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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6277
Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.26


וְדִינָא יִתִּב וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ יְהַעְדּוֹן לְהַשְׁמָדָה וּלְהוֹבָדָה עַד־סוֹפָא׃But the judgment shall sit, and his dominions shall be taken away, to be consumed and to be destroy unto the end.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 18.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.1. וַיִּשְׁמַע יִתְרוֹ כֹהֵן מִדְיָן חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֱלֹהִים לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ כִּי־הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יִתְרוֹ בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הִצִּיל אֶתְכֶם מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּמִיַּד פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר הִצִּיל אֶת־הָעָם מִתַּחַת יַד־מִצְרָיִם׃ 18.1. Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, how that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26, 3.22, 11.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6-2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.2, 4.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה יוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל כְּשַׁחַר פָּרֻשׂ עַל־הֶהָרִים עַם רַב וְעָצוּם כָּמֹהוּ לֹא נִהְיָה מִן־הָעוֹלָם וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא יוֹסֵף עַד־שְׁנֵי דּוֹר וָדוֹר׃ 2.2. וְאֶת־הַצְּפוֹנִי אַרְחִיק מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וְהִדַּחְתִּיו אֶל־אֶרֶץ צִיָּה וּשְׁמָמָה אֶת־פָּנָיו אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמֹנִי וְסֹפוֹ אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן וְעָלָה בָאְשׁוֹ וְתַעַל צַחֲנָתוֹ כִּי הִגְדִּיל לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 4.12. יֵעוֹרוּ וְיַעֲלוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֶל־עֵמֶק יְהוֹשָׁפָט כִּי שָׁם אֵשֵׁב לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם מִסָּבִיב׃ 2.2. A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness, As blackness spread upon the mountains; A great people and a mighty, There hath not been ever the like, Neither shall be any more after them, Even to the years of many generations." 4.12. Let the nations be stirred up, and come up To the valley of Jehoshaphat; For there will I sit to judge All the nations round about."
5. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.15. יוֹם עֶבְרָה הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יוֹם צָרָה וּמְצוּקָה יוֹם שֹׁאָה וּמְשׁוֹאָה יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה יוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 1.15. That day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress, A day of wasteness and desolation, A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness,"
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.6. מֵעִם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּפָּקֵד בְּרַעַם וּבְרַעַשׁ וְקוֹל גָּדוֹל סוּפָה וּסְעָרָה וְלַהַב אֵשׁ אוֹכֵלָה׃ 29.6. There shall be a visitation from the LORD of hosts With thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, With whirlwind and tempest, and the flame of a devouring fire."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.10-4.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.11. וּמַיִם בִּמְשׂוּרָה תִשְׁתֶּה שִׁשִּׁית הַהִין מֵעֵת עַד־עֵת תִּשְׁתֶּה׃ 4.10. And thy food which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day; from time to time shalt thou eat it." 4.11. Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of a hin; from time to time shalt thou drink."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.1. לֵךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִיד לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלוֹשׁ אֲנִי נֹטֶה עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 21.1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel."
9. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.1-3.2, 9.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃ 3.1. וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃ 3.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַשָּׂטָן וְיִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַבֹּחֵר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם הֲלוֹא זֶה אוּד מֻצָּל מֵאֵשׁ׃ 9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 3.1. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him." 3.2. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan, yea, the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this man a brand plucked out of the fire?’" 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south."
10. Anon., Jubilees, 5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.12. And He said "Thy spirit will not always abide on man; for they also are flesh and their days shall be one hundred and twenty years.
11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.8-7.14, 7.18-7.25, 7.27, 8.9-8.14, 8.16-8.17, 8.19-8.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.8. מִשְׂתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת ביניהון [בֵּינֵיהֵן] וּתְלָת מִן־קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אתעקרו [אֶתְעֲקַרָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא־דָא וּפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן׃ 7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 7.11. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בֵּאדַיִן מִן־קָל מִלַּיָּא רַבְרְבָתָא דִּי קַרְנָא מְמַלֱּלָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי קְטִילַת חֵיוְתָא וְהוּבַד גִּשְׁמַהּ וִיהִיבַת לִיקֵדַת אֶשָּׁא׃ 7.12. וּשְׁאָר חֵיוָתָא הֶעְדִּיו שָׁלְטָנְהוֹן וְאַרְכָה בְחַיִּין יְהִיבַת לְהוֹן עַד־זְמַן וְעִדָּן׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.18. וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃ 7.19. אֱדַיִן צְבִית לְיַצָּבָא עַל־חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא דִּי־הֲוָת שָׁנְיָה מִן־כלהון [כָּלְּהֵין] דְּחִילָה יַתִּירָה שניה [שִׁנַּהּ] דִּי־פַרְזֶל וְטִפְרַיהּ דִּי־נְחָשׁ אָכְלָה מַדֲּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא בְּרַגְלַיהּ רָפְסָה׃ 7.21. חָזֵה הֲוֵית וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן עָבְדָה קְרָב עִם־קַדִּישִׁין וְיָכְלָה לְהוֹן׃ 7.22. עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃ 7.23. כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃ 7.24. וְקַרְנַיָּא עֲשַׂר מִנַּהּ מַלְכוּתָה עַשְׂרָה מַלְכִין יְקֻמוּן וְאָחֳרָן יְקוּם אַחֲרֵיהוֹן וְהוּא יִשְׁנֵא מִן־קַדְמָיֵא וּתְלָתָה מַלְכִין יְהַשְׁפִּל׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 7.27. וּמַלְכוּתָה וְשָׁלְטָנָא וּרְבוּתָא דִּי מַלְכְוָת תְּחוֹת כָּל־שְׁמַיָּא יְהִיבַת לְעַם קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְכֹל שָׁלְטָנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן וְיִשְׁתַּמְּעוּן׃ 8.9. וּמִן־הָאַחַת מֵהֶם יָצָא קֶרֶן־אַחַת מִצְּעִירָה וַתִּגְדַּל־יֶתֶר אֶל־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶל־הַמִּזְרָח וְאֶל־הַצֶּבִי׃ 8.11. וְעַד שַׂר־הַצָּבָא הִגְדִּיל וּמִמֶּנּוּ הרים [הוּרַם] הַתָּמִיד וְהֻשְׁלַךְ מְכוֹן מִקְדָּשׁוֹ׃ 8.12. וְצָבָא תִּנָּתֵן עַל־הַתָּמִיד בְּפָשַׁע וְתַשְׁלֵךְ אֱמֶת אַרְצָה וְעָשְׂתָה וְהִצְלִיחָה׃ 8.13. וָאֶשְׁמְעָה אֶחָד־קָדוֹשׁ מְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶחָד קָדוֹשׁ לַפַּלְמוֹנִי הַמְדַבֵּר עַד־מָתַי הֶחָזוֹן הַתָּמִיד וְהַפֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס׃ 8.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עַד עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר אַלְפַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 8.17. וַיָּבֹא אֵצֶל עָמְדִי וּבְבֹאוֹ נִבְעַתִּי וָאֶפְּלָה עַל־פָּנָי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הָבֵן בֶּן־אָדָם כִּי לְעֶת־קֵץ הֶחָזוֹן׃ 8.19. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנְנִי מוֹדִיעֲךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה בְּאַחֲרִית הַזָּעַם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד קֵץ׃ 8.21. וְהַצָּפִיר הַשָּׂעִיר מֶלֶךְ יָוָן וְהַקֶּרֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה אֲשֶׁר בֵּין־עֵינָיו הוּא הַמֶּלֶךְ הָרִאשׁוֹן׃ 8.22. וְהַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה אַרְבַּע תַּחְתֶּיהָ אַרְבַּע מַלְכֻיוֹת מִגּוֹי יַעֲמֹדְנָה וְלֹא בְכֹחוֹ׃ 8.23. וּבְאַחֲרִית מַלְכוּתָם כְּהָתֵם הַפֹּשְׁעִים יַעֲמֹד מֶלֶךְ עַז־פָּנִים וּמֵבִין חִידוֹת׃ 8.24. וְעָצַם כֹּחוֹ וְלֹא בְכֹחוֹ וְנִפְלָאוֹת יַשְׁחִית וְהִצְלִיחַ וְעָשָׂה וְהִשְׁחִית עֲצוּמִים וְעַם־קְדֹשִׁים׃ 8.25. וְעַל־שִׂכְלוֹ וְהִצְלִיחַ מִרְמָה בְּיָדוֹ וּבִלְבָבוֹ יַגְדִּיל וּבְשַׁלְוָה יַשְׁחִית רַבִּים וְעַל־שַׂר־שָׂרִים יַעֲמֹד וּבְאֶפֶס יָד יִשָּׁבֵר׃ 7.8. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things." 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 7.11. I beheld at that time because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke, I beheld even till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given to be burned with fire." 7.12. And as for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away; yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time." 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 7.18. But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’" 7.19. Then I desired to know the truth concerning the fourth beast, which was diverse from all of them, exceeding terrible, whose teeth were of iron, and its nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet;" 7.20. and concerning the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn which came up, and before which three fell; even that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke great things, whose appearance was greater than that of its fellows." 7.21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;" 7.22. until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High; and the time came, and the saints possessed the kingdom." 7.23. Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces." 7.24. And as for the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall ten kings arise; and another shall arise after them; and he shall be diverse from the former, and he shall put down three kings." 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time." 7.27. And the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’" 8.9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the beauteous land." 8.10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled upon them." 8.11. Yea, it magnified itself, even to the prince of the host; and from him the continual burnt-offering was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down." 8.12. And the host was given over to it together with the continual burnt-offering through transgression; and it cast down truth to the ground, and it wrought, and prospered." 8.13. Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke: ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the continual burnt-offering, and the transgression that causes appalment, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled under foot?’" 8.14. And he said unto me: ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be victorious.’" 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 8.17. So he came near where I stood; and when he came, I was terrified, and fell upon my face; but he said unto me: ‘Understand, O son of man; for the vision belongeth to the time of the end.’" 8.19. And he said: ‘Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the latter time of the indignation; for it belongeth to the appointed time of the end." 8.20. The ram which thou sawest having the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia." 8.21. And the rough he-goat is the king of Greece; and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king." 8.22. And as for that which was broken, in the place whereof four stood up, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not with his power." 8.23. And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors have completed their transgression, there shall stand up a king of fierce countece, and understanding stratagems." 8.24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper and do; and he shall destroy them that are mighty and the people of the saints." 8.25. And through his cunning he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and in time of security shall he destroy many; he shall also stand up against the prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand."
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.263 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.263. He gave a second instance of his prophetical inspiration not long afterwards in the oracle which he delivered about the sacred seventh day. For though it had had a natural precedence over all other days, not only from the time that the world was created, but even before the origination of the heaven and all the objects perceptible to the outward senses, men still knew it not, perhaps because, by reason of the continued and uninterrupted destructions which had taken place by water and fire, succeeding generations had not been able to receive from former ones any traditions of the arrangement and order which had been established in the connection of preceding times, which, as it was not known, Moses, now being inspired, declared to his people in an oracle which was borne testimony to by a visible sign from heaven.
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.70-1.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.71. that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day.
14. Mishnah, Avot, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.4. Such is the way [of a life] of Torah: you shall eat bread with salt, and rationed water shall you drink; you shall sleep on the ground, your life will be one of privation, and in Torah shall you labor. If you do this, “Happy shall you be and it shall be good for you” (Psalms 128:2): “Happy shall you be” in this world, “and it shall be good for you” in the world to come. "
15. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. These leave [their marriage] without their ketubah: A wife who transgresses the law of Moses or Jewish law. And what is the law of Moses? Feeding her husband with untithed food, having intercourse with him while in the period of her menstruation, not separating dough offering, or making vows and not fulfilling them. And what is Jewish practice? Going out with her head uncovered, spinning wool in the marketplace or conversing with every man. Abba Shaul says: also one who curses her husband’s parents in his presence. Rabbi Tarfon says: also one who has a loud voice. And who is regarded as one who has a loud voice? A woman whose voice can be heard by her neighbors when she speaks inside her house."
16. New Testament, Luke, 22.63-22.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.63. The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 22.64. Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you? 22.65. They spoke many other things against him, insulting him. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying 22.67. If you are the Christ, tell us."But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe 22.68. and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 22.69. From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God. 22.70. They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?"He said to them, "You say it, because I AM. 22.71. They said, "Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth!
17. New Testament, Mark, 13.1-13.27, 14.53-14.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.1. As he went out out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings! 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down. 13.3. As he sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John, and Andrew asked him privately 13.4. Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are all about to be fulfilled? 13.5. Jesus, answering, began to tell them, "Be careful that no one leads you astray. 13.6. For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am he!' and will lead many astray. 13.7. When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, don't be troubled. For those must happen, but the end is not yet. 13.8. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places. There will be famines and troubles. These things are the beginning of birth pains. 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. 13.10. The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13.12. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 13.14. But when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains 13.15. and let him who is on the housetop not go down, nor enter in, to take anything out of his house. 13.16. Let him who is in the field not return back to take his cloak. 13.17. But woe to those who are with child and to those who nurse babies in those days! 13.18. Pray that your flight won't be in the winter. 13.19. For in those days there will be oppression, such as there has not been the like from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will be. 13.20. Unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh would have been saved; but for the elect's sake, whom he chose, he shortened the days. 13.21. Then if anyone tells you, 'Look, here is the Christ!' or, 'Look, there!' don't believe it. 13.22. For there will arise false christs and false prophets, and will show signs and wonders, that they may lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones. 13.23. But you watch. "Behold, I have told you all things beforehand. 13.24. But in those days, after that oppression, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light 13.25. the stars will be falling from the sky, and the powers that are in the heavens will be shaken. 13.26. Then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 13.27. Then he will send out his angels, and will gather together his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the sky. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.54. Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying 14.58. We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you? 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses?
18. New Testament, Matthew, 24.3, 24.15, 26.59-26.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24.3. As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age? 24.15. When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand) 26.59. Now the chief priests, the elders, and the whole council sought false testimony against Jesus, that they might put him to death; 26.60. and they found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward 26.61. and said, "This man said, 'I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.' 26.62. The high priest stood up, and said to him, "Have you no answer? What is this that these testify against you? 26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky. 26.65. Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy.
19. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.6. All of these women that transgressed custom need [a formal, legal] warning [in order to] go out without the ketubah. If they were not warned, he sends her out and pays her ketubah—and they don't need to [this about] say 200 for a virgin or 100 for a non-virgin [that of course if she leaves without her ketubah she doesn't get this money], but even more than this, even if her ketubah is 100 maneh, she can lose it all and receive only the rags that she can find in front of her."
20. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 18.5, 55.4, 56.7-56.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.5. עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ (בראשית ב, כד), תַּנְיָא גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּיר וְהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַאֲחוֹתוֹ בֵּין מִן הָאָב בֵּין מִן הָאֵם, יוֹצִיא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים מִן הָאֵם יוֹצִיא מִן הָאָב יְקַיֵּם, שֶׁאֵין אָב לְעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָא כְתִיב (בראשית כ, יב): וְגַם אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא וגו', אָמַר לָהֶן בְּשִׁיטָתָן הֵשִׁיבָן. אֲתֵיב לְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לְאִמּוֹ. אֲתֵיב רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְהָכְתִיב (שמות ו, כ): וַיִּקַּח עַמְרָם אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד דֹּדָתוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵעַתָּה אֲפִלּוּ כִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹהֲגִים קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ וגו', הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בְּנֵי נֹחַ עַל הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת חַיָּבִין וְעַל הָאֲרוּסוֹת פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר זוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בַּשּׁוּק וּבָאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם, הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בְּעוּלַת בַּעַל, וְכִי נִתְכַּוֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן לִקְנוֹתָהּ בִּבְעִילָה, הָדָא אֲמַר בְּעִילָה בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ קוֹנֶה שֶׁלֹא כַּדָּת. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי חָנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מְגָרְשִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִשְׁתּוֹ מְגָרַשְׁתּוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ דּוֹפוֹרוֹן. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁגֵּרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְהָלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם וְנִתְגַיְּרוּ, אֵינִי קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (דברים כד, ד): לֹא יוּכַל בַּעֲלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר שִׁלְחָהּ וגו', רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא אָמַר בְּכָל סֵפֶר מַלְאָכִי כְּתִיב ה' צְבָאוֹת, וּבְכָאן כְּתִיב אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, טז): כִּי שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּבְיָכוֹל לֹא יָחוּל שְׁמוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה, נִתְפַּחֲמוּ פְּנֵי הַנָּשִׁים מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחוּ אוֹתָן וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ נָשִׁים עֲמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְהָיוּ מַקִּיפוֹת אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּבוֹכוֹת, הוּא שֶׁמַּלְאָכִי אוֹמֵר (מלאכי ב, יג): וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ, שְׁנִיָּה לְשִׁטִּים. (מלאכי ב, יג): כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת מִזְבַּח ה' בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַאן קַבֵּל מֵהֶם, בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, מִשֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָטַלְתָּ יָפְיָהּ מִמֶּנָּהּ אַתָּה מְשַׁלְּחָהּ, אֶתְמְהָא. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן מֻזְהָרִין עַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל וְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמְרוּ בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹא כְּדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב מִיתָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי כָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא בַּעֲשֵׂה, וְלֹא בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, אֶלָּא בְּמִיתָה, וְהֵיאַךְ עֲבִידָא (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹשִׂים בָּשָׂר אֶחָד. 55.4. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַחַר הִרְהוּרֵי דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, מִי הִרְהֵר אַבְרָהָם הִרְהֵר וְאָמַר שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרַשְׁתִּי לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לְךָ שֶׁתַּקְרִיב אֶת בִּנְךָ וְלֹא תְעַכֵּב, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר, אֱלֹהִים וְהָאֱלֹהִים, הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ, מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אָמְרוּ, אַבְרָהָם זֶה שָׂמַח וְשִׂמַּח אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּקְרִיב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְלֹא יְעַכֵּב. יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל הָיוּ מִדַּיְּנִים זֶה עִם זֶה, זֶה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, וְזֶה אָמַר חָבִיב אֲנִי מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים. אָמַר לֵיהּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ, לָמָּה שֶׁהָיָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדִי לִמְחוֹת וְלֹא מָחִיתִי. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר יִצְחָק הַלְּוַאי הָיָה נִגְלָה עָלַי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁאֶחְתֹּךְ אֶחָד מֵאֵבָרַי וְלֹא אֲעַכֵּב, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם. br br[נֻסַּח אַחֵר: אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, אֲבָל אַתָּה נִמַּלְתָּ בְּקָטְנְךָ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְחוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ יִצְחָק כָּל מַה שֶּׁהִלְוֵיתָ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁלשָׁה טִפִּים דַּם הֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי עַכְשָׁו בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנָה אִלּוּ מְבַקֵּשׁ לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִשָּׁחֵט אֵינִי מְעַכֵּב, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַשָּׁעָה, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם.] 56.7. וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם (בראשית כב, יא), תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא לְשׁוֹן חִבָּה לְשׁוֹן זֵרוּז. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אָמַר לוֹ וְלַדּוֹרוֹת, אֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּאַבְרָהָם, וְאֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּיַעֲקֹב, וְאֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּמשֶׁה, וְאֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כִּשְׁמוּאֵל. (בראשית כב, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ, וְסַכִּין הֵיכָן הָיָה, נָשְׁרוּ שָׁלשׁ דְּמָעוֹת מִמַּלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְשִׁחֵת הַסַּכִּין. אָמַר לוֹ אֲחַנְקֶנּוּ, אָמַר לוֹ אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל הַנַּעַר. אָמַר לוֹ אוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ טִפַּת דָּם. אָמַר לוֹ אַל תַּעַשׂ לוֹ מְאוּמָה, אַל תַּעֲשׂ לוֹ מוּמָה. כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי, הוֹדַעְתִּי לַכֹּל שֶׁאַתְּ אוֹהֲבֵנִי וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ וגו', שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר כָּל הֶחֳלָאִים שֶׁחוּץ לַגּוּף אֵינָן חֳלָאִים, אֶלָּא מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ הַקְרֵב עַצְמְךָ לִי וְלֹא עִכַּבְתָּ. 56.8. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ אַבְרָהָם לַעֲקֹד יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ אַבָּא בָּחוּר אֲנִי וְחוֹשֵׁשַׁנִי שֶׁמָּא יִזְדַּעֲזַע גּוּפִי מִפַּחֲדָהּ שֶׁל סַכִּין וַאֲצַעֲרֶךָ, וְשֶׁמָּא תִּפָּסֵל הַשְּׁחִיטָה וְלֹא תַעֲלֶה לְךָ לְקָרְבָּן, אֶלָּא כָּפְתֵנִי יָפֶה יָפֶה, מִיָּד וַיַּעֲקֹד אֶת יִצְחָק, כְּלוּם יָכוֹל אָדָם לִכְפּוֹת בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וָשֶׁבַע [נסח אחר: בן עשרים ושש שנה] אֶלָּא לְדַעְתּוֹ. מִיָּד וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ, הוּא שׁוֹלֵחַ יָד לִטֹּל אֶת הַסַּכִּין וְעֵינָיו מוֹרִידוֹת דְמָעוֹת וְנוֹפְלוֹת דְּמָעוֹת לְעֵינָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק מֵרַחֲמָנוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבָּא, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַלֵּב שָׂמֵחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת רְצוֹן יוֹצְרוֹ, וְהָיוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים מִתְקַבְּצִין כִּתּוֹת כִּתּוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָן, מָה הֲווֹן צָוְחִין (ישעיה לג, ח): נָשַׁמּוּ מְסִלּוֹת שָׁבַת עֹבֵר אֹרַח הֵפֵר בְּרִית מָאַס עָרִים, אֵין רְצוֹנוֹ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּבְבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְהוֹרִישׁ לְבָנָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק. (ישעיה לג, ח): לֹא חָשַׁב אֱנוֹשׁ, לֹא עָמְדָה זְכוּת לְאַבְרָהָם לֵית לְכָל בְּרִיָה חֲשִׁיבוּת קֳדָמוֹי. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא הִתְחִיל אַבְרָהָם תָּמֵהַּ, אֵין הַדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ אֶלָּא דְבָרִים שֶׁל תֵּמַהּ, אֶתְמוֹל אָמַרְתָּ (בראשית כא, יב): כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע, חָזַרְתָּ וְאָמַרְתָּ (בראשית כב, ב): קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, וְעַכְשָׁיו אַתְּ אָמַר לִי (בראשית כב, יב): אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל הַנַּעַר, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם (תהלים פט, לה): לֹא אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה. כְּשֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְךָ קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, לֹא אָמַרְתִּי שְׁחָטֵהוּ, אֶלָּא וְהַעֲלֵהוּ, לְשֵׁם חִבָּה אָמַרְתִּי לָךְ, אֲסִקְתֵּיהּ וְקִיַּמְתָּ דְּבָרַי, וְעַתָּה אַחֲתִינֵיהּ. br br [נסח אחר: משלו משל למלך שאמר לאוהבו העלה את בנך על שלחני, הביאו אותו אוהבו וסכינו בידו, אמר המלך וכי העלהו לאכלו אמרתי לך, העלהו אמרתי לך מפני חבתו. הדא הוא דכתיב (ירמיה יט, ה): ולא עלתה על לבי, זה יצחק. ] 18.5. \"Therefore a man will abandon.\" It was taught: a convert that converted and was married to his sister, whether from the mother or the father - it is acceptable, according to Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: from the mother it is acceptable, from the father, it must be established that he does not worship idols. A refutation arose: does it not say: \"And moreover, she is my sister, the daughter of my father...\" (Genesis 20:12)! He said to them: reply to them by their own reasoning. Rabbi Meir refuted: \"Therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" (Genesis 2:24). Rabbi Yocha said: they explained this verse \"therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" the one who supports his father, the one who supports his mother. Rabbi Abahu refuted: does it not say: \"And Amram took Yocheved his cousin\" (Exodus 6:20)! Rabbi Shimon the son of Rabbi Abahu said: from here would we learn that at the time of the children of Noah, Israel acted differently, before the giving of the Torah!? Rabbi Levi said: we explain the verse \"therefore a man will abandon...\" the one who is supported by his father, or by his mother. Rabbi Abahu in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: the children of Noah, in matters of marriage are obligated, in matters of engagement are not. Rabbi Yonah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel said: if a whore is in the marketplace, and two men come to her, the first is exempt and the second is liable, because he was sleeping with a married woman. Did the first one intend to acquire her [as a wife]?! It is said: intercourse at the time of the children of Noah acquires, even not in the way of [later] Judaism. And how do we know that they did not divorce? Rabbi Yehuda in the name of Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Chanin in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: they did not divorce, or they both divorced each other. Rabbi Yocha said: his wife divorced him and gave him a bill of divorce. Rabbi Hiyya taught: an idol-worshipper that divorced his wife, and she went and married someone else, and then they both went and converted to Judaism, I do not apply to them the verse \"The first husband that sent her away cannot...\" (Deuteronomy 24:4). Rabbi Aha in the name of Rabbi Hanina bar Pappa said: in the whole book of Malachi it is written 'Hashem, Lord of Hosts' but here it is written 'the God of Israel' as it says: \"For I hate sending away, said Hashem, God of Israel\" (Malachi 2:16) - as if to say, God's name only rests on Israel. Rabbi Haggai said: When Israel was exiled, the women's faces were blackened from the sun, and they were left and the men went and married Amonite women. They went and circled the altar, crying, as Malachi says: \"And this do a second time\" (Malachi 2:13) - a second time in relation to Shittim. \"Cover with tears the altar of Hashem with wailing and sighing\" (ibid.), the Holy One Blessed be He said: who will accept these tears and wailing, since you stole and did violence to and took it's beauty from her, now you will send her away? And how do we know that they were fastidious about sexual impropriety like Israel? As it says: \"And he cleaved to his wife\" (Genesis 2:24) and not the wife of his friend, or another man, or an animal. Rabbi Shmuel and Rabbi Abahu and Rabbi Eleazar in the name of Rabbi Hanina said: a child of Noah who comes to his wife unnaturally is liable for the death penalty. Rabbi Assi said: every crime written about the children of Noah is not judged on the metric of positive and negative commandments; rather, they all require the death penalty. How do we know this? \"And he cleaved to his wife and they became as one flesh\" (ibid.)." 55.4. After these things — misgivings were experienced on that occasion. Who then had misgivings? Avraham, saying to himself: ‘I have rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet I did not set aside a single bullock or ram for the Holy One of Blessing.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to him: ‘I know that even if you were commanded to offer your only son to Me, you would not refuse.’ - this is according to Rabbi Eleazar who said that the employment of va-e-lohim where E-lohim would suffice, implies both God and God’s Court. It was the ministering angels who spoke thus: ‘This Avraham rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet did not set aside for the Holy One of Blessing a single bullock or ram.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to them: ‘Even if we tell him to offer his own son, he will not refuse.’ Itzchak and Ishmael were engaged in a dispute: the latter argued, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at the age of thirteen’; while the other retorted, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at eight days.’ Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved, because I could have protested, yet I did not.’ At that moment Itzchak exclaimed: ‘O that God would appear to me and bid me cut off one of my limbs! then I would not refuse.’ Said God: ‘Even if I bid you sacrifice yourself, you will not refuse.’ [Another version: Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved than you, since I as circumcised at the age of thirteen, but you were circumcised as a baby and could not refuse.’ Itzchak retorted: ‘All that you did lend to the Holy One of Blessing was three drops of blood. But look, I am now thirty-seven years old, yet if God desired of me that I be slaughtered, I would not refuse.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing ‘This is the moment!’ Straightway, “God tested Avraham”.]" 56.7. \"And the angel of Ad-nai called to him out of heaven, and said: Abraham, Abraham\" (Gen. 22:11). Rabbi Hiya taught: This is an expression of love, this is an expression of urging. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov said: He spoke to him and to future generations, there is no generation which does not contain people like Avraham, and there is no generation which does not contain people like Yaakov, Moshe, and Shmuel. And he said: \"Do not lay your hand etc.\" (Gen. 22:12) Where was the knife? Three tears had fallen from the angels of service and the knife dissolved. Avraham said: ‘I will strangle him,’ He said: ‘Do not lay your hand upon the lad.’ [Avraham] said ‘I will take a drop of blood from him’ - He said to him: ‘Neither do anything [me'uma] to him’ [meaning] inflict no blemish [muma] upon him. \"Because now I know\" [meaning] I have made it known to all that you love Me, \"and you have not withheld, etc\". And do not say that all ills that do not affect one’s own body are not ills, rather I ascribe merit to you as though I had told to you to sacrifice yourself and you did not refuse." 56.8. Another explanation: Rabbi Itzchak said, \"At the time that Avraham sought to bind Itzchak, his son, [the latter] said to him, 'Father, I am a young man and I am concerned lest my body shake from fear of the knife and I will trouble you, and lest the slaughtering will be invalid and it will not be considered a sacrifice for you. Rather, tie me very well.' Immediately, ‘and he bound Itzchak.' Could he really tie up a man of thirty-seven (a different version: of twenty six years)? Rather, it was with his agreement. Immediately. 'And Avraham sent his hand.' He sends his hand to take the knife and his eyes brings down tears and the tears fall onto the eyes of Itzchak from the mercy of his father. And nonetheless, the heart was happy to do the will of his Maker. And the angels gathered in many groups above them. What did they yell out? 'The ways have become desolate, the wayfarer has ceased; He has rescinded His covet; He has become disgusted with the cities' (Isaiah 33:7) – He does not desire Jerusalem and the Temple that he had in mind to bequeath to the children of Itzchak. 'He did not consider a man' – merit did not stand Avraham well: 'No creation has importance in front of Me.'\" Rabbi Acha said, \"Avraham started to wonder, 'These words are only words of wonder. Yesterday, you told me (Genesis 21:12), \"Because in Itzchak will your seed be called.\" And [then] you went back and said, \"Please take your son.\" And now You say to me, \"Do not send your hand to the youth.\" It is a wonder!' The Holy One, blessed be He, said, 'Avraham, \"I will not profane My covet and the utterances of My lips, I will not change\" (Psalms 89:35) – When I said, \"Please take your son,\" I did not say, \"slaughter him,\" but rather, \"and bring him up.\" For the sake of love did I say [it] to you: I said to you, \"Bring him up,\" and you have fulfilled My words. And now, bring him down.’ [A different version: They said a parable about a king that said to his friend, 'Bring up your son to my table.' His friend brought him up and his knife was in his hand. The king said, 'And did I say to you, \"Bring him up to eat him?\" I said to you, \"Bring him up\"' – [and this was] because of [the king's] love.) This is [the meaning of] what is written (Jeremiah 19:5), 'it did not come up on My heart' – that is Itzchak.\"]"
21. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
22. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

96a. מהו מדאישתרי טומאת בשר אישתרי נמי טומאת אימורין או דילמא מאי דאישתרי אישתרי מאי דלא אישתרי לא אישתרי,אמר רבא מכדי טומאת אימורין מהיכא איתרבי מטומאת בשר דכתיב (ויקרא ז, כ) אשר לה' לרבות את האימורין,כל היכא דאיתיה לטומאת בשר איתיה לטומאת אימורין כל היכא דליתיה לטומאת בשר ליתיה לטומאת אימורין,בעי רבי זירא אימורי פסח מצרים היכא אקטרינהו א"ל אביי ומאן לימא לן דלא שויסקי עבוד,ועוד הא תנא רב יוסף ג' מזבחות היו שם על המשקוף ועל שתי המזוזות ותו מידי אחרינא לא הוה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מה בין פסח מצרים לפסח דורות פסח מצרים מקחו מבעשור וטעון הזאה באגודת אזוב ועל המשקוף ועל שתי המזוזות ונאכל בחפזון בלילה אחד ופסח דורות נוהג כל שבעה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא לן דכתיב (שמות יב, ג) דברו אל כל עדת ישראל לאמר בעשור לחדש הזה ויקחו זה מקחו מבעשור ואין פסח דורות מקחו מבעשור,אלא מעתה (שמות יב, ו) והיה לכם למשמרת עד ארבעה עשר יום לחדש הזה הכי נמי זה טעון ביקור ד' ימים קודם שחיטה ואין אחר טעון ביקור,והתניא בן בג בג אומר מניין לתמיד שטעון ביקור ד' ימים קודם שחיטה שנא' (במדבר כח, ב) תשמרו להקריב לי במועדו ולהלן הוא אומר והיה לכם למשמרת עד ארבעה עשר מה להלן טעון ביקור ד' ימים קודם שחיטה אף כאן טעון ביקור ד' ימים קודם שחיטה,שאני התם דכתיב תשמרו,ופסח דורות נמי הכתיב (שמות יג, ה) ועבדת את העבודה הזאת בחדש הזה שיהו כל עבודות חדש זה כזה,אלא ההוא הזה למעוטי פסח שני דכוותיה,אלא מעתה דכתיב (שמות יב, ח) ואכלו את הבשר בלילה הזה ה"נ דזה נאכל בלילה ואין אחר נאכל בלילה אמר קרא ועבדת את העבודה,אלא הזה למה לי לכדר' אלעזר בן עזריה ור"ע,אלא מעתה דכתיב (שמות יב, מח) וכל ערל לא יאכל בו ה"נ דבו אינו אוכל אבל אוכל בפסח דורות אמר קרא (שמות יג, ה) ועבדת,אלא בו למה לי בו אינו אוכל אבל הוא אוכל במצה ומרור,אלא מעתה (שמות יב, מג) (וכל) בן נכר לא יאכל בו ה"נ דבו אינו אוכל אבל אוכל הוא פסח לדורות אמר קרא ועבדת,אלא בו למה לי בו המרת דת פוסלת ואין המרת דת פוסלת בתרומה,ואיצטריך למיכתב ערל ואיצטריך למכתב בן נכר דאי כתב רחמנא ערל משום דמאיס אבל בן נכר לא מאיס אימא לא צריכא ואי אשמעינן בן נכר משום דאין לבו לשמים אבל ערל דלבו לשמים אימא לא צריכא,אלא מעתה (שמות יב, מה) תושב ושכיר לא יאכל בו הכי נמי דבו הוא אינו אוכל אבל אוכל הוא בפסח דורות אמר קרא ועבדת אלא בו למה לי בו המרת דת פוסלת ואין המרת דת פוסלת בתרומה,אלא מעתה (שמות יב, מד) ומלתה אותו אז יאכל בו ה"נ דבו אינו אוכל אבל אוכל בפסח דורות אמר קרא ועבדת אלא בו ל"ל בו מילת זכריו ועבדיו מעכבת ואין מילת זכריו ועבדיו מעכבת בתרומה,אלא מעתה דכתיב (במדבר ט, יב) ועצם לא ישברו בו ה"נ דבו אינו שובר אבל שובר בפסח דורות אמר קרא ועבדת אלא בו למה לי בו בכשר ולא בפסול,אלא מעתה דכתיב (שמות יב, ט) אל תאכלו ממנו נא ממנו אי אתה אוכל אבל אתה אוכל נא בפסח דורות אמר קרא ועבדת אלא ממנו למה לי לכדרבה א"ר יצחק:,ונאכל בחפזון וכו': מנא לן דאמר קרא (שמות יב, יא) ואכלתם אותו בחפזון אותו נאכל בחפזון ואין אחר נאכל בחפזון:,ופסח דורות נוהג כל שבעה וכו': אמאי קאי אי לימא אפסח פסח כל שבעה מי איכא 96a. bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Are they liable for eating sacrificial meat while they were ritually impure? Do we say that bsince ritual impurity of the meatthat is eaten bwas permitted, ritual impurity of thesacrificial bportionsoffered on the altar bwas also permitted; or perhapswe say that bwhat was permitted was permitted,and bwhat was not permitted was not permitted? /b, bRava said: After all, from wherewas the ihalakhapertaining to eating the sacrificial bportionsin a state of britual impurity included?It is derived bfromthe ihalakhawith regard to eating the bmeatin a state of britual impurity, as it is written:“But the soul that eats of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings bthat pertain to the Lord,having his ritual impurity upon him, that soul shall be cut off from his people” (Leviticus 7:20); the apparently superfluous phrase “that pertain to the Lord” is there bto include thesacrificial bportionsand establish that one is liable to receive ikaretfor eating these portions in a state of ritual impurity.,Since this is the source, there is a limitation to the ihalakhapertaining to sacrificial portions: bAnywhere that there isliability bforeating the bmeatin a state of britual impurity, there isliability for eating the sacrificial bportionsin a state of britual impurity;conversely, banywhere that there is noliability for eating the bmeatin a state of britual impurity,such as in the case of a Paschal lamb offered in a state of ritual impurity, bthere is noliability for eating the sacrificial bportionsin a state of britual impurity. /b, bRabbi Zeira asked:With regard to bthesacrificial bportions of the Paschal lambthat the Jewish people sacrificed in bEgypton the first Passover, just before they left Egypt, bwhere did they burn them?The Torah does not say that they constructed an altar for this purpose. bAbaye said to him:What place is there for such a question? bWho will tell us that they did not make them roastedand eat them? The Jewish people had not yet been commanded with regard to the ihalakhotof sacrifices; therefore, they presumably did not distinguish between meat and forbidden fats, and they roasted and consumed the entire animal ( iArukh /i)., bAnd furthermore, Rav Yosef taughtthat bthere werethree parts of the door upon which the blood was sprinkled that took the place of bthree altars therein Egypt. The blood was applied bupon the lintel and upon the two doorposts; and there was nothing else.Presumably, the Jewish people did not fulfill any mitzva not explicitly mentioned in the Torah, and since no other altar is mentioned, one can conclude that they did not offer the fats and other sacrificial portions on an altar., strongMISHNA: /strong bWhatare the differences bbetween the Paschal lambthat the Jewish people offered in bEgypt and the Paschal lamboffered in all later bgenerations? The Paschal lambthe Jewish people offered in bEgypthad to be btaken from the tenthof the month of Nisan band requiredthe people to bsprinkleits blood bwith a bundle of hyssop,unlike the Paschal lamb in all later years, bandits blood was also sprinkled bupon the lintel and the two doorposts, and it was eaten with haste;in addition, the Paschal lamb in Egypt was only bon one night,whereas bthe Paschal lambthroughout the bgenerations is observed for sevendays.,The Gemara discusses the meaning of this difficult phrase, as obviously, the Paschal lamb is slaughtered on the fourteenth and eaten on the evening of the fifteenth. strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom where do weconclude that the requirements of the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt do not apply to later generations? bAs it is written: “Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: On the tenth day of this month they shall taketo them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’ houses, a lamb for a household” (Exodus 12:3); and we derive from the superfluous word “this” that bthisPaschal lamb offered in Egypt had to be btaken from the tenthof Nisan, band the Paschal lamb oflater bgenerations is not taken from the tenthof Nisan.,The Gemara expresses surprise: bHowever, ifthat is bso,when the verse states later in the same section: b“And you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month”(Exodus 12:6), bso tooit should be inferred that bthisPaschal lamb in Egypt brequires examination four days prior toits bslaughter, and no otheroffering brequires examination four days prior toits bslaughter. /b, bBut wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bben Bag Bag says: From wheredo we know that bthe daily offering requires examination four days prior toits bslaughter? It is statedwith regard to the daily offering: “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: My food which is presented to Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet flavor to Me, byou shall safeguard it to sacrifice to Me in its due season”(Numbers 28:2), band it states there,with regard to the Paschal lamb: b“And it shall be for you as a safeguard until the fourteenth day of this month”(Exodus 12:6). bJust asin the verse bthere,the Paschal lamb brequires examination four days prior toits bslaughter, so too here,the daily offering brequires examination four days prior toits bslaughter.There is no inference from the phrase “this month” that the requirement of examining an offering four days before is limited to the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt.,The Gemara answers: bIt is different there,with regard to the requirement to examine the daily offering four days prior to its slaughter, bas it is written: “You shall safeguard it.”This ihalakhais derived from a verbal analogy based on the word “safeguard,” which is stated in the context of both offerings., bSimilarly, the Paschal lambsacrificed in later bgenerationsalso requires examination four days prior to slaughter, bas it is written:“And it shall be when the Lord shall bring you into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which He swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, bthat you shall perform this service in this month”(Exodus 13:5). From here it is derived bthat all the services of this monthfor all later generations bshall be like this,including examination of the animal four days prior to sacrifice. Despite the fact that the verse connects the Paschal lamb in later years to the Paschal lamb in Egypt, the requirement to take the animal on the tenth of Nisan applied only on the first Passover., bRather,what does bthatphrase: b“thismonth,” stated with regard to the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, come to exclude? The Gemara answers that it comes bto excludethe Paschal lamb of bthe second iPesaḥ /i, which is similar to it,as it is also limited to a one day celebration. The Paschal lamb of the second iPesaḥdoes not require examination four days prior to its slaughter.,Once again the Gemara questions its assertion that the phrase “this month” stated in the context of the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt indicates that its ihalakhotare not relevant to other offerings. bHowever, ifthat is bso,with regard to that bwhich is written: “And they shall eat the meat on that night”(Exodus 12:8), bso too,should it be inferred that bthisPaschal lamb offered in Egypt bwas eaten at night and no otherPaschal lamb offered in later generations must bbe eaten at night?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “You shall performthis bservicein this month” (Exodus 13:5), in order to teach that the ihalakhotof the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt apply to later generations as well.,The Gemara asks: bRather,if so, bwhy do Ineed the word b“this”stated with regard to the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt if all the ihalakhotrelevant to that offering apply to the Paschal lambs of later generations? The Gemara answers that the phrase is needed bforthe derivations cited by bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya and Rabbi Akiva(see iBerakhot9a) with regard to the length of time during which the Paschal lamb may be eaten., bTheGemara asks: bHowever, ifthat is bso,with regard to that bwhich is writtenin the context of the Paschal lamb offered in Egypt: b“And no uncircumcised person shall eat from it”(Exodus 12:48), bso too,should it be inferred that the expression “from it” limits the application of the verse and teaches bthat “from it,”the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, bhemay bnot eat, but hemay beat from the Paschal lambsacrificed in later bgenerations?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “You shall perform,”which teaches that the ihalakhotof the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt apply to later generations as well.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, bwhy do Ineed the expression b“from it”stated here? The Gemara answers that it teaches that bfrom it,the Paschal lamb, bhe may not eat, but he eats from the imatzaand bitter herbs.An uncircumcised person is obligated to eat imatzaand bitter herbs on Passover, just like any other Jew.,The Gemara continues to question: bHowever, ifthat is bso,when the verse states: b“No stranger shall eat from it”(Exodus 12:43), bso too,should it be inferred that it is only bfrom it,the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, bthat hemay bnot eat, but hemay beatfrom bthe Paschal lambsacrificed in later bgenerations?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “You shall perform,”which teaches that the ihalakhotof the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt apply to future generations as well. Consequently, anyone who was prohibited from eating the Paschal lamb in Egypt may not eat it in subsequent years either.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, bwhy do Ineed the qualifying phrase: b“From it”?The Gemara answers: It is bfrom it,eating the Paschal lamb, that bapostasy disqualifies,as the term “stranger” in this context is understood to refer to a Jew whose conduct makes him estranged from God; bbut apostasy does not disqualifyone from eating iteruma /i.Therefore, a priest who has become an apostate may still consume iteruma /i.,The Gemara continues: bAnd it is necessaryfor the Torah bto writethe prohibition of ban uncircumcised person, and it is necessaryfor the Torah bto writea separate prohibition with regard to ba stranger, as, if the Torah had writtenonly about ban uncircumcised person,one might have thought that only he is prohibited to eat from the Paschal lamb bbecausethe foreskin bis repulsive, but a strangerwho bis not repulsive, saythat he may eat from the Paschal lamb. Therefore, bit is necessaryto teach the case of a stranger. bAnd if it would have taught usonly the prohibition with regard to ba stranger,one might have concluded that only he is prohibited from eating the Paschal lamb bbecause his heart is notdirected btoward Heavendue to his apostasy, bbutwith regard to ban uncircumcised person, whose heart isdirected btoward Heaven, saythat there is bnoprohibition for him to eat the Paschal lamb. Therefore, bit is necessaryto teach also the case of an uncircumcised person.,The Gemara continues to question its initial derivation: bHowever, ifthat is bso,when the verse pertaining to the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt states: b“A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat from it”(Exodus 12:45), bso too,should it be derived that bfrom it,the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, bhemay bnot eat, but hemay beat from the Paschal lambsacrificed in later bgenerations?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “And you shall perform,”which teaches that the ihalakhotof the Paschal lamb in later generations are the same as the ihalakhotthat applied in Egypt. The Gemara asks: bButif so, bwhy do Ineed the qualifying term b“from it”?The Gemara answers that it teaches that bfrom it,the Paschal lamb, bapostasy disqualifiesone from partaking, bbut apostasy does not disqualifyone from eating iteruma /i. /b,The Gemara continues its line of questioning: bHowever, ifthat is bso,when the verse said: b“When you have circumcised him, then shall he eat from it”(Exodus 12:44), bso too,should it be inferred bthat from it,the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, bhemay bnot eatunless he first circumcises his sons and slaves, bbut hemay beat from the Paschal lambsacrificed in later bgenerations?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “You shall perform,”which teaches that this ihalakhaapplies to later generations as well. The Gemara asks: bButif so, bwhy do Ineed the qualifying term b“from it”?The Gemara answers that this term teaches that bfrom it,the Paschal lamb, bthelack of bcircumcision of one’s malechildren band slaves preventsa father or master from eating until he ensures that all of the male members of his household have been circumcised, bbut the circumcision of one’s malechildren band slaves does not preventhim bfromeating iteruma /iif he is himself eligible to eat it.,The Gemara asks further: bHowever, ifthat is bso,with regard to that bwhich is written: “And they shall not break a bone in it”(Numbers 9:12), bso too,should it be inferred that it is prohibited to break a bone only bof it,the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, bbut onemay bbreaka bone bof a Paschal lambsacrificed in later bgenerations?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: You shall perform,which applies the ihalakhotstated with regard to the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt to the Paschal lambs of later generations as well. The Gemara asks: bButif so, bwhy do Ineed the qualifying expression b“in it”?The Gemara explains that this qualification teaches that only a bone bin it, a fit Paschal lamb,may not be broken, but there is bnoprohibition to break the bone bof an unfitPaschal lamb.,The Gemara asks further: bHowever, ifthat is bso,from that bwhich is written: “Do not eat of it raw,nor boiled in water, but roasted in fire” (Exodus 12:9), should it be inferred that it is only bof it,the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt, bthat youmay bnot eatraw, bbut youmay beat rawmeat bfrom the Paschal lamb oflater bgenerations?The Gemara answers that bthe verse states: “You shall perform,”which teaches that the prohibition applies to later generations as well. The Gemara asks: bButif so, bwhy do Ineed the qualifying expression b“in it”?The Gemara answers that it is necessary bfor that which Rabba saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said,that this verse serves as the basis of a verbal analogy which teaches that an uncircumcised man may not eat tithes.,The Gemara returns to discuss the mishna, which stated that the Paschal lamb sacrificed in Egypt bwas eaten with hastebut that Paschal lambs sacrificed in later years were not. bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? The Gemara answers that it is bas the verse states: “You shall eat it in haste;it is the Lord’s Paschal lamb” (Exodus 12:11). The word “it” indicates a detail and teaches that b“it” is eaten with haste, and no otherPaschal lamb bis eaten with haste. /b,The mishna stated that bthe Paschal lamb oflater bgenerations applies all sevendays. The Gemara asks: bOn what does this stand? If we saythat it refers bto the Paschal lambitself, bis there a Paschal lamb all sevendays? It is offered only on the fourteenth of Nisan.
23. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

89b. חבריה דמיכה דכתיב (מלכים א כ, לה) ואיש אחד מבני הנביאים אמר אל רעהו בדבר ה' הכני נא וימאן האיש להכותו וכתיב (מלכים א כ, לו) ויאמר לו יען אשר לא שמעת [וגו'],ונביא שעבר על דברי עצמו כגון עדו הנביא דכתיב (מלכים א יג, ט) כי כן צוה אותי וכתיב (מלכים א כ, ג) ויאמר לו גם אני נביא כמוך וכתיב (מלכים א יג, יט) וישב אתו וכתיב (מלכים א יג, כד) וילך וימצאהו אריה,תני תנא קמיה דרב חסדא הכובש את נבואתו לוקה אמר ליה מאן דאכיל תמרי בארבלא לקי מאן מתרי ביה אמר אביי חבריה נביאי,מנא ידעי אמר אביי דכתיב (עמוס ג, ז) כי לא יעשה ה' [אלהים] דבר כי אם גלה סודו ודילמא הדרי ביה אם איתא דהדרי ביה אודועי הוו מודעי לכלהו נביאי,והא יונה דהדרי ביה ולא אודעוהו יונה מעיקרא נינוה נהפכת אמרי ליה איהו לא ידע אי לטובה אי לרעה,המוותר על דברי נביא מנא ידע דאיענש דיהב ליה אות והא מיכה דלא יהיב ליה אות ואיענש היכא דמוחזק שאני,דאי לא תימא הכי אברהם בהר המוריה היכי שמע ליה יצחק אליהו בהר הכרמל היכי סמכי עליה ועבדי שחוטי חוץ אלא היכא דמוחזק שאני,(בראשית כב, א) ויהי אחר הדברים האלה והאלהים נסה את אברהם (אחר מאי),א"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן זימרא אחר דבריו של שטן דכתיב (בראשית כא, ח) ויגדל הילד ויגמל וגו' אמר שטן לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם זקן זה חננתו למאה שנה פרי בטן מכל סעודה שעשה לא היה לו תור אחד או גוזל אחד להקריב לפניך אמר לו כלום עשה אלא בשביל בנו אם אני אומר לו זבח את בנך לפני מיד זובחו מיד והאלהים נסה את אברהם,ויאמר קח נא את בנך אמר רבי שמעון בר אבא אין נא אלא לשון בקשה משל למלך בשר ודם שעמדו עליו מלחמות הרבה והיה לו גבור אחד ונצחן לימים עמדה עליו מלחמה חזקה אמר לו בבקשה ממך עמוד לי במלחמה זו שלא יאמרו ראשונות אין בהם ממש אף הקב"ה אמר לאברהם ניסיתיך בכמה נסיונות ועמדת בכלן עכשיו עמוד לי בנסיון זה שלא יאמרו אין ממש בראשונים,את בנך ב' בנים יש לי את יחידך זה יחיד לאמו וזה יחיד לאמו אשר אהבת תרוייהו רחימנא להו את יצחק וכל כך למה כדי שלא תטרף דעתו עליו,קדמו שטן לדרך אמר לו (איוב ד, ב) הנסה דבר אליך תלאה הנה יסרת רבים וידים רפות תחזק כושל יקימון מליך כי עתה תבא אליך ותלא אמר לו (תהלים כו, יא) אני בתומי אלך,אמר לו הלא יראתך כסלתך אמר לו זכר נא מי הוא נקי אבד כיון דחזא דלא קא שמיע ליה אמר ליה ואלי דבר יגונב כך שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד השה לעולה ואין יצחק לעולה אמר לו כך עונשו של בדאי שאפילו אמר אמת אין שומעין לו,ר' לוי אמר אחר דבריו של ישמעאל ליצחק אמר לו ישמעאל ליצחק אני גדול ממך במצות שאתה מלת בן שמנת ימים ואני בן שלש עשרה שנה אמר לו ובאבר אחד אתה מגרה בי אם אומר לי הקב"ה זבח עצמך לפני אני זובח מיד והאלהים נסה את אברהם,תנו רבנן נביא שהדיח בסקילה רבי שמעון אומר בחנק מדיחי עיר הנדחת בסקילה רבי שמעון אומר בחנק,נביא שהדיח בסקילה מ"ט דרבנן אתיא הדחה הדחה ממסית מה להלן בסקילה אף כאן בסקילה,ור"ש מיתה כתיבא ביה וכל מיתה האמורה בתורה סתם אינה אלא חנק,מדיחי עיר הנדחת בסקילה מ"ט דרבנן גמרי הדחה הדחה או ממסית או מנביא שהדיח,ור"ש גמר הדחה הדחה מנביא,וליגמר ממסית דנין מסית רבים ממסית רבים ואין דנין מסית רבים ממסית יחיד אדרבה דנין הדיוט מהדיוט ואין דנין הדיוט מנביא,ור"ש כיון שהדיח אין לך הדיוט גדול מזה,אמר רב חסדא 89b. bthe colleague ofthe prophet bMicah,son of Imla (see II Chronicles 18:7–8), bas it is written: “And a certain man of the sons of the prophets said unto his colleague by the word of the Lord: Strike me, please. And the man refused to strike him”(I Kings 20:35). bAnd it is written: “Then he said he to him: Because you have not listenedto the voice of the Lord, behold, as soon as you leave me, a lion shall slay you. And as soon as he left from him, a lion found him; and slew him” (I Kings 20:36).,The mishna lists among those liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven: bAnd a prophet who violated his own statement.The Gemara comments: bFor example, Iddo the prophet,who, according to tradition, prophesied the punishment of Jeroboam in Bethel, bas it is written:“I will neither eat bread nor drink water in this place, bfor it so was commanded meby the word of the Lord” (I Kings 13:8–9). bAnd it is written: “And he said to him: I too am a prophet like you;and an angel spoke unto me by the word of the Lord, saying: Bring him back with you into your house, that he may eat bread and drink water” (I Kings 13:18). bAnd it is written: “And he went back with him,and ate bread in his house, and drank water” (I Kings 13:19). bAnd it is writtenthat he died at the hand of Heaven: b“And he went, and a lion met himby the way, and killed him” (I Kings 13:24).,§ bA itannataughta ibaraita bbefore Rav Ḥisda: One who suppresses his prophecy is flogged.Rav Ḥisda bsaida parable bto him: Is one who eats dates in a sieve flogged?How can he be flogged? bWho forewarns himif he eats dates infested with worms that no one sees? Likewise, as no one knows whether the prophet received a prophecy, how can he be forewarned? bAbaye said: His fellow prophetsforewarn him.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do they knowthat he received a prophecy? bAbaye says:They know, bas it is written: “For the Lord God will do nothing, unless He reveals His counselto His servants the prophets” (Amos 3:7). The Gemara challenges: bAnd perhapsthe heavenly court breconsidered with regard tothe prophecy, and the prophet is no longer commanded to disseminate the prophecy. The Gemara answers: bIf it is so that they reconsidered with regard tothe prophecy, the heavenly court bwould have informed all the prophets. /b,The Gemara challenges: bButin the case of bJonah, they reconsidered it and did not inform themthat the people of Nineveh had repented for their sins and were therefore spared the foretold destruction. The Gemara explains: In the case of bJonah, from the outset,the heavenly court btold himto say: b“Nineveh will be overturned”(Jonah 3:4). Still, bhe did not know ifthe sentence would be bfor the good,as their corruption would be overturned through repentance, borif it would be bfor the bad,as the city would be overturned through destruction. Therefore, the prophecy was never revoked, but simply fulfilled in accordance with one of its possible interpretations.,The Gemara asks: In the case of bone who forgoes the statement of a prophet, from where does he knowthat the one prophesying is actually a prophet and bthat hewill be bpunishedfor failing to comply with the prophecy? The Gemara answers: It is referring to a case bwherethe prophet bprovides himwith ba signindicating that he is a prophet. The Gemara asks: bButin the case of bMicah, who did not provide himwith ba sign, andyet he was bpunished,how could he have known that Micah was a prophet? A case bwherehe has already bassumedthe bpresumptive statusof a prophet bis different,and no sign is necessary.,The Gemara continues: bSince if you do not say so,and claim that even the prophecy of one established as a prophet requires a sign, then in the case of bAbraham at Mount Moriah, how did Isaac listen to himand submit to being slaughtered as an offering? Likewise, in the case of bElijah at Mount Carmel, how didthe people brely upon him andenable him to bengagein the sacrifice of animals bslaughtered outsidethe Temple, which is prohibited? bRather,perforce, a case bwherehe has already bassumedthe bpresumptive statusof a prophet bis different. /b,§ Apropos the binding of Isaac, the Gemara elaborates: It is written: b“And it came to pass after these matters [ ihadevarim /i] that God tried Abraham”(Genesis 22:1). The Gemara asks: bAfter whatmatters? How does the binding of Isaac relate to the preceding events?, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra:This means bafter the statement [ idevarav /i] of Satan, as it is written: “And the child grew, and was weaned,and Abraham prepared a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned” (Genesis 21:8). bSatan said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, this old man, you favored him with a product of the womb,i.e., a child, bat one hundred yearsof age. bFrom the entire feast that he prepared, did he not haveeven bone dove or one pigeon to sacrifice before Youas a thanks-offering? God bsaid toSatan: bDidAbraham bpreparethe feast for any reason bbut for his son? If I say to him: Sacrifice your son before Me,he would bimmediately slaughter him. Immediately,after these matters, the verse states: b“And God tried Abraham.” /b,The Torah continues: b“And He said: Take, please [ ina /i], your son”(Genesis 22:2). bRabbi Shimon bar Abba says:The word inais nothing other than an expression of entreaty.Why did God request rather than command that Abraham take his son? The Gemara cites ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who confronted many wars. And he had one warriorfighting for him, band he overcamehis enemies. bOver time,there was ba fierce war confronting him.The king bsaid tohis warrior: bI entreat you, standfirm bfor me in this war,so bthatothers bwill not say: There is no substance in the firstvictories, and you are not a true warrior. Likewise, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, also said to Abraham: I have tried you with several ordeals, and you have withstood them all. Now, standfirm bin this ordeal for Me, so thatothers bwill not say: There is no substance in the firstordeals.,God said to Abraham: “Please take your son, your only, whom you love, Isaac” (Genesis 22:2). When God said: b“Your son,”Abraham said: bI have two sons.When God said: b“Your only,”Abraham said: bThisson bis an onlyson bto his mother, and thatson bis an onlyson bto his mother.When God said: b“Whom you love,”Abraham said: bI love both of them.Then God said: b“Isaac.” And whydid God prolong His command to bthat extent?Why did He not say Isaac’s name from the outset? God did so, bso thatAbraham’s bmind would not be confusedby the trauma., bSatan precededAbraham bto the paththat he took to bind his son and bsaid to him: “If one ventures a word to you, will you be weary…you have instructed many, and you have strengthened the weak hands. Your words have upheld him that was falling…but now it comes upon you, and you are weary”(Job 4:2–5). Do you now regret what you are doing? Abraham bsaid to himin response: “And bI will walk with my integrity”(Psalms 26:11).,Satan bsaid toAbraham: b“Is not your fear of God your foolishness?”(Job 4:6). In other words, your fear will culminate in the slaughter of your son. Abraham bsaid to him: “Remember, please, whoever perished, being innocent”(Job 4:7). God is righteous and His pronouncements are just. bOnceSatan bsaw thatAbraham bwas not heeding him, he said to him: “Now a word was secretly brought to me,and my ear received a whisper thereof” (Job 4:12). bThisis what bI heard from behind theheavenly bcurtain [ ipargod /i],which demarcates between God and the ministering angels: bThe sheep is tobe sacrificed as ba burnt-offering, and Isaac is not tobe sacrificed as ba burnt-offering.Abraham bsaid to him:Perhaps that is so. However, bthis is the punishment of the liar, that evenif bhe speaks the truth,others bdo not listen to him.Therefore, I do not believe you and will fulfill that which I was commanded to perform.,The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the verse: “And it came to pass after these matters that God tried Abraham” (Genesis 22:1). bRabbi Levi says:This means bafter the statement of Ishmael to Isaac,during an exchange between them described in the verse: “And Sarah saw the son of Hagar…mocking” (Genesis 21:9). bIshmael said to Isaac: I am greater than you inthe fulfillment of bmitzvot, as you were circumcisedat the bage of eight days,without your knowledge and without your consent, band Iwas circumcised at the bage of thirteen years,with both my knowledge and my consent. Isaac bsaid toIshmael: bAnd do you provoke me with one organ? If the Holy One, Blessed be He,were to bsay to me: Sacrifice yourself before Me, Iwould bsacrificemyself. bImmediately, God tried Abraham,to confirm that Isaac was sincere in his offer to give his life.,§ bThe Sages taught: A prophet who incitesothers to worship idols is executed bby stoning. Rabbi Shimon says:He is executed bby strangulation.Those bwho inciteresidents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared ban idolatrous city,are executed bby stoning. Rabbi Shimon says:They are executed bby strangulation. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bA prophet who incitesothers to worship idols is executed bby stoning. What is the reasonfor the opinion bof the Rabbis?They bderivea verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word bincitementwritten with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols bfromthe word bincitementwritten with regard to a layman who binstigatesothers to worship idols. bJust as there,the layman who incites others to worship idols is executed bby stoning, so too here,the prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed bby stoning. /b, bAnd Rabbi Shimonsays: With regard to a prophet, the term bdeath is written concerning him. And every death stated in the Torah without specificationis referring to bnothing other than strangulation. /b,The Gemara continues: Those bwho inciteresidents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared ban idolatrous city,are executed bby stoning. What is the reasonfor the opinion bof the Rabbis? They derivea verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word bincitementwritten with regard to those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, bfromthe word bincitementwritten beitherwith regard to a layman who binstigatesothers to worship idols bor fromthe word incitement written with regard to ba prophet who incitesothers to worship idols. Just as there, the layman who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning, so too here, the prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning., bAnd Rabbi Shimon derivesa verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word bincitementwritten with regard to those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, bfromthe word bincitementwritten with regard to ba prophetwho incites others to worship idols, who, in his opinion, is executed by strangulation.,The Gemara challenges: bLet him derivethe punishment bfromthe punishment of one who is not a prophet who binstigatesothers to worship idols, as those cases are similar. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon bderivesthe punishment for one who binstigates the multitudes fromthe punishment of one who binstigates the multitudes, and does not derivethe punishment for one who binstigates the multitudes fromthe punishment of one who binstigates an individual.The Gemara asks: bOn the contrary, one derivesthe punishment for ban ordinaryperson, i.e., one who is not a prophet, who instigates others bfromthe punishment of ban ordinaryperson who incites an idolatrous city, band one does not derivethe punishment for ban ordinaryperson who instigates others bfromthe punishment of ba prophetwho instigates others., bAnd Rabbi Shimonholds that in this case there is no distinction between prophet and layman; boncethe prophet has bincitedothers to idol worship, byou have no greaterexample of ban ordinaryperson bthan that. /b, bRav Ḥisda says: /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. והני תרתי מאי עבידתייהו אמר ר' יצחק בשכר הגפת דלתות ונימא ליה דל בדל אמר אביי בוצינא טבא מקרא,אמר רב יהודה ובמוספין חולקין מיתיבי משמרה היוצאת עושה תמיד של שחר ומוספין משמרה הנכנסת עושה תמיד של בין הערבים ובזיכין ואילו מוספין חולקין לא קתני האי תנא בחלוקה לא קא מיירי,אמר רבא והא תנא דבי שמואל דמיירי בחלוקה ובמוספין חולקין לא קתני דתנא דבי שמואל משמרה היוצאת עושה תמיד של שחר ומוספין משמרה הנכנסת עושה תמיד של בין הערבים ובזיכין ארבעה כהנים היו נכנסין שם שנים ממשמר זו ושנים ממשמר זו וחולקין לחם הפנים ואילו במוספין חולקין לא קתני תיובתא דרב יהודה תיובתא:,הנכנסין חולקין בצפון: ת"ר הנכנסין חולקין בצפון כדי שיראו שהן נכנסין והיוצאין חולקין בדרום כדי שיראו שהן יוצאין:,בילגה לעולם חולקת בדרום: ת"ר מעשה במרים בת בילגה שהמירה דתה והלכה ונשאת לסרדיוט אחד ממלכי יוונים כשנכנסו יוונים להיכל היתה מבעטת בסנדלה על גבי המזבח ואמרה לוקוס לוקוס עד מתי אתה מכלה ממונן של ישראל ואי אתה עומד עליהם בשעת הדחק וכששמעו חכמים בדבר קבעו את טבעתה וסתמו את חלונה,ויש אומרים משמרתו שוהה לבא ונכנס ישבב אחיו עמו ושימש תחתיו אע"פ ששכיני הרשעים לא נשתכרו שכיני בילגה נשתכרו שבילגה לעולם חולקת בדרום וישבב אחיו בצפון,בשלמא למ"ד משמרתו שוהה לבא היינו דקנסינן לכולה משמר אלא למ"ד מרים בת בילגה שהמירה דתה משום ברתיה קנסינן ליה לדידיה אמר אביי אין כדאמרי אינשי שותא דינוקא בשוקא או דאבוה או דאימיה,ומשום אבוה ואימיה קנסינן לכולה משמרה אמר אביי אוי לרשע אוי לשכינו טוב לצדיק טוב לשכינו שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, י) אמרו צדיק כי טוב כי פרי מעלליהם יאכלו, br br big strongהדרן עלך החליל וסליקא לה מסכת סוכה /strong /big br br
25. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71a. המרת דת פוסלת ואין המרת דת פוסלת במעשר,כל ערל לא יאכל בו למה לי בו אינו אוכל אבל אוכל הוא במצה ומרור,ואיצטריך למכתב ערל ואיצטריך למכתב כל בן נכר דאי כתב רחמנא ערל משום דמאיס אבל בן נכר דלא מאיס אימא לא ואי כתב רחמנא כל בן נכר משום דאין לבו לשמים אבל ערל דלבו לשמים אימא לא צריכא,(שמות יב, ט) ממנו ממנו למה לי לכדרבה א"ר יצחק,אמר מר ר"ע אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (ויקרא כב, ד) איש איש לרבות את הערל ואימא לרבות את האונן א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אמר קרא (ויקרא כב, י) וכל זר זרות אמרתי לך ולא אנינות,אימא ולא ערלות הא כתיב איש איש,ומה ראית מסתברא ערלות הוה ליה לרבויי שכן מעשי"ם כרותי"ם בדב"ר העב"ד מחוסר מעשה ומעשה בגופו וענוש כרת וישנו לפני הדבור ומילת זכריו ועבדיו מעכבת,אדרבה אנינות הוה ליה לרבויי שכן ישנה בכל שעה ונוהגת באנשים ונשים ואין בידו לתקן עצמו,הנך נפישן רבא אמר בלא הנך נפישן נמי לא מצית אמרת אמר קרא איש איש איזהו דבר שישנו באיש ואינו באשה הוי אומר זה ערלות,ורבי עקיבא האי תושב ושכיר מאי עביד ליה אמר רב שמעיא לאתויי ערבי מהול וגבעוני מהול,והני מולין נינהו והא תנן קונם שאני נהנה לערלים מותר בערלי ישראל ואסור במולי עובדי כוכבים קונם שאני נהנה למולין מותר במולי עובדי כוכבים ואסור בערלי ישראל,אלא לאתויי גר שמל ולא טבל וקטן שנולד כשהוא מהול וקסבר צריך להטיף ממנו דם ברית,ור' אליעזר לטעמיה דאמר גר שמל ולא טבל גר מעליא הוא וקסבר קטן כשנולד מהול אין צריך להטיף ממנו דם ברית,ור' אליעזר האי איש איש מאי עביד ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בעי רב חמא בר עוקבא קטן ערל מהו לסוכו בשמן של תרומה ערלות שלא בזמנה מעכבא או לא מעכבא,א"ר זירא ת"ש אין לי אלא מילת זכריו בשעת עשיה ועבדיו בשעת אכילה מנין ליתן את האמור של זה בזה ואת האמור של זה בזה ת"ל (שמות יב, מח) אז אז לגזירה שוה,בשלמא עבדיו משכחת לה דאיתנהו בשעת אכילה וליתנהו בשעת עשיה כגון דזבנינהו ביני ביני,אלא זכריו דאיתנהו בשעת אכילה וליתנהו בשעת עשיה היכי משכחת לה לאו דאתילוד בין עשיה לאכילה ש"מ ערלות שלא בזמנה הויא ערלות,אמר רבא ותסברא (שמות יב, מח) המול לו כל זכר אמר רחמנא ואז יקרב לעשותו והאי לאו בר מהילא הוא אלא הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שחלצתו חמה,וניתוב ליה כל שבעה (דאמר שמואל חלצתו חמה נותנין לו כל שבעה) דיהבינן ליה כל שבעה ונימהליה מצפרא בעינן 71a. that bapostasy [ imeshumadut /i] disqualifies,as the term “stranger” in this context is understood to refer to a Jew whose conduct makes him estranged from God, and he is disqualified from eating the Paschal lamb, bbut apostasy does not disqualifyone from eating btithe. /b,The Gemara asks further: If so, with regard to the phrase “from it” in the verse b“No uncircumcised person shall eat from it”(Exodus 12:48), which again emphasizes “from it” and not from another item, bwhy do Ineed it? The Gemara answers: This teaches that only bfrom it,the Paschal lamb, one who is uncircumcised bmay not eat, but he eats imatzaand bitter herbs.One who is uncircumcised is obligated to eat imatzaand bitter herbs on Passover, just like any other Jew.,The Gemara continues: bAnd it was necessaryfor the Torah bto writethe prohibition with regard to ban uncircumcisedman, band it was necessaryfor the Torah bto writea separate prohibition with regard to bany stranger. As, if the Merciful One had writtenonly about ban uncircumcisedman, one might have thought that only for him is it prohibited to eat from the Paschal lamb bbecausethe foreskin bis repulsive, butwith regard to ba stranger,who bis not repulsive, saythat it is bnotprohibited. bAnd if the Merciful One had writtenonly about bany stranger,one might have concluded that only for him is it prohibited to eat from the Paschal lamb bbecause his heart is notdirected btoward Heavendue to his apostasy, bbutwith regard to ban uncircumcisedman, bwhose heart isdirected btoward Heaven,and it is only on account of unavoidable circumstances that he has not undergone circumcision, bsaythat there is bnoprohibition against his eating the Paschal lamb. Therefore, bit is necessaryto teach both cases.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the phrase b“of it”in the verse “Do not eat of it raw, nor boiled in water, but roasted in fire” (Exodus 12:9), and the phrase b“of it”in the verse “And you shall let nothing of it remain until the morning” (Exodus 12:10), both of which are terms of exclusion, bwhy do Ineed them? The Gemara answers that they are necessary bfor that which Rabba saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak said,as will be explained later (74a)., bThe Master saidabove in the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Akiva saysthat it bis not necessaryto derive by way of a verbal analogy the ihalakhathat an uncircumcised priest may not eat iteruma /i, basthe verse bsays: “Any man [ iish ish /i]from the seed of Aaron who is a leper or a izavshall not eat of the holy things” (Leviticus 22:4). The repetition of the word iishcomes bto include an uncircumcisedman and indicate that he too may not partake of consecrated food. The Gemara asks: bBut saythat the verse comes bto include an acute mournerin the prohibition against eating iteruma /i. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: The verse states: “No foreignermay eat of the holy thing” (Leviticus 22:10), which indicates: A disqualification stemming from bforeignness I told youprevents one from eating iteruma /i, bbut nota disqualification based on bacute mourning. /b,The Gemara asks: bSaythat the verse comes to teach that a disqualification stemming from foreignness prevents one from eating iteruma /i, bbut nota disqualification based on the priest’s black of circumcision,and so it should be permitted for an uncircumcised priest to partake of iteruma /i. The Gemara answers: bIsn’t it written: “Any man [ iish ish /i],”where the repetition of the word iishcomes to include an uncircumcised priest in the prohibition?,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did you seethat led you to include an uncircumcised priest in the prohibition against eating iterumaand exclude an acute mourner? The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonthat black of circumcision should be includedand should preclude a priest’s eating iteruma /i, basthe ihalakhotgoverning an uncircumcised man are stringent in several respects, as alluded to by the following mnemonic of key words: bActs; ikaretim /i; thedivine bword; the slave.The Gemara explains: An uncircumcised man blacksthe bactof circumcision, bandthis bactis performed bon his body;the failure to perform circumcision is bpunishable by ikaret /i;circumcision bexisted before thedivine bwordwas spoken at Mount Sinai, as the mitzva of circumcision had already been given to Abraham; band thelack of bcircumcision of one’s malechildren band slaves precludesone’s eating the Paschal lamb.,The Gemara counters: bOn the contrary, acute mourning should be includedand it should prevent a priest from eating iteruma /i, basacute mourning bisrelevant bat any time, it applies toboth bmen and women, and it is not inthe mourner’s bpower to render himself fituntil after the deceased is buried.,The Gemara answers: bThesearguments for including an uncircumcised priest in the prohibition baremore bnumerous. Rava said:Even bwithoutthe rationale that bthesearguments baremore bnumerous, you still cannot saythat an acute mourner should be included and an uncircumcised priest should be excluded, as bthe verse states: “Any man [ iish ish /i],”emphasizing maleness. Now, bwhat matter applies to a man and not to a woman? You must saythat bit is lack of circumcision,and therefore it cannot be that the phrase comes to include acute mourning in the prohibition.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Akiva dowith bthisphrase: b“A sojourner and a hired servant,”as it is not needed for the Paschal lamb? bRav Shemaya said:It serves bto include a circumcised Arab and a circumcised Gibeonitein the prohibition against the eating of the Paschal lamb. Although they have been circumcised, it is prohibited for them to partake of the offering.,The Gemara poses a question: bAnd are theseconsidered bcircumcised? But didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iNedarim31b): If one vowed: bThe benefit that Imight gain bfrom the uncircumcised is ikonam /ito me, i.e., forbidden to me like consecrated property, then it bis permittedfor him to derive benefit bfrom uncircumcised Jews, andit bis prohibitedfor him to derive benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world,as gentiles are considered uncircumcised even if they have their foreskins removed. And conversely, if he vowed: bThe benefit that Imight gain bfrom the circumcised is ikonam /ito me, it is bpermittedfor him to derive benefit bfrom the circumcised of the nations of the world,as they are not considered circumcised, bandit bis prohibitedfor him to derive benefit bfrom uncircumcised Jews.This indicates that the circumcision of gentiles is disregarded., bRather,the phrase “a sojourner and a hired servant” comes bto includein the prohibition against eating of the Paschal lamb ba convertto Judaism bwho was circumcised but did notyet bimmersein a ritual bath, band a child who was born circumcised,i.e., without a foreskin. Although he does not have a foreskin, he is still seen as lacking the act of circumcision. bAnd he,Rabbi Akiva, bmaintainsthat bit is necessary to drip covetal blood from him,in lieu of circumcision, in order to usher him into the covet of Abraham, even though he has no foreskin that can be removed., bAnd Rabbi Eliezer,who uses the words “a sojourner and a hired servant” for a verbal analogy, conforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he said: A convert who was circumcised but did notyet bimmerse is a proper convertin every way. Therefore, the verse cannot come to exclude such an individual. bAnd he maintainsthat in the case of ba child who was born circumcised, it is not necessary to drip covetal blood from him.Since he was born without a foreskin, no additional procedure is necessary.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Eliezer dowith bthisinclusive phrase b“any man [ iish ish /i]”?The Gemara answers: He maintains that bthe Torah spoke in the language of men,meaning that no special ihalakhais derived from this expression, as it is common biblical vernacular., bRav Ḥama bar Ukva raises a dilemma:With regard to ban uncircumcised childwho is less than eight days old and not yet fit for circumcision, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith respect bto anointing him with oil of iteruma /i?The Gemara explains the two sides of the question: Does black of circumcision not at itsappointed btime,meaning before the obligation of circumcision goes into effect, bprecludethe infant’s benefiting from iteruma /i, as he has the status of an one who is uncircumcised, borperhaps it bdoes not precludehis benefiting from iteruma /i, as he is not considered uncircumcised until the mitzva of circumcision is applicable?, bRabbi Zeira said: Comeand bheara proof from the following ibaraita /i: bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhaconcerning bthe circumcision of one’s malechildren bat the time of the preparation,i.e., the slaughter, of the Paschal lamb, as it is stated: “Let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it” (Exodus 12:48), bandthe ihalakhaconcerning the circumcision of bone’s slaves at the time of the eatingof the Paschal lamb, as it is stated: “But every man’s servant…when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat from it” (Exodus 12:44). bFrom wheredo I derive that it is proper bto applythe prohibition bthat was stated about thiscase bto thatcase, bandthe prohibition bthat was said about thatcase bto thiscase, i.e., that the circumcision of both one’s male children and one’s slaves is indispensable both at the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb and at the time of its consumption? The itannaanswers that bthe verse statesthe term b“then”with regard to male children and the term b“then”with regard to slaves bas a verbal analogy. /b,The Gemara comments: bGranted,with regard to bone’s slaves you finda case bwhere they are present at the time of eating but they were not present at the time of preparation; for example, if he purchased them in the meantime,i.e., they did not belong to him when the Paschal lamb was slaughtered but he bought them immediately afterward, before it was time to eat it., bHowever,with regard to bhis malechildren, bhow can you finda case bwhere they are present at the time of eating, but they were not present at the time of preparation?Does it bnotinvolve a situation bwhere they were born betweenthe time of the Paschal lamb’s bpreparation andthe time of its beating? Learn from thisthat black of circumcision,even bnot at,i.e., before, bitsappointed btime, isnevertheless considered black of circumcisionthat prevents the father from partaking of the offering., bRava said: Andhow can byou understandit that way? How can you think that the lack of circumcision of a newborn child precludes his father’s eating from the Paschal lamb? Doesn’t bthe Merciful One state: “Let all his males be circumcised,”followed by b“and then let him come near and keep it”(Exodus 12:48), bandas bthisinfant bis notyet bfit for circumcisionhe cannot possibly preclude the father’s partaking of the offering? bRather, with whatcase bare we dealing here?With the case, bfor example,of a baby who was exempt from circumcision at the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb because he was sick with a high fever, and subsequently bthe fever left himand he recovered. In such a case, failure to immediately circumcise his son precludes the father’s eating from the Paschal lamb.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: If the case is one of a child recovering from an illness, blet us give him the full sevendays that he needs to recuperate properly. bAs Shmuel said:In the case of a baby that was sick with a high fever, and subsequently bthe fever left him, one gives him a full seven daysto heal and only then is he circumcised, but not before. The Gemara answers: The case is in fact one where bwealready bgave him a full sevendays to heal, but they culminated on the eve of Passover. The Gemara asks: bButif the seven-day recovery period ended on the eve of Passover, why did the father wait until the time of eating the Paschal lamb, i.e., the first night of Passover? bHe should have circumcised himalready bin the morning,before the time of the preparation of the Paschal lamb. The Gemara answers: bWe require /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

116a. זכרים ונקבות תמימין ובעלי מומין (דאמר מר תמות וזכרות בבהמה ואין תמות וזכרות בעופות,ואיתקש בהמה לעוף,תמימין ובעלי מומין) לאפוקי מחוסר אבר דלא א"ר אלעזר מנין למחוסר אבר שנאסר לבני נח ת"ל (בראשית ו, יט) ומכל החי מכל בשר אמרה תורה הבא בהמה שחיין ראשי איברין שלה,ודילמא למעוטי טריפה ההוא מלחיות זרע נפקא,הניחא למ"ד טריפה אינה יולדת אלא למ"ד טריפה יולדת מאי איכא למימר האמר קרא אתך בדומין לך,ודילמא נח גופיה טריפה הוה תמים כתיב ביה ודילמא תמים בדרכיו צדיק כתיב ביה,ודילמא תמים בדרכיו צדיק במעשיו אי סלקא דעתך דנח גופיה טריפה הוה מי קאמר ליה לנח דכוותך עייל שלמים לא תעייל,ומאחר דנפקא לן מאתך לחיות זרע למה לי מהו דתימא אתך לצותא בעלמא אפי' זקן אפילו סריס קמשמע לן:,טהורין אבל לא טמאין: ומי הוו טמאין וטהורין בההיא שעתא א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאותן שלא נעבדה בהן עבירה,מנא הוו ידעי כדרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא העבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתן בידוע שהוא טהור אין התיבה קולטתן בידוע שהן טמאין,רבי אבהו אמר אמר קרא (בראשית ז, טז) והבאים זכר ונקבה הבאין מאיליהן,אמר מר והכל קרבו עולות עולות אין שלמים לא והא כתיב (שמות כד, ה) ויזבחו זבחים שלמים לה' פרים אלא אימא הכל קרבו עולות [ושלמים,והתניא אבל שלמים לא כי אם עולות] עולות אין שלמים לא כמ"ד לא קרבו שלמים בני נח דאיתמר ר"א ור' יוסי בר חנינא חד אמר קרבו [שלמים בני נח] וחד אמר לא קרבו,מ"ט דמ"ד קרבו שלמים בני נח דכתיב (בראשית ד, ד) והבל הביא גם הוא מבכורות צאנו ומחלביהן איזהו דבר שחלבו קרב לגבי מזבח ואין כולו קרב לגבי מזבח הוי אומר זה שלמים,מ"ט דמ"ד לא קרבו דכתיב (שיר השירים ד, טז) עורי צפון ובואי תימן תתנער אומה שמעשיה בצפון ותבוא אומה שמעשיה בצפון ובדרום,ומר נמי הכתיב ומחלביהן משמניהן [דידהו],ומר נמי הכתיב עורי צפון [ההוא] בקיבוץ גליות הוא דכתיב,והא כתיב (שמות י, כה) ויאמר משה גם אתה תתן בידינו זבחים ועולות ועשינו לה' אלהינו זבחים לאכילה ועולות להקרבה,והא כתיב (שמות יח, יב) ויקח יתרו [חותן משה] עולה וזבחים ההוא לאחר מתן תורה הוא דכתיב,הניחא למ"ד [יתרו] אחר מתן תורה היה אלא למ"ד [יתרו] קודם מתן תורה היה מאי איכא למימר דאיתמר בני ר' חייא ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר יתרו קודם מתן תורה היה וחד אמר יתרו אחר מתן תורה היה למ"ד יתרו קודם מתן תורה היה קסבר שלמים הקריבו בני נח,כתנאי (שמות יח, א) וישמע יתרו כהן מדין מה שמועה שמע ובא ונתגייר ר' יהושע אומר מלחמת עמלק שמע שהרי כתיב בצדו (שמות יז, יג) ויחלש יהושע את עמלק ואת עמו לפי חרב,ר"א המודעי אומר מתן תורה שמע [ובא] שכשניתנה תורה לישראל היה קולו הולך מסוף העולם ועד סופו וכל [מלכי] עובדי כוכבים אחזתן רעדה בהיכליהן ואמרו שירה שנאמר (תהלים כט, ט) ובהיכלו כולו אומר כבוד,נתקבצו כולם אצל בלעם הרשע ואמרו לו מה קול ההמון אשר שמענו שמא מבול בא לעולם (אמר להם) (תהלים כט, י) ה' למבול ישב [אמר להם] וישב ה' מלך לעולם כבר נשבע הקב"ה שאינו מביא מבול לעולם,אמרו לו מבול של מים אינו מביא אבל מבול של אש מביא שנא' (ישעיהו סו, טז) כי (הנה) באש ה' נשפט אמר להן כבר נשבע שאינו משחית כל בשר,ומה קול ההמון הזה ששמענו אמר להם חמדה טובה יש לו בבית גנזיו שהיתה גנוזה אצלו תתקע"ד דורות קודם שנברא העולם וביקש ליתנה לבניו שנאמר (תהלים כט, יא) ה' עוז לעמו יתן [מיד] פתחו כולם ואמרו (תהלים כט, יא) ה' יברך את עמו בשלום,ר"א אומר קריעת ים סוף שמע ובא שנא' (יהושע ה, א) ויהי כשמוע כל מלכי האמורי ואף רחב הזונה אמרה לשלוחי יהושע (יהושע ב, י) כי שמענו את אשר הוביש ה' את מי ים סוף,מאי שנא התם דאמר (ליה) (יהושע ה, א) ולא היה בם עוד רוח ומ"ש הכא דקאמר (יהושע ב, יא) ולא קמה עוד רוח באיש 116a. That which was taught in the ibaraita /i: All animals were fit to be sacrificed: bMales and females, unblemished and blemishedanimals, pertains to bthatwhich bthe Master saidas a principle concerning the ihalakhotof sacrifices: The requirements that an offering must have bunblemished status andthat a burnt offering must have bmale statusapply bto animalofferings, bbutthe requirements of bunblemished status and male statusdo bnotapply bto birds. /b, bAndin the verses that recount Noah’s sacrifices upon exiting the ark, ba domesticated animal is juxtaposed with a bird,in the verse: “of every pure animal, and of every pure fowl” (Genesis 8:20), which teaches that kosher animals had a status identical to that of birds, and could be sacrificed whether male or female, unblemished or blemished.,The Gemara adds: That which was taught in the ibaraita /i: bUnblemished and blemishedanimals, serves bto excludeanimals that are blacking a limb, whichwere bnotfit for sacrifice. As bRabbi Elazar says: From whereis it derived bthatan animal that is blacking a limb is forbidden to the descendants of Noah,i.e., gentiles, to be used as a sacrifice? bThe verse stateswith regard to Noah: b“And of every living being of all flesh,two of every sort shall you bring into the ark” (Genesis 6:19). With regard to the phrase: “And of every living being,” which is superfluous, bthe Torah stated: Bring an animal whose limbs areall bliving,not one lacking a limb, as that animal is disqualified from sacrifice.,The Gemara challenges: bBut perhapsthis phrase: “And of every living being,” serves bto exclude an animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifa /i]from being fit as a sacrifice. The Gemara explains: The disqualification of a itereifa bis derived fromthe phrase: b“To keep seed alive”(Genesis 7:3), as a itereifacannot propagate.,The Gemara challenges: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat ba itereifacannot give birth.In this case the disqualification of the itereifais derived from the verse: “To keep seed alive,” while the disqualification of the animal lacking a limb is derived from the verse: “And of every living being.” bBut according to the one who saysthat ba itereifacan give birth, what can be said?According to this opinion, a itereifacannot be excluded by the phrase: “To keep seed alive.” The Gemara explains: bDoesn’t the verse statewith regard to the animals that were brought by Noah into the ark: “You shall bring into the ark, to keep them alive bwith you”(Genesis 6:19)? The term “with you” indicates that the verse is stated bwith regard toanimals that are bsimilar to you,not a itereifa /i.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps Noah himself was a itereifa /i.If so, one cannot exclude a itereifafrom the comparison of animals to Noah. The Gemara answers: bIt is written aboutNoah that he was b“complete”(Genesis 6:9), which indicates that he was physically whole and unblemished. The Gemara challenges: bBut perhapsthe verse means that bhis ways were complete,and it is not referring to Noah’s physical attributes. The Gemara explains: bIt isalready bwritten about himthat he was b“righteous”(Genesis 6:9), which means that his actions were perfect. Consequently, when the verse says that he was also complete, it must be referring to his body.,The Gemara challenges: bBut perhapsthe verse means that Noah was bcomplete in his manner,and he was brighteous in hisgood bdeeds.Accordingly, the verse would not exclude the possibility that Noah himself was a itereifa /i. The Gemara responds: bIf it enters your mindto say bthat Noah himself was a itereifa /i, would the Merciful One have said to him: Bring in itereifot blike youto the ark, but bdo not bring in wholeand perfect animals? It is not reasonable to say that there would be a preference for him to bring itereifot /i. Rather, Noah was certainly not a itereifa /i, and the fact that a itereifais disqualified for sacrifice is derived from “with you.”,The Gemara asks: bAnd once we derivethe disqualification of a itereifa bfromthe term b“with you,” why do Ineed the phrase b“to keep seed alive”?The Gemara answers: If one could derive only from b“with you,” you would saythat Noah brought the animals to the ark bonly forthe purpose of bcompanionship,and therefore bevenan animal that is boldor beven one who is castratedcan come into the ark, provided that it is not a itereifa /i. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: “To keep seed alive,” which bteaches usthat only animals that can bear offspring were allowed to be brought into the ark.,§ The ibaraitaalso teaches that before the Tabernacle was constructed, sacrifices were brought from animals and birds that were bkosher, but notfrom bnon-kosherspecies. This is based on the verse that describes what Noah sacrificed when he exited the ark: “And he took of every pure animal and of every pure fowl and offered burnt offerings on the altar” (Genesis 8:20). The Gemara asks: bAnd were there pure and impurespecies bat that time,during the period of Noah? The distinction between pure, i.e., kosher species, and impure, i.e., non-kosher species, was introduced only after the Torah was given (see Leviticus, chapter 11). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:The pure animals that Noah took were bfrom those that had not been used in the performance of sin. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where didNoah and his sons bknowwhich animals had been used in the performance of a sin, in order to prevent them from entering the ark? The Gemara answers that it is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rav Ḥisda. As Rav Ḥisda says:Noah caused all of the animals to bpass before the ark. Allanimals bthat the ark accepted,i.e., drew in, was bknown to be pure;if bthe ark did not accept them,it was bknown that theywere bimpure. /b, bRabbi Abbahu saysthere is a different explanation as to how Noah knew which animals were pure or impure. bThe verse states: “And they that went in,went in bmale and femaleof all flesh” (Genesis 7:16), which means: Those bthat went in on their own.Consequently, Noah did not need to distinguish between pure and impure animals, as only the pure ones approached.,§ In describing the sacrificial service before the Tabernacle was constructed, bthe Master said: And allofferings brought before the construction of the Tabernacle were bsacrificedas bburnt offerings.The Gemara infers: bBurnt offerings, yes,were sacrificed, but bpeace offeringswere bnotsacrificed. The Gemara challenges: bButwith regard to the offerings that were sacrificed at Mount Sinai at the time of the giving of the Torah, bit is written:“And they offered burnt offerings, band sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord”(Exodus 24:5). This event occurred prior to the construction of the Tabernacle. bRather, saythat the ibaraitameans: bAllofferings bsacrificedwere either bburnt offerings or peace offerings. /b,The Gemara challenges: bAnd isn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i: bBut peace offeringswere bnotsacrificed before the construction of the Tabernacle; brather, only burnt offeringswere sacrificed? Clearly, bburnt offerings, yes,were sacrificed, but bpeace offeringswere bnotsacrificed. The Gemara answers that this ibaraitais bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who saysthat bpeace offerings were not sacrificedby the bdescendants of Noah. As it was statedthat there is a dispute between bRabbi Elazar and Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥaninawith regard to this: bOne saysthat bthe descendants of Noah sacrificed peace offerings, and one saysthat bthey did not sacrificepeace offerings.,The Gemara explains the two opinions: bWhat is the reasoning of the one who saysthat bthe descendants of Noah sacrificed peace offerings? As it is written: “And Abel, he also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of the fat thereof”(Genesis 4:4). Abel, like all gentiles, is categorized as a descendant of Noah. The verse emphasizes that the fat was sacrificed. The Gemara analyzes: bWhat is an item,i.e., an offering, bthe fat of which is sacrificed upon the altar, butthat bis not sacrificed in its entirety upon the altar? You must say: This is the peace offering,the meat of which is consumed., bWhat is the reasoning of the one who saysthat bthey did not sacrificepeace offerings? bAs it is written: “Awake [ iuri /i], O north; and come, south… /bLet my beloved come into his garden, and eat his precious fruits” (Song of Songs 4:16). The Gemara interprets this homiletically: The bnation,i.e., the nations of the world, who are the descendants of Noah, bwhose acts,i.e., sacrifices, are only bin the north,i.e., they sacrifice only burnt offerings, which are slaughtered and their blood collected in the north of the Temple courtyard, bshall be removed [ ititna’er /i], andin its place bshall comethe Jewish bnation, whose acts,i.e., sacrifices, are bin the north and in the south,as they sacrifice burnt offerings, whose rites are performed in the north, and peace offerings, whose rites may also be performed in the south, as the entire courtyard is fit for their rites.,The Gemara asks: bAnd alsoaccording to bthe Masterwho holds that the descendants of Noah did not sacrifice peace offerings, bisn’t it written: “And of the fat thereof,”from which it may be derived that Abel sacrificed a peace offering? The Gemara answers: “The fat thereof,” does not mean that Abel sacrificed only the fats of his offerings; rather, it means that he sacrificed bthe fattest of them,i.e., the fattest and choicest of his animals.,The Gemara asks: bAnd alsoaccording to bthe Masterwho holds that the descendants of Noah did sacrifice peace offerings, bisn’t it written: “Awake, O north,”from which it may be derived that the nations of the world do not sacrifice peace offerings? The Gemara answers: In his opinion, bthatverse bis written with regard to the ingathering of the exiles,i.e., the Jewish exiles will come from the north and the south.,With regard to the opinion that the descendants of Noah did not sacrifice peace offerings, the Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “And Moses said: You must also give into our hand sacrifices [ izevaḥim /i] and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God”(Exodus 10:25)? This indicates that sacrifices [ izevaḥim /i], i.e., peace offerings, were sacrificed before the Torah was given. The Gemara answers: In this context, b“ izevaḥim /i”is referring to animals to be used bfor consumption,as the word izevaḥcan also be translated as an animal for slaughter, band “burnt offerings”is referring to animals to be used bfor sacrifice. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenbefore the giving of the Torah: b“And Yitro, Moses’ father-in-law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices [ izevaḥim /i]for God” (Exodus 18:12)? Since the word izevaḥimthere is referring to sacrifices, as the verse clearly states that Yitro took them for God, evidently peace offerings were sacrificed before the giving of the Torah. The Gemara answers: bThatverse bwas writtenwith regard to the period bafter the giving of the Torah,when the Jewish people were permitted to sacrifice peace offerings.,The Gemara notes: bThis works out well according to the one who saysthat the episode with bYitro was after the giving of the Torah. But according to the one who saysthat the episode with bYitro was before the giving of the Torah, what can be said? As it was stated: The sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Leviengage in a dispute concerning this issue. bOne saysthat the episode with bYitro was before the giving of the Torah, and one saysthat the episode with bYitro was after the giving of the Torah.The Gemara answers: bThe one who saysthat the episode with bYitro was before the giving of the Torah maintainsthat bthe descendants of Noah did sacrifice peace offerings. /b,§ The Gemara notes that the disagreement between iamora’imwith regard to when Yitro came to Mount Sinai is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states with regard to Yitro, before he came to Mount Sinai: b“Now Yitro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heardof all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, how the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt” (Exodus 18:1). bWhat tiding did he hear that he came and converted? Rabbi Yehoshua says: He heardabout bthe war with Amalek, as it is written adjacent tothe verses that state that Yitro came: b“And Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword”(Exodus 17:13)., bRabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: He heardabout bthe giving of the Torah and came. As when the Torah was given to the Jewish people, the voice ofthe Holy One, Blessed be He, bwent fromone bend of the world to theother bend, and all of the kings of the nations of the world were overcome with trembling in their palaces and recited a songof praise, bas it is stated:“The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve… band in his palace all say: Glory”(Psalms 29:9), i.e., each king in his own palace recited songs of praise to God.,At that time, ball ofthe kings bgathered around Balaam the wicked,who was the greatest gentile prophet, band said to him: What is the tumultuous sound,i.e., the loud noise, bthat we have heard? Perhaps a flood is coming todestroy bthe world, as it is stated: “The Lord sat enthroned at the flood”(Psalms 29:10)? Balaam bsaid to them: “The Lord sits as King forever”(Psalms 29:10), which means that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, already took an oathafter the flood bnever to bring a flood to the world,as it is stated: “And the waters shall no more become a flood” (Genesis 9:15).,The kings bsaid to him: He will not bring a flood of water,as he vowed, bbutperhaps bHe will bring a flood of fire,as in the future the Lord will punish the nations with fire, bas it is stated: “For by fire will the Lord contend,and by His sword with all flesh; and the slain of the Lord shall be many” (Isaiah 66:16). Balaam bsaid to them: He already took an oath that He will not destroy all fleshin any manner, as it is stated: “To destroy all flesh” (Genesis 9:15). Therefore, there will not be a flood of fire.,They asked: bAndif so, bwhat is this tumultuous sound that we have heard?Balaam bsaid to them: He has a goodand bprecious item in His treasury, that was hidden away with Himfor b974 generations before the world was created, and He seeks to give it to his children, as it is stated: “The Lord will give strength to His people”(Psalms 29:11). “Strength” is a reference to the Torah, which is the strength of the Jewish people. bImmediately, they all began to say: “The Lord will bless His people with peace”(Psalms 29:11).,The Gemara offers another explanation of what Yitro heard: bRabbi Eliezer says: He heardabout bthe splitting of the Red Sea and came, as it is statedin a similar context with regard to the splitting of the Jordan in the days of Joshua: b“And it came to pass, when all the kings of the Amorites,that were beyond the Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, that were by the sea, bheardhow that the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan from before the children of Israel, until they were passed over, that their heart melted, neither was there spirit in them anymore, because of the children of Israel” (Joshua 5:1). bAnd even Rahab the prostitute said to Joshua’s messengers: “For we have heard how the Lord dried up the water of the Red Seabefore you” (Joshua 2:10).,The Gemara asks: bWhat is different there,i.e., with regard to the splitting of the Jordan, bwherethe verse bstates: “Neither was there spirit in them anymore,” and what is different here,i.e., in the statement of Rahab, bwherethe verse bstates: “Neither did there remain [ ikama /i] any more spirit in any man”(Joshua 2:11)?
27. Anon., 4 Ezra, 12, 11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, test of faith for Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
angels Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
antiochus iv. epiphanes Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 194
antiochus iv Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
apocalypse/apocalyptic Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
bendavid, a. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
chajes, z. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 405
daniel, danielic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
dat Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
david Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
david (biblical) Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
depicting flood using elements of the biblical descriptions of day of the lord Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
dragon, red Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 95
egypt, egyptian, elect, community of, suffering of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
eleazar (jewish martyr) Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 194
elephant mosaic Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 194
elijah ben solomon (gaon of vilna) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
end of days tribulation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
endtime Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
eschatology Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
ezra Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
eṣ yosef (by rabbi henokh zundel b. joseph) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
four beasts/evil empires Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
haupt, p. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
heavenly court advocates, in bible and second temple literature Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
heavenly court advocates Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
heavenly host, angels, angelic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
isaac Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
jesus, historical jesus, authenticity of sayings, self-perception Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
job Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
lawyers and legal system, adversarial and inquisitorial courts Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
leviathan, as red dragon Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 95
lexicography Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 405
light Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 205
little horn Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 194
maccabean martyrs Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 194
mastema Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
messiah Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
moore, c. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
moses Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
noah Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
paton, l. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
philo Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
python Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 95
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
rashi (rabbi solomon b. isaac) Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
roman, rome Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
sacrifices Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
seleucids Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
son of man, heavenly, also relating to jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 166
space/spatiality Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 405
speech in dreams, incidental/overheard Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 372
spirit Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 100
sun(-god) Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 205
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 64
truth (אלטיכסייה, ἀλήθεια)' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
vision Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 97
ḥanin Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237
ḥeinemann, i. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 237