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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6277
Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 10.13


וְשַׂר מַלְכוּת פָּרַס עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד יוֹם וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי וַאֲנִי נוֹתַרְתִּי שָׁם אֵצֶל מַלְכֵי פָרָס׃But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days; but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I was left over there beside the kings of Persia.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

69 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.16-3.17, 5.4, 7.8-7.9, 8.2, 9.1, 9.5, 11.1-11.2, 11.7, 11.14, 12.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.16. The prayer of both was heard in the presence of the glory of the great God. 3.17. And Raphael was sent to heal the two of them: to scale away the white films of Tobits eyes; to give Sarah the daughter of Raguel in marriage to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodeus the evil demon, because Tobias was entitled to possess her. At that very moment Tobit returned and entered his house and Sarah the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper room. 5.4. So he went to look for a man; and he found Raphael, who was an angel 8.2. As he went he remembered the words of Raphael, and he took the live ashes of incense and put the heart and liver of the fish upon them and made a smoke. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 9.19, 18.11, 23.23, 34.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.19. כִּי יָגֹרְתִּי מִפְּנֵי הָאַף וְהַחֵמָה אֲשֶׁר קָצַף יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֵלַי גַּם בַּפַּעַם הַהִוא׃ 18.11. וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃ 23.23. וְכִי תֶחְדַּל לִנְדֹּר לֹא־יִהְיֶה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 34.3. וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃ 9.19. For I was in dread of the anger and hot displeasure, wherewith the LORD was wroth against you to destroy you. But the LORD hearkened unto me that time also." 18.11. or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer." 23.23. But if thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee." 34.3. and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.24, 5.18-5.19, 6.1-6.4, 18.2, 18.16-18.33, 19.1, 28.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 5.18. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ׃ 5.19. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.2. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 18.16. וַיָּקֻמוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיַּשְׁקִפוּ עַל־פְּנֵי סְדֹם וְאַבְרָהָם הֹלֵךְ עִמָּם לְשַׁלְּחָם׃ 18.17. וַיהֹוָה אָמָר הַמְכַסֶּה אֲנִי מֵאַבְרָהָם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה׃ 18.18. וְאַבְרָהָם הָיוֹ יִהְיֶה לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם וְנִבְרְכוּ בוֹ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 18.19. כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה אֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט לְמַעַן הָבִיא יְהוָה עַל־אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עָלָיו׃ 18.21. אֵרֲדָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה הַכְּצַעֲקָתָהּ הַבָּאָה אֵלַי עָשׂוּ כָּלָה וְאִם־לֹא אֵדָעָה׃ 18.22. וַיִּפְנוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּלְכוּ סְדֹמָה וְאַבְרָהָם עוֹדֶנּוּ עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 18.23. וַיִּגַּשׁ אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע׃ 18.24. אוּלַי יֵשׁ חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא לַמָּקוֹם לְמַעַן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבָּהּ׃ 18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃ 18.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אִם־אֶמְצָא בִסְדֹם חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וְנָשָׂאתִי לְכָל־הַמָּקוֹם בַּעֲבוּרָם׃ 18.27. וַיַּעַן אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי וְאָנֹכִי עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 18.28. אוּלַי יַחְסְרוּן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם חֲמִשָּׁה הֲתַשְׁחִית בַּחֲמִשָּׁה אֶת־כָּל־הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 18.29. וַיֹּסֶף עוֹד לְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם אַרְבָּעִים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה בַּעֲבוּר הָאַרְבָּעִים׃ 18.31. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם עֶשְׂרִים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית בַּעֲבוּר הָעֶשְׂרִים׃ 18.32. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אַךְ־הַפַּעַם אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם עֲשָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אַשְׁחִית בַּעֲבוּר הָעֲשָׂרָה׃ 18.33. וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר כִּלָּה לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אַבְרָהָם וְאַבְרָהָם שָׁב לִמְקֹמוֹ׃ 19.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים סְדֹמָה בָּעֶרֶב וְלוֹט יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־סְדֹם וַיַּרְא־לוֹט וַיָּקָם לִקְרָאתָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 19.1. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֶת־יָדָם וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־לוֹט אֲלֵיהֶם הַבָּיְתָה וְאֶת־הַדֶּלֶת סָגָרוּ׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 5.18. And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begot Enoch." 5.19. And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 18.2. and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth," 18.16. And the men rose up from thence, and looked out toward Sodom; and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way." 18.17. And the LORD said: ‘Shall I hide from Abraham that which I am doing;" 18.18. seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?" 18.19. For I have known him, to the end that he may command his children and his household after him, that they may keep the way of the LORD, to do righteousness and justice; to the end that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken of him.’" 18.20. And the LORD said: ‘Verily, the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and, verily, their sin is exceeding grievous." 18.21. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto Me; and if not, I will know.’" 18.22. And the men turned from thence, and went toward Sodom; but Abraham stood yet before the LORD." 18.23. And Abraham drew near, and said: ‘Will You indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked?" 18.24. Peradventure there are fifty righteous within the city; wilt Thou indeed sweep away and not forgive the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?" 18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’" 18.26. And the LORD said: ‘If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will forgive all the place for their sake.’" 18.27. And Abraham answered and said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes." 18.28. Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt Thou destroy all the city for lack of five?’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it, if I find there forty and five.’" 18.29. And he spoke unto Him yet again, and said: ‘Peradventure there shall be forty found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not do it for the forty’s sake.’" 18.30. And he said: ‘Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak. Peradventure there shall thirty be found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not do it, if I find thirty there.’" 18.31. And he said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord. Peradventure there shall be twenty found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it for the twenty’s sake.’" 18.32. And he said: ‘Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once. Peradventure ten shall be found there.’ And He said: ‘I will not destroy it for the ten’s sake.’" 18.33. And the LORD went His way, as soon as He had left off speaking to Abraham; and Abraham returned unto his place." 19.1. And the two angels came to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he fell down on his face to the earth;" 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.3. וְנֵדְעָה נִרְדְּפָה לָדַעַת אֶת־יְהוָה כְּשַׁחַר נָכוֹן מוֹצָאוֹ וְיָבוֹא כַגֶּשֶׁם לָנוּ כְּמַלְקוֹשׁ יוֹרֶה אָרֶץ׃ 6.3. And let us know, eagerly strive to know the LORD, His going forth is sure as the morning; And He shall come unto us as the rain, As the latter rain that watereth the earth.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6-1.12, 3.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 1.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן מֵאַיִן תָּבֹא וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ׃ 1.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ עַל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע׃ 1.9. וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר הַחִנָּם יָרֵא אִיּוֹב אֱלֹהִים׃ 1.11. וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח־נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אִם־לֹא עַל־פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ׃ 1.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנֵּה כָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בְּיָדֶךָ רַק אֵלָיו אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵעִם פְּנֵי יְהוָה׃ 3.17. שָׁם רְשָׁעִים חָדְלוּ רֹגֶז וְשָׁם יָנוּחוּ יְגִיעֵי כֹחַ׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 1.7. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Whence comest thou?’ Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.’" 1.8. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Hast thou considered My servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a whole-hearted and an upright man, one that feareth God, and shunneth evil?’" 1.9. Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘Doth Job fear God for nought?" 1.10. Hast not Thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions are increased in the land." 1.11. But put forth Thy hand now, and touch all that he hath, surely he will blaspheme Thee to Thy face.’" 1.12. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thy hand.’ So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD." 3.17. There the wicked cease from troubling; And there the weary are at rest."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1, 3.1-3.2, 104.35, 105.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 3.2. יְהוָה מָה־רַבּוּ צָרָי רַבִּים קָמִים עָלָי׃ 104.35. יִתַּמּוּ חַטָּאִים מִן־הָאָרֶץ וּרְשָׁעִים עוֹד אֵינָם בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה הַלְלוּ־יָהּ׃ 105.22. לֶאְסֹר שָׂרָיו בְּנַפְשׁוֹ וּזְקֵנָיו יְחַכֵּם׃ 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 3.2. LORD, how many are mine adversaries become! Many are they that rise up against me." 104.35. Let sinners cease out of the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the LORD, O my soul. Hallelujah." 105.22. To bind his princes at his pleasure, And teach his elders wisdom."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 28.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.6. וַיִּשְׁאַל שָׁאוּל בַּיהוָה וְלֹא עָנָהוּ יְהוָה גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת גַּם בָּאוּרִים גַּם בַּנְּבִיאִם׃ 28.6. And when Sha᾽ul inquired of the Lord, the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by the Urim, nor by prophets."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.6, 19.11, 56.7, 66.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.6. וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 19.11. אַךְ־אֱוִלִים שָׂרֵי צֹעַן חַכְמֵי יֹעֲצֵי פַרְעֹה עֵצָה נִבְעָרָה אֵיךְ תֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה בֶּן־חֲכָמִים אֲנִי בֶּן־מַלְכֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 56.7. וַהֲבִיאוֹתִים אֶל־הַר קָדְשִׁי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים בְּבֵית תְּפִלָּתִי עוֹלֹתֵיהֶם וְזִבְחֵיהֶם לְרָצוֹן עַל־מִזְבְּחִי כִּי בֵיתִי בֵּית־תְּפִלָּה יִקָּרֵא לְכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 66.24. וְיָצְאוּ וְרָאוּ בְּפִגְרֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הַפֹּשְׁעִים בִּי כִּי תוֹלַעְתָּם לֹא תָמוּת וְאִשָּׁם לֹא תִכְבֶּה וְהָיוּ דֵרָאוֹן לְכָל־בָּשָׂר׃ 6.6. Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar;" 19.11. The princes of Zoan are utter fools; the wisest counsellors of Pharaoh are a senseless counsel; How can ye say unto Pharaoh: ‘I am the son of the wise, The son of ancient kings’?." 56.7. Even them will I bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer; Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices Shall be acceptable upon Mine altar; For My house shall be called A house of prayer for all peoples." 66.24. And they shall go forth, and look Upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; For their worm shall not die, Neither shall their fire be quenched; And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. "
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 36.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.5. וַיְצַוֶּה יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶת־בָּרוּךְ לֵאמֹר אֲנִי עָצוּר לֹא אוּכַל לָבוֹא בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 36.5. And Jeremiah commanded Baruch, saying: ‘I am detained, I cannot go into the house of the LORD;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.13-5.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ׃ 5.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר־צְבָא־יְהוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ׃ 5.15. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר־צְבָא יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל־נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן׃ 5.13. And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him: ‘Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?’ ." 5.14. And he said: ‘Nay, but I am captain of the host of the LORD; I am now come.’ And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down, and said unto him: ‘What saith my lord unto his servant?’" 5.15. And the captain of the LORD’S host said unto Joshua: ‘Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy.’ And Joshua did so."
11. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 27.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.8. יֹשְׁבֵי צִידוֹן וְאַרְוַד הָיוּ שָׁטִים לָךְ חֲכָמַיִךְ צוֹר הָיוּ בָךְ הֵמָּה חֹבְלָיִךְ׃ 27.8. The inhabitants of Sidon and Arvad Were thy rowers; Thy wise men, O Tyre, were in thee, They were thy pilots."
13. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 12.12 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.12. וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר׃ 12.12. And furthermore, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh."
14. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 12.39 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12.39. וּמֵעַל לְשַׁעַר־אֶפְרַיִם וְעַל־שַׁעַר הַיְשָׁנָה וְעַל־שַׁעַר הַדָּגִים וּמִגְדַּל חֲנַנְאֵל וּמִגְדַּל הַמֵּאָה וְעַד שַׁעַר הַצֹּאן וְעָמְדוּ בְּשַׁעַר הַמַּטָּרָה׃ 12.39. and above the gate of Ephraim, and by the gate of the old city and by the fish gate, and the tower of Hael, and the tower of Hammeah, even unto the sheep gate; and they stood still in the gate of the guard."
15. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 14.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14.10. All the land shall be turned as the Arabah, from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem; and she shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin’s gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hael unto the king’s winepresses."
16. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.16-3.17, 5.4, 7.8-7.9, 8.2, 9.1, 9.5, 11.1-11.2, 11.7, 11.14, 12.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.16. The prayer of both was heard in the presence of the glory of the great God. 3.17. And Raphael was sent to heal the two of them: to scale away the white films of Tobits eyes; to give Sarah the daughter of Raguel in marriage to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodeus the evil demon, because Tobias was entitled to possess her. At that very moment Tobit returned and entered his house and Sarah the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper room. 5.4. So he went to look for a man; and he found Raphael, who was an angel 7.9. So he communicated the proposal to Raguel. And Raguel said to Tobias, "Eat, drink, and be merry; 8.2. As he went he remembered the words of Raphael, and he took the live ashes of incense and put the heart and liver of the fish upon them and made a smoke. 9.1. Then Tobias called Raphael and said to him 9.5. So Raphael made the journey and stayed over night with Gabael. He gave him the receipt, and Gabael brought out the money bags with their seals intact and gave them to him. 11.1. After this Tobias went on his way, praising God because he had made his journey a success. And he blessed Raguel and his wife Edna. So he continued on his way until they came near to Nineveh. 11.7. Raphael said, "I know, Tobias, that your father will open his eyes. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 9.1-9.10, 10.4, 10.9, 20.1-20.8, 21.10, 22.3, 22.6, 24.6, 40.2-40.10, 60.16-60.22, 61.10, 66.1, 68.2-68.5, 75.1, 82.9-82.20, 87.2, 90.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.1. And then Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel looked down from heaven and saw much blood being 9.1. borne giants, and the whole earth has thereby been filled with blood and unrighteousness. And now, behold, the souls of those who have died are crying and making their suit to the gates of heaven, and their lamentations have ascended: and cannot cease because of the lawless deeds which are 9.2. hed upon the earth, and all lawlessness being wrought upon the earth. And they said one to another: 'The earth made without inhabitant cries the voice of their cryingst up to the gates of heaven. 9.3. And now to you, the holy ones of heaven, the souls of men make their suit, saying, 'Bring our cause 9.4. before the Most High.' And they said to the Lord of the ages: 'Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings, and God of the ages, the throne of Thy glory (standeth) unto all the generations of the 9.5. ages, and Thy name holy and glorious and blessed unto all the ages! Thou hast made all things, and power over all things hast Thou: and all things are naked and open in Thy sight, and Thou seest all 9.6. things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 10.4. and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening 10.9. through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in 20.3. over the world and over Tartarus. Raphael, one of the holy angels, who is over the spirits of men. 20.6. of the holy angels, to wit, he that is set over the best part of mankind and over chaos. Saraqael 20.7. one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits, who sin in the spirit. Gabriel, one of the holy 20.8. angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim. Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise. 22.3. Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should 22.6. with me, and I said unto him: 'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven ' 24.6. Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured angels who was with me, and was their leader. 40.2. beyond number and reckoning, who stood before the Lord of Spirits. And on the four sides of the Lord of Spirits I saw four presences, different from those that sleep not, and I learnt their names: for the angel that went with me made known to me their names, and showed me all the hidden things. 40.3. And I heard the voices of those four presences as they uttered praises before the Lord of glory. 40.6. the Elect One and the elect ones who hang upon the Lord of Spirits. And the third voice I heard pray and intercede for those who dwell on the earth and supplicate in the name of the Lord of Spirits. 40.7. And I heard the fourth voice fending off the Satans and forbidding them to come before the Lord 40.8. of Spirits to accuse them who dwell on the earth. After that I asked the angel of peace who went with me, who showed me everything that is hidden: 'Who are these four presences which I have 40.9. een and whose words I have heard and written down' And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' 60.16. And the spirit of the sea is masculine and strong, and according to the might of his strength he draws it back with a rein, and in like manner it is driven forward and disperses amid all the mountain 60.17. of the earth. And the spirit of the hoar-frost is his own angel, and the spirit of the hail is a good 60.18. angel. And the spirit of the snow has forsaken his chambers on account of his strength -There is a special spirit therein, and that which ascends from it is like smoke, and its name is frost. And the spirit of the mist is not united with them in their chambers, but it has a special chamber; for its course is glorious both in light and in darkness, and in winter and in summer, and in its chamber is an angel. 60.21. mist are connected, and the one gives to the other. And when the spirit of the rain goes forth from its chamber, the angels come and open the chamber and lead it out, and when it is diffused over the whole earth it unites with the water on the earth. And whensoever it unites with the water on 60.22. the earth . . . For the waters are for those who dwell on the earth; for they are nourishment for the earth from the Most High who is in heaven: therefore there is a measure for the rain 66.1. And after that he showed me the angels of punishment who are prepared to come and let loose all the powers of the waters which are beneath in the earth in order to bring judgement and destruction 68.2. of the Parables. And on that day Michael answered Raphael and said: ' The power of the spirit transports and makes me to tremble because of the severity of the judgement of the secrets, the judgement of the angels: who can endure the severe judgement which has been executed, and before 68.3. which they melt away ' And Michael answered again, and said to Raphael: ' Who is he whose heart is not softened concerning it, and whose reins are not troubled by this word of judgement 68.4. (that) has gone forth upon them because of those who have thus led them out ' And it came to pass when he stood before the Lord of Spirits, Michael said thus to Raphael: ' I will not take their part under the eye of the Lord; for the Lord of Spirits has been angry with them because they do 68.5. as if they were the Lord. Therefore all that is hidden shall come upon them for ever and ever; for neither angel nor man shall have his portion (in it), but alone they have received their judgement for ever and ever. 75.1. And the leaders of the heads of the thousands, who are placed over the whole creation and over all the stars, have also to do with the four intercalary days, being inseparable from their office, according to the reckoning of the year, and these render service on the four days which are not 82.9. and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months. 82.12. the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between 82.13. leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal 82.14. and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and 82.16. all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end. 82.18. The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day 82.19. of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i 87.2. began to cry aloud. And I raised mine eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven beings who were like white men: and four went forth from that place 10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.
18. Anon., Jubilees, 2.1-2.2, 15.31-15.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 15.31. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covet for their generations as an eternal ordice, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel.
19. Anon., Testament of Moses, 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 5.1, 7.6, 9.14-9.16, 10.11, 12.9, 13.10, 17.6-17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 12.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qmelchizedek, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q285, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q400, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q403, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.8, 1.17, 1.20, 3.52-3.90, 4.18, 7.1-7.2, 7.23, 8.10, 8.14, 8.16, 8.25, 9.3-9.21, 9.23-9.27, 10.1-10.6, 10.8-10.12, 10.14, 10.16-10.21, 11.2-11.4, 11.45, 12.1-12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.17. וְהַיְלָדִים הָאֵלֶּה אַרְבַּעְתָּם נָתַן לָהֶם הָאֱלֹהִים מַדָּע וְהַשְׂכֵּל בְּכָל־סֵפֶר וְחָכְמָה וְדָנִיֵּאל הֵבִין בְּכָל־חָזוֹן וַחֲלֹמוֹת׃ 4.18. וְעָפְיֵהּ שַׁפִּיר וְאִנְבֵּהּ שַׂגִּיא וּמָזוֹן לְכֹלָּא־בֵהּ תְּחֹתוֹהִי תְּדוּר חֵיוַת בָּרָא וּבְעַנְפוֹהִי יִשְׁכְּנָן צִפֲּרֵי שְׁמַיָּא׃ 7.1. נְהַר דִּי־נוּר נָגֵד וְנָפֵק מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי אֶלֶף אלפים [אַלְפִין] יְשַׁמְּשׁוּנֵּהּ וְרִבּוֹ רבון [רִבְבָן] קָדָמוֹהִי יְקוּמוּן דִּינָא יְתִב וְסִפְרִין פְּתִיחוּ׃ 7.1. בִּשְׁנַת חֲדָה לְבֵלְאשַׁצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל דָּנִיֵּאל חֵלֶם חֲזָה וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשֵׁהּ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבֵהּ בֵּאדַיִן חֶלְמָא כְתַב רֵאשׁ מִלִּין אֲמַר׃ 7.2. עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם־לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָּא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא׃ 7.2. וְעַל־קַרְנַיָּא עֲשַׂר דִּי בְרֵאשַׁהּ וְאָחֳרִי דִּי סִלְקַת ונפלו [וּנְפַלָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] תְּלָת וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן וְעַיְנִין לַהּ וְפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן וְחֶזְוַהּ רַב מִן־חַבְרָתַהּ׃ 7.23. כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃ 8.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עַד עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר אַלְפַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 8.25. וְעַל־שִׂכְלוֹ וְהִצְלִיחַ מִרְמָה בְּיָדוֹ וּבִלְבָבוֹ יַגְדִּיל וּבְשַׁלְוָה יַשְׁחִית רַבִּים וְעַל־שַׂר־שָׂרִים יַעֲמֹד וּבְאֶפֶס יָד יִשָּׁבֵר׃ 9.3. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃ 9.4. וָאֶתְפַּלְלָה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהַי וָאֶתְוַדֶּה וָאֹמְרָה אָנָּא אֲדֹנָי הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 9.5. חָטָאנוּ וְעָוִינוּ והרשענו [הִרְשַׁעְנוּ] וּמָרָדְנוּ וְסוֹר מִמִּצְוֺתֶךָ וּמִמִּשְׁפָּטֶיךָ׃ 9.6. וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶל־עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ בְּשִׁמְךָ אֶל־מְלָכֵינוּ שָׂרֵינוּ וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ וְאֶל כָּל־עַם הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.7. לְךָ אֲדֹנָי הַצְּדָקָה וְלָנוּ בֹּשֶׁת הַפָּנִים כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה וּלְיוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּלְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַקְּרֹבִים וְהָרְחֹקִים בְּכָל־הָאֲרָצוֹת אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתָּם שָׁם בְּמַעֲלָם אֲשֶׁר מָעֲלוּ־בָךְ׃ 9.8. יְהוָה לָנוּ בֹּשֶׁת הַפָּנִים לִמְלָכֵינוּ לְשָׂרֵינוּ וְלַאֲבֹתֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ לָךְ׃ 9.9. לַאדֹנָי אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָרַחֲמִים וְהַסְּלִחוֹת כִּי מָרַדְנוּ בּוֹ׃ 9.11. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָבְרוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְסוֹר לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמוֹעַ בְּקֹלֶךָ וַתִּתַּךְ עָלֵינוּ הָאָלָה וְהַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר כְּתוּבָה בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי חָטָאנוּ לוֹ׃ 9.12. וַיָּקֶם אֶת־דבריו [דְּבָרוֹ ] אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עָלֵינוּ וְעַל שֹׁפְטֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר שְׁפָטוּנוּ לְהָבִיא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה גְדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נֶעֶשְׂתָה תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶעֶשְׂתָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 9.13. כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בָּאָה עָלֵינוּ וְלֹא־חִלִּינוּ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָשׁוּב מֵעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתֶּךָ׃ 9.14. וַיִּשְׁקֹד יְהוָה עַל־הָרָעָה וַיְבִיאֶהָ עָלֵינוּ כִּי־צַדִּיק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַל־כָּל־מַעֲשָׂיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּקֹלוֹ׃ 9.15. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנָי אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ אֶת־עַמְּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וַתַּעַשׂ־לְךָ שֵׁם כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה חָטָאנוּ רָשָׁעְנוּ׃ 9.16. אֲדֹנָי כְּכָל־צִדְקֹתֶךָ יָשָׁב־נָא אַפְּךָ וַחֲמָתְךָ מֵעִירְךָ יְרוּשָׁלִַם הַר־קָדְשֶׁךָ כִּי בַחֲטָאֵינוּ וּבַעֲוֺנוֹת אֲבֹתֵינוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְעַמְּךָ לְחֶרְפָּה לְכָל־סְבִיבֹתֵינוּ׃ 9.17. וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תַּחֲנוּנָיו וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ עַל־מִקְדָּשְׁךָ הַשָּׁמֵם לְמַעַן אֲדֹנָי׃ 9.18. הַטֵּה אֱלֹהַי אָזְנְךָ וּשֲׁמָע פקחה [פְּקַח] עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה שֹׁמְמֹתֵינוּ וְהָעִיר אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שִׁמְךָ עָלֶיהָ כִּי לֹא עַל־צִדְקֹתֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ מַפִּילִים תַּחֲנוּנֵינוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כִּי עַל־רַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים׃ 9.19. אֲדֹנָי שְׁמָעָה אֲדֹנָי סְלָחָה אֲדֹנָי הַקֲשִׁיבָה וַעֲשֵׂה אַל־תְּאַחַר לְמַעֲנְךָ אֱלֹהַי כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־עִירְךָ וְעַל־עַמֶּךָ׃ 9.21. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 9.23. בִּתְחִלַּת תַּחֲנוּנֶיךָ יָצָא דָבָר וַאֲנִי בָּאתִי לְהַגִּיד כִּי חֲמוּדוֹת אָתָּה וּבִין בַּדָּבָר וְהָבֵן בַּמַּרְאֶה׃ 9.24. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל־עַמְּךָ וְעַל־עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם [וּלְהָתֵם] חטאות [חַטָּאת] וּלְכַפֵּר עָוֺן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים׃ 9.25. וְתֵדַע וְתַשְׂכֵּל מִן־מֹצָא דָבָר לְהָשִׁיב וְלִבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַד־מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעָה וְשָׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם תָּשׁוּב וְנִבְנְתָה רְחוֹב וְחָרוּץ וּבְצוֹק הָעִתִּים׃ 9.26. וְאַחֲרֵי הַשָּׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם יִכָּרֵת מָשִׁיחַ וְאֵין לוֹ וְהָעִיר וְהַקֹּדֶשׁ יַשְׁחִית עַם נָגִיד הַבָּא וְקִצּוֹ בַשֶּׁטֶף וְעַד קֵץ מִלְחָמָה נֶחֱרֶצֶת שֹׁמֵמוֹת׃ 9.27. וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד־כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל־שֹׁמֵם׃ 10.1. וְהִנֵּה־יָד נָגְעָה בִּי וַתְּנִיעֵנִי עַל־בִּרְכַּי וְכַפּוֹת יָדָי׃ 10.1. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס דָּבָר נִגְלָה לְדָנִיֵּאל אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וֶאֱמֶת הַדָּבָר וְצָבָא גָדוֹל וּבִין אֶת־הַדָּבָר וּבִינָה לוֹ בַּמַּרְאֶה׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הֲיָדַעְתָּ לָמָּה־בָּאתִי אֵלֶיךָ וְעַתָּה אָשׁוּב לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־שַׂר פָּרָס וַאֲנִי יוֹצֵא וְהִנֵּה שַׂר־יָוָן בָּא׃ 10.2. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל הָיִיתִי מִתְאַבֵּל שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.3. לֶחֶם חֲמֻדוֹת לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּבָשָׂר וָיַיִן לֹא־בָא אֶל־פִּי וְסוֹךְ לֹא־סָכְתִּי עַד־מְלֹאת שְׁלֹשֶׁת שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.4. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי עַל יַד הַנָּהָר הַגָּדוֹל הוּא חִדָּקֶל׃ 10.5. וָאֶשָּׂא אֶת־עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ־אֶחָד לָבוּשׁ בַּדִּים וּמָתְנָיו חֲגֻרִים בְּכֶתֶם אוּפָז׃ 10.6. וּגְוִיָּתוֹ כְתַרְשִׁישׁ וּפָנָיו כְּמַרְאֵה בָרָק וְעֵינָיו כְּלַפִּידֵי אֵשׁ וּזְרֹעֹתָיו וּמַרְגְּלֹתָיו כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל וְקוֹל דְּבָרָיו כְּקוֹל הָמוֹן׃ 10.8. וַאֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר־בִּי כֹּח וְהוֹדִי נֶהְפַּךְ עָלַי לְמַשְׁחִית וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.9. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי נִרְדָּם עַל־פָּנַי וּפָנַי אָרְצָה׃ 10.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי דָּנִיֵּאל אִישׁ־חֲמֻדוֹת הָבֵן בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹבֵר אֵלֶיךָ וַעֲמֹד עַל־עָמְדֶךָ כִּי עַתָּה שֻׁלַּחְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה עָמַדְתִּי מַרְעִיד׃ 10.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא דָנִיֵּאל כִּי מִן־הַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ אֶת־לִבְּךָ לְהָבִין וּלְהִתְעַנּוֹת לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֶיךָ נִשְׁמְעוּ דְבָרֶיךָ וַאֲנִי־בָאתִי בִּדְבָרֶיךָ׃ 10.14. וּבָאתִי לַהֲבִינְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָה לְעַמְּךָ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים כִּי־עוֹד חָזוֹן לַיָּמִים׃ 10.16. וְהִנֵּה כִּדְמוּת בְּנֵי אָדָם נֹגֵעַ עַל־שְׂפָתָי וָאֶפְתַּח־פִּי וָאֲדַבְּרָה וָאֹמְרָה אֶל־הָעֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי אֲדֹנִי בַּמַּרְאָה נֶהֶפְכוּ צִירַי עָלַי וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.17. וְהֵיךְ יוּכַל עֶבֶד אֲדֹנִי זֶה לְדַבֵּר עִם־אֲדֹנִי זֶה וַאֲנִי מֵעַתָּה לֹא־יַעֲמָד־בִּי כֹחַ וּנְשָׁמָה לֹא נִשְׁאֲרָה־בִי׃ 10.18. וַיֹּסֶף וַיִּגַּע־בִּי כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם וַיְחַזְּקֵנִי׃ 10.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּירָא אִישׁ־חֲמֻדוֹת שָׁלוֹם לָךְ חֲזַק וַחֲזָק וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי הִתְחַזַּקְתִּי וָאֹמְרָה יְדַבֵּר אֲדֹנִי כִּי חִזַּקְתָּנִי׃ 10.21. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת־הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל־אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם־מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם׃ 11.3. וּבָאוּ בוֹ צִיִּים כִּתִּים וְנִכְאָה וְשָׁב וְזָעַם עַל־בְּרִית־קוֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂה וְשָׁב וְיָבֵן עַל־עֹזְבֵי בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ׃ 11.3. וְעָמַד מֶלֶךְ גִּבּוֹר וּמָשַׁל מִמְשָׁל רַב וְעָשָׂה כִּרְצוֹנוֹ׃ 11.4. וּכְעָמְדוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵר מַלְכוּתוֹ וְתֵחָץ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְלֹא לְאַחֲרִיתוֹ וְלֹא כְמָשְׁלוֹ אֲשֶׁר מָשָׁל כִּי תִנָּתֵשׁ מַלְכוּתוֹ וְלַאֲחֵרִים מִלְּבַד־אֵלֶּה׃ 11.4. וּבְעֵת קֵץ יִתְנַגַּח עִמּוֹ מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְיִשְׂתָּעֵר עָלָיו מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים וּבָאֳנִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וּבָא בַאֲרָצוֹת וְשָׁטַף וְעָבָר׃ 11.45. וְיִטַּע אָהֳלֶי אַפַּדְנוֹ בֵּין יַמִּים לְהַר־צְבִי־קֹדֶשׁ וּבָא עַד־קִצּוֹ וְאֵין עוֹזֵר לוֹ׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.17. Now as for these four youths, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom; and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams." 1.20. And in all matters of wisdom and understanding, that the king inquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and enchanters that were in all his realm." 4.18. whose leaves were fair, and the fruit thereof much, and in it was food for all; under which the beasts of the field dwelt, and upon whose branches the fowls of the heaven had their habitation;" 7.1. In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed; then he wrote the dream and told the sum of the matters." 7.2. Daniel spoke and said: I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven broke forth upon the great sea." 7.23. Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces." 8.10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled upon them." 8.14. And he said unto me: ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be victorious.’" 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 8.25. And through his cunning he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and in time of security shall he destroy many; he shall also stand up against the prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand." 9.3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes." 9.4. And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made confession, and said: ‘O Lord, the great and awful God, who keepest covet and mercy with them that love Thee and keep Thy commandments," 9.5. we have sinned, and have dealt iniquitously, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, and have turned aside from Thy commandments and from Thine ordices;" 9.6. neither have we hearkened unto Thy servants the prophets, that spoke in Thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land." 9.7. Unto Thee, O Lord, belongeth righteousness, but unto us confusion of face, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither Thou hast driven them, because they dealt treacherously with Thee." 9.8. O LORD, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against Thee." 9.9. To the Lord our God belong compassions and forgivenesses; for we have rebelled against Him;" 9.10. neither have we hearkened to the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in His laws, which He set before us by His servants the prophets. ." 9.11. Yea, all Israel have transgressed Thy law, and have turned aside, so as not to hearken to Thy voice; and so there hath been poured out upon us the curse and the oath that is written in the Law of Moses the servant of God; for we have sinned against Him." 9.12. And He hath confirmed His word, which He spoke against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil; so that under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem." 9.13. As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us; yet have we not entreated the favour of the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and have discernment in Thy truth." 9.14. And so the LORD hath watched over the evil, and brought it upon us; for the LORD our God is righteous in all His works which He hath done, and we have not hearkened to His voice." 9.15. And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought Thy people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten Thee renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly." 9.16. O Lord, according to all Thy righteousness, let Thine anger and Thy fury, I pray Thee, be turned away from Thy city Jerusalem, Thy holy mountain; because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and Thy people are become a reproach to all that are about us." 9.17. Now therefore, O our God, hearken unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplications, and cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake." 9.18. O my God, incline Thine ear, and hear; open Thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city upon which Thy name is called; for we do not present our supplications before Thee because of our righteousness, but because of Thy great compassions." 9.19. O Lord, hear, O Lord, forgive, O Lord, attend and do, defer not; for Thine own sake, O my God, because Thy name is called upon Thy city and Thy people.’" 9.20. And while I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;" 9.21. yea, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering." 9.23. At the beginning of thy supplications a word went forth, and I am come to declare it; for thou art greatly beloved; therefore look into the word, and understand the vision." 9.24. Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place." 9.25. Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again, with broad place and moat, but in troublous times." 9.26. And after the threescore and two weeks shall an anointed one be cut off, and be no more; and the people of a prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood; and unto the end of the war desolations are determined." 9.27. And he shall make a firm covet with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.’" 10.1. In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a word was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the word was true, even a great warfare; and he gave heed to the word, and had understanding of the vision." 10.2. In those days I Daniel was mourning three whole weeks." 10.3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled." 10.4. And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Tigris," 10.5. I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz;" 10.6. his body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as torches of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to burnished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude." 10.8. So that I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me; for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength." 10.9. Yet heard I the voice of his words; and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I fallen into a deep sleep on my face, with my face toward the ground." 10.10. And, behold, a hand touched me, which set me tottering upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands." 10.11. And he said unto me: ‘O Daniel, thou man greatly beloved, give heed unto the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright; for now am I sent unto thee’; and when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling." 10.12. Then said he unto me: ‘Fear not, Daniel; for from the first day that thou didst set thy heart to understand, and to humble thyself before thy God, thy words were heard; and I am come because of thy words." 10.14. Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the end of days; for there is yet a vision for the days.’" 10.16. And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips; then I opened my mouth, and spoke and said unto him that stood before me: ‘O my lord, by reason of the vision my pains are come upon me, and I retain no strength." 10.17. For how can this servant of my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither was there breath left in me.’" 10.18. Then there touched me again one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me." 10.19. And he said: ‘O man greatly beloved, fear not! peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong.’ And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said: ‘Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.’" 10.20. Then said he: Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia; and when I go forth, lo, the prince of Greece shall come." 10.21. Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth; and there is none that holdeth with me against these, except Michael your prince." 11.3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will." 11.4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; but not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those." 11.45. And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the beauteous holy mountain; and he shall come to his end, and none shall help him." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence."
28. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.3-1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. The height of heaven, the breadth of the earth,the abyss, and wisdom -- who can search them out? 1.3. Do not exalt yourself lest you fall,and thus bring dishonor upon yourself. The Lord will reveal your secrets and cast you down in the midst of the congregation,because you did not come in the fear of the Lord,and your heart was full of deceit. 1.4. Wisdom was created before all things,and prudent understanding from eternity. 1.5. The root of wisdom -- to whom has it been revealed?Her clever devices -- who knows them? 1.6. There is One who is wise, greatly to be feared,sitting upon his throne. 1.7. The Lord himself created wisdom;he saw her and apportioned her,he poured her out upon all his works. 1.8. She dwells with all flesh according to his gift,and he supplied her to those who love him. 1.9. The fear of the Lord is glory and exultation,and gladness and a crown of rejoicing.
29. Septuagint, Judith, 8.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.14. You cannot plumb the depths of the human heart, nor find out what a man is thinking; how do you expect to search out God, who made all these things, and find out his mind or comprehend his thought? No, my brethren, do not provoke the Lord our God to anger.
30. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 9.6, 9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.6. for even if one is perfect among the sons of men,yet without the wisdom that comes from thee he will be regarded as nothing. 9.17. Who has learned thy counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom and sent thy holy Spirit from on high?
31. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.215 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

2.215. 215 And there shall be upon them fearful wrath
32. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 19.2, 28.3, 43.1-43.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 5.275-5.284 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.275. 1. After Abdon was dead, the Philistines overcame the Israelites, and received tribute of them for forty years; from which distress they were delivered after this manner:— 5.276. 2. There was one Manoah, a person of such great virtue, that he had few men his equals, and without dispute the principal person of his country. He had a wife celebrated for her beauty, and excelling her contemporaries. He had no children; and, being uneasy at his want of posterity, he entreated God to give them seed of their own bodies to succeed them; and with that intent he came constantly into the suburbs together with his wife; which suburbs were in the Great Plain. 5.277. Now he was fond of his wife to a degree of madness, and on that account was unmeasurably jealous of her. Now, when his wife was once alone, an apparition was seen by her: it was an angel of God, and resembled a young man beautiful and tall, and brought her the good news that she should have a son, born by God’s providence, that should be a goodly child, of great strength; by whom, when he was grown up to man’s estate, the Philistines should be afflicted. 5.278. He exhorted her also not to poll his hair, and that he should avoid all other kinds of drink, (for so had God commanded,) and be entirely contented with water. So the angel, when he had delivered that message, went his way, his coming having been by the will of God. 5.279. 3. Now the wife informed her husband when he came home of what the angel had said, who showed so great an admiration of the beauty and tallness of the young man that had appeared to her, that her husband was astonished, and out of himself for jealousy, and such suspicions as are excited by that passion: 5.281. When he saw the angel he was not yet free from suspicion, and he desired him to inform him of all that he had told his wife; but when he said it was sufficient that she alone knew what he had said, he then requested of him to tell who he was, that when the child was born they might return him thanks, and give him a present. 5.282. He replied that he did not want any present, for that he did not bring them the good news of the birth of a son out of the want of any thing. And when Manoah had entreated him to stay, and partake of his hospitality, he did not give his consent. However he was persuaded, at the earnest request of Manoah to stay so long as while he brought him one mark of his hospitality; 5.283. o he slew a kid of the goats, and bid his wife boil it. When all was ready, the angel enjoined him to set the loaves and the flesh, but without the vessels, upon the rock; 5.284. which when they had done, he touched the flesh with the rod which he had in his hand, which, upon the breaking out of a flame, was consumed, together with the loaves; and the angel ascended openly, in their sight, up to heaven, by means of the smoke, as by a vehicle. Now Manoah was afraid that some danger would come to them from this sight of God; but his wife bade him be of good courage, for that God appeared to them for their benefit.
35. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.5-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. The following things are forbidden to be sold to idolaters: iztroblin, bnoth-shuah with their stems, frankincense, and a white rooster. Rabbi Judah says: it is permitted to sell a white rooster to an idolater among other roosters; but if it be by itself, one should clip its spur and then sell it to him, because a defective [animal] is not sacrificed to an idol. As for other things, if they are not specified their sale is permitted, but if specified it is forbidden. Rabbi Meir says: also a “good-palm”, hazab and niklivas are forbidden to be sold to idolaters." 1.6. In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse." 1.7. One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build."
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death.
37. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I delivered to Satan, that they might be taught not to blaspheme.
38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.9-1.20, 2.23-2.24, 4.1-4.11, 10.1-10.11, 12.7, 22.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 1.11. saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. 1.12. I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. Having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands. 1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest. 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 1.15. His feet were like burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace. His voice was like the voice of many waters. 1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 1.17. When I saw him, I fell at his feet like a dead man. He laid his right hand on me, saying, "Don't be afraid. I am the first and the last 1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 1.20. the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven assemblies. The seven lampstands are seven assemblies. 2.23. I will kill her children with Death, and all the assemblies will know that I am he who searches the minds and hearts. I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come! 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 10.1. I saw a mighty angel coming down out of the sky, clothed with a cloud. A rainbow was on his head. His face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire. 10.2. He had in his hand a little book open. He set his right foot on the sea, and his left on the land. 10.4. When the seven thunders sounded, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from the sky saying, "Seal up the things which the seven thunders said, and don't write them. 10.6. and swore by him who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and the things that are in it, the earth and the things that are in it, and the sea and the things that are in it, that there will no longer be delay 10.7. but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then the mystery of God is finished, as he declared to his servants, the prophets. 10.8. The voice which I heard from heaven, again speaking with me, said, "Go, take the book which is open in the hand of the angel who stands on the sea and on the land. 10.9. I went to the angel, telling him to give me the little book. He said to me, "Take it, and eat it up. It will make your belly bitter, but in your mouth it will be as sweet as honey. 10.10. I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up. It was as sweet as honey in my mouth. When I had eaten it, my belly was made bitter. 10.11. They told me, "You must prophesy again over many peoples, nations, languages, and kings. 12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 22.9. He said to me, "See you don't do it! I am a fellow bondservant with you and with your brothers, the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God.
39. New Testament, Jude, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, Colossians, 1.5, 1.16, 1.20, 1.23, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. because of the hope which is laid up for you in the heavens, whereof you heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 1.23. if it is so that you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which is being proclaimed in all creation under heaven; of which I, Paul, was made a servant. 4.1. Masters, give to your servants that which is just and equal, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven.
41. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3, 1.10, 1.20, 2.6, 3.10, 3.15, 6.9, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 3.10. to the intent that now through the assembly the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and the powers in the heavenly places 3.15. from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named 6.9. You masters, do the same things to them, and give up threatening, knowing that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no partiality with him. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
42. New Testament, Galatians, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.
43. New Testament, Romans, 8.27, 8.38-8.39, 9.22-9.23, 11.8, 11.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day. 11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out!
44. New Testament, Titus, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. Avoid a factious man after a first and second warning; 3.11. knowing that such a one is perverted, and sins, being self-condemned.
45. New Testament, Mark, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
46. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 15, 42, 13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

47. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 50.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

50.2. וְהוּא בְאֶחָד וּמִי יְשִׁיבֶנּוּ וְנַפְשׁוֹ אִוְּתָה וַיָּעַשׂ (איוב כג, יג), תָּנָא אֵין מַלְאָךְ אֶחָד עוֹשֶׂה שְׁתֵּי שְׁלִיחוֹת, וְלֹא שְׁנֵי מַלְאָכִים עוֹשִׂים שְׁלִיחוּת אֶחָת, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ שְׁנֵי, אֶלָּא מִיכָאֵל אָמַר בְּשׂוֹרָתוֹ וְנִסְתַּלֵּק, גַּבְרִיאֵל נִשְׁתַּלַּח לַהֲפֹךְ אֶת סְדוֹם, וּרְפָאֵל לְהַצִּיל אֶת לוֹט. (בראשית יט, א): וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים סְדֹמָה, הָכָא אַתְּ אָמַר מַלְאָכִים וּלְהַלָּן (בראשית יח, ב): קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן אֲנָשִׁים, אֶלָּא לְהַלָּן שֶׁהָיְתָה שְׁכִינָה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן קְרָאָם אֲנָשִׁים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּסְתַּלְּקָה שְׁכִינָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּיהֶן לָבְשׁוּ מַלְאָכוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהָיָה כֹּחוֹ יָפֶה נִדְמוּ לוֹ בִּדְמוּת אֲנָשִׁים, אֲבָל לוֹט עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיָה כֹּחוֹ רַע נִדְמוּ לוֹ בִּדְמוּת מַלְאָכִים. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא עַד שֶׁלֹא עָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן קְרָאָן אֲנָשִׁים מִשֶּׁעָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן מַלְאָכִים. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא לְאֶחָד שֶׁנָּטַל הֶגְמוֹנְיָא מִן הַמֶּלֶךְ, עַד שֶׁלֹא הִגִּיעַ לְבֵית אוֹרְיָין שֶׁלּוֹ הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ כְּפַגָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְבֵית אוֹרְיָין שֶׁלּוֹ הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ כְּקָאלְמִין, כָּךְ עַד שֶׁלֹא עָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן קְרָאָן אֲנָשִׁים כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן קְרָאָן מַלְאָכִים. 50.2. \"But He is at one with Himself, and who can turn him? And what His soul desireth, even that He doeth.\" (Job 23:13) It was taught: One angel does not carry out two commissions, and two angels do not carry out one commission. And you say \"two\"!? (Genesis 19:1) Rather, Michael said his tidings and departed, Gabriel was sent to overthrow Sodom, and Raphael to rescue Lot."
48. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
49. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
50. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. band swear to the Lord of hosts;one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). bThey went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificedofferings bupon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is statedin the following verse: b“In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt,and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).,The verse states: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”(Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the verse: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”?The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Yosef translatesinto Aramaic: Concerning bthe City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from whereis it derived bthatin the phrase: b“The city of destruction [ iheres /i],” the term iheres bisreferring bto the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ iḥeres /i], and it does not rise;and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).,§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, bbring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth”(Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of b“bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons,and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of b“and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters. /b,§ bRabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav Ḥisda says, and some saythat bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The gentiles living bfrom Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people,their religion, band their Father in Heaven. Butthose living bto the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven. /b, bRav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRavfrom the verse: b“From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering;for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means bthatalthough they worship idols, bthey call Him the God of gods. /b,§ The verse states: “And bin every place offerings are presented to My name,and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it benter your mindto say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings bin every place?Rather, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bin every place.God says: bI ascribe themcredit bas though they burn and presentofferings bto My name. /b,Furthermore, when the verse states: b“And a pure meal offering,” thisis referring to bone who studies Torah in purity,i.e., one who first bmarries a woman and afterward studies Torah.Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.,The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. b“A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night”(Psalms 134:1). bWhatis the meaning of b“at night,”given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bat night. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though they engage in theTemple bservice. /b,§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the iShabbatot /i, and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. bThis is an ordice forever for Israel”(II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordice forever”? bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says: Thisis referring to the baltarthat remains bbuiltin Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, bandthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat there is an alternative explanation of the verse: bThese are Torah scholars, who engage instudying bthe ihalakhotofthe Temple bservice. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though the Temple was built in their daysand they are serving in it.,§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law [ itorah /i] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering,and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that banyone who engages in Torahstudy is considered bas though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering. /b, bRava saidan objection to this interpretation: bThisverse states: b“of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.”If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse bshould havewritten: b“Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava saysthat the correct interpretation of this verse is: bAnyone who engages in Torahstudy bneed notbring ba burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law of the sin offering”(Leviticus 6:18), band: “This is the law of the guilt offering”(Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that banyone who engages instudying bthe law of the sin offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages instudying bthe law of a guilt offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a guilt offering. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bIt is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which this principle is derived? b“Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much” /b(Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted., bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat the source is bfrom here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner,except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.,The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: Asin these verses, the divine names iEland iElohimare not stated, butonly b“the Lord.”This is bsoas bnot to give a claim to a litigant to argue.Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods., bAnd it is stated with regard to a large bulloffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a small birdoffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, bAnd lest you saythat God bneedsthese offerings bfor consumption,in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, bthe verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it”(Psalms 50:12). bAnd it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine”(Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: b“Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”(Psalms 50:13)., bI did not say to you: Sacrificeofferings to me, bso that you will say: I will do His will,i.e., fulfill His needs, band He will do my will. You are not sacrificing tofulfill bMy will,i.e., My needs, bbut you are sacrificing tofulfill byour will,i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, bas it is stated:“And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted”(Leviticus 19:5)., bAlternatively,the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [ ilirtzonkhem /i]”(Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: bSacrifice willingly [ ilirtzonkhem /i]; sacrifice intentionally. /b,This is bas Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From whereis it derived with regard bto one who acts unawaresin the case bof consecrateditems, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, bthatthe offering bis disqualified?Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bullbefore the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly bunless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull,i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.,Shmuel bsaid toRav Huna: bWe have thisas an established ihalakhaalready, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but bfrom whereis it derived that this requirement is bindispensable?Rav Huna bsaid to himthat the verse states: b“With your will you shall slaughter it”(Leviticus 19:5), i.e., bsacrifice intentionally,in the form of a purposeful action.,...Y
51. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22a. אילו לא חמאת בה אימה מילין דעזיבה בכדי לא אדרתה מי אדרתה אמרה ליה לא ושרייה,בר ברתיה דרבי ינאי סבא אתא לקמיה דרבי ינאי סבא אמר ליה אילו הוה ידעת דפתחין פינקסך וממשמשין בעובדך מי נדרת אמר ליה לא ושרייה,אמר רבי אבא מאי קראה ואחר נדרים לבקר ואף על גב דפתח רבי ינאי ליה אנן לא פתחינן ליה בהא,ולא פתחינן בהדא אחרנייתא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי פתח ליה רבן גמליאל לההוא סבא יש בוטה כמדקרות חרב ולשון חכמים מרפא כל הבוטה ראוי לדוקרו בחרב; אלא לשון חכמים מרפא.,ולא פתחינן בהדא אחרנייתא דתניא רבי נתן אומר הנודר כאילו בנה במה והמקיימו כאילו מקריב עליו קרבן ברישא פתחינן בסיפא אביי אמר פתחינן רבא אמר לא פתחינן,רב כהנא מתני לה להא שמעתא בהדין לישנא... רב טביומי מתני הכי בסיפא לא פתחינן ברישא אביי אמר פתחינן רבא אמר לא פתחינן והלכתא לא פתחינן לא ברישא ולא בסיפא,ולא פתחינן בהא נמי דשמואל דאמר שמואל אף על פי שמקיימו נקרא רשע אמר רבי אבהו מאי קרא וכי תחדל לנדור לא יהיה בך חטא ויליף חדלה חדלה כתיב הכא כי תחדל לנדור וכתיב התם שם רשעים חדלו רוגז,אמר רב יוסף אף אנן נמי תנינא כנדרי כשרים לא אמר כלום כנדרי רשעים נדר בנזיר ובקרבן ובשבועה,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל הכועס כל מיני גיהנם שולטין בו שנאמר והסר כעס מלבך והעבר רעה מבשרך ואין רעה אלא גיהנם שנאמר כל פעל ה' למענהו וגם רשע ליום רעה,ולא עוד אלא שהתחתוניות שולטות בו שנאמר ונתן ה' לך שם לב רגז וכליון עינים ודאבון נפש איזהו דבר שמכלה את העינים ומדאיב את הנפש הוי אומר אלו התחתוניות,עולא במיסקיה לארעא דישראל איתלוו ליה תרין בני חוזאי בהדיה קם חד שחטיה לחבריה אמר ליה לעולא יאות עבדי אמר ליה אין ופרע ליה בית השחיטה כי אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דילמא חס ושלום אחזיקי ידי עוברי עבירה אמר ליה נפשך הצלת,קא תמה רבי יוחנן מכדי כתיב ונתן ה' לך שם לב רגז בבבל כתיב אמר ליה ההוא שעתא 22a. bHad her mother not seen inappropriate [ iaziva /i] mattersor behavior bin herthat should be stopped, bshe would not have taken a vow with regard to her for nothing;had you known that the neighbors would say that, bwould you have taken a vow with regard to her? She said to him: No, and he dissolvedthe vow bfor her. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe son of the daughter of Rabbi Yannai the Elder came before Rabbi Yannai the Elderto dissolve a vow. bHe said to him: Had you known thatwhen you make a vow bthey open your record book [ ipinekas /i]in heaven band examine your actions, would you have vowed? He said to him: No, and he dissolvedthe vow bfor him. /b, bRabbi Abba said: What is the versefrom which it is derived that taking a vow leads to one’s deeds being examined? It is b“And after vows to make inquiry”(Proverbs 20:25). This is interpreted to mean that after one takes a vow, his actions are reviewed in heaven. The Gemara comments: bAnd although Rabbi Yannai broacheddissolution bwith himin this way, bwe do not broachdissolution bin thismanner bforone who vows, by asking if he regrets it because his actions will be examined in heaven. This is because one might be embarrassed, upon hearing such a question, to say that he does not have regret, and he will claim untruthfully that he is regretful., bAnd wealso bdo not broachdissolution bin this otherway, bas Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whattype of dissolution bdid Rabban Gamliel broach for a certain elderly manwho had taken a vow and came before him for dissolution? He informed him that it is written: b“There is one who speaks like the piercing of a sword, but the tongue of the wise is health”(Proverbs 12:18), which is interpreted to mean: bAnyone who verbally expressesthe language of a vow, it is bappropriate to pierce him with a sword, buthe has another option: b“The tongue of the wise is health,”since the Sages can release him from his vow. Quoting this verse with its interpretation is also not an acceptable method of broaching dissolution., bWealso bdo not broachdissolution busing this othermethod, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan says: One who vowsis considered bas if he builta personal baltaroutside the Temple, which is prohibited, band one who fulfillsthis vow is considered bas if he sacrifices an offering on it. With the first clause, we may broachdissolution by informing the one who vowed that vowing is akin to building an altar outside the Temple, but with regard to bthe latter clausethere is a dispute among the Sages. bAbaye said: We do broachdissolution by telling someone that fulfilling a vow is like sacrificing an offering on a forbidden altar, while bRava said: We do not broachdissolution with it., bRav Kahana taught this ihalakhain this wording,i.e., the wording that was just cited. However, bRav Tavyumei taughtthis ihalakhain bthis way:With regard to what is written bin the last clause,all agree that bwe do not broachdissolution in this way. With regard to what is written bin the first clause,there is a dispute among the Sages. bAbaye said: We do broachdissolution in this manner, while bRava said: We do not broach dissolutionin this manner either. The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhaisthat bwe do not broachdissolution using beitherthe language bin the first clause orthe language bin the latter clause. /b, bAndfurthermore, bwe also do not broachdissolution bwith thisstatement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel said:With regard to one who vows, balthough he fulfills it, he is called wicked. Rabbi Abbahu said: What is the versefrom which this is derived? It is b“But if you refrain [ iteḥdal /i] from vowing there will be no sin in you”(Deuteronomy 23:23), band he derivesthe word iḥadala /ihere from the word iḥadala /ielsewhere. bIt is written here: “But if you refrain [ iteḥdal /i] from vowing,” and it is written there: “There the wicked cease [ iḥadlu /i] from troubling”(Job 3:17). The parallel language demonstrates that vowing is an act of the wicked., bRav Yosef said: We, too, learnin the mishna (9a): If one says he vows blike the vows of the virtuous, he has not said anything.If he says: bLike the vows of the wicked, he has vowed with regard tobecoming ba nazirite, or with regard toobligating himself in ban offering, or with regard totaking ban oath.From here it is also apparent that vowing is an act of the wicked.,§ Apropos the verse “There the wicked cease from troubling,” the Gemara cites a related statement: bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who gets angry, all kinds of Gehenna rule over him,because anger causes him to transgress all kinds of severe sins, bas it is stated: “Therefore remove vexation from your heart and put away evil from your flesh”(Ecclesiastes 11:10), band the evilmentioned bis nothing other than Gehenna, as it is stated: “The Lord has made everything for His own purpose and even the wicked for the day of evil”(Proverbs 16:4), which is interpreted to mean that ultimately the day of the evildoer in Gehenna will arrive., bAnd not only that, butalso bhemorrhoids will control him, as it is stated: “But the Lord shall give you there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and languishing of soul”(Deuteronomy 28:65). bWhichis the bmatterof sickness bthat causes failing of the eyesin pain band causes languishing of the soul? You must say thisis referring to bhemorrhoids. /b,The Gemara relates: bUlla, on his ascent to Eretz Yisrael, had two residents of Ḥozai join him.Because of a brawl between them, bone aroseand bslaughtered the other.The assailant bsaid to Ulla: Did I act properly? He said to him: Yes, and open the place of the slaughter,i.e., cut it more so that he will die faster. bWhenUlla bcame before Rabbi Yoḥa,Ulla bsaid to him: Perhaps, Heaven forbid, I strengthened the hands of sinnersby commending him, although I did so merely because I was afraid that he would kill me. bHe said to him: You saved yourselfby doing so, as it is permitted for one to say words like this in order to save his own life.,With regard to the narrative itself, bRabbi Yoḥa wondered: Now, it is writtenin the passage of curses: b“But the Lord shall give you there a trembling heart”(Deuteronomy 28:65) and this bis written with regard to Babylonia,because in the exile an individual possesses a trembling and angry heart. How is it possible that in Eretz Yisrael a person can get so angry as to murder another? Ulla bsaid to him: At that momentwhen the incident occurred
52. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

127a. כדאמרי אינשי ואי בעי אפילו טובא נמי מפנין ומאי אבל לא את האוצר שלא יגמור כולו דילמא אתי לאשוויי גומות אבל אתחולי מתחיל ומני ר"ש היא דלית ליה מוקצה,ת"ר אין מתחילין באוצר תחילה אבל עושה בו שביל כדי שיכנס ויצא עושה בו שביל והא אמרת אין מתחילין הכי קאמר עושה בו שביל ברגליו בכניסתו וביציאתו,תנו רבנן תבואה צבורה בזמן שהתחיל בה מע"ש מותר להסתפק ממנה בשבת ואם לאו אסור להסתפק ממנה בשבת דברי ר"ש ר' אחא מתיר כלפי לייא אלא אימא דברי ר' אחא ורבי שמעון מתיר,תנא כמה שיעור תבואה צבורה לתך בעא מיניה רב נחומי בר זכריה מאביי שיעור תבואה צבורה בכמה אמר ליה הרי אמרו שיעור תבואה צבורה לתך,איבעיא להו הני ארבע וחמש קופות דקאמר בארבע וחמש קופות אין טפי לא אלמא למעוטי בהילוכא עדיף או דילמא למעוטי משוי עדיף,ת"ש דתני חדא מפנין אפילו ארבע וחמש קופות של כדי שמן ושל כדי יין ותניא אידך בעשר ובחמש עשרה מאי לאו בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר מעוטי בהילוכא עדיף ומר סבר מעוטי במשוי עדיף,לא דכ"ע מעוטי בהילוכא עדיף ומי סברת בעשר ובחמש עשרה אקופות קאי אכדין קאי ולא קשיא הא דמשתקלי חד חד בקופה והא דמישתקלי תרי תרי והא דמשתקלי תלתא תלתא ובדקורי דהרפניא,איבעיא להו הני ארבע וחמש דקאמר אע"ג דאית ליה אורחין טובא או דילמא הכל לפי האורחין ואת"ל הכל לפי האורחין חד גברא מפני לכולהו או דילמא גברא גברא מפני לנפשיה,ת"ש דאמר רבה אמר רבי חייא פעם אחת הלך רבי למקום אחד וראה מקום דחוק לתלמידים ויצא לשדה ומצא שדה מלאה עומרים ועימר רבי כל השדה כולה (שמע מינה הכל לפי האורחין),ורב יוסף א"ר הושעיא פעם אחת הלך ר' חייא למקום אחד וראה מקום דחוק לתלמידים ויצא לשדה ומצא שדה מלאה עומרים ועימר ר' חייא כל השדה כולה שמע מינה הכל לפי האורחין,ועדיין תבעי לך חד גברא מפני ליה לכולא או דילמא כל גברא וגברא מפני לנפשיה,ת"ש ועימר רבי ולטעמיך רבי בדנפשיה עימר אלא צוה ועימר ולעולם כל חד וחד מפני לנפשיה:,מפני האורחין וכו': א"ר יוחנן גדולה הכנסת אורחין כהשכמת בית המדרש דקתני מפני האורחין ומפני בטול בית המדרש ורב דימי מנהרדעא אמר יותר מהשכמת בית המדרש דקתני מפני האורחין והדר ומפני בטול בית המדרש אמר רב יהודה אמר רב גדולה הכנסת אורחין מהקבלת פני שכינה דכתיב (בראשית יח, ג) ויאמר (ה') אם נא מצאתי חן בעיניך אל נא תעבור וגו' א"ר אלעזר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת ב"ו אין קטן יכול לומר לגדול המתן עד שאבא אצלך ואילו בהקדוש ברוך הוא כתיב ויאמר (ה') אם נא מצאתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה בר שילא א"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן ששה דברים אדם אוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא ואלו הן הכנסת אורחין וביקור חולים ועיון תפלה והשכמת בית המדרש והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והדן את חברו לכף זכות,איני והא אנן) תנן אלו דברים שאדם עושה אותם ואוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא ואלו הן כיבוד אב ואם וגמילות חסדים והבאת שלום שבין אדם לחברו ות"ת כנגד כולם) [הני אין מידי אחרינא לא] 127a. bas peoplewho are not so precise in their formulation bsay:Four or five. bAnd if oneso bdesires, he may clear even more. And whatthen is the meaning of: bHowever,one may bnotmove these items to create space in bthe storeroom?It means bthat one may not finishmoving the baskets out of the bentirestoreroom, blest he come to levelthe floor by filling the bholes. However, one may beginremoving baskets from the storeroom. bAnd whoseopinion is cited in this mishna? It is the opinion of bRabbi Shimon, who is notof the opinion that there is a prohibition of bset-aside. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may notuse bthe storeroomfor the bfirst time.If one has never taken supplies from this storeroom, he may not begin moving baskets from it. bHowever, he makes a path in it, so that he willbe able to benter and exit.The Gemara asks: He bmakes a path in it? Did you not say: One may notuse bthe storeroomfor the bfirst time?The Gemara answers that the ibaraita bis saying as follows: He makes a path in itby moving baskets bwith his feet, as he entersthe storehouse band as he exits.He may not move the basket with his hand., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bpiled grain, if one had startedto take grain from the pile bon Shabbat eve, it is permitted to satisfy his needs from it on Shabbat, and if not, it is prohibited to satisfy his needs from it on Shabbat;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Aḥa permitsdoing so in any case. The Gemara raises a difficulty: bOn the contrary;it is Rabbi Shimon who is lenient with regard to the ihalakhotof set-aside. bRather,emend the ibaraitaand bsay:This is bthe statement of Rabbi Aḥa. Rabbi Shimon permitsdoing so in any case., bIt was taught: How much isthe bmeasure of piled grainneeded to confer the legal status of a storeroom? bA half-kor. Rav Naḥumi bar Zekharya raised a dilemma before Abaye:The bmeasure of piled grain, how muchis it? Abaye said to him that bthey said: The measure of piled grain is a half- ikor /i. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bThese four or five baskets, whichthe itanna bstatedin the mishna, is he saying the following: bFour or five baskets, yes,one may move them, bmorebaskets, bno,one may not move them? This would indicate bthat it is preferable to minimizethe bwalkingdistance because fewer baskets results in less walking in and out of the storeroom. bOr perhaps it is preferable to minimizethe size of the bburdenby carrying smaller baskets, as long as the total measure of all that one carries does not exceed the capacity of five large baskets?, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma, bas one ibaraita btaught: Onemay bmove even four or five basketscontaining bjugs of oil and jugs of wine. And it was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: One may move them even bin ten and in fifteenbaskets. bWhat, is it not thatthe two ibaraitot bdisagreeconcerning bthe followingmatter, bas this Sagein the first ibaraita bholdsthat bit is preferable to minimizethe bwalkingdistance by moving fewer, heavier baskets, band this Sagein the second ibaraita bholdsthat bit is preferable to minimizethe size of the bburdenby moving lighter baskets over the course of several trips.,The Gemara rejects this: bNo, everyone agrees that it is preferable to minimizethe bwalkingdistance. bAnd do you holdthat: bIn ten and in fifteen, is referring to baskets? It is referring to jugs,and there is no dispute between the ibaraitot /i. bAndthis is bnot difficult: This ibaraita /i, which spoke of moving five, is referring to a case bin whichthe jugs bare taken one by one ineach bbasket. And that ibaraita /i, which speaks of moving ten, is referring to a case bin whichthe jugs bare taken two by two ineach basket. bAnd that ibaraita /i, which speaks of moving fifteen, is referring to a case bin whichthe jugs bare taken three by three,e.g., in the case of bthe small jugs of Harpanya. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bThese four or five baskets, whichthe itanna bstatedin the mishna, is he saying that one may move only four or five baskets beven though he has many guests? Or perhaps, it is all according tothe number bof guests,and if there are more guests one may move more baskets. bAnd if you say it is all according to thenumber of bguests,does bone man movethe baskets to make room bfor all of them, or perhaps each and every man movesa basket to make room bfor himself? /b, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from that which bRabba saidthat bRav Ḥiyya said: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent to a certain place and sawthat the bplace wastoo bcrowded for the students. And he went to the field and found a field full of bundlesof grain, band RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcleared the bundlesfrom bthe whole field in its entirety. Conclude from itthat the quantity that can be moved bis all according to thenumber of bguests. /b, bAnd Rav Yosef saidthat bRav Hoshaya said: Once Rabbi Ḥiyya went to a certain place and sawthat the bplace wastoo bcrowded for the students. And he went to the field and found a field full of bundlesof grain, band Rabbi Ḥiyya cleared the bundlesfrom bthe whole field in its entirety. Conclude from itthat the quantity that can be moved bis all according to thenumber of bguests. /b,The Gemara continues: bAnd still you have a dilemma.Does bone man movethe baskets to make room bfor all of them, or perhaps each and every man movesbaskets to make room bfor himself? /b, bComeand bheara resolution to this question. We learned: bAnd RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcleared the bundles.Apparently, one person moved the bundles to make room for the others. The Gemara rejects the proof: bAnd according to your reasoning,your opinion, do you think bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, the spiritual leader of his generation, bcleared the bundles himself? Rather, he orderedothers to do so, bandhe thereby bcleared the bundles. And actually, each and every one movesa bundle to make room bfor himself. /b,We learned in the mishna: One may move baskets of produce bdue to the guestsand in order to prevent the suspension of Torah study in the study hall. bRabbi Yoḥa said: Hospitalitytoward bguests is as great as rising earlyto go bto the study hall, asthe mishna equates them band teaches: Due to the guests and due to suspension ofTorah study in bthe study hall. And Rav Dimi from Neharde’a says:Hospitality toward guests is bgreater than rising early to the study hall, as it teaches: Due to the guests, andonly bafterward: And due to suspension ofTorah study in bthe study hall. Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav saidon a related note: bHospitalitytoward bguests is greater than receiving the Divine Presence, aswhen Abraham invited his guests bit is written: “And he said: Lord, if now I have found favor in Your sight, please pass notfrom Your servant” (Genesis 18:3). Abraham requested that God, the Divine Presence, wait for him while he tended to his guests appropriately. bRabbi Elazar said: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like that of flesh and blood. The attribute of flesh and bloodpeople is such that ba less significantperson bis unable to say to a more significantperson: bWait until I come to you, while with regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, it is written: “And he said: Lord, if now I have found favorin Your sight, please pass not from Your servant.” Abraham requested that God wait for him due to his guests., bRav Yehuda bar Sheila saidthat bRabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:There are bsix matters a person enjoysthe bprofits of in this world, andnevertheless bthe principal exists for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Hospitalitytoward bguests, and visitingthe bsick, and considerationduring bprayer,and brising early to the study hall, and one who raises his sons toengage bin Torah study, and one who judges another favorably,giving him the benefit of the doubt.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? And did we not learnin a mishna: bTheseare the bmatters that a person does them and enjoys their profits in this world, andnevertheless bthe principal exists for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one’s father and mother, and acts of loving kindness, and bringing peace between a person and another, and Torah study is equal to all of them.By inference: bThesematters, byes,one enjoys their profits in this world and the principal exists for him in the World-to-Come; bother matters, no. /b
53. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. ואנן במקדש תנן אלא משום דלא דמי ארוכה דהכא קצרה דהתם וארוכה דהתם קצרה דהכא,מתקיף לה רב הונא בריה דרב נתן ומי אמר אביי אנוס הוא אלמא בשלא סמוך לוסתה קאמרינן והא אביי דאמר חייב שתים אלמא בסמוך לוסתה עסקינן,כי איתמר דאביי בעלמא איתמר,בעא מיניה רבי יונתן בן יוסי בן לקוניא מרבי שמעון בן יוסי בן לקוניא אזהרה לבועל נדה מנין מן התורה שקל קלא פתק ביה אזהרה לבועל נדה (ויקרא יח, יט) ואל אשה בנדת טומאתה לא תקרב,אלא אזהרה למשמש עם הטהורה ואמרה לו נטמאתי דלא ניפריש מיד מנלן אמר חזקיה אמר קרא (ויקרא טו, כד) ותהי נדתה עליו אפי' בשעת נדתה תהא עליו,אשכחן עשה לא תעשה מנלן אמר רב פפא אמר קרא לא תקרב לא תקרב נמי לא תפרוש הוא דכתיב (ישעיהו סה, ה) האומרים קרב אליך אל תגש בי כי קדשתיך,ת"ר (ויקרא טו, לא) והזרתם את בני ישראל מטומאתם אמר רבי יאשיה מיכן אזהרה לבני ישראל שיפרשו מנשותיהן סמוך לוסתן וכמה אמר רבה עונה,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי כל שאינו פורש מאשתו סמוך לוסתה אפילו הויין לו בנים כבני אהרן מתים דכתיב והזרתם את בני ישראל מטומאתם והדוה בנדתה וסמיך ליה אחרי מות,אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הפורש מאשתו סמוך לוסתה הויין לו בנים זכרים דכתיב (ויקרא יא, מז) להבדיל בין הטמא ובין הטהור וסמיך ליה אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר הויין לו בנים ראויין להוראה דכתיב (ויקרא י, י) להבדיל ולהורות,אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות הויין לו בנים זכרים דכתיב להבדיל בין הקדש ובין החול וכתיב התם להבדיל בין הטמא ובין הטהור וסמיך ליה אשה כי תזריע רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר בנים ראוין להוראה דכתיב להבדיל ולהורות,אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר כל המקדש את עצמו בשעת תשמיש הויין לו בנים זכרים שנאמר (ויקרא יא, מד) והתקדשתם והייתם קדושים וסמיך ליה אשה כי תזריע:,רבי אליעזר אומר השרץ ונעלם ממנו כו': מאי בינייהו,אמר חזקיה שרץ ונבלה איכא בינייהו ר' אליעזר סבר בעינן עד דידע אי בשרץ איטמי אי בנבלה איטמי ורבי עקיבא סבר לא בעינן עד דידע דכיון דידע דאיטמא בעולם לא צריך אי בשרץ איטמי אי בנבלה איטמי,וכן אמר עולא שרץ ונבלה איכא בינייהו דעולא רמי דרבי אליעזר אדרבי אליעזר ומשני מי א"ר אליעזר בעינן עד דידע אי בשרץ איטמי אי בנבלה איטמי,ורמינהי אמר רבי אליעזר מה נפשך חלב אכל חייב נותר אכל חייב שבת חילל חייב יום הכפורים חילל חייב אשתו נדה בעל חייב אחותו בעל חייב,אמר לו רבי יהושע הרי הוא אומר (ויקרא ד, כג) או הודע אליו חטאתו אשר חטא בה עד שיודע לך במה חטא,ומשני התם אשר חטא והביא אמר רחמנא חטא כל שהוא הכא מכדי כתיב (ויקרא ה, ב) בכל דבר טמא או בנבלת שרץ טמא למה לי שמע מינה בעינן עד דידע אי בשרץ איטמי אי בנבלה איטמי,ורבי עקיבא איידי 18b. bAnd we learnedthis difference in the mishna specifically bwith regard toritual impurity in bthe Temple.If such a distinction were also in effect with regard to a menstruating woman, the mishna would mention it. bRather,one can explain: No parallel distinction is made, bbecausethe two cases bare not similarin their details. The blongway bhere,with regard to a menstruating woman, namely, that the man must wait, is like the bshortestway bthere,with regard to impurity in the Temple, namely, that the impure person must leave the Temple by way of the most direct route. bAndthe blongway bthere,with regard to the Temple, is like the bshortestway bhere,with regard to a menstruating woman., bRav Huna, son of Rav Natan, objects towhat Abaye said: bDid Abayereally bsaywith regard to the mishna that if the man withdraws with a flaccid penis he is exempt because bhe isconsidered ba victim of circumstances beyond his control? Apparently,then, bwe are speakingof a man who engaged in intercourse with a woman bnot near the expected date ofher menstruation, and therefore the situation is considered beyond his control. bButis it not bAbaye who saysthat he is bliableto bring btwosin-offerings for this transgression, one for his initial entry and one for his withdrawal? bApparently, we are dealing witha man who engaged in intercourse with a woman bnear the expected date ofher menstruation, so he is considered an unwitting transgressor, who is liable to bring a sin-offering, and is not the victim of circumstances beyond his control. Consequently, Abaye’s two statements contradict each other.,The Gemara answers: bWhenthis statement bof Abaye was stated,that the man is liable to bring two sin-offerings, it bwas stated in general.It was not relating to the case in the mishna, but was an independent ruling concerning one who engages in intercourse with a woman near the expected date of her menstruation.,§ bRabbi Yonatan ben Yosei ben Lakonya asked Rabbi Shimon ben Yosei ben Lakonya: From where in the Torahis the bprohibition concerning one who engages in intercourse with a menstruating woman [ inidda /i]derived? Rabbi Shimon ben Yosei ben Lakonya btook a clod [ ikala /i]of earth band threwit bat himin reproach and said to him: Is there a need to search the Torah for a derivation for the bprohibition concerning one who engages in intercourse with a menstruating woman?The verse states: b“And a woman who is impure by her uncleanness [ inidda /i] you shall not approach,to uncover her nakedness” (Leviticus 18:19)?,The Gemara explains the intent of the question of Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosei ben Lakonya: bRather, from where do wederive the bprohibition with regard tothe case in the mishna concerning one who bwas engaging in intercourse with a ritually pure woman, and sheexperienced menstrual bleeding and bsaid to him: I have become impure, that he must not withdraw immediately?In response to this question bḤizkiyya said: The verse states:“And if any man lies with her, band her menstrual flow shall be upon him”(Leviticus 15:24), teaching that bevenat any time bwhen she is menstruating,the prohibition bshall be upon him;therefore, he must not withdraw from her immediately.,The Gemara asks: bWe founda source for ba positive mitzvawith regard to the manner in which one must withdraw from a menstruating woman; bfrom where do wederive that immediate withdrawal is also subject to ba prohibition? Rav Pappa said: The verse states:“And a woman who is impure by her uncleanness byou shall not approach,to uncover her nakedness” (Leviticus 18:19). The Gemara explains: b“You shall not approach [ itikrav /i]”means balsothe opposite: bYou shall not withdraw, as it is written: “Those who say: Withdraw [ ikerav /i] to yourself, come not near to me, for I am holier than you”(Isaiah 65:5), where “ ikerav /i” means remove or withdraw.,§ Having mentioned that it is prohibited for a man to engage in intercourse with a woman near the expected date of her menstruation, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:The verse with regard to a menstruating woman states: b“And shall you separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness”(Leviticus 15:31), bRabbi Yoshiya says: From herewe derive ba prohibition to the children of Israel that they must separate from their wives near the expected date oftheir menstruation. bAnd how longbefore must they separate? bRabba says: A set interval of timefor the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, which is half of a twenty-four hour day, either the daytime or the nighttime., bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:With regard to banyone who does not separate from his wife near the expected date ofher menstruation, bevenif bhe has sonswho are fit to be great and holy blike the sons of Aaron,these sons bwill diedue to his sin, bas it is written: “And shall you separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness… /bthis is the law… bof her that is sick with her menstrual flow”(Leviticus 15:31–33), bandit is stated bnear it: “After the death ofthe two sons of Aaron” (Leviticus 16:1).,Concerning this matter, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who separates himself from his wife near the expected date ofher menstruation bwill have male children, as it is written: “To distinguish between the impure and the pure”(Leviticus 11:47), bandit is stated bnear it: “If a woman conceive and bear a male child”(Leviticus 12:2). bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: He will have sons who are worthy of teaching ihalakha /i, bas it is written: “To distinguish… /bbetween the impure and the pure, band to teachthe children of Israel all the statutes” (Leviticus 10:10–11).,The Gemara continues to expound these verses: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who recites ihavdalaover wine at the conclusion of iShabbatot /i,and not over some other beverage, bwill have male children, as it is written: “To distinguish between the holy and the unholy,and between the impure and the pure” (Leviticus 10:10), band it is written thereonce again: b“To distinguish between the impure and the pure”(Leviticus 11:47), bandit is stated bnear it: “If a woman conceiveand bear a male child” (Leviticus 12:2). bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:Anyone who recites ihavdalaover wine at the conclusion of iShabbatot bwill have sons who are worthy of teaching ihalakha /i, bas it is written: “To distinguishbetween the holy and the unholy… band to teach”(Leviticus 10:10–11)., bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saysthat bRabbi Elazar says: Anyone who sanctifies himselfwith modest conduct bwhile engaging in sexual intercourse will have male children, as it is stated: “You shall sanctify yourselves, and you shall be holy”(Leviticus 11:44), bandit is stated bnear it: “If a woman conceiveand bear a male child” (Leviticus 12:2).,§ The mishna teaches: bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to the sliding-scale offering the verse states: “Or if a person touches any impure thing, whether it is the carcass of a non-kosher undomesticated animal, or the carcass of a non-kosher domesticated animal, or the carcass of a non-kosher bcreeping animal, and it is hidden from him,so that he is impure” (Leviticus 5:2). The juxtaposition of the words “and it is hidden” to the words “a creeping animal” teaches that one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering when it was hidden from him that he had contracted ritual impurity from a creeping animal, but not when it was hidden from him that he was entering the Temple or partaking of sacrificial food. Rabbi Akiva says that it is from the words “and it is hidden from him, so that he is impure” that it is derived that one is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering for a lapse of awareness about his impurity, but not for a lapse of awareness about the Temple or the sacrificial food. The Gemara asks: Since Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Akiva agree about the ihalakha /i, bwhat isthe practical difference bbetween them? /b, bḤizkiyya says: There isa practical difference bbetween themin a case where one initially knew that he had contracted ritual impurity, but he did not know whether the impurity was contracted from ba creeping animal orfrom bthe carcass of an unslaughtered animal. Rabbi Eliezer holdsthat for him to be liable to bring an offering, bwe require that heinitially bknow whether he contracted impurity from a creeping animal or he contracted impurity from an unslaughtered animal carcass,and if he never knew this, he does not bring an offering. bAnd Rabbi Akiva holdsthat for him to be liable to bring an offering, bwe do not require that he knowthis detail; bsince he knows in generalterms bthat he contracted impurity,it is bnot necessarythat one know bwhether he contracted the impurity from a creeping animal or he contracted the impurity from an unslaughtered animal carcass. /b, bAnd Ulla also says: There isa practical difference bbetween themin a case where the person did not know whether he contracted impurity from ba creeping animal orfrom bthe carcass of an unslaughtered animal. Ulladid not say this explicitly, but rather he braises a contradictionbetween this statement bof Rabbi Eliezer andanother statement bof Rabbi Eliezer, andthen bresolvesit. He asked: bDoes Rabbi Eliezeractually bsaythat in order to be liable to bring a sliding-scale offering, bwe require thatone initially bknow whether he contracted impurity from a creeping animal or he contracted impurity from an unslaughtered animal carcass? /b, bAnd he raises a contradictionfrom a ibaraitawith regard to one who ate a forbidden food but did not know whether it was forbidden fat or it was inotar /i, part of a sacrifice left over after the time allotted for its consumption; or one who performed labor but did not know whether it was Shabbat or Yom Kippur; or one who engaged in intercourse but did not know whether it was with his menstruating wife or with his sister. In all these cases Rabbi Eliezer holds that he must bring a sin-offering, whereas Rabbi Yehoshua deems him exempt. bRabbi Eliezer says: Whichever way youlook at it, he is liable. If he bate forbidden fathe is bliable;if he bate inotar /ihe is bliable.If he bdesecrated Shabbathe is bliable;if he bdesecrated Yom Kippurhe is bliable.If bhe engaged in intercourse with his menstruating wife,he is bliable;if bhe engaged in intercourse with his sister,he is bliable.In all these cases, he knows that he transgressed, and he is liable to bring a sin-offering., bRabbi Yehoshua said toRabbi Eliezer: The verse bstateswith regard to a sin-offering: b“Or if his sin, in which he sinned, became known to him”(Leviticus 4:23), teaching that there is no liability for an offering buntil it becomes known tothe sinner the manner bin which he sinned.According to this ibaraita /i, Rabbi Eliezer himself holds that in order to become liable to bring a sin-offering, it is not necessary that one know precisely which prohibition he violated., bAndUlla bresolvesthe contradiction: bThere,with regard to liability to bring a sin-offering, bthe Merciful One states:“Or if his sin, bin which he sinned,became known to him, bhe shall bringhis offering” (Leviticus 4:23), teaching that it suffices that he knows that he committed bsometype of bsin. Here,with regard to ritual impurity in the Temple, bsince it is writtenat the beginning of the verse: “Or if a person touches bany impure thing”(Leviticus 5:2), bwhy do Ineed that which is stated immediately afterward: b“Or the carcass of a non-kosher creeping animal”? Conclude from itthat bwe require that heinitially bknow whether he contracted impurity from a creeping animal or he contracted impurity from an unslaughtered animal carcass,and if he never knew this, he does not bring an offering.,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Akiva,who does not expound the verses in this way, what does he say to this? The Gemara answers: He maintains that bsince /b
54. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

37a. ומנין שבאנא נאמר כאן כפרה ונאמר להלן בחורב כפרה מה להלן באנא אף כאן באנא ומנין שבשם נאמר כאן כפרה ונאמרה בעגלה ערופה כפרה מה להלן בשם אף כאן בשם,אמר אביי בשלמא חורב מעגלה ערופה לא יליף מאי דהוה הוה אלא עגלה ערופה תיליף מחורב וכי תימא ה"נ והתנן הכהנים אומרים (דברים כא, ח) כפר לעמך ישראל ואילו באנא לא קא אמר קשיא,והן עונין אחריו תניא רבי אומר (דברים לב, ג) כי שם ה' אקרא הבו גודל לאלהינו אמר להם משה לישראל בשעה שאני מזכיר שמו של הקב"ה אתם הבו גודל חנניה בן אחי ר' יהושע אומר (משלי י, ז) זכר צדיק לברכה אמר להם נביא לישראל בשע' שאני מזכיר צדיק עולמים אתם תנו ברכה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בא לו למזרח העזרה לצפון המזבח הסגן מימינו וראש בית אב משמאלו ושם שני שעירים וקלפי היתה שם ובה שני גורלו' של אשכרוע היו ועשאן בן גמלא של זהב והיו מזכירים אותו לשבח,בן קטין עשה י"ב דד לכיור שלא היה לו אלא שנים ואף הוא עשה מוכני לכיור שלא יהיו מימיו נפסלין בלינה,מונבז המלך היה עושה כל ידות הכלים של יוה"כ של זהב הילני אמו עשתה נברשת של זהב על פתח היכל ואף היא עשתה טבלא של זהב שפרשת סוטה כתובה עליה נקנור נעשו נסים לדלתותיו והיו מזכירין אותן לשבח, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מדקאמר לצפון המזבח מכלל דמזבח לאו בצפון קאי מני ראב"י היא דתניא (ויקרא א, יא) צפונה לפני ה' שיהא צפון כולו פנוי דברי ראב"י,והא רישא ר"א בר"ש היא כולה ראב"י היא ותני בבין האולם ולמזבח,הסגן בימינו וראש בית אב בשמאלו אמר רב יהודה המהלך לימין רבו הרי זה בור תנן הסגן בימינו וראש בית אב בשמאלו,ועוד תניא שלשה שהיו מהלכין בדרך הרב באמצע גדול בימינו וקטן משמאלו וכן מצינו בשלשה מלאכי השרת שבאו אצל אברהם מיכאל באמצע גבריאל בימינו ורפאל בשמאלו,תרגומא רב שמואל בר פפא קמיה דרב אדא כדי שיתכסה בו רבו והתניא המהלך כנגד רבו הרי זה בור אחורי רבו הרי זה מגסי הרוח דמצדד אצדודי,וקלפי היתה שם ובה שני גורלות ת"ר (ויקרא טז, ח) ונתן אהרן על שני השעירים גורלות [גורלות] של כל דבר,יכול יתן שנים על זה ושנים על זה ת"ל גורל אחד לה' וגורל אחד לעזאזל אין כאן לשם אלא גורל אחד ואין כאן לעזאזל אלא אחד יכול יתן של שם ושל עזאזל על זה ושל שם ושל עזאזל על זה ת"ל גורל אחד [לה' אין כאן לה' אלא אחד ואין כאן לעזאזל אלא א'] א"כ מה ת"ל גורלות שיהיו שוין שלא יעשה אחד של זהב ואחד של כסף אחד גדול ואחד קטן,גורלות של כל דבר פשיטא לא צריכא לכדתניא לפי שמצינו בציץ שהשם כתוב עליו והוא של זהב יכול אף זה כן ת"ל גורל גורל ריבה ריבה של זית ריבה של אגוז ריבה של אשכרוע,בן קטין עשה שנים עשר דד לכיור וכו' תנא כדי שיהיו שנים עשר אחיו הכהנים העסוקין בתמיד מקדשין ידיהן ורגליהן בבת אחת תנא שחרית במילואו מקדש ידיו ורגליו מן העליון ערבית בירידתו מקדש ידיו ורגליו מן התחתון,ואף הוא עשה מוכני לכיור וכו' מאי מוכני אמר אביי גילגלא דהוה משקעא ליה,מונבז המלך עשה כל ידות הכלים וכו' נעבדינהו לדידהו דזהב 37a. bAnd from whereis it derived that the confession must begin with the word bplease? It is stated here: Atonement, and it is stated there,just before Moses’s plea following the sin of the Golden Calf bat Horeb:“Perhaps I may secure batonementfor your sin” (Exodus 32:30). bJust as there,the prayer includes: b“Please,this people is guilty of a great sin” (Exodus 32:31), bso too here,the term bpleaseshould be used. bAnd from whereis it derived bthatthe Yom Kippur confession includes bthe nameof God? bIt is stated here: Atonement, and it is stated with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken: “Atone,O God, for Your nation of Israel whom You redeemed, and do not let guilt for the blood of the innocent remain among Your people Israel, and they will be atoned of bloodguilt” (Deuteronomy 21:8). bJust as there,with regard to the heifer, bthe nameof God is mentioned, bso too here, the nameof God is mentioned., bAbaye said: Granted,the obligation to include the name of God in the confession at bHoreb cannot be derived from the heifer whose neck is broken,since bwhat was, was.The sin of the Golden Calf predated the mitzva of the heifer. bHowever, youshould bderivethat the confession in the ritual of the bheifer whose neck is brokenrequires use of the term: Please, bfrom Horeb,where Moses employed that term. bAnd if you say that is so,and the term: Please, should be employed, bdidn’t we learnin a mishna that bthe priests say: “Atone,O God, bfor Your nation, Israel”(Deuteronomy 21:8), bwhilethe mishna bdoes not statethe term bplease.Apparently, the formula of confession during the ritual of the heifer is not derived from Horeb. The Gemara says: It is indeed bdifficultwhy that is not derived.,§ The mishna continues: bAndthe priests and the people who were in the courtyard brespond after herecites the name of God: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaysthe following with regard to the verse: b“When I call out the name of the Lord, give glory to our God”(Deuteronomy 32:3). bMoses said to the Jewish people: When I mention the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, you giveHim bgloryand recite praises in his honor. bḤaya, son of the brother of Rabbi Yehoshua, saysthat proof for the practice is from a different source: b“The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing”(Proverbs 10:7). bThe prophet,Solomon, bsaid to the Jewish people: When I mention the Righteous One of all worlds, you accord Him a blessing. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong The priest then bcame tothe beasternside bof theTemple bcourtyard,farthest from the Holy of Holies, btothe bnorth of the altar. The deputywas bto his right, and the head of the patrilineal familybelonging to the priestly watch that was assigned to serve in the Temple that week was bto his left. Andthey arranged btwo goats there, and there was alottery breceptacle there, and in it were two lots. These wereoriginally made of bboxwood,and the High Priest Yehoshua bben Gamla fashioned them of gold,and the people bwould mention him favorablyfor what he did.,Since the mishna mentions an item designed to enhance the Temple service, it also lists other such items: The High Priest bben Katin made twelve spigots for the basinso that several priests could sanctify their hands and feet at once, baspreviously the basin bhad only two. He also made a machine [ imukheni /i] forsinking bthe basininto flowing water during the night bso that its water would not be disqualified by remaining overnight.Had the water remained in the basin overnight, it would have been necessary to pour it out the following morning. By immersing the basin in flowing water, the water inside remained fit for use the next morning., bKing Munbaz wouldcontribute the funds required to bmake the handles of all the Yom Kippur vessels of gold.Queen bHelene, his mother, fashioned adecorative bgold chandelier above the entrance of the Sanctuary. She also fashioned a golden tablet [ itavla /i] on which theTorah bportionrelating to isotawas written.The tablet could be utilized to copy this Torah portion, so that a Torah scroll need not be taken out for that purpose. With regard to bNicanor, miracles were performed to his doors,the doors in the gate of the Temple named for him, the Gate of Nicanor. bAndthe people bwould mentionall of bthosewhose contributions were listed bfavorably. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bFromthe fact bthat it saysin the mishna that the priest comes btothe bnorth of the altar,it can be learned bby inference thatthe baltaritself bdoes not stand in the northbut in the south of the courtyard. The Gemara asks: In accordance with bwhoseopinion is the mishna? The Gemara answers: bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat from the verse: “And he shall slaughter it on the side of the altar bnorthward before God”(Leviticus 1:11), it is derived bthatthe bentire northside should bbe vacant.The altar is in the south, and the north is vacant. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t the first clause,the previous mishna, as explained above, in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,who holds that the altar was partially in the north? The Gemara rejects this assertion: The bentiremishna, including the first clause, bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov.Emend the previous mishna band teachit as referring to the space badjacent tothe area bbetween the Entrance Hall and the altarand not actually the space between them, north of the altar, where everyone agrees that it is the north.,§ The mishna states that bthe deputyHigh Priest stands bto the rightof the High Priest, band the head of the patrilineal family is to his left. Rav Yehuda saidwith regard to the laws of etiquette: bOne who walks to the right of his teacher is a boor,in that he hasn’t the slightest notion of good manners. The Gemara asks: Didn’t bwe learnin the mishna that bthe deputy,who is like a student to the High Priest, bis to the rightof the High Priest, band the head of the patrilinealpriestly bfamilyresponsible for the Temple service that day bis to his left? /b, bAnd furthermore, it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThreepeople bwho were walking on the roadshould not walk in single file but should walk with bthe teacher in the middle, the greaterof the students bon his right, and the lesserof them bto his left. And so too do we find with the three ministering angels who came to Abraham: Michael,the greatest of the three, was bin the middle, Gabriel was to his right, and Raphael was to his left.Apparently, a student walks to the right of his teacher., bRav Shmuel bar Pappa interpreted it before Rav Adda:He does not walk next to his teacher as an equal, but walks slightly behind him bso that he isslightly bobscured by his teacher.The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who walks next to his teacher is a boor;one who walks bbehind his teacher,allowing his teacher to walk before him, bis among the arrogant.The Gemara answers: He does not walk directly beside him but slightly btohis bsideand slightly behind his teacher.,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there wasa lottery breceptaclein the east of the courtyard bthere, and in it were two lots. The Sages taughtthe following in a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“And Aaron shall place lots on the two goats,one lot for God and one lot for Azazel” (Leviticus 16:8). bLotsis a general term; they may be fashioned bfrom any material,as the Torah does not specify the material of which they are made.,One bmighthave thought that bheshould bplace twolots bon thisgoat band twolots bon thatgoat; therefore, bthe verse states: “One lot for God and one lot for Azazel”(Leviticus 16:8), meaning bthere is only one lot here for God, and there is only one lot here for Azazel.Likewise, one bmighthave thought bheshould bplacethe lot bof God andthe lot bof Azazel on thisgoat, bandthe lot bof God andthe lot bof Azazel on thatgoat; therefore, bthe verse states: One lot for God,i.e., bthere is only onelot bhere for God, and there is only onelot bhere for Azazel. If so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states lots,in the plural, since each of the two goats has one lot not two? It is to teach bthatthe two lots should bbe identical;that bhe should not make one of gold and one of silver,or bone big and one small. /b,It was taught in the ibaraitathat the blotsmay be fashioned bfrom any material.The Gemara asks: This is bobvious,considering that the Torah does not designate a particular material. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryonly due to that bwhich was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bBecause we find with regard to theHigh Priest’s bfrontplate that the name of God was written upon it and it was made of gold,one bmighthave thought bthat thislot, btoo,should be made of gold since it has God’s name on it. Therefore, bthe verse states: Lot, lot,twice bto includeother materials and not exclusively gold. bIt includeslots made of bolivewood, and bincludeslots made of bwalnutwood, and bincludeslots made of bboxwood. /b,§ The mishna continues: The High Priest bben Katin made twelve spigots for the basin.It was btaught:Ben Katin did this bso that twelve of his fellow priests, who are occupied withsacrificing bthe daily offeringas explained above, could bsanctify their hands and their feet simultaneously.It was btaught: In the morning,when the basin bis full, one sanctifies his hands and his feet fromthe spigots fixed bat the topof the basin because the water level is high. And in the bafternoon, whenthe water level bis low, he sanctifies his hands and his feetfrom the spigots fixed bat the bottom. /b,The mishna continues with regard to ben Katin: bHe also made a machine forsinking bthe basin.The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bmachine? Abaye said:It is ba wheel with which he loweredthe basin into the pit.,The mishna continues: bKing Munbaz wouldcontribute the funds required to bmake the handles of all theYom Kippur bvesselsof gold. The Gemara asks: If he wanted to donate money to beautify the Temple, bhe should have madethe vessels bthemselves of gold,not just the handles.
55. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 8.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Origen, On First Principles, 1.6.2, 3.1.21, 3.6, 3.6.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6.2. Seeing, then, that such is the end, when all enemies will be subdued to Christ, when death — the last enemy — shall be destroyed, and when the kingdom shall be delivered up by Christ (to whom all things are subject) to God the Father; let us, I say, from such an end as this, contemplate the beginnings of things. For the end is always like the beginning: and, therefore, as there is one end to all things, so ought we to understand that there was one beginning; and as there is one end to many things, so there spring from one beginning many differences and varieties, which again, through the goodness of God, and by subjection to Christ, and through the unity of the Holy Spirit, are recalled to one end, which is like the beginning: all those, viz., who, bending the knee at the name of Jesus, make known by so doing their subjection to Him: and these are they who are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth: by which three classes the whole universe of things is pointed out, those, viz., who from that one beginning were arranged, each according to the diversity of his conduct, among the different orders, in accordance with their desert; for there was no goodness in them by essential being, as in God and His Christ, and in the Holy Spirit. For in the Trinity alone, which is the author of all things, does goodness exist in virtue of essential being; while others possess it as an accidental and perishable quality, and only then enjoy blessedness, when they participate in holiness and wisdom, and in divinity itself. But if they neglect and despise such participation, then is each one, by fault of his own slothfulness, made, one more rapidly, another more slowly, one in a greater, another in a less degree, the cause of his own downfall. And since, as we have remarked, the lapse by which an individual falls away from his position is characterized by great diversity, according to the movements of the mind and will, one man falling with greater ease, another with more difficulty, into a lower condition; in this is to be seen the just judgment of the providence of God, that it should happen to every one according to the diversity of his conduct, in proportion to the desert of his declension and defection. Certain of those, indeed, who remained in that beginning which we have described as resembling the end which is to come, obtained, in the ordering and arrangement of the world, the rank of angels; others that of influences, others of principalities, others of powers, that they may exercise power over those who need to have power upon their head. Others, again, received the rank of thrones, having the office of judging or ruling those who require this; others dominion, doubtless, over slaves; all of which are conferred by Divine Providence in just and impartial judgment according to their merits, and to the progress which they had made in the participation and imitation of God. But those who have been removed from their primal state of blessedness have not been removed irrecoverably, but have been placed under the rule of those holy and blessed orders which we have described; and by availing themselves of the aid of these, and being remoulded by salutary principles and discipline, they may recover themselves, and be restored to their condition of happiness. From all which I am of opinion, so far as I can see, that this order of the human race has been appointed in order that in the future world, or in ages to come, when there shall be the new heavens and new earth, spoken of by Isaiah, it may be restored to that unity promised by the Lord Jesus in His prayer to God the Father on behalf of His disciples: I do not pray for these alone, but for all who shall believe in Me through their word: that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You, that they also may be one in Us; and again, when He says: That they may be one, even as We are one; I in them, and You in Me, that they may be made perfect in one. And this is further confirmed by the language of the Apostle Paul: Until we all come in the unity of the faith to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ. And in keeping with this is the declaration of the same apostle, when he exhorts us, who even in the present life are placed in the Church, in which is the form of that kingdom which is to come, to this same similitude of unity: That you all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that you be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment. 3.1.21. And at the same time, it is clearly shown that, as far as regards the underlying nature, as there is one (piece of) clay which is under the hands of the potter, from which piece vessels are formed unto honour and dishonour; so the one nature of every soul being in the hands of God, and, so to speak, there being (only) one lump of reasonable beings, certain causes of more ancient date led to some being created vessels unto honour, and others vessels unto dishonour. But if the language of the apostle convey a censure when he says, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? it teaches us that he who has confidence before God, and is faithful, and has lived virtuously, would not hear the words, Who are you that replies against God? Such an one, e.g., as Moses was, For Moses spoke, and God answered him with a voice; and as God answers Moses, so does a saint also answer God. But he who does not possess this confidence, manifestly, either because he has lost it, or because he investigates these matters not from a love of knowledge, but from a desire to find fault, and who therefore says, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? would merit the language of censure, which says, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? 3.6.5. The last enemy, moreover, who is called death, is said on this account to be destroyed, that there may not be anything left of a mournful kind when death does not exist, nor anything that is adverse when there is no enemy. The destruction of the last enemy, indeed, is to be understood, not as if its substance, which was formed by God, is to perish, but because its mind and hostile will, which came not from God, but from itself, are to be destroyed. Its destruction, therefore, will not be its non-existence, but its ceasing to be an enemy, and (to be) death. For nothing is impossible to the Omnipotent, nor is anything incapable of restoration to its Creator: for He made all things that they might exist, and those things which were made for existence cannot cease to be. For this reason also will they admit of change and variety, so as to be placed, according to their merits, either in a better or worse position; but no destruction of substance can befall those things which were created by God for the purpose of permanent existence. For those things which agreeably to the common opinion are believed to perish, the nature either of our faith or of the truth will not permit us to suppose to be destroyed. Finally, our flesh is supposed by ignorant men and unbelievers to be destroyed after death, in such a degree that it retains no relic at all of its former substance. We, however, who believe in its resurrection, understand that a change only has been produced by death, but that its substance certainly remains; and that by the will of its Creator, and at the time appointed, it will be restored to life; and that a second time a change will take place in it, so that what at first was flesh (formed) out of earthly soil, and was afterwards dissolved by death, and again reduced to dust and ashes (For dust you are, it is said, and to dust shall you return), will be again raised from the earth, and shall after this, according to the merits of the indwelling soul, advance to the glory of a spiritual body.
59. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 13.930 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

60. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 18.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

18.5. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה, אָמַר דָּוִד (תהלים עז, ז): אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי בַּלָּיְלָה, אָמְרָה כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל נִזְכֶּרֶת אֲנִי אֶת הַשְּׁבָרִים שֶׁהָיִיתָ שׁוֹבֵר אֶת הָאוֹיְבִים בַּעֲבוּרִי בַּלַּיְלָה. וְאֵין נְגִינָתִי אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן שֶׁבֶר, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ג, סג): אֲנִי מַנְגִינָתָם, וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית יד, כ): אֲשֶׁר מִגֵּן צָרֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ. בָּא עָלֵינוּ סַנְחֵרִיב שָׁבַרְתָּ אוֹתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה בּוֹא וּרְאֵה אַהֲבָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת שֶׁהֵן גִּבּוֹרֵי כֹחַ עוֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ עֲשָׂאָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׁוֹמְרִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמִי הֵם מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סב, ו): עַל חוֹמֹתַיִךְ יְרוּשָׁלָיִם הִפְקַדְתִּי שֹׁמְרִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא סַנְחֵרִיב מִיכָאֵל יָצָא וְהִכָּה בָהֶם, וְגַבְרִיאֵל הִצִּיל בְּמִצְוָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַחֲנַנְיָה וַחֲבֵרָיו. לָמָּה כָךְ, אֶלָּא תְּנָאִין עָשָׂה עִמָּהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אֵימָתַי, כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לֵירֵד לְהַצִּיל אַבְרָהָם מִכִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ אָמְרוּ מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל לְפָנָיו אָנוּ יוֹרְדִין לְהַצִּיל אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִלּוּ יָרַד לְשֵׁם אֶחָד מִכֶּם לַכִּבְשָׁן אַתֶּם הֱיִיתֶם מַצִּילִין אוֹתוֹ, אֶלָּא לִשְׁמִי יָרַד וַאֲנִי יוֹרֵד וּמַצִּילוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טו, ז): אֲנִי ה' אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים, אֶלָּא אֶתֵּן לָכֶם זְמַן אֵימָתַי תֵּרְדוּ עַל שֶׁנִּזְדַּקַּקְתֶּם לְהַצִּילוֹ לִכְבוֹד שְׁמִי, אַתָּה מִיכָאֵל עַל מַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר, וְאַתָּה גַּבְרִיאֵל עַל מַחֲנֵה כַּשְׂדִּים. כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד גַּבְרִיאֵל לְהַצִּיל לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, גָּזַר לָאֵשׁ וְיָצָא וְלִהַט כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁהִשְׁלִיכוּ אוֹתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ג, כב): גֻּבְרַיָא אִלֵּךְ דִּי הַסִּקוּ לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וגו'. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַרְבַּע אֻמּוֹת מֵתוּ שָׁם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כְּתִיב (דניאל ג, ג): בֵּאדַיִן מִתְכַּנְשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָא סְגָנַיָא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא, וְכָאן חָסְרוּ אַרְבַּע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ג, כז): וּמִתְכַּנְשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָא, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר חֲנַנְיָה (תהלים קיז, א): הַלְלוּ אֶת ה' כָּל גּוֹיִם. מִישָׁאֵל אָמַר (תהלים קיז א): שַׁבְּחוּהוּ כָּל הָאֻמִּים. וַעֲזַרְיָה אָמַר (תהלים קיז, ב): כִּי גָבַר עָלֵינוּ חַסְדּוֹ. הַמַּלְאָךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קיז ב): וֶאֱמֶת ה' לְעוֹלָם, אֱמֶת מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לִי כְּשֶׁיָּרַדְתִּי לְהַצִּיל אַבְרָהָם, וְכֵן מִיכָאֵל עָשָׂה מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה', תָּנָא כֻּלָּן פּוֹלֶמַרְכִין וְדֻכָּסִין הָיוּ שׁוֹתִין יַיִן וְהִנִּיחוּ קַנְקַנֵּיהֶם מֻשְׁלָכִים, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְסַנְחֵרִיב אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ שֶׁלָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, כג): בְּיַד מַלְאָכֶיךָ חֵרַפְתָּ, אַף אֲנִי בְּיַד מַלְאָכִי, מֶה עָשָׂה לוֹ (ישעיה י, טז): וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ יְקַד יְקֹד כִּיקוֹד אֵשׁ. מַהוּ וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ, שֶׁשָֹּׂרַף גּוּפָן מִבִּפְנִים וְהִנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵיהֶם מִבַּחוּץ, שֶׁכְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם בִּגְדוֹ, וְלָמָּה הִנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁל שֵׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית י, כב): בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַיָּב אֲנִי לְשֵׁם אֲבִיהֶם שֶׁנָּטְלוּ הוּא וְיֶפֶת בִּגְדֵיהֶם וְכִסּוּ עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, כג): וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת הַשִֹּׂמְלָה, לְכָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִיכָאֵל הַנַּח בִּגְדֵיהֶן וּשְׂרֹף נִשְׁמָתָן, מַה כְּתִיב שָׁם (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קא, ח): לַבְּקָרִים אַצְמִית כָּל רִשְׁעֵי אָרֶץ, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְחִזְקִיָּהוּ יוֹשְׁבִין וְאוֹמְרִין אֶת הַהַלֵּל, שֶׁהָיָה לַיִל שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְהָיוּ מִתְיָרְאִים לוֹמַר עַכְשָׁו יְרוּשָׁלַיִם מִתְכַּבֶּשֶׁת בְּיָדוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר לַעֲמֹד וְלִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, מָצְאוּ אוֹיְבֵיהֶם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִישַׁעְיָה (ישעיה ח, ג): קְרָא שְׁמוֹ מַהֵר שָׁלָל חָשׁ בַּז, וּמִהֵר לָבֹז שְׁלָלָם. וְהָאֶחָד קָרָא שְׁמוֹ (ישעיה ז, יד): עִמָּנוּאֵל, לוֹמַר שֶׁאֲנִי עִמּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לב, ח): עִמּוֹ זְרוֹעַ בָּשָׂר וְעִמָּנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּיַד מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל, כֵּן לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא יַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו, זֶה מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל. וְרַבֵּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ אוֹמֵר זֶה מִיכָאֵל לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, א): וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַֹּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ, שֶׁהוּא תּוֹבֵעַ צְרָכֵיהֶן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְדַבֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה א, יב): וַיַּעַן מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיֹּאמַר ה' צְבָאוֹת עַד מָתַי אַתָּה לֹא תְרַחֵם אֶת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, וְאוֹמֵר (דניאל י, כא): וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לְמָה מִיכָאֵל וְסמא"ל דּוֹמִין לְסָנֵיגוֹר וְקָטֵיגוֹר עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה מְדַבֵּר, גָּמַר זֶה דְּבָרָיו וְזֶה דְּבָרָיו, יָדַע אוֹתוֹ הַסְּנֵיגוֹר שֶׁנָּצַח הִתְחִיל מְשַׁבֵּחַ אֶת הַדַּיָּין שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אִיפוֹפָסִין. בִּקֵּשׁ אוֹתוֹ קָטֵיגוֹר לְהוֹסִיף דָּבָר, אָמַר לוֹ הַסָּנֵיגוֹר הַחֲרֵשׁ וְנִשְׁמַע מִן הַדַּיָּן. כָּךְ מִיכָאֵל וְסמא"ל עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וְהַשָֹּׂטָן מְקַטְרֵג וּמִיכָאֵל מְלַמֵּד זְכוּתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהַשָֹּׂטָן בָּא לְדַבֵּר וּמִיכָאֵל מְשַׁתְּקוֹ, לָמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פה, ט): אֶשְׁמְעָה מַה יְּדַבֵּר הָאֵל ה' כִּי יְדַבֵּר שָׁלוֹם אֶל עַמּוֹ, הֱוֵי (תהלים עז, ז): אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי בַּלָּיְלָה, עַל נֵס שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי, נִזְכַּר אֲנִי מַה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתָ לָנוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם, וּמְנַגְנִין שֶׁעָשִׂיתָ לְמִצְרַיִם, הֵיאַךְ מִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָבִיא הַמַּכּוֹת עַל הַמִּצְרִים, מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת אָמַר לְהָבִיא תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ד, כג): הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ. הִתְחִיל אוֹמֵר (שמות ה, ב): מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אָבִיא עָלָיו מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת תְּחִלָּה מְשַׁלְּחָן, אֶלָּא מֵבִיא אֲנִי עָלָיו מַכּוֹת אַחֵרוֹת [תחלה] וּבְעֵקֶב זֹאת אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶת כֻּלָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַה' הִכָּה כָל בְּכוֹר, לְפִיכָךְ דָּוִד מְקַלֵּס (תהלים צ, יא): מִי יוֹדֵעַ עֹז אַפֶּךָ, מִי יוֹדֵעַ נַגְנִין שֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עז, כ): בַּיָּם דַּרְכֶּךָ וּשְׁבִילְךָ בְּמַיִם רַבִּים וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נוֹדָעוּ, דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְּעָקֵב מִי יוֹדֵעַ. 18.5. Another explanation: \"And it was in the middle of the night\" - David said (Psalms 77:7), \"I recall my music at night:\" The congregation of Israel said, \"I recall the breakings, that You broke the enemies for my sake at night.\" And [the term], 'my music' ( iniginati /i) only means breaking, as you would say (Lamentations 3:63), \"I am their song.\" And I [would also] say (Genesis 14:20), \"who gave over ( imigen /i) your enemies into your hand.\" Sancheriv came against us - You broke him at night, as it is stated (II Kings 19:35), \"And it was on that night and the angel of the Lord came out and he smote in the camp of Assyria.\" Rabbi Nechemia said, \"Come and see the love of the Holy One, blessed be He for Israel; as behold, the ministering angels - who are mighty of strength, doers of His will - the Holy One, blessed be He, made them guardians over Israel. And who are they? Michael and Gavriel, as it is stated (Isaiah 62:6), 'Upon your walls Jerusalem, I have appointed guardians.' And when Sancheriv came, Michael went out and smote them; and Gavriel, from the command of the Holy One, blessed be He, saved Chaia and his friends.\" Why was it like that? Rather the Holy One, blessed be He, made a condition with them. When? When He wanted to go down to save Avaraham from the fiery pit: Michael and Gavriel said in front of Him, \"We will go down to save him.\" He said [back] to them, \"If [even] one of you would go down there to the pit, you would save him, but [since Avraham] went down for My name, then I will go down and save him,\" as it is stated (Genesis 15:7), \"I am the Lord who took you out of the Ur Kasdim (understood here as the fire of Kasdim);\" \"but I will give you a time [to go down and save others.\"] When did they go down? \"Since you were prepared to save him for My honor, you, Michael [will descend] against the camp of Assyria; and you, Gavriel [will descend] against the camp of Kasdim (the Chaldeans).\" When Gavriel went down to save Chaia, Mishael and Azaria, he tore the fire and came out and set aflame all those that had thrown them in, as it is stated (Daniel 3:22), \"those men that raised Shadrakh, Meshakh, etc.\" And some say, \"Four nations died there: At first, it is written (Ibid. 3), 'Then were gathered the satraps, the prefects, the governors[, etc.]' and the advisers of the king and, here, four [of them] are lacking, as it states (Ibid. 27), 'And the satraps gathered.'\" Hence Chaia said (Psalms 117:1), \"Praise the Lord, all nations;\" Mishael said (Ibid.), \"exalt him all peoples;\" and Azaria said (Ibid. 2), \"Since His kindness has overwhelmed us;\" and the angel said (Ibid.), \"'and the truth of the Lord is forever' - what He said to me when I went down to save Avraham is true.\" And so [too with] Michael, [God] did what He told him, as it is stated (II Kings 19:35), \"And it was on that night and the angel of the Lord came out.\" It was taught, \"All of the commanders and the dukes were drinking wine and left their receptacles thrown out. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Sancheriv, 'You have done yours,' as it is stated (Ibid. 23), 'By the hand of your messengers have you cursed;' 'I too [will act] by the hand of my messenger.'\" What did He do to him? \"And under his glory there shall be kindled a burning like the burning of fire.\" (Isaiah 10:16) What is [meant by] \"and under his glory?\" That He burned his body from the inside and left his clothing on the outside, since the glory of a person is his clothing. And why did He leave his clothing? Rather, since they were the descendants of Shem, as it is stated (Genesis 10:22), \"The sons of Shem were Eilam and Ashur (Assyria).\" The Holy One, blessed be He, said, \"I am indebted to Shem, their father, as he and Yafet took their clothing and covered the nakedness of their father,\" as it is stated (Genesis 9:23), \"And Shem and Yafet took the cloak.\" Hence, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, \"Leave their clothing and burn their souls.\" What is written there? \"And they arose in the morning and, behold, dead corpses.\" This is [the meaning of] that which is written (Psalms 101:8), \"In the mornings, I will annihilate the evildoers of the world.\" And Hizkiyahu and Israel were sitting and saying Hallel (Psalms of praise recited on festivals), as it was the night of Pesach, and they were afraid to say [it] now - Jerusalem was being conquered by his hand. When they woke up early in the morning to stand and read the Shema and to pray, they found their enemies were dead corpses. Hence, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Yeshaya (Isaiah 8:3), \"'and call his name, \"quick take booty, fast loot\"' and be quick to loot booty; and the [other] one call 'with us is the Power ( iImanuel /i),' to say that I am with him,\" as it is stated (II Chronicles 32:8), \"with him is the forearm of flesh but with us is the Lord, our God.\" And just like the Holy One, blessed be He, acted in this world by the hand of Michael and Gavriel, so [too] in the future to come, he will act through them, as it is stated (Obadiah 1:21), \"And the saviors will come up on Mount Zion to judge the mountain of Esav\" - this is [referring to] Michael and Gavriel. And our Holy Rabbi said, \"This is Michael by himself, as it is stated (Daniel 12:1), 'And at that time, Michael will stand, the great minister who stands for the children of Your people.'\" As he [is the one that] demands the needs of Israel and speaks for them, as it is stated (Zechariah 1:12), \"And the angel of the Lord answered and said, 'Lord of hosts, until when when will you not have mercy on Jerusalem?'\" And I will [also] say (Daniel 10:21), \"and none is being strong with Me except for Michael, your minister.\" Rabbi Yose said, \"To what are Michael and Samael similar? To a defender and a prosecutor standing in court. This one is speaking and that one is speaking. [When] this one finished his words and that one his words, that defender knows that he has won. [Then] he begins to praise the judge, that issues the verdict. That prosecutor [then] requests to add something. The defender [then] says to him, 'Be quiet and let us hear from the judge.' So is it that Michael and Samael stand in front of the Divine Presence; and the Satan [Samael] prosecutes and Michael deliberates on the merit of Israel, and [then] the Satan comes to speak and Michael silences him. Why? As it is stated (Psalms 85:9), 'I will hear what the Power, the Lord, will speak, as He will speak peace about His people.'\" This is [the meaning of] \"I recall my music at night\" - about the miracle of Hizkiyahu. Another explanation: \"I recall my music at night\" - I recall what you have done for us in Egypt, and the plots ( imenagnin /i) that you did to the Egyptians. How is it? At first, when the Holy One, blessed be He, requested to bring plagues upon the Egyptians, He said to bring the plague of the firstborn first, as it is stated (Exodus 4:23), \"behold I am killing your son, your firstborn.\" [Pharaoh] started to say (Exodus 5:2), \"Who is the Lord that I should listen to His voice?\" The Holy One, blessed be He, said [to Himself], \"If I bring the plague of the firstborn first, he will send them [right away], but rather I will bring other plagues upon him (first). And in its heels ( ibeekev zot /i), I will bring them all,\" as it is stated, \"And the Lord smote every firstborn.\" Hence David praises (Psalms 90:11), \"Who knows the boldness of Your anger\" - who knows your plots that You do in the sea, as it is stated (Psalms 77:20), \"In the sea is Your way and Your path in the great waters, and Your footsteps ( ieekvotekha /i) were not known\" - things that you do afterward ( ibeekev /i), who [can] know? "
61. Aphrahat, Demonstrations, 14 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

62. Jerome, Apologetici Adversus Rufinum (Apologia Adversus Libros Rufini.), 2.19 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Anon., 2 Enoch, 18.9, 22.6, 33.10

64. Anon., 3 Baruch, 11.4, 11.6-11.8, 13.3

65. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.1, 7.106

4.1. Then the angel that had been sent to me, whose name was Uriel, answered
66. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 7.12

7.12. וַיֹאמֶר הָמָן לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם אֶחָד (אסתר ג, ח), אוֹתוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (דברים ו, ד): ה' אֶחָד, יָשֵׁן לוֹ מֵעַמּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי אֵין לְפָנַי שֵׁנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קכא, ד): הִנֵּה לֹא יָנוּם וְלֹא יִישָׁן שׁוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ יֵשׁ לְפָנַי שֵׁנָה, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֵׁנָה אֲנִי מִתְעוֹרֵר עַל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וּמְאַבְּדוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים עח, סה): וַיִּקַּץ כְּיָשֵׁן ה' וַיַּךְ צָרָיו אָחוֹר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם אֶחָד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ שִׁנֵּיהוֹן רַבְרְבָן, שֶׁאוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין וְאוֹמְרִים עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת, עֹנֶג יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין פְּחָת בְּמָמוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, חֲדָא לְשִׁבְעָא יוֹמִין, שַׁבַּתָּא. חַד לִתְלָתִין יוֹמִין, רֵישׁ יַרְחָא. בְּנִיסָן, פִּיסְחָא. בְּסִיוָן, עֲצֶרֶת. בְּתִשְׁרֵי, רֵישׁ שַׁתָּא וְצוֹמָא רַבָּא, וְחַגָּא דִּמְטַלַּלְתָּא. אָמַר לוֹ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ כָּךְ הֵם מְצֻוִּין בְּתוֹרָתָן. אָמַר לוֹ הָמָן, אִלּוּ הָיוּ מְשַׁמְרִין אֶת מוֹעֲדֵיהֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵינוּ, יָפֶה הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְבַזִּים מוֹעֲדֶיךָ, וְאֶת דָּתֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵינָם עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁאֵין מְשַׁמְּרִים לֹא קָלֶנְדָּס, וְלֹא סָטַרְנַלְיָא. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רָשָׁע אַתָּה מַפִּיל עַיִן רָעָה בְּמוֹעֲדֵיהֶם שֶׁלָּהֶם, הֲרֵי אֲנִי מַפִּילְךָ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּמוֹסִיפִים לָהֶם מוֹעֵד אֶחָד עַל מַפַּלְתְּךָ, זֶה יְמֵי הַפּוּרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יח, ז): פִּי כְסִיל מְחִתָּה לוֹ. וְלַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין שֹׁוֶה לְהַנִּיחָם, כָּל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה הָמָן מְקַטְרֵג אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִלְּמַטָּה, הָיָה מִיכָאֵל מְלַמֵּד עֲלֵיהֶם סָנֵיגוֹרְיָא מִלְּמַעְלָה, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם אֵין בָּנֶיךָ מִתְקַטְרְגִין לֹא עַל שֶׁעָבְדוּ עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְלֹא עַל שֶׁגִּלּוּ עֲרָיוֹת, וְלֹא עַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, אֶלָּא אֵין מִתְקַטְרְגִין אֶלָּא עַל שֶׁהֵן מְשַׁמְרִין אֶת דָּתוֹתֶיךָ, אָמַר לוֹ חַיֶּיךָ לָא שְׁבַקִּית וְלָא אֶשְׁבֹּק, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל א יב, כב): כִּי לֹא יִטּשׁ ה' אֶת עַמּוֹ בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל, בֵּין חַיָּבִין בֵּין זַכָּאִין, כָּךְ אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַנִּיחָם, לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָעוֹלָם בְּלֹא יִשְׂרָאֵל. (שיר השירים ח, ז): אִם יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת כָּל הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ, זֶה הָמָן הָרָשָׁע, שֶׁנָּתַן עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים כִּכַּר כֶּסֶף לְהַכְחִיד אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ.
67. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.5

9.5. And may Michael, archangel of righteousness, who opens the gates to the righteous, be my guardian (?) until he causes the righteous to enter.
68. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 15, 14

69. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 38, 37



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
adam Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
alexander the great Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
angel, angelic, angelic transformation, angelomorphism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, humanity, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79, 158
angelic beings Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79
angels Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290; Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
antiochos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
antiochus iv van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 91
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
apocalyptic Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
apotropaic devices Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
archangel, guardian, as Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414
archangel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263, 919, 967
astray Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
authorization Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
beast Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
beruriah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
biblical texts, verses as warrants for teaching Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
bidding, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
blessing Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
blow, trumpet, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919, 967
burial/funeral, wall paintings Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
call narrative Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
canon Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
cherub/cherubim Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919, 967
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
christian, deacons/deaconesses Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
christian/s, writings Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79
christians, forgiveness of sins Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
christians, servants/slaves of god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
circumcision Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
daniel (person) Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
daughters Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
day, great Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
demetrios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
demon, demonic Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
demonic/evil/hostile powers Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
derash, of straightforward meaning Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
devil/satan Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
diaspora van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 91
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
elijah Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 103
enoch Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
ethiopian Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
ethnicity (common features), proper name van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 91
eye, much-suffering Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
ezekiel Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
gabriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263, 919, 967; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79, 158
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
giant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
god, servants/slaves of god Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
gomorrah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
graffiti Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
greece Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
greek, ethnos Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
gush halav pendant Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
haggai, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
heaven/heavenly Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
heaven Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 103
hebrew (language) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
helbo, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
holy spirit Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
hospitality Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
iaoˉ sabaōth Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
idols, food offered to Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
indiction Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
inheritance Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
inscriptions, dedications Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
inscriptions, funerary Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
inscriptions, greek, boeˉth(e)i (help) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
isaac, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
isaac Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
israel (land of ) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
jehosaphat Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 103
jeremiah Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
jeremiah b. elazar, r., peshat reading of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
jerusalem van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 91
jesus christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79
jewelry amulets, pendants Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
jewish scriptures Immendörfer, Ephesians and Artemis: The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context (2017) 214
jews/jewish Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
judah, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 288
kittim, the Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 288
light Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
meir, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
michael, israels guardian, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
michael Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263, 919, 967; Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 147; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79, 158
michael (archangel) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
midrash Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
moon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
mosaic Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
moses Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218; Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
museums, epigraphic museum Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
mystery Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
names, latin Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
origen, distinctions between heresies and their taxonomy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 567, 568
orthodoxy, purity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 568
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
persia Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
peshat Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
power Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
practice Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
pray, prayer Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
prayer Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 414
qumran community Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 288
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
rabbi, peshat used by Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
rabin b. r. adda Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
raguel Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
raphael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263, 919, 967; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
rav, exegetical techniques of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
rava, on government hierarchy Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
repentance Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
resh lakish, peshat interpretations of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
sabaōth Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
sacrifice Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 62
sariel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263, 967
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 568
seraphim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
seth, revealer of mysteries, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 263
simeon b. yohai, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
sodom' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 185
son of man Lester, Prophetic Rivalry, Gender, and Economics: A Study in Revelation and Sibylline Oracles 4-5 (2018) 35
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
spirits Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 103
subject index, of enoch Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919
syrian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 418
temple van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 91
trumpet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 967
ulla, r./aha b. ulla, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
uriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919, 967; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 158
vindication of the righteous Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 288
wisdom tradition, jewish Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 38
worship Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 919; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 79
yahweh Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 29
yohanan, r., peshat interpretations of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
yose, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 218
μαρία Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
μυσός Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
πατρικία Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
σισίννιος Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290
ἀναναήλ Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 290