members of this family were violent. bAndthe people in btheTemple bcourtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and let Yoḥa ben Narbbai, the student of Pinkai, enter and fill his belly withmeat bof offeringsconsecrated to bHeaven,as he is worthy to eat offerings., bThey said about Yoḥa ben Narbbai that heand his household bwould eat three hundred calves, and drink three hundred jugs of wine, and eat forty ise’aof doves for dessert. They said:Throughout ball the days of Yoḥa ben Narbbai there was no leftoversacrificial meat bin the Temple,as he would make certain that someone ate it. The Gemara asks: bWhatultimately bhappened to Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai? They said: The king and the queen were sittingand talking. bThe king saidthat bgoatmeat bis betterfood, band the queen said lambmeat is bbetterfood. bThey said: Who can provewhich one of us is correct? bThe High Priestcan, bas he offers sacrifices all dayand tastes their meat. The High Priest had the right to take a portion from any sacrifice offered in the Temple, and therefore was well acquainted with the tastes of different meat. Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai bcame,and when they asked him this question
63. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

156a. רבי יוסי בר' יהודה היא והנ"מ הוא דמשני היכי משני א"ר חסדא על יד על יד,ושוין שבוחשין את השתית בשבת ושותים זיתום המצרי והאמרת אין גובלין ל"ק הא בעבה הא ברכה והני מילי הוא דמשני,היכי משני אמר רב יוסף בחול נותן את החומץ ואח"כ נותן את השתית בשבת נותן את השתית ואח"כ נותן את החומץ לוי בריה דרב הונא בר חייא אשכחיה לגבלא דבי נשיה דקא גביל וספי ליה לתוריה בטש ביה אתא אבוה אשכחיה א"ל הכי אמר אבוה דאמך משמיה דרב ומנו רבי ירמיה בר אבא גובלין ולא מספין ודלא לקיט בלישניה מהלקיטין ליה וה"מ הוא דמשני,היכי משני אמר רב יימר בר שלמיא משמיה דאביי שתי וערב והא לא מערב שפיר אמר רב יהודה מנערו לכלי,כתיב אפינקסיה דזעירי אמרית קדם רבי ומנו רבי חייא מהו לגבל אמר אסור מהו לפרק אמר מותר אמר רב [מנשיא] חד קמי חד תרי קמי תרי שפיר דמי תלתא קמי תרי אסור רב יוסף אמר קב ואפילו קביים עולא אמר כור ואפילו כוריים,כתיב אפינקסיה דלוי אמרית קדם רבי ומנו רבינו הקדוש על דהוו גבלין שתיתא בבבל והוה צוח רבי ומנו רבינו הקדוש על דהוו גבלין שתיתא ולית דשמיע ליה ולית חילא בידיה למיסר מדרבי יוסי בר' יהודה,כתיב אפינקסיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי האי מאן דבחד בשבא יהי גבר ולא חדא ביה,מאי [ולא חדא ביה] אילימא ולא חד לטיבו והאמר רב אשי אנא בחד בשבא הואי אלא לאו חדא לבישו והאמר רב אשי אנא ודימי בר קקוזתא הוויין בחד בשבא אנא מלך והוא הוה ריש גנבי אלא אי כולי לטיבו אי כולי לבישו (מאי טעמא דאיברו ביה אור וחושך),האי מאן דבתרי בשבא יהי גבר רגזן מ"ט משום דאיפליגו ביה מיא האי מאן דבתלתא בשבא יהי גבר עתיר וזנאי יהא מ"ט משום דאיברו ביה עשבים האי מאן דבארבעה בשבא יהי גבר חכים) ונהיר מ"ט משום דאיתלו ביה מאורות,האי מאן דבחמשה בשבא יהי גבר גומל חסדים מ"ט משום דאיברו ביה דגים ועופות האי מאן דבמעלי שבתא יהי גבר חזרן אמר ר"נ בר יצחק חזרן במצות האי מאן דבשבתא יהי בשבתא ימות על דאחילו עלוהי יומא רבא דשבתא אמר רבא בר רב שילא וקדישא רבא יתקרי,אמר להו רבי חנינא פוקו אמרו ליה לבר ליואי לא מזל יום גורם אלא מזל שעה גורם האי מאן דבחמה יהי גבר זיותן יהי אכיל מדיליה ושתי מדיליה ורזוהי גליין אם גניב לא מצלח האי מאן דבכוכב נוגה יהי גבר עתיר וזנאי יהי מ"ט משום דאיתיליד ביה נורא האי מאן דבכוכב יהי גבר נהיר וחכים משום דספרא דחמה הוא האי מאן דבלבנה יהי גבר סביל מרעין בנאי וסתיר סתיר ובנאי אכיל דלא דיליה ושתי דלא דיליה ורזוהי כסיין אם גנב מצלח האי מאן דבשבתאי יהי גבר מחשבתיה בטלין ואית דאמרי כל דמחשבין עליה בטלין האי מאן דבצדק יהי גבר צדקן אמר ר"נ בר יצחק וצדקן במצות האי מאן דבמאדים יהי גבר אשיד דמא א"ר אשי אי אומנא אי גנבא אי טבחא אי מוהלא אמר רבה אנא במאדים הואי אמר אביי מר נמי עניש וקטיל,איתמר רבי חנינא אומר מזל מחכים מזל מעשיר ויש מזל לישראל רבי יוחנן אמר אין מזל לישראל ואזדא רבי יוחנן לטעמיה דא"ר יוחנן מניין שאין מזל לישראל שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה הם יחתו ולא ישראל,ואף רב סבר אין מזל לישראל דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב מניין שאין מזל לישראל שנאמר (בראשית טו, ה) ויוצא אותו החוצה אמר אברהם לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (בראשית טו, ג) בן ביתי יורש אותי אמר לו לאו (בראשית טו, ד) כי אם אשר יצא ממעיך,אמר לפניו רבש"ע נסתכלתי באיצטגנינות שלי ואיני ראוי להוליד בן אמר ליה צא מאיצטגנינות שלך שאין מזל לישראל מאי דעתיך 156a. bIt isthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda. And thisleniency bapplies onlyin a case bwhere one altersthe way that he kneads. The Gemara asks: bHow does one alterthe manner in which he kneads? bRav Ḥisda said:One does not knead the dough all at once but rather ba little bit at a time. /b,It was also taught: bAnd they agree that one may mix the ishatit /i,roasted barley to which honey is added, bon Shabbat, and drink Egyptian beer,as it is not considered to be for medicinal purposes. The Gemara asks: bDidn’t you say: One may not knead?That contradicts the statement that they agree that it is permitted to stir the ishatit /i. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as there is a distinction between the cases. bThisdispute with regard to ishatitis referring btomixing a bthickmixture, which is similar to kneading. However, bthatstatement where they agree that mixing is permitted is referring btoa bsoft,thin mixture that cannot be kneaded. bAndall of bthesestatements are referring to a case bwhere one altersthe way he kneads or stirs.,The Gemara asks: bHow does one alterthe manner in which he performs these actions? bRav Yosef said:On a bweekday onefirst bplaces the vinegarin a vessel band then places the ishatit /i. On Shabbat onefirst bplaces the ishatitand then places the vinegar.The Gemara relates that bLevi, son of Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya, found the one who kneads in his parents’ home kneadingbran on Shabbat band feeding it to his ox. He kicked himso that he would stop. When bhis father cameand bfound him,he bsaid to him: Thisis what byour mother’s father said in the name of Rav.The Gemara interjects: bAnd who ishis mother’s father? It is bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba,who said: bOne may knead but not feedanimals, banda calf bthat does not takethe food bwith its tongue may be fedon Shabbat. bAnd this appliesonly bwhen one altersthe manner in which he does so.,The Gemara asks: bHow does one alterthe manner in which he does so? bRav Yeimar bar Shelamya said in the name of Abaye:One moves the ladle or stirring utensil in the directions of bwarp and woof.The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit the case that bit will not mix well,so what is the point of stirring it that way? bRav Yehuda said:It means that bone pours it intoanother bvesseland in the process it is mixed., bIt was written in Ze’eiri’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, andthe Gemara asks: bAnd who ishis rabbi? It is bRabbi Ḥiyya.And Ze’eiri said before him: bWhat isthe ruling? Is it permitted bto kneadon Shabbat? bHe said:It is bprohibited. What isthe ruling with regard to bemptyingfood from a vessel before one animal to place it before another animal? bHe said:It is bpermitted. Rav Menashya said:Placing bonetrough bbefore oneanimal or btwotroughs bbefore twoanimals, one may bwelldo so. Placing bthreetroughs bbefore twoanimals bis prohibited,because it is considered to be superfluous labor as he is bringing the animals more food than they need. bRav Yosef said:It is permitted to add ba ikav /iof additional food bor even two ikav /i. Ulla said:One may add ba ikoror even two ikor /iand there is no need for concern., bIt was written in Levi’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, andthe Gemara asks: bAnd who ishis rabbi? It is bour holy Rabbi,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Levi spoke baboutthe fact that bpeople would knead ishatitin Babylonia, and my rabbi, and who is it, our holy Rabbi, criedin protest over the fact that bpeople would knead ishatit /i. Andthere was bno one who listened to him, and he did not have the power to prohibitit bdue tothe people’s reliance on the opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda,who permitted doing so.,After citing relevant ihalakhotwritten in the notebooks of various Sages, the Gemara relates that bit was written in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s notebook: One whowas born bon the first day of the week,Sunday, bwill be a person and there will not be one in him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: bThere will not be one in him? If you saythat bthere is not onequality bfor the best,that cannot be, bas Rav Ashi said: I wasborn bon the first day of the week,and one cannot say that there was nothing good about him. bRather,it must mean that bthere is not onequality bfor the worst. Didn’t Rav Ashi say: I and Dimi bar Kakuzta wereboth born bon the first day of the week. Ibecame ba king,the head of a yeshiva, band he became the head ofa gang of bthieves,clearly a negative quality. bRather,one born on a Sunday bis either completely for the best or completely for the worst. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecauseboth blight and darkness were createdon the first day of Creation., bOne who wasborn bon the second day of the week,Monday, bwill be a short-tempered person. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause on that day,the second day of Creation, btheupper and lower bwaters were divided.Therefore, it is a day of contentiousness. br bOne who wasborn bon the third day of the week will be a rich man and a promiscuousperson. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause on that day,the third day, bvegetation was created.It grows abundantly but is also mixed together without boundaries between the grass and the plants. br bOne who wasborn bon the fourth day of the week will be a wise and enlightened person. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause theheavenly blights were hungin the heavens bon that day,and wisdom is likened to light., bOne who wasborn bon the fifth day of the week will be a person who performs acts of kindness. What is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause on that day the fish and fowl were created,and they do not receive their sustece by performing work for people. They are sustained by the kindness of God alone. br bOne who wasborn bon the sixth day of the week will be a seeker. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saidthat this means that he will be bone who seeks out mitzvot,as most of the activity on Friday involves preparation for Shabbat. br bOne who wasborn bon Shabbat will die on Shabbat, because they desecrated the great day of Shabbat on hisbehalf. bRava bar Rav Sheila said: And he will be called aperson of bgreat sanctitybecause he was born on the sacred day of Shabbat., bRabbi Ḥanina said tohis students who heard all this: bGoand btell the son of Leiva’i,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: bIt is not the constellation of the dayof the week bthat determinesa person’s nature; brather,it is bthe constellation of the hourthat bdetermineshis nature. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bthe sun will be a radiant person; he will eat from his ownresources band drink from his ownresources, band his secrets will be exposed. If he steals he will not succeed,because he will be like the sun that shines and is revealed to all. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bVenus will be a rich and promiscuous person. What is the reasonfor this? bBecause fire was bornduring the hour of Venus, he will be subject the fire of the evil inclination, which burns perpetually. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bMercury will be an enlightened and expert man, becauseMercury bis the sun’s scribe,as it is closest to the sun. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bthe moon will be a man who suffers pains, who builds and destroys, and destroys and builds.He will be a man bwho eats not from his ownresources band drinks not from his ownresources, band whose secrets are hidden. If he steals he will succeed,as he is like the moon that constantly changes form, whose light is not its own, and who is at times exposed and at times hidden. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bSaturn will be a man whose thoughts are for naught. And some saythat beverything thatothers bthink about himand plan to do to him bis for naught. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bJupiter [ itzedek /i] will be a justperson b[ itzadkan /i]. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And justin this context means just binthe performance of bmitzvot. br bOne who wasborn bunderthe influence of bMars will be one who spills blood. Rav Ashi said:He will be beither a blood letter, or a thief, or a slaughtererof animals, bor a circumciser. Rabba said: I wasborn bunderthe influence of bMarsand I do not perform any of those activities. bAbaye said: My Master also punishes and killsas a judge., bIt was statedthat bRabbi Ḥanina says: A constellation makes one wiseand ba constellation makes one wealthy, and there is a constellation for the Jewish peoplethat influences them. bRabbi Yoḥa said: There is no constellation for the Jewish peoplethat influences them. The Jewish people are not subject to the influence of astrology. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa follows hisown breasoning,as bRabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived bthat there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them”(Jeremiah 10:2). bThe nations will be dismayedby them, bbut not the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rav also holdsthat bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people, as Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: From whereis it derived bthat there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is statedwith regard to Abraham: b“And He brought him outside,and said: Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if you are able to count them; and He said unto him: So shall your offspring be” (Genesis 15:5). The Sages derived from this that bAbraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,“Behold, You have given me no offspring, and bone born in my house is to be my heir”(Genesis 15:3). The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: No.“And, behold, the word of the Lord came to him, saying: This man shall not be your heir; brather, one that will come forth from your own innards shall be your heir”(Genesis 15:4).,Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my astrologicalmap, bandaccording to the configuration of my constellations bI am not fit to have a son.The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Emerge from your astrology,as the verse states: “And He brought him outside,” bas there is no constellation for Israel. What is your thinking? /b
64. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22b. ועד כמה עד ארבעין שנין איני והא רבה אורי בשוין,ומכות פרושין וכו' ת"ר שבעה פרושין הן פרוש שיכמי פרוש נקפי פרוש קיזאי פרוש מדוכיא פרוש מה חובתי ואעשנה פרוש מאהבה פרוש מיראה,פרוש שיכמי זה העושה מעשה שכם פרוש נקפי זה המנקיף את רגליו פרוש קיזאי א"ר נחמן בר יצחק זה המקיז דם לכתלים פרוש מדוכיא אמר רבה בר שילא דמשפע כי מדוכיא,פרוש מה חובתי ואעשנה הא מעליותא היא אלא דאמר מה חובתי תו ואעשנה,פרוש מאהבה פרוש מיראה אמרו ליה אביי ורבא לתנא לא תיתני פרוש מאהבה פרוש מיראה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דמטמרא מטמרא ודמגליא מגליא בי דינא רבה ליתפרע מהני דחפו גונדי אמר לה ינאי מלכא לדביתיה אל תתיראי מן הפרושין ולא ממי שאינן פרושין אלא מן הצבועין שדומין לפרושין שמעשיהן כמעשה זמרי ומבקשין שכר כפנחס, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר"ש אומר אין זכות תולה במים המרים ואם אתה אומר הזכות תולה במים המאררין מדהה אתה את המים בפני כל הנשים השותות ומוציא אתה שם רע על הטהורות ששתו שאומרים טמאות הן אלא שתלתה להן זכות רבי אומר הזכות תולה במים המאררים ואינה יולדת ואינה משבחת אלא מתנוונה והולכת לסוף היא מתה באותה מיתה,נטמאת מנחתה עד שלא קדשה בכלי הרי היא ככל המנחות ותפדה ואם משקדשה בכלי הרי היא ככל המנחות ותשרף ואלו שמנחותיהן נשרפות 22b. bAnd until whenis it considered too premature for a scholar to issue halakhic rulings? It is buntil forty years.The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabba issue rulings,even though he lived for only forty years? The Gemara answers: It is permitted for a scholar who has not studied for so long to issue rulings bwhenhis knowledge reaches the level of the foremost scholar in his city and bthey are equals. /b,§ It states in the mishna: bAnd those who injurethemselves out of false babstinence [ iperushin /i]are people who erode the world. bThe Sages taught: There are sevenpseudo- brighteouspeople who erode the world: The brighteous of Shechem,the self- bflagellating righteous,the bbloodletting righteous,the bpestle /b-like brighteous,the brighteouswho say: Tell me bwhat my obligationis band I will perform it,those who are brighteous due to love,and those who are brighteous due to fear. /b,The Gemara explains: The brighteous of Shechem [ ishikhmi /i]; this isone bwho performsactions comparable to the bactionof the people of bShechem,who agreed to circumcise themselves for personal gain (see Genesis, chapter 34); so too, he behaves righteously only in order to be honored. The self- bflagellating righteous; this isone bwho injures his feet,as he walks slowly, dragging his feet on the ground in an attempt to appear humble, and injures his feet in the process. The bbloodletting righteous; Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysthat bthis isone bwho lets bloodby banging his head bagainst the wallsbecause he walks with his eyes shut, ostensibly out of modesty. The bpestle /b-like brighteous; Rabba bar Sheila saysthat this is one bwhowalks bbent over likethe bpestleof a mortar.,With regard to the brighteousone who says: Tell me bwhat my obligationis band I will perform it,the Gemara asks: bIsn’t this virtuousbehavior, as he desires to be aware of his obligations? bRather,this is referring to one bwho says:Tell me bwhat further obligationsare incumbent bupon me and I will perform them,indicating that he fulfills all of his mitzvot perfectly and therefore seeks additional obligations.,The ibaraitaalso includes in the list of pseudo-righteous people those who are brighteous due to loveand those who are brighteous due to fear,i.e., one who performs mitzvot due to love of their reward or due to fear of punishment. bAbaye and Rava said to the itanna /iwho transmitted this ibaraita /i: bDo not teachin the ibaraita /i: Those who are brighteous due to loveand those who are brighteous due to fear, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should always engage in Torahstudy band inperformance of bthe mitzvot even ifhe does bnotdo so bfor their own sake, as throughperforming them bnot for their own sake,one bcomesto perform them bfor their own sake. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:That bwhich is hidden is hidden, andthat bwhich is revealed is revealed,but in Heaven everything is known, and bthe great courtin Heaven bwill exact payment from those who wear the cloakof the righteous but are in fact unworthy. The Gemara relates: bKing Yannai said to his wifebefore he died: bDo not be afraid of the Pharisees [ iperushin /i], and neithershould you fear bfrom those who are not Pharisees,i.e., the Sadducees; brather,beware bof the hypocrites who appear like Pharisees, as their actions are like the act ofthe wicked bZimri and they requesta breward likethat of the righteous bPinehas(see Numbers, chapter 25)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Shimon says: Merit does not delaythe punishment bof the bitter waterof a isota /i, band if you saythat bmerit does delaythe punishment bof the water that causes the curse,as stated earlier by the Rabbis (20a), byou weaken [ imadhe /i]the power of bthebitter bwater before all the women who drinkthe water, who will no longer be afraid of it, as they will rely on their merit to save them. bAnd you defame the untainted women who drankthe water and survived, baspeople bsay: They are defiled butit is their bmerit that delayedthe punishment bfor them. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Merit delaysthe punishment bof the water that causes the curse, buta woman whose punishment is delayed bdoes not give birth and does not flourish; rather, she progressively deteriorates. Ultimately she dies by the same deathas a isotawho dies immediately.,§ If bthe meal-offeringof the isota bis rendered impure before it has been sanctified in theservice bvessel, itsstatus bis likethat of ball theother bmeal-offeringsthat are rendered impure before being sanctified in a service vessel, band it is redeemed. But ifit is rendered impure bafter it has been sanctified in theservice bvessel, itsstatus bis likethat of ball theother bmeal-offeringsthat are rendered impure after being sanctified in a service vessel, band it is burned. And these arethe isotawomen bwhose meal-offerings are burnedif they have already been sanctified in a service vessel:
65. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23a. בעתם בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות,שכן מצינו בימי שמעון בן שטח שירדו להם גשמים בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות עד שנעשו חטים ככליות ושעורים כגרעיני זיתים ועדשים כדינרי זהב וצררו מהם דוגמא לדורות להודיע כמה החטא גורם שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, כה) עונותיכם הטו אלה וחטאתיכם מנעו הטוב מכם,וכן מצינו בימי הורדוס שהיו עוסקין בבנין בהמ"ק והיו יורדין גשמים בלילה למחר נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם למלאכתן וידעו שמלאכת שמים בידיהם:,מעשה ששלחו לחוני המעגל וכו': ת"ר פעם אחת יצא רוב אדר ולא ירדו גשמים שלחו לחוני המעגל התפלל וירדו גשמים התפלל ולא ירדו גשמים עג עוגה ועמד בתוכה כדרך שעשה חבקוק הנביא שנאמר (חבקוק ב, א) על משמרתי אעמדה ואתיצבה על מצור וגו',אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בניך שמו פניהם עלי שאני כבן בית לפניך נשבע אני בשמך הגדול שאיני זז מכאן עד שתרחם על בניך התחילו גשמים מנטפין אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא להתיר שבועתך,אמר לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי בורות שיחין ומערות ירדו בזעף עד שכל טפה וטפה כמלא פי חבית ושיערו חכמים שאין טפה פחותה מלוג אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא לאבד העולם,אמר לפניו לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי רצון ברכה ונדבה ירדו כתיקנן עד שעלו כל העם להר הבית מפני הגשמים אמרו לו רבי כשם שהתפללת שירדו כך התפלל וילכו להם אמר להם כך מקובלני שאין מתפללין על רוב הטובה,אעפ"כ הביאו לי פר הודאה הביאו לו פר הודאה סמך שתי ידיו עליו ואמר לפניו רבש"ע עמך ישראל שהוצאת ממצרים אינן יכולין לא ברוב טובה ולא ברוב פורענות כעסת עליהם אינן יכולין לעמוד השפעת עליהם טובה אינן יכולין לעמוד יהי רצון מלפניך שיפסקו הגשמים ויהא ריוח בעולם מיד נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם לשדה והביאו להם כמהין ופטריות,שלח לו שמעון בן שטח אלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נידוי שאילו שנים כשני אליהו שמפתחות גשמים בידו של אליהו לא נמצא שם שמים מתחלל על ידך,אבל מה אעשה לך שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא על אביו ועושה לו רצונו ואומר לו אבא הוליכני לרחצני בחמין שטפני בצונן תן לי אגוזים שקדים אפרסקים ורמונים ונותן לו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,תנו רבנן מה שלחו בני לשכת הגזית לחוני המעגל (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך ועל דרכיך נגה אור,ותגזר אומר אתה גזרת מלמטה והקדוש ברוך הוא מקיים מאמרך מלמעלה ועל דרכיך נגה אור דור שהיה אפל הארת בתפלתך,כי השפילו ותאמר גוה דור שהיה שפל הגבהתו בתפלתך ושח עינים יושיע דור ששח בעונו הושעתו בתפלתך ימלט אי נקי דור שלא היה נקי מלטתו בתפלתך ונמלט בבור כפיך מלטתו במעשה ידיך הברורין,אמר ר' יוחנן כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מצטער על מקרא זה (תהלים קכו, א) שיר המעלות בשוב ה' את שיבת ציון היינו כחולמים אמר מי איכא דניים שבעין שנין בחלמא,יומא חד הוה אזל באורחא חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה נטע חרובא אמר ליה האי עד כמה שנין טעין אמר ליה עד שבעין שנין אמר ליה פשיטא לך דחיית שבעין שנין אמר ליה האי [גברא] עלמא בחרובא אשכחתיה כי היכי דשתלי לי אבהתי שתלי נמי לבראי,יתיב קא כריך ריפתא אתא ליה שינתא נים אהדרא ליה משוניתא איכסי מעינא ונים שבעין שנין כי קם חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מלקט מינייהו אמר ליה את הוא דשתלתיה א"ל בר בריה אנא אמר ליה שמע מינה דניימי שבעין שנין חזא לחמריה דאתיילידא ליה רמכי רמכי,אזל לביתיה אמר להו בריה דחוני המעגל מי קיים אמרו ליה בריה ליתא בר בריה איתא אמר להו אנא חוני המעגל לא הימנוהו אזל לבית המדרש שמעינהו לרבנן דקאמרי נהירן שמעתתין כבשני חוני המעגל דכי הוי עייל לבית מדרשא כל קושיא דהוו להו לרבנן הוה מפרק להו אמר להו אנא ניהו לא הימנוהו ולא עבדי ליה יקרא כדמבעי ליה חלש דעתיה בעי רחמי ומית אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברותא או מיתותא,אבא חלקיה בר בריה דחוני המעגל הוה וכי מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוו משדרי רבנן לגביה ובעי רחמי ואתי מיטרא זימנא חדא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא שדור רבנן זוגא דרבנן לגביה למבעי רחמי דניתי מיטרא אזול לביתיה ולא אשכחוהו אזול בדברא ואשכחוהו דהוה קא רפיק יהבו ליה שלמא 23a. b“In their season”means bon Wednesday eves,i.e., Tuesday nights, band on Shabbat eves,i.e., Friday nights, because at these times people are not out in the streets, either due to fear of demonic forces that were thought to wander on Tuesday nights or due to the sanctity of Shabbat., bAs we foundin bthe days of Shimon ben Shetaḥ that raininvariably bfell for them on Wednesday eves and on Shabbat eves, until wheat grewas big bas kidneys, and barleyas big bas olive pits, and lentils as golden dinars. And they tiedup some bofthese crops as ban example [ idugma /i] forfuture bgenerations, to conveyto them bhow muchdamage bsin causes, as it is stated:“The Lord our God, Who gives rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in its season that keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest. bYour iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld the good from you”(Jeremiah 5:24–25)., bAnd we likewise foundthat bin the days of Herodthat bthey were occupied in the building of the Temple, and rain would fall at night. And the next day the wind would blow, the clouds would disperse, the sun would shine, and the people would go out to their work. Andas rain would fall only at a time when it would not interfere with their labor, the nation bknewthat bthe work of Heavenwas being performed bby their hands. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAn incidentoccurred in bwhichthe people bsenta message bto Ḥoni HaMe’aggel.This event is related in greater detail in the following ibaraita /i. bThe Sages taught: Once, most ofthe month of bAdar had passed but rain hadstill bnot fallen. They sentthis message bto Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray, and rain will fall. He prayed, but no rain fell. He drew a circlein the dust band stood inside it, in the manner that the prophet Habakkuk did, as it is stated: “And I will stand upon my watch and set myself upon the tower,and I will look out to see what He will say to me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved” (Habakkuk 2:1). This verse is taken to mean that Habakkuk fashioned a kind of prison for himself where he sat.,Ḥoni bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household.Therefore, bI take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until you have mercy upon Your childrenand answer their prayers for rain. bRain began to trickledown, but only in small droplets. bHis students said to him: Rabbi, we have seenthat byoucan perform great wonders, bbutthis quantity of rain is not enough to ensure that bwe will not die. It appears to us thata small amount of brain is falling onlyto enable you bto dissolve your oath,but it is not nearly enough to save us.,Ḥoni bsaidto God: bI did not ask for this, butfor brain tofill the bcisterns, ditches, and caves.Rain bbegan to fall furiously, until each and every dropwas as big bas the mouth of a barrel, and the Sages estimated that no drop was less than a ilog /iin size. bHis students said to him: Rabbi, we have seenthat byoucan call on God to perform miracles band we will not die,but now bit appears to us that rain is falling only to destroy the world. /b,Ḥoni again bsaid beforeGod: bI did not ask for thisharmful rain either, bbutfor brain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity.Subsequently, the rains bfell in their standard manner, until all of the peoplesought higher ground and bascended to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They said to him: Rabbi, just as you prayed thatthe rains bshould fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: This isthe tradition that bI received, that one does not pray over an excess of good. /b,Ḥoni continued: bNevertheless, bring me a bull.I will sacrifice it as ba thanks-offeringand pray at the same time. bThey brought him a bullfor ba thanks-offering. He placed his two hands on itshead band said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, Your nation Israel, whom You brought out of Egypt, cannotbear beither an excess of good or an excess of punishment. You grew angry with themand withheld rain, band they are unable to bearit. bYou bestowed upon themtoo much bgood, and they werealso bunable to bearit. bMay it be Your will that the rain stop and that there be relief for the world. Immediately, the wind blew, the clouds dispersed, the sun shone, and everyone went out to the fields and gathered for themselves truffles and mushroomsthat had sprouted in the strong rain., bShimon ben Shetaḥ relayed toḤoni HaMe’aggel: bIf you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you. For werethese byears like the years of Elijah, when the keys of rainwere entrusted bin Elijah’s hands,and he swore it would not rain, bwouldn’t the name of Heaven have been desecrated by youroath not to leave the circle until it rained? Once you have pronounced this oath, either yours or Elijah’s must be falsified., bHowever, what can I do to you, as you nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father andhis father bdoes his bidding. Andthe son bsays tohis father: bFather, take me to be bathed in hot water; wash me with cold water; give me nuts, almonds, peaches, and pomegranates. Andhis father bgives him. About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice”(Proverbs 23:25)., bThe Sages taught: Whatmessage did bthe members of the Chamber of the Hewn Stone,the Great Sanhedrin, bsend to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel?About you, the verse states: b“You shall also decree a matter, and it shall be established for you; and the light shall shine upon your ways.When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up, for He saves the humble person. He will deliver the one who is not innocent and he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands” (Job 22:28–30).,They interpreted: b“You shall also decree a matter”; you,Ḥoni, bdecree from below, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills your statement from above. “And the light shall shine upon your ways”; a generation that was in darkness, you have illuminatedit bwith your prayer. /b, b“When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up”; a generation that was cast down, you lifted it up with your prayer. “For He saves the humble person”; a generation that was humble in its transgression, you saved it through your prayer. “He will deliver the one who is not innocent”; a generation that was not innocent, you have delivered it through your prayer. “And he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands”; you have deliveredan undeserving generation bthrough the clean work of your hands. /b,§ The Gemara relates another story about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. bRabbi Yoḥa said: All the daysof the life bof that righteous man,Ḥoni, bhe was distressed overthe meaning of bthis verse: “A song of Ascents: When the Lord brought back those who returned to Zion, we were like those who dream”(Psalms 126:1). bHe saidto himself: bIs therereally a person bwho can sleep and dream for seventy years?How is it possible to compare the seventy-year exile in Babylonia to a dream?, bOne day, he was walking along the roadwhen bhe saw a certain man planting a carob tree.Ḥoni bsaid to him: Thistree, bafter how many yearswill it bbearfruit? The man bsaid to him:It will not produce fruit buntil seventy yearshave passed. Ḥoni bsaid to him: Is it obvious to you that you will live seventy years,that you expect to benefit from this tree? bHe said to him: That manhimself bfound a worldfull bof carob trees. Just as my ancestors planted for me, I too am planting for my descendants. /b,Ḥoni bsat and ate bread. Sleep overcame him and he slept. A cliff formed around him, and he disappeared from sight and slept for seventy years. When he awoke, he saw a certain man gatheringcarobs from that tree. Ḥoni bsaid to him:Are byou the one who plantedthis tree? The man bsaid to him: I am his son’s son.Ḥoni bsaid to him:I can blearn from this that Ihave bslept for seventy years,and indeed bhe saw that his donkey had sired several herdsduring those many years.,Ḥoni bwent home and said tothe members of the household: bIs the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel alive? They said to him: His son is nolonger with us, but bhis son’s son isalive. bHe said to them: I am Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. They did not believe him. He went to the study hall,where he bheard the Sages sayabout one scholar: bHis ihalakhotare as enlighteningand as clear bas in the years of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, for whenḤoni HaMe’aggel bwould enter the study hall he would resolve for the Sages any difficulty they had.Ḥoni bsaid to them: I am he, but they did not believe him and did not pay him proper respect.Ḥoni bbecame very upset, prayed for mercy, and died. Rava said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: Either friendship or death,as one who has no friends is better off dead.,§ The Gemara relates another story, this time about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s descendants, who were also renowned for their righteous deeds. bAbba Ḥilkiyya was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s son. And when the world was in need of rain they would send Sages to him, and he would pray for mercy, and rain would fall. Once the world was in need of rain,and bthe Sages sent a pair of Sages to himso bthat he would pray for mercy and rain would fall. They went to his house but they did not find himthere. bThey went to the field and found him hoeingthe ground. bThey greeted him, /b
66. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63b. מן החטא מקרי ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה א"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך,והא מתני ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה אין אדם מוצא קורת רוח אלא מאשתו ראשונה שנאמר (משלי ה, יח) יהי מקורך ברוך ושמח מאשת נעוריך וא"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך מתקיף תקיפא ועבורי מיעברא במלה,היכי דמי אשה רעה אמר אביי מקשטא ליה תכא ומקשטא ליה פומא רבא אמר מקשטא ליה תכא ומהדרא ליה גבא,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כיון שנשא אדם אשה עונותיו מתפקקין שנאמר (משלי יח, כב) מצא אשה מצא טוב ויפק רצון מה' במערבא כי נסיב אינש איתתא אמרי ליה הכי מצא או מוצא מצא דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב מוצא דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה,אמר רבא אשה רעה מצוה לגרשה דכתיב (משלי כב, י) גרש לץ ויצא מדון וישבות דין וקלון ואמר רבא אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה צרתה בצדה דאמרי אינשי בחברתה ולא בסילתא ואמר רבא קשה אשה רעה כיום סגריר שנאמר (משלי כז, טו) דלף טורד ביום סגריר ואשת מדינים נשתוה,ואמר רבא בא וראה כמה טובה אשה טובה וכמה רעה אשה רעה כמה טובה אשה טובה דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהכתוב משבחה אי בתורה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהתורה נמשלה בה כמה רעה אשה רעה דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שהכתוב מגנה אי בגיהנם משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שגיהנם נמשלה בה,(ירמיהו יא, יא) הנני מביא רעה אשר לא יוכלו לצאת ממנה אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה (איכה א, יד) נתנני ה' בידי לא אוכל קום אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא בר חייא זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה במערבא אמרו זה שמזונותיו תלוין בכספו,(דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשת האב (דברים לב, כא) בגוי נבל אכעיסם אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה רבי אליעזר אומר אלו הצדוקים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים יד, א) אמר נבל בלבו אין אלהים וגו',במתניתא תנא אלו אנשי ברבריא ואנשי מרטנאי שמהלכין ערומים בשוק שאין לך משוקץ ומתועב לפני המקום יותר ממי שמהלך בשוק ערום רבי יוחנן אמר אלו חברים אמרו ליה לר' יוחנן אתו חברי לבבל שגא נפל אמרו ליה מקבלי שוחדא תריץ יתיב,גזרו על ג' מפני ג' גזרו על הבשר מפני המתנות גזרו על המרחצאות מפני הטבילה,קא מחטטי שכבי מפני ששמחים ביום אידם שנאמר (שמואל א יב, טו) והיתה יד ה' בכם ובאבותיכם אמר רבה בר שמואל זו חטוטי שכבי דאמר מר בעון חיים מתים מתחטטין,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מארי כתיב (ירמיהו ח, ב) לא יאספו ולא יקברו לדומן על פני האדמה יהיו וכתיב (ירמיהו ח, ג) ונבחר מות מחיים אמר ליה נבחר מות לרשעים שלא יחיו בעולם הזה ויחטאו ויפלו בגיהנם,כתוב בספר בן סירא אשה טובה מתנה טובה לבעלה וכתיב טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה,אל תצר צרת מחר כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא מחר בא ואיננו נמצא מצטער על העולם שאין שלו מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סוד לאחד מאלף,אמר רבי אסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי תניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם באדם דמו ישפך וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו ורבו,רבי יעקב אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו וגו' בן עזאי אומר כאילו שופך דמים וממעט הדמות שנאמר ואתם פרו ורבו,אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש ונאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש ואתה נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים אמר להן בן עזאי ומה אעשה שנפשי חשקה בתורה אפשר לעולם שיתקיים על ידי אחרים,תניא אידך רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר שופך דם האדם וסמיך ליה ואתם פרו וגו' רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות בן עזאי אומר וכו' אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש וכו',ת"ר (במדבר י, לו) ובנחה יאמר שובה ה' רבבות אלפי ישראל 63b. bfrom sin.We should therefore show our gratitude to them. The Gemara cites a related incident: bRav Yehudawas bteachingTorah bto Rav Yitzḥak, his son,and they encountered the verse: b“And I find more bitter than death the woman”(Ecclesiastes 7:26). His son bsaid to him: For example, whom?His father replied: bFor example, your mother. /b,The Gemara asks: bDidn’t Rav Yehuda teach Rav Yitzḥak, his son,the following ibaraita /i: bA man finds peace of mind only with his first wife, as it is stated: “Let your fountain be blessed, and have joy from the wife of your youth”(Proverbs 5:18), bandhis son bsaid to him: For example, whom,and his father responded in this case as well: bFor example, your mother.This indicates that Rav Yehuda did find peace of mind with his wife. The Gemara answers: She was aggressive and bforceful, butshe was beasily appeased. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstanceswhen a woman is considered ba bad wife? Abaye said: She arranges a table for him and arrangesher bmouth for himat the same time. In other words, although she prepares food for him, she verbally abuses him while he eats. bRava said: She arranges a table for him andthen bturnsher bback to him,displaying her lack of interest in his company., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Once a man marries a woman his iniquities crumble [ imitpakekin /i], as it is stated: “Whoever finds a wife finds good, and obtains [ iveyafek /i] favor of the Lord”(Proverbs 18:22). bIn the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bwhen a man married a woman they would say to him as follows: iMatzaor imotze /i?In other words, they would ask the groom if the appropriate passage for his wife is that verse, which begins with the word imatza /i, as it is written: Whoever finds [ imatza /i] a wife finds good,or whether the more appropriate verse is the one beginning with the word imotze /i, as it is written: “And I find [ imotze /i] more bitter than death the woman”(Ecclesiastes 7:26)., bRava said: It is a mitzva to divorce a bad wife, as it is written: “Cast out the scorner and contention will depart; strife and shame will cease”(Proverbs 22:10). bAnd Rava said: A bad wife whose marriage contractsettlement bistoo blargefor her husband to pay in the event of a divorce, bher rival wife is at her side.In other words, the only way for him to improve matters is to take another wife. bAs people sayin the well-known adage: The way to trouble a woman is bwith her peer and not with a thorn. And Rava said: A bad wife is as troublesome as a day of heavy rain, as it is stated: “A continual dropping on a very rainy day and a contentious woman are alike”(Proverbs 27:15)., bAnd Rava said: Come and see how good a good wife is and how bad a bad wife is. How good is a good wife? As it is written: Whoever finds a wife finds good. If the verse speaks of her,a wife, this demonstrates bhow good a good wife is, as the Bible praises her. If the verse speaksmetaphorically bof the Torah,it nevertheless indicates bhow good a good wife is, as the Torah is compared to her.Conversely, bhow bad is a bad wife? As it is written: “And I find more bitter than death the woman.” If the verse speaks of her,this demonstrates bhow bad a bad wife is, as the Bible condemns her. If the verse speaksmetaphorically bof Gehenna,it still demonstrates bhow bad a bad wife is, as Gehenna is compared to her. /b,The Gemara cites further statements on the same issue. The verse states: b“Behold, I will bring evil upon them, which they shall not be able to escape”(Jeremiah 11:11). bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large.Similarly, with regard to the verse: b“The Lord has given me into the hands of those against whom I cannot stand”(Lamentations 1:14), bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva bar Ḥiyya said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey said thisverse is referring to one bwhose food is dependent on his money.He is forced to purchase his food with cash, as he does not possess land of his own.,With regard to the verse: b“Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people”(Deuteronomy 28:32), bRav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: This isa reference to the children’s bfather’s wife,their stepmother. With regard to the verse: b“I will provoke them with a vile nation”(Deuteronomy 32:21), bRav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. Rabbi Eliezer saysthat bthese are apostates, and so toothe verse bstates: “The vile man has said in his heart: There is no God,they have dealt corruptly” (Psalms 14:1), which proves that an apostate is called vile., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /iwith regard to the verse: “I will provoke them with a vile nation,” that bthese are the inhabitants of Barbarya and the inhabitants of Martenai, who walk naked in the marketplace, as none is more despised and abominable before the Omnipresent than one who walks naked in the marketplace. Rabbi Yoḥa said: These arethe iḤabbarim /i,a sect of Persian priests. The Gemara relates: When bthey said to Rabbi Yoḥa:The iḤabbarimhave come to Babylonia, he shuddered and fellof his chair, out of concern for the Jews living there. bThey said to him:There is a way to deal with their persecution, as bthey accept bribes.Upon hearing that not all was lost, bhe straightened himselfand bsatin his place once again.,Apropos the iḤabbarim /i, the Gemara cites the following statement of the Sages: The iḤabbarimwere able to bissue decrees againstthe Jewish people with regard to bthreematters, bdue to threetransgressions on the part of the Jewish people. bThey decreed against meat,i.e., they banned ritual slaughter, bdue tothe failure of the Jewish people to give the priests bthe giftsof the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw. bThey decreed againstJews bathing in bbathhouses, due totheir neglect of ritual bimmersion. /b,Third, bthey exhumed the deadfrom their graves bbecausethe Jews brejoice onthe bholidaysof the gentiles, bas it is stated: “Then shall the hand of the Lord be against you and against your fathers”(I Samuel 12:15). bRabba bar Shmuel said: Thisverse is referring to bexhuming the dead,which upsets both the living and the dead, bas the Master said:Due bto the iniquity of the living, the dead are exhumed. /b, bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written: “They shall not be gathered nor buried; they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth”(Jeremiah 8:2), band it is written: “And death shall be chosen rather than life”(Jeremiah 8:3). If death will be so indecent that their bodies will not even be buried, why would people choose death over life? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him:The latter verse does not refer to the previously described state of affairs, but rather it means: bDeath is preferable for the wicked,as it is better bthat they not live in this world and sin andconsequently bdescend into Gehenna. /b,The Gemara cites more statements concerning women. bIt is written in the book of Ben Sira: A good wife is a good gift for her husband. And it is written: A good one will be placed in the bosom of a God-fearing man; a bad wife is a plague to her husband. What is his remedy? He should divorce her and he will be cured of his plague. A beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days are doubled.His pleasure in her beauty makes him feel as though he has lived twice as long., bTurn your eyes from a graceful womanwho is married to another man, blest you be caught in her trap. Do not turn to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him,which can lead to temptation. bFor onaccount of bthe countece of a beautiful woman many have been destroyed, and her slain is a mighty host.Furthermore, bmany have been the wounded peddlers.This is referring to men who travel from place to place to sell women’s jewelry. Their frequent dealings with women lead their husbands to harm the peddlers. bThose who accustomthemselves bto licentious matters are like a spark that ignites a coal. As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit. /b,The Gemara quotes additional statements from the book of Ben Sira: bDo not suffer from tomorrow’s trouble,that is, do not worry about problems that might arise in the future, bas you do not know what a day will bring. Perhapswhen btomorrow comes,the individual who was so worried will bnotbe among the living, and bhewas bconsequently upset over a world that is not his. Prevent a crowd from inside your house,do not let many people enter, band do noteven bbring allyour friends into byour house.Make sure, however, that ba crowd seeks your welfare,and that you have many allies. bReveal a secret toonly bone in a thousand,since most people are unable to keep a secret., bRabbi Asi said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage inthe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiplyis considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed”(Genesis 9:6), band it is writtenimmediately bafterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply”(Genesis 9:7)., bRabbi Ya’akov says: It is as though he diminishes theDivine bImage, as it is stated: “For in the image of God He made man”(Genesis 9:6), band it is writtenimmediately bafterward: “And you, be fruitfuland multiply” (Genesis 9:7). bBen Azzai says:It is bas though he sheds blood andalso bdiminishes theDivine bImage, as it is stated: “And you, be fruitful and multiply,”after the verse that alludes to both shedding blood and the Divine Image., bThey said to ben Azzai: Thereis a type of scholar who bexpounds well and fulfillshis own teachings bwell,and another who bfulfills well and does not expound well. But you,who have never married, bexpound wellon the importance of procreation, bandyet byou do not fulfill wellyour own teachings. bBen Azzai said to them: What shall I do, as my soul yearns for Torah,and I do not wish to deal with anything else. bIt is possible for the world to be maintained by others,who are engaged in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply., bIt issimilarly btaughtin banother ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage inthe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiplyis considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man,” andit is stated bnear it: “And you, be fruitfuland multiply.” bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya says:It is bas though he diminishes theDivine bImage. Ben Azzai says:It is as though he both sheds blood and diminishes the Divine Image. bThey said to ben Azzai: There isa type of scholar who bexpounds well, etc. /b, bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply: b“And when it rested, he would say: Return, Lord, to the ten thousands of the thousands of Israel”(Numbers 10:36).
67. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 156-160, 155

155. wherefore he exhorts us in the Scripture also in these words: 'Thou shalt surely remember the Lord that wrought in thee those great and wonderful things'. For when they are properly conceived, they are manifestly great and glorious; first the construction of the body and the disposition of the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 333
acrostics, in yotzer shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 380
acts, prayers in temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
agricultural matters Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 177
aharoni, y. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
alexandra (shelamzion), mentioned in dss Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
alexandra (shelamzion), mentioned in rabbinic literature Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
alexandra (shelamzion) Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
amulets, contents of Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
amulets Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 169; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
angels, witnesses of sin Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
angels Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311
animal, dog Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 233
aristeas Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 171
avery-peck, a. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 177
avery-peck, a. j. Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 135
avot, tractate Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 38
baal Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 233
babylonia and iraq Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 210
babylonian talmud (bt), on janneuss wife Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
banim, rabbinic interpretation of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170, 171
baptism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
bar kochba tefillin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170, 171
baumgarten, albert Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
beit el Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
bible, hebrew, theology of suffering in Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
bible, hebrew Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
bible Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 8, 210
blessing, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 54
blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 333
bread Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
breezes Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
brooks, r. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 177
calendar, of temple scroll Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 85
cheese Gera, Judith (2014) 333
children Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 32
circumcision Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
cohn, yehudah Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 138, 142, 152, 153, 169, 170, 171
commandments Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
commandments (mitzvot) Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
community, enochic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 54
cosmic order Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
cosmos Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
covenant, theology of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
covenant Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
crops Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 177
cross Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
daily prayer Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
danger/peril Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
david, and abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 333
david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
davies, w. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 177
dead sea scrolls (dss), pesher, pesharim Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
decalogue, as possible referent of these words Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 169
decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
deeds vs. study Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 37, 38
deputation to eleazar, deuteronomy, book of Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
deuteronomy, and sensory reform Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
deuteronomy, and the law code Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
deuteronomy, compositional integrity of Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
deuteronomy Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 23
dew Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
dietary laws Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
disciple Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
divine anger, theology of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 11
doxology Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
egypt Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 210; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
elbogen, ismar Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
elbogen i. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 182
elders, bet shammai Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
elisha (prophet) Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
exegesis Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 38, 40
exodus, book of Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
exodus Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 23
exorcism Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
farming Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
fate Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
father Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
fear of god Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
fertility Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
firstfruits festivals Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 85
food, drought Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
food, hunger Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
food Gera, Judith (2014) 333; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
galilee Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
genizah Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 8
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 333
god, creator Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
god, israels obedience to Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 11
god, justice of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
god, suffering and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
god, unity of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
halakhah Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 157
halakhah and custom Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 8
healing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
heaven Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
hellenistic jews Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
hermeneutic Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 157
hezekiah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
high priest Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 333
holy tongue/language Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 176
honi haqatan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
hours of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 182
humanity Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
huna, rav Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
illness, suffering and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
instruction verses Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153, 169, 170, 171
interiorities defined, prayers Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 345
interiorities defined, quorum for worship (synagogue) Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 345
interpretation Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
israel, obedience of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 11
israel, people of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
israel/palestine/holy land/zion Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 210
janneus Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
jericho Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
jerusalem Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 317
jesus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
josephus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
josiah, and centralization of israelite worship Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
judgment Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 333
judith, piety and asceticism Gera, Judith (2014) 333
justice Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 171; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
keel, othmar Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142
kimelman, reuven Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
king, of babylon Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
kook, rav Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 317
kosher food Gera, Judith (2014) 333
land, fertility of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
law, jewish Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
law Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
learning, preservation of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 40
learning, styles of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
lectionary Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 210
levenson, jon Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
liturgy Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311, 317
lords prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
love-rites Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
love Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
lowly, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 54
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
lying Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
mann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 182
marriage Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
meacham, t. Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 135
megillah Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 345
memorization, need for review Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 40
memory, as sensory solution Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
metaphor, metaphorical language Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 233
mezuzah Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
mezuzot Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 229; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
midrash Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
midrash and mishna Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
milik, j. t. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 169, 170
minim Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 157
mintz, alan Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
mishnah, as source of information about second temple practice Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
mist Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
money Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
morgenstern, m. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
moses Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
mount hermon Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
myth(ological), mythology Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 233
myth Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
nakman, david Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 142, 152, 169, 170
names, angel Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
natural/meterological phenomena Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
new testament Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
new year days Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 85
north africa Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 210
obedience, covenant Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 54
offspring Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
oil Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 85; Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
old testament Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
philo Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
phinehas Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 139
phylacteries Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20, 23
plants Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
plato Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 222
poor, the Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
prayer, formalization Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
prayer, qumran Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
prayer, shema Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
prayer, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
prayer Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
prayer gestures/postures, outstretched hands/spreading of hands Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
prayer times Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46
prayerbook Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311, 317
prayers Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 345
priesthood Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 8
priests, reciting the shema Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
priests/priesthood/priestly, benediction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
prophecy, prophets, prophetic books Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 233
prophets Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
providence Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
purim Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 345
purity Gera, Judith (2014) 333
qumran, communal worship, liturgy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
qumran, house of prostration Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
qumran, scrolls Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
qumran, tefillin Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 169, 170
qumran Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56; Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 8
rabbinic judaism, history and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 11
rain Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
rava Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
redactor Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 290
redemption Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311
reform judaism Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311, 317
repentance Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
resurrection Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311, 317
righteousness and the righteous, suffering of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
ritual Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
ritual practices, as sensory solution Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
ritual practices, in deuteronomy Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
rosh hashana Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
rosh hashanah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
rothstein, david Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
sabbath, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
sabbath Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 317
sack, judiths food Gera, Judith (2014) 333
sacrifice Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 317
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
sandals Gera, Judith (2014) 333
schiffman, lawrence Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139
scripture Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
seal Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
seasons Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
second temple Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 3
second temple period, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 169, 170, 171
segal, m. Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170
sense perception, and deuteronomy Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 135
septuagint, language Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20, 23
septuagint, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
septuagint Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
shema, biblical passages Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
shema, blessings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 167
shema, hyper-literal interpretation of Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 138
shema, in nash papyrus Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 153
shema, in philo Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 171
shema, in tannaitic texts Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152
shema, linked to decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153
shema, rabbinic Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 138, 139, 142
shema, scriptural basis for Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 142, 171
shema, these words, Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 169, 170, 171
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 182; Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31, 32, 37, 38; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 46; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 311, 317
shemesh, aharon Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 171
shimon b. yochai, r. Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 37
shmini aṣeret Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
sifre minim Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 157
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 461
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
sin, punishment for Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
sinai, mount Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
sleep Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
son Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 150
stars Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 233
statues Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 56
stern, david Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 133
study, and the temple service Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 37, 38
suffering Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 74
synagogue Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 345
tabory, joseph Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 139, 152
talmud Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 176
tamid service, blessing at Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid service, components Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid service, description Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid service, prayers in Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid service, priests, role of Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tamid tractate, in mishnah Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 16
tannaitic period, vi Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 31
tarfon, r. Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 187
tefillin, bar kochba Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 170, 171
tefillin, of the arm Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 171
tefillin, qumran Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 152, 153, 169, 170
tefillin/phylacteries Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 299
tefillin Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 113
temple, destruction of Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 38
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 179
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 333
temple scroll, its calendar Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 85
ten commandments Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 20
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 182
tertullian Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 213
tetragramma Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 157
theology, deuteronomistic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 54
theurgy Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 157