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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6274
Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13


כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4, 32.9, 32.39, 33.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 33.26. אֵין כָּאֵל יְשֻׁרוּן רֹכֵב שָׁמַיִם בְעֶזְרֶךָ וּבְגַאֲוָתוֹ שְׁחָקִים׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 33.26. There is none like unto God, O Jeshurun, Who rideth upon the heaven as thy help, And in His excellency on the skies."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.3, 15.26, 38.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃ 15.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָיו וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל־חֻקָּיו כָּל־הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה רֹפְאֶךָ׃ 38.8. וַיַּעַשׂ אֵת הַכִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְאֵת כַּנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת בְּמַרְאֹת הַצֹּבְאֹת אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name." 15.26. and He said: ‘If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD that healeth thee.’" 38.8. And he made the laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, of the mirrors of the serving women that did service at the door of the tent of meeting."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.6, 1.26-1.27, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.6, 13.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. בְּצֹאנָם וּבִבְקָרָם יֵלְכוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ חָלַץ מֵהֶם׃ 13.4. וְאָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וֵאלֹהִים זוּלָתִי לֹא תֵדָע וּמוֹשִׁיעַ אַיִן בִּלְתִּי׃ 5.6. With their flocks and with their herds they shall go To seek the LORD, but they shall not find Him; He hath withdrawn Himself from them." 13.4. Yet I am the LORD thy God From the land of Egypt; And thou knowest no God but Me, And beside Me there is no saviour."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 26.12, 38.12-38.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.12. בְּכֹחוֹ רָגַע הַיָּם ובתובנתו [וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ] מָחַץ רָהַב׃ 38.12. הְמִיָּמֶיךָ צִוִּיתָ בֹּקֶר ידעתה שחר [יִדַּעְתָּה] [הַשַּׁחַר] מְקֹמוֹ׃ 38.13. לֶאֱחֹז בְּכַנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ וְיִנָּעֲרוּ רְשָׁעִים מִמֶּנָּה׃ 26.12. He stirreth up the sea with His power, And by His understanding He smiteth through Rahab." 38.12. Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days began, And caused the dayspring to know its place;" 38.13. That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, And the wicked be shaken out of it?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 1.3, 7.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. כִּי־הִנֵּה יְהוָה יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ וְיָרַד וְדָרַךְ עַל־במותי [בָּמֳתֵי] אָרֶץ׃ 7.4. טוֹבָם כְּחֵדֶק יָשָׁר מִמְּסוּכָה יוֹם מְצַפֶּיךָ פְּקֻדָּתְךָ בָאָה עַתָּה תִהְיֶה מְבוּכָתָם׃ 1.3. For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place, And will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth." 7.4. The best of them is as a brier; The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge; The day of thy watchmen, even thy visitation, is come; Now shall be their perplexity."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 10.35-10.36, 14.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.35. וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה קוּמָה יְהוָה וְיָפֻצוּ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְיָנֻסוּ מְשַׂנְאֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 10.36. וּבְנֻחֹה יֹאמַר שׁוּבָה יְהוָה רִבְבוֹת אַלְפֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 14.14. וְאָמְרוּ אֶל־יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת שָׁמְעוּ כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־עַיִן בְּעַיִן נִרְאָה אַתָּה יְהוָה וַעֲנָנְךָ עֹמֵד עֲלֵהֶם וּבְעַמֻּד עָנָן אַתָּה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם וּבְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לָיְלָה׃ 10.35. And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said: ‘Rise up, O LORD, and let Thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate Thee flee before Thee.’" 10.36. And when it rested, he said: ‘Return, O LORD, unto the ten thousands of the families of Israel.’" 14.14. they will say to the inhabitants of this land, who have heard that Thou LORD art in the midst of this people; inasmuch as Thou LORD art seen face to face, and Thy cloud standeth over them, and Thou goest before them, in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.7, 46.8, 46.12, 68.8-68.9, 68.16-68.17, 69.22-69.23, 94.1, 94.9, 95.9, 104.29-104.30, 148.4-148.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.7. כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד מֵי הַיָּם נֹתֵן בְּאֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת׃ 46.8. יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת עִמָּנוּ מִשְׂגָּב־לָנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב סֶלָה׃ 46.12. יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת עִמָּנוּ מִשְׂגָּב־לָנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב סֶלָה׃ 68.8. אֱ‍לֹהִים בְּצֵאתְךָ לִפְנֵי עַמֶּךָ בְּצַעְדְּךָ בִישִׁימוֹן סֶלָה׃ 68.9. אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה אַף־שָׁמַיִם נָטְפוּ מִפְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים זֶה סִינַי מִפְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 68.16. הַר־אֱלֹהִים הַר־בָּשָׁן הַר גַּבְנֻנִּים הַר־בָּשָׁן׃ 68.17. לָמָּה תְּרַצְּדוּן הָרִים גַּבְנֻנִּים הָהָר חָמַד אֱלֹהִים לְשִׁבְתּוֹ אַף־יְהוָה יִשְׁכֹּן לָנֶצַח׃ 69.22. וַיִּתְּנוּ בְּבָרוּתִי רֹאשׁ וְלִצְמָאִי יַשְׁקוּנִי חֹמֶץ׃ 69.23. יְהִי־שֻׁלְחָנָם לִפְנֵיהֶם לְפָח וְלִשְׁלוֹמִים לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 94.1. אֵל־נְקָמוֹת יְהוָה אֵל נְקָמוֹת הוֹפִיַע׃ 94.1. הֲיֹסֵר גּוֹיִם הֲלֹא יוֹכִיחַ הַמְלַמֵּד אָדָם דָּעַת׃ 94.9. הֲנֹטַע אֹזֶן הֲלֹא יִשְׁמָע אִם־יֹצֵר עַיִן הֲלֹא יַבִּיט׃ 95.9. אֲשֶׁר נִסּוּנִי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּחָנוּנִי גַּם־רָאוּ פָעֳלִי׃ 104.29. תַּסְתִּיר פָּנֶיךָ יִבָּהֵלוּן תֹּסֵף רוּחָם יִגְוָעוּן וְאֶל־עֲפָרָם יְשׁוּבוּן׃ 148.4. הַלְלוּהוּ שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 148.5. יְהַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה כִּי הוּא צִוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ׃ 33.7. He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap; He layeth up the deeps in storehouses." 46.8. The LORD of hosts is with us; The God of Jacob is our high tower. Selah" 46.12. The LORD of hosts is with us; The God of Jacob is our high tower. Selah" 68.8. O God, when Thou wentest forth before Thy people, When Thou didst march through the wilderness; Selah" 68.9. The earth trembled, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God; Even yon Sinai trembled at the presence of God, the God of Israel." 68.16. A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; A mountain of peaks is the mountain of Bashan." 68.17. Why look ye askance, ye mountains of peaks, At the mountain which God hath desired for His abode? Yea, the LORD will dwell therein for ever." 69.22. Yea, they put poison into my food; And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink." 69.23. Let their table before them become a snare; And when they are in peace, let it become a trap." 94.1. O LORD, Thou God to whom vengeance belongeth, Thou God to whom vengeance belongeth, shine forth." 94.9. He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?" 95.9. When your fathers tried Me, Proved Me, even though they saw My work." 104.29. Thou hidest Thy face, they vanish; Thou withdrawest their breath, they perish, And return to their dust." 104.30. Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created; and Thou renewest the face of the earth." 148.4. Praise Him, ye heavens of heavens, And ye waters that are above the heavens." 148.5. Let them praise the name of the LORD; For He commanded, and they were created."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.2-4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹה וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ׃ 4.2. וְעַמִּינָדָב הוֹלִיד אֶת־נַחְשׁוֹן וְנַחְשׁוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־שַׂלְמָה׃ 4.3. וַיֹּאמֶר לַגֹּאֵל חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר לְאָחִינוּ לֶאֱלִימֶלֶךְ מָכְרָה נָעֳמִי הַשָּׁבָה מִשְּׂדֵה מוֹאָב׃ 4.4. וַאֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֶגְלֶה אָזְנְךָ לֵאמֹר קְנֵה נֶגֶד הַיֹּשְׁבִים וְנֶגֶד זִקְנֵי עַמִּי אִם־תִּגְאַל גְּאָל וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל הַגִּידָה לִּי ואדע [וְאֵדְעָה] כִּי אֵין זוּלָתְךָ לִגְאוֹל וְאָנֹכִי אַחֲרֶיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֶגְאָל׃ 4.5. וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּעַז בְּיוֹם־קְנוֹתְךָ הַשָּׂדֶה מִיַּד נָעֳמִי וּמֵאֵת רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה אֵשֶׁת־הַמֵּת קניתי [קָנִיתָה] לְהָקִים שֵׁם־הַמֵּת עַל־נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לֹא אוּכַל לגאול־[לִגְאָל־] לִי פֶּן־אַשְׁחִית אֶת־נַחֲלָתִי גְּאַל־לְךָ אַתָּה אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתִי כִּי לֹא־אוּכַל לִגְאֹל׃ 4.7. וְזֹאת לְפָנִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּה וְעַל־הַתְּמוּרָה לְקַיֵּם כָּל־דָּבָר שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ וְנָתַן לְרֵעֵהוּ וְזֹאת הַתְּעוּדָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לְבֹעַז קְנֵה־לָךְ וַיִּשְׁלֹף נַעֲלוֹ׃ 4.2. And he took ten men of the elders of the city, and said: ‘Sit ye down here.’ And they sat down." 4.3. And he said unto the near kinsman: ‘Naomi, that is come back out of the field of Moab, selleth the parcel of land, which was our brother Elimelech’s;" 4.4. and I thought to disclose it unto thee, saying: Buy it before them that sit here, and before the elders of my people. If thou wilt redeem it, redeem it; but if it will not be redeemed, then tell me, that I may know; for there is none to redeem it beside thee; and I am after thee.’ And he said: ‘I will redeem it.’" 4.5. Then said Boaz: ‘What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi—hast thou also bought of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance?’" 4.6. And the near kinsman said: ‘I cannot redeem it for myself, lest I mar mine own inheritance; take thou my right of redemption on thee; for I cannot redeem it.’—" 4.7. Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this was the attestation in Israel.—" 4.8. So the near kinsman said unto Boaz: ‘Buy it for thyself.’ And he drew off his shoe."
10. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 45.7, 51.15, 54.1, 54.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 45.7. יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 51.15. וְאָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַּלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.16. הן [הִנֵּה] אָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי חָרָשׁ נֹפֵחַ בְּאֵשׁ פֶּחָם וּמוֹצִיא כְלִי לְמַעֲשֵׂהוּ וְאָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי מַשְׁחִית לְחַבֵּל׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 45.7. I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil; I am the LORD, that doeth all these things." 51.15. For I am the LORD thy God, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar; The LORD of hosts is His name." 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 54.16. Behold, I have created the smith That bloweth the fire of coals, And bringeth forth a weapon for his work; And I have created the waster to destroy."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.12, 31.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;" 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:"
13. Homer, Odyssey, 5.340 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.6. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.6. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.’"
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 75 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

75. It is on this account that Moses says, at the creation of man alone that God said, "Let us make man," which expression shows an assumption of other beings to himself as assistants, in order that God, the governor of all things, might have all the blameless intentions and actions of man, when he does right attributed to him; and that his other assistants might bear the imputation of his contrary actions. For it was fitting that the Father should in the eyes of his children be free from all imputation of evil; and vice and energy in accordance with vice are evil.
16. Mishnah, Avot, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.14. Rabbi Elazar said:Be diligent in the study the torah; And know how to answer an epicuros, And know before whom you toil, and that your employer is faithful, for He will pay you the reward of your labor."
17. Mishnah, Berachot, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine [for a zimun], but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless."
18. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
19. New Testament, Galatians, 4.21-4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman.
20. New Testament, John, 1.3, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 3.8. The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but don't know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit.
21. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.9. פִּילוֹסוֹפִי אֶחָד שָׁאַל אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ צַיָּר גָּדוֹל הוּא אֱלֹהֵיכֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁמָּצָא סַמְּמָנִים טוֹבִים שֶׁסִּיְּעוּ אוֹתוֹ, תֹּהוּ, וָבֹהוּ, וְחשֶׁךְ, וְרוּחַ, וּמַיִם, וּתְהוֹמוֹת. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תִּפַּח רוּחֵיהּ דְּהַהוּא גַּבְרָא, כּוּלְּהוֹן כְּתִיב בָּהֶן בְּרִיאָה, תֹּהוּ וָבֹהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מה, ז): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע. חשֶׁךְ (ישעיה מה, ז): יוֹצֵר אוֹר וגו', מַיִם (תהלים קמח, ד): הַלְּלוּהוּ שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהַמַּיִם, לָמָּה, שֶׁצִּוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ. רוּחַ (עמוס ד, יג): כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ. תְּהוֹמוֹת (משלי ח, כד): בְּאֵין תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי. 1.9. A philosopher once asked Rabbah Gamliel and said to him, ''Your God is only a great artist because he found great materials that helped him: tohu and vohu, darkness, spirit, water, and the depths.\" Rabbi Gamliel responded to him: \"Your spirit should blow! Regarding all of them, the term 'creation' is written: tohu and vohu, as it says (Isaiah 45:7), 'He makes peace and creates evil'; darkness, 'He fashions light and creates darkness'; water (Tehillim 148:5), 'Praise the heavens and the waters' - why? - for 'He commanded and they were created'; spirit (Amos 4:13), 'For behold he fashions mountains and creates spirit'; the depths (Mishlei 8:24), 'When there were no depths, I was created.'\""
22. Athanasius, Letters To Serapion, 3.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

23. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. bEvery chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the manwho has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). bAnd he concluded with “happy,” as it is writtenat the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. bHappy are those who take refuge in Him”(Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say iHalleluyauntil he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: bThere were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking?On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, bas it is written: “Let sins cease from the land”(Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But bis it written,let bsinnerscease?” Let bsinscease, bis written.One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., bMoreover, go to the end of the verse,where it says: b“And the wicked will be no more.”If, as you suggest, btransgressions shall ceaserefers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that bthe wicked will be no more,i.e., that they will no longer be evil? bRather, pray forGod to have bmercy on them, that they should repent,as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct band he prayed forGod to have bmercy on them, and they repented. /b,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: bA certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth,open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). bBecause she has not given birth,she should bsingand rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and bsaid: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b, bRather, whatis the meaning of: b“Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”?It means: bSing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who aredestined bfor Gehenna like you. /b,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom”(Psalms 3:1), bandsimilarly bit is said:“To the chief musician, ial tashḥet /i, ba imikhtamof David when fleeing from Saul into the cave”(Psalms 57:1). bWhich event was first? Since the event with Saul was first,it would have been appropriate bto write it first. /b,Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him:For byou, who donot employ the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is difficult.But for bus, whoemploy the bhomileticmethod bof juxtapositionof verses, bit is not difficult,as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, bRabbi Yoḥa said: From wherein the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the bjuxtapositionof verses? bAs it is said:“The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. bAdjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness”(Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, bWhy was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog?They are juxtaposed bsothat bif a person should say to you,expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: bIs there a slave who rebels against his master?Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? bYou too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his fatherand severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? bYet,nevertheless, bthere wassuch a son, Absalom, and bso too therecan bbea situation where people will seek to rebel against God., bRabbi Yoḥa saidexplanations of other verses bin the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue”(Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so bwith reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said thisverse babout none other than his father, David,who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and bwho resided in five worldsor stages of life bandhis soul bsaid a songof praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., bHe resided in his mother’s womb,his first world, band said a songof praise of the pregcy, bas it is stated:“of David. bBless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name”(Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., bHe emerged into the atmosphere of the world,his second world, blooked upon the stars and constellations and said a songof praise of God for the entirety of creation, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts,His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i)., bHe nursed from his mother’s breast,his third world, band he looked upon her bosom and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ igemulav /i]”(Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between igemulavand igemulei meḥalav /i, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, bwhat ismeant by ball His benefits?What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? bRabbi Abbahu said:In contrast with most other animals, God bplaced her breastsnear her heart, bthe placethat is the source bof understanding. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat God did this? bRav Yehuda said: So thatthe nursing child bwould not look upon the place ofhis mother’s bnakedness. Rav Mattana said: So thatthe child bwould not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b, bHe witnessedin both vision and reality bthe downfall of the wicked and he said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David blooked upon the day of death and said a songof praise, bas it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty”(Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat bthisverse bwas stated with regard to the day of death?Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this bfromthe verses at bthe end of the matter,where bit is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perishand return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how bRav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularlystudy bbefore Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi,who was well versed in iaggadaand bwould arrange the iaggadabefore Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. brOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi bsaid to him: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? brRav Shimi bar Ukva bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bCome and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood,as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. bThe attribute of flesh and blood issuch that he bshapes a form on the wallfor all to see, yet bhe cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines.While bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so,as God bshapes one form within another form,a child in its mother’s womb, band instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this isthe explanation of bwhat Hannah saidwith regard to the birth of Samuel: b“There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God”(I Samuel 2:2)., bWhat isthe meaning of bthere is no rock [ itzur /i] like our God? There is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God. /b,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of b“there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not readthe verse to mean b“there is none like You [ ibiltekha /i]”; rather, readit to mean b“none can outlast You [ ilevalotkha /i],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood issuch bthat his creations outlast him,but bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who bsaid toRabbi Shimon ben Pazi: bImeant to bsay to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these fiveinstance of b“Blessthe Lord, bO my soul”?He answered him: bHe said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul,as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. br bJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber,in His inner sanctum, bso too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber,in the innermost recesses of the body. brTherefore, bthat which has these five characteristics,the soul, bshould come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. bRav Hamnuna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenpraising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b“Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ ipesher /i] of the matter”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: bWho is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ ipeshara /i] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah,the king of Judea, band Isaiahthe prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. bHezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijahthe prophet, bwho went to Ahab,the king of Israel, bas it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab”(I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. bAnd Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab,king of Israel, bwho went to Elishathe prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., bWhat did the Holy One, Blessed be He, doto effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? bHe brought the sufferingof illness bupon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick.Isaiah did as God instructed, bas it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live”(Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; bwhat isthe meaning of byou will die and you will not live?This repetition means: bYou will die in this world, and you will not live,you will have no share, bin the World-to-Come. /b,Hezekiah bsaid to him: What is all of this?For what transgression am I being punished? brIsaiah bsaid to him: Because you did notmarry and bengage in procreation. brHezekiah apologized and bsaid:I had no children bbecause I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous.Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah bsaid to him: Why do youinvolve byourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded,the mitzva of procreation, byou are required to perform, and that which is acceptablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform,as He has so decided.,Hezekiah bsaid toIsaiah: bNow give me your daughteras my wife; bperhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. brIsaiah bsaid to him: The decree has already been decreed against youand this judgment cannot be changed. brHezekiah bsaid to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave.As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: bI have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father,from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: bEvenif ba sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy.One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that bit was also saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is statedin the words of Job: b“Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”(Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

101a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הדלת שבמוקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות אין נועלין בהן אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת ואין צריך לומר ביום טוב,אמר אביי בשיש להם ציר רבא אמר בשהיה להן ציר,מיתיבי דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין וגבוהים מן הארץ אפילו מלא נימא נועלין בהן ואם לאו אין נועלין בהן,אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה או שיש להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ רבא מתרץ לטעמיה כשהיה להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ,ת"ר סוכי קוצים וחבילין שהתקינן לפירצה שבחצר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט,תני ר' חייא דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועלין בה היכי דמי דלת אלמנה איכא דאמרי דחד שיפא ואיכא דאמרי דלית ליה גשמה,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא ממעלה למטה שרי ממטה למעלה אסיר,וכן ביעתא וכן קידרא וכן פוריא וכן חביתא,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהושע בן חנניה חדקאה דכתיב בכו (מיכה ז, ד) טובם כחדק אמר ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב ישר ממסוכה ואלא מאי טובם כחדק כשם שחדקים הללו מגינין על הפירצה כך טובים שבנו מגינים עלינו דבר אחר טובם כחדק שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנם שנאמר (מיכה ד, יג) קומי ודושי בת ציון כי קרנך אשים ברזל ופרסותיך אשים נחושה והדיקות עמים רבים וגו':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד אא"כ עשה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר' מאיר,אמרו לו מעשה בשוק של פטמים שהיה בירושלים שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח רבי יוסי אומר שוק של צמרים הוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן אמר רבי מאיר רשות הרבים ומהדרו אינהו כרמלית דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ירושלים אלמלא דלתותיה ננעלות בלילה חייבין עליה משום רשות הרבים,אמר רב פפא כאן קודם שנפרצו בה פרצות כאן לאחר שנפרצו בה פרצות,רבא אמר סיפא אתאן לשערי גינה והכי קאמר וכן לא יעמוד ברשות היחיד ויפתח בכרמלית בכרמלית ויפתח ברשות היחיד 101a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe door to a rear court,i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; bandlikewise bbundles of thornsthat seal ba breach; andreed bmats, onemay bnot closean opening bwith themon Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, bunless theyremain babove the groundeven when they are open., strongGEMARA: /strong bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice [ ikankan /i] that dragalong the ground and are used for closing up openings, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to saythis is permitted bon a Festival.According to the ibaraita /i, the critical factor is apparently that they must be tied and suspended, not that they have to be held up above the ground., bAbaye said:The ibaraitais referring btoones bthat have a hinge.As they are considered proper doors, closing them does not appear like building. bRava said:The ibaraitais referring even btodoors bthatonce bhad a hinge,even though they no longer have one. These partitions also bear the clear form of a door, and therefore one’s action does not have the appearance of building.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: With regard to ba door, or a mat, or a lattice that dragalong the ground, bwhen they are tied and suspendedin place bandthey are held babove the ground even byas little as ba hairbreadth, onemay bclosean opening bwith them. However, ifthey are bnotraised in this manner, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith them.Clearly, these doors must indeed be raised above the ground as well.,The Gemara answers: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning, and Rava reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning.The Gemara elaborates: bAbaye reconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoningby adding to the ibaraita /i: They must beither have a hinge orbe held babove the ground. Ravalikewise breconcilesthe objection bin accordance with his reasoning,as he reads: They must bhave had a hinge orelse be held babove the ground. /b, bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to bbranches of thorn bushes or bundlesof wood bthat were arrangedso that they sealed off ba breach in a courtyard, when they are tied and suspendedin place, bonemay bclosean opening bwith them on Shabbat; and needless to say,this is permitted bon a Festival. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya taughta ibaraita /i: With regard to ba widowed door that dragsalong the ground, bonemay bnot closean opening bwith it.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof ba widowed door? Some sayit refers to a door built bfrom a single plank,which does not look like a door, band others sayit is ba door that does not have a lower doorsill( ige’onim /i) and that touches the ground when closed.,With regard to activities that are prohibited because of their similarity to building, the Gemara cites a teaching that bRav Yehuda said:When arranging a pile of wood for ba fireon a Festival, if the logs are arranged bfrom the top down,i.e., the upper logs are temporarily suspended in the air while the lower logs are inserted below them, bit is permitted.However, if the wood is placed from bthe bottom up, it is prohibited,as the arrangement of wood in the regular manner is a form of building., bAnd the sameapplies to beggsthat are to be arranged in a pile, band the sameapplies to ba cauldronthat is to be set down on a fire by means of supports, band the sameapplies to a bbedthat will be placed on its frame, band the sameapplies to bbarrelsarranged in a cellar. In all these cases, the part that goes on top must be temporarily suspended in the air while the lower section is inserted beneath it.,With regard to bundles of thorns used to seal a breach, the Gemara cites a related incident: bA certain hereticonce bsaid to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Man of thorns! For it says about you: “The best of them is as a brier”(Micah 7:4), which indicates that even Israel’s best are merely thorns. bHe said to him: Fool, go down to the end of the verse: “The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge,”a derogatory expression meant as praise. bRather, what isthe meaning of bthe best of them is as a brier?It means that bjust as these thorns protect a breach, so the best among us protect us. Alternatively: The best of them is as a brier [ iḥedek /i]means bthat they grind [ imehaddekin /i] the nations of the world into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs brass, and you shall beat in pieces [ ivahadikot /i] many peoples;and you shall devote their gain to God, and their substance to the God of the whole earth” (Micah 4:13)., strongMISHNA: /strong bA personmay bnot stand in the private domain and opena door located bin the public domainwith a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand bin the public domain and opena door bin the private domainwith a key, bunlessin the latter case bhe erected a partition ten handbreadths higharound the door and stands inside it. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Rabbis bsaid to him:There was ban incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem,where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥael), band they would lockthe doors to their shops band place the key in the window that was over the door,which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. bRabbi Yosei says:That place bwas a market of wool dealers. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bAndthose bRabbis,who cited the case of the poultry dealers of Jerusalem to rebut Rabbi Meir’s opinion, bRabbi Meir spoketo them about unlocking a door in a private domain while standing bin the public domain, and they respondedwith an incident involving ba ikarmelit /i. As Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to bJerusalem, were it notfor the fact that bits doors are locked at night, one would be liable forcarrying in biton Shabbat, bbecauseits thoroughfares have the status of bthe public domain.However, since Jerusalem’s doors are typically locked, it is considered one large ikarmelit /i, which is subject to rabbinic prohibitions. How, then, could a proof be cited from the markets of Jerusalem with regard to the transfer of objects between a public domain and a private domain, which is prohibited by Torah law?, bRav Pappa said: Here,in the statement of Rabbi Yoha, Jerusalem was considered a ikarmelitduring the period bbefore breaches were made in itswalls. Its doors did not turn it into a public domain, as they were locked. Whereas bthere,the Rabbis in the mishna are referring to the time bafter breaches had been made inthe walls, and it therefore acquired the status of a public domain., bRava said: In the latter clauseof the mishna bwe came toa different issue, i.e., the final section of the mishna is not designed to counter Rabbi Meir’s statement with regard to the public domain. Rather, it refers btothe bgates of a gardenwith an area greater than two ibeit se’ain size, whose legal status is that of a ikarmelit /i. Consequently, the mishna bis saying as follows: And likewise,one may bnot stand in the private domain and opena door bin a ikarmelit /i;neither may one stand bin a ikarmelitand opena door bin the private domain, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87a. הכי השתא התם משתא וברוכי בהדי הדדי לא אפשר הכא אפשר דשחיט בחדא ומכסי בחדא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר חייב לכסות כסהו ונתגלה פטור מלכסות כסהו הרוח חייב לכסות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך וכסה מי ששפך יכסה שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר מנין שחייב לכסות שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יד) ואומר לבני ישראל אזהרה לכל בני ישראל,תניא אידך ושפך וכסה במה ששפך בו יכסה שלא יכסנו ברגל שלא יהיו מצות בזויות עליו תניא אידך ושפך וכסה מי ששפך הוא יכסנו מעשה באחד ששחט וקדם חבירו וכסה וחייבו רבן גמליאל ליתן לו י' זהובים,איבעיא להו שכר מצוה או שכר ברכה למאי נפקא מינה לברכת המזון אי אמרת שכר מצוה אחת היא ואי אמרת שכר ברכה הויין ארבעים מאי,תא שמע דא"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי מי שיצר הרים לא ברא רוח ומי שברא רוח לא יצר הרים דכתיב (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אמר ליה שוטה שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ה' צבאות שמו,אמר ליה נקוט לי זימנא תלתא יומי ומהדרנא לך תיובתא יתיב רבי תלת תעניתא כי הוה קא בעי מיברך אמרו ליה צדוקי קאי אבבא אמר (תהלים סט, כב) ויתנו בברותי רוש וגו',א"ל רבי מבשר טובות אני לך לא מצא תשובה אויבך ונפל מן הגג ומת אמר לו רצונך שתסעוד אצלי אמר לו הן לאחר שאכלו ושתו א"ל כוס של ברכה אתה שותה או ארבעים זהובים אתה נוטל אמר לו כוס של ברכה אני שותה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כוס של ברכה ישוה ארבעים זהובים,אמר רבי יצחק עדיין שנה לאותה משפחה בין גדולי רומי וקוראין אותה משפחת בר לויאנוס:,כסהו ונתגלה: אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מאי שנא מהשבת אבדה דאמר מר (דברים כב, א) השב אפילו מאה פעמים,אמר ליה התם לא כתיב מיעוטא הכא כתיב מיעוטא וכסהו:,כסהו הרוח: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שחזר ונתגלה אבל לא חזר ונתגלה פטור מלכסות וכי חזר ונתגלה מאי הוי הא אידחי ליה אמר רב פפא זאת אומרת אין דיחוי אצל מצות,ומאי שנא מהא דתניא השוחט ונבלע דם בקרקע חייב לכסות התם כשרשומו ניכר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דם שנתערב במים אם יש בו מראית דם חייב לכסות נתערב ביין רואין אותו כאילו הוא מים נתערב בדם הבהמה 87a. The Gemara rejects this: bHow canthese cases bbe compared? There,in the incident involving the students of Rav, it is bimpossible to drink and recite a blessing simultaneously.Accordingly, by requesting a cup over which to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, they demonstrated their desire to cease drinking. bHere,when one covers the blood of the undomesticated animal before slaughtering the bird, it is bpossible to slaughterthe bird bwith the onehand band coverthe blood of the undomesticated animal bwith theother bone.Accordingly, the act of covering the blood of the undomesticated animal is not considered an interruption of the acts of slaughter, since they could have been performed simultaneously., strongMISHNA: /strong If one bslaughteredan undomesticated animal or bird band did not coverthe blood, band anotherperson bsawthe uncovered blood, the second person is bobligated to coverthe blood. If one bcoveredthe blood band it wasthen buncovered,he is bexempt from covering itagain. If bthe windblew earth on the blood and bcovered it,and it was consequently uncovered, he is bobligated to coverthe blood., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth” (Leviticus 17:13), indicating that bthe one who poured outits blood, i.e., slaughtered the animal, bshall cover it.If one bslaughteredthe animal or bird band did not coverthe blood, band another person sawthe uncovered blood, bfrom whereis it derived bthatthe person who saw the blood bis obligated to coverit? It is derived from the following verse, bas it is stated: “Therefore I said to the children of Israel”(Leviticus 17:12), which is ba warning to all the children of Israelto fulfill the mitzva of covering the blood., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth,” indicating that bwith that which he poured outthe blood bhe shall cover it,i.e., he must use his hand, and bhemay bnot cover it withhis bfoot, so that mitzvot will not be contemptible to him. It is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall pour outits blood band coverit with earth,” indicating that bthe one who poured outthe blood bshall cover it. An incidentoccurred binvolving one who slaughteredan undomesticated animal or bird band anotherindividual bpreemptedhim band coveredthe blood, band Rabban Gamliel deemed him obligated to give ten gold coins tothe one who performed the act of slaughter., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Are these ten gold coins bcompensationfor the stolen bmitzva orare they bcompensationfor the stolen bblessingrecited over the mitzva? The Gemara elaborates: bWhat is thepractical bdifference?The difference is bwith regard toa similar case involving bGrace after Meals. If you saythe coins are bcompensation for the mitzva,then with regard to Grace after Meals, since all its blessings constitute bonemitzva, one would be obligated to give only ten gold coins. bBut if you saythey are bcompensation for thelost bblessing,then with regard to Grace after Meals the compensation bis fortygold coins, since Grace after Meals comprises four blessings. bWhatis the conclusion?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from an incident in bwhich a certain heretic said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bHe who created mountains did not create wind, and he who created wind did not create mountains;rather, each was created by a separate deity, bas it is written: “For behold, He Who forms the mountains and He Who creates the wind”(Amos 4:13), indicating that there are two deities: One who forms the mountains and one who creates the wind. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Imbecile, go to the end of the verse,which states: b“The Lord, the God of hosts, is His name.”The verse emphasizes that God is the One Who both forms and creates.,The heretic bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bGive me three days’ time and I will respond to youwith ba rebuttalof your claim. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsatand fasted bthreedays of bfastingwhile awaiting the heretic, in order that he would not find a rebuttal. bWhenRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bwanted to have a mealat the conclusion of those three days, bthey said to him:That bheretic is standing at the doorway.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi brecitedthe following verse about himself: b“They put gall into my food,and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalms 69:22), i.e., my meal is embittered with the presence of this heretic.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the door he saw that it was in fact a different heretic, not the one who asked for three days to prepare a rebuttal. This heretic bsaid to him: Rabbi, I am a bearer of good tidings for you: Your enemy did not find a response, and he threw himself from the roof and died.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tothe heretic: Since you have brought me good tidings, bwould you like to dine with me?The heretic bsaid to him: Yes. After they ate and drank,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tothe heretic: Would byoulike to bdrink the cup of blessing,i.e., the cup of wine over which the Grace after Meals is recited, borwould byoulike to btake forty gold coinsinstead, and I will recite the Grace after Meals? The heretic bsaid to him: Iwill bdrink the cup of blessing. A Divine Voice emerged and said: The cup of blessing is worth forty gold coins.Evidently, each one of the blessings in the Grace after Meals is worth ten gold coins.,The Gemara adds: bRabbi Yitzḥak says: That familyof the heretic who dined with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bstill exists among the prominentfamilies bof Rome, andthat family bis called: The family of bar Luyyanus. /b,§ The mishna teaches that if one bcoveredthe blood band it wasthen buncoveredhe is not obligated to cover it again. bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What is differentabout this case from the mitzva of breturning a lost item, where the Master said:The verse states with regard to the obligation to return a lost item: b“You shall returnthem to your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1), beven one hundred times? /b,Rav Ashi bsaid toRav Aḥa: bThere,in the verse discussing the obligation to return a lost item, ba restriction is not writtenin the verse to limit the obligation. bHere,in the verse discussing the obligation to cover the blood, ba restriction is written,as the verse states: b“And he shall cover it.”The usage of the term “it” indicates that one must cover the blood only one time.,§ The mishna teaches that if bthe windblew earth on the blood and bcovered itone is obligated to cover the blood. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlyif the blood bwas again uncovered. Butif the blood bwas not again uncoveredone is bexempt fromthe obligation bto cover it.The Gemara asks: bAnd whenthe blood bwas again uncovered, what of it? Isn’t italready brejectedfrom the mitzva of covering since it was covered by the wind? bRav Pappa said: That is to saythat bthere is no permanentrejection bwith regard to mitzvot.Although the wind covered the blood, the mitzva to cover it was not rendered null; rather, the mitzva simply could not be performed. Consequently, once the blood is again uncovered, the mitzva to cover the blood remains in place.,The Gemara asks: bButeven if the wind covered the blood and it remained covered, why is one exempt from performing the mitzva of covering the blood? bWhat is differentabout this case bfrom that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In a case where bone slaughtersan undomesticated animal or a bird bandits bblood is absorbed by the ground,one is bobligated to coverthe blood? The Gemara responds: bThere,the ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere the impressionof the blood bisstill brecognizable,i.e., it was not entirely absorbed in the ground., strongMISHNA: /strong In a case of the bbloodof an undomesticated animal or bird bthat was mixed with water, if there is inthe mixture bthe appearance of bloodone is bobligated to coverit. If the blood bwas mixed with wine one viewsthe wine bas though it is water,and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird bwas mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal,which one does not have to cover
26. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. בפרוזבוטי אמר רב פפא וקרו ליה עבדא דמזדבן בטלמי,וכל זה איננו שוה לי מלמד שכל גנזיו של אותו רשע חקוקין על לבו ובשעה שרואה את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה איננו שוה לי,ואמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא עתיד הקב"ה להיות עטרה בראש כל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ה) ביום ההוא יהיה ה' צבאות לעטרת צבי [וגו'] מאי לעטרת צבי ולצפירת תפארה לעושין צביונו ולמצפין תפארתו יכול לכל ת"ל לשאר עמו למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,ולרוח משפט זה הדן את יצרו וליושב על המשפט זה הדן דין אמת לאמתו ולגבורה זה המתגבר על יצרו משיבי מלחמה שנושאין ונותנין במלחמתה של תורה שערה [אלו ת"ח] שמשכימין ומעריבין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה,אמר ליה גם אלה ביין שגו ובשכר תעו פקו פליליה אין פקו אלא גיהנם שנאמר (שמואל א כה, לא) ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה ואין פליליה אלא דיינין שנאמר (שמות כא, כב) ונתן בפלילים,ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית א"ר לוי כיון שהגיעה לבית הצלמים נסתלקה הימנה שכינה אמרה (תהלים כב, ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני שמא אתה דן על שוגג כמזיד ועל אונס כרצון,או שמא על שקראתיו כלב שנאמר (תהלים כב, כא) הצילה מחרב נפשי מיד כלב יחידתי חזרה וקראתו אריה שנאמר (תהלים כב, כב) הושיעני מפי אריה,ויהי כראות המלך את אסתר המלכה אמר רבי יוחנן ג' מלאכי השרת נזדמנו לה באותה שעה אחד שהגביה את צוארה ואחד שמשך חוט של חסד עליה ואחד שמתח את השרביט,וכמה אמר רבי ירמיה שתי אמות היה והעמידו על שתים עשרה ואמרי לה על שש עשרה ואמרי לה על עשרים וארבע במתניתא תנא על ששים וכן אתה מוצא באמתה של בת פרעה וכן אתה מוצא בשיני רשעים דכתיב (תהלים ג, ח) שיני רשעים שברת ואמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי שברת אלא שריבבת רבה בר עופרן אמר משום ר"א ששמע מרבו ורבו מרבו מאתים,ויאמר לה המלך לאסתר המלכה מה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות ותעש חצי המלכות ולא כל המלכות ולא דבר שחוצץ למלכות ומאי ניהו בנין בית המקדש,יבא המלך והמן אל המשתה ת"ר מה ראתה אסתר שזימנה את המן ר"א אומר פחים טמנה לו שנאמר (תהלים סט, כג) יהי שלחנם לפניהם לפח,ר' יהושע אומר מבית אביה למדה שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שונאך האכילהו לחם וגו' ר"מ אומר כדי שלא יטול עצה וימרוד,ר' יהודה אומר כדי שלא יכירו בה שהיא יהודית ר' נחמיה אומר כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל אחות יש לנו בבית המלך ויסיחו דעתן מן הרחמים ר' יוסי אומר כדי שיהא מצוי לה בכל עת ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר אולי ירגיש המקום ויעשה לנו נס,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אסביר לו פנים כדי שיהרג הוא והיא רבן גמליאל אומר מלך הפכפכן היה אמר רבי גמליאל עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דתניא ר' אליעזר המודעי אומר קנאתו במלך קנאתו בשרים,רבה אמר (משלי טז, יח) לפני שבר גאון אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו (ירמיהו נא, לט) בחומם אשית את משתיהם וגו' אשכחיה רבה בר אבוה לאליהו א"ל כמאן חזיא אסתר ועבדא הכי א"ל ככולהו תנאי וככולהו אמוראי,ויספר להם המן את כבוד עשרו ורוב בניו וכמה רוב בניו אמר רב ל' עשרה מתו ועשרה נתלו ועשרה מחזרין על הפתחים,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמחזרין על הפתחים שבעים הויא דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ה) שבעים בלחם נשכרו אל תקרי שבעים אלא שבעים,ורמי בר אבא אמר כולן מאתים ושמונה הוו שנאמר ורוב בניו ורוב בגימטריא מאתן וארביסר הוו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ורב כתיב,בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך אמר רבי תנחום נדדה שנת מלכו של עולם ורבנן אמרי נדדו עליונים נדדו תחתונים רבא אמר שנת המלך אחשורוש ממש,נפלה ליה מילתא בדעתיה אמר מאי דקמן דזמינתיה אסתר להמן דלמא עצה קא שקלי עילויה דההוא גברא למקטליה הדר אמר אי הכי לא הוה גברא דרחים לי דהוה מודע לי הדר אמר דלמא איכא איניש דעבד בי טיבותא ולא פרעתיה משום הכי מימנעי אינשי ולא מגלו לי מיד ויאמר להביא את ספר הזכרונות דברי הימים,ויהיו נקראים מלמד שנקראים מאיליהן וימצא כתוב כתב מבעי ליה מלמד 15b. basone with the heritage of ba poor man [ iperozeboti /i],as Mordecai had been Haman’s slave master and was aware of Haman’s lowly lineage. bRav Pappa said: And he was called: The slave who was sold fora loaf of bbread. /b,Haman’s previously quoted statement: b“Yet all this avails me nothing”(Esther 5:13), bteaches that all the treasures of that wicked one were engraved on his heart, and when he saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate, he said:As long as Mordecai is around, ball thisthat I wear on my heart bavails me nothing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be a crown on the head of each and every righteous man. As it is stated: “In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory,and for a diadem of beauty, to the residue of His people” (Isaiah 28:5). bWhat isthe meaning of b“for a crown of glory [ itzevi /i], and for a diadem [ ivelitzefirat /i] of beauty”?A crown bfor those that do His will [ itzivyono /i] anda diadem bfor those that await [ ivelamtzapin /i] His glory.One bmighthave thought that this extends bto allsuch individuals. Therefore, bthe verse states: “To the residue of his people,” to whoever regards himself as a remainder,i.e., small and unimportant like residue. But whoever holds himself in high esteem will not merit this.,Apropos the quotation from Isaiah, the Gemara explains the following verse, which states: “And for a spirit of justice to him that sits in judgment and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate” (Isaiah 28:6). b“And for a spirit of justice”; thisis referring to bone who brings hisevil binclination to trialand forces himself to repent. b“To him that sits in judgment”; thisis referring to bone who judges an absolutely true judgment. “And for strength”; thisis referring to bone who triumphs over hisevil binclination. “Them that turn back the battle”;this is referring to those bthat give and takein their discussion of ihalakha bin the battle ofunderstanding bthe Torah. “To the gate”;this is referring to bthe Torah scholars who arrive early and stay lateat the darkened gates bof the synagogues and study halls. /b,The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. bThe Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how are these,referring to the Jewish people, bdifferent from those,the other nations of the world, such that God performs miracles only on behalf of the Jewish people? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toit: bThe Jewish people occupied themselves with Torah,whereas btheother bnations of the world did not occupy themselves with Torah. /b,The Attribute of Justice bsaid to Him: “These also reel through wine, and stagger through strong drink;the priest and the prophet reel through strong drink, they are confused because of wine, they stagger because of strong drink; they reel in vision, bthey stumble [ ipaku /i] in judgment [ ipeliliyya /i]”(Isaiah 28:7). The word ipaku /iin this context is referring bonly to Gehenna, as it is stated: “That this shall not be a cause of stumbling [ ipuka /i] to you”(I Samuel 25:31), bandthe word ipeliliyya /ihere is referring bonly to judges, as it is stated: “And he shall pay as the judges determine [ ibifelilim /i]”(Exodus 21:22). The response of the Attribute of Justice was essentially that the Jewish people have also sinned and are consequently liable to receive punishment.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the Megilla. The verse states with regard to Esther: b“And she stood in the inner court of the king’s house”(Esther 5:1). bRabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols,which was in the inner court, bthe Divine Presence left her. Sheimmediately bsaid: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?”(Psalms 22:2). bPerhapsit is because bYou judge an unintentional sin as oneperformed bintentionally, andan action bdone due tocircumstances bbeyond one’s control asone done bwillingly. /b, bOr perhapsYou have left me bbecausein my prayers bI calledHaman ba dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog”(Psalms 22:21). bSheat once bretracted and called himin her prayers ba lion, as it is statedin the following verse: b“Save me from the lion’s mouth”(Psalms 22:22).,The verse states: b“And so it was, that when the king saw Esther the queenstanding in the court, that she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand” (Esther 5:2). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three ministering angels happened to join her at that time: One that raised up her neck,so that she could stand erect, free of shame; bone that strung a cordof divine bgrace around her,endowing her with charm and beauty; band one that stretched theking’s bscepter. /b, bHow muchwas it stretched? bRabbi Yirmeya said:The scepter bwas two cubits, and he made it twelvecubits. bAnd some saythat he made it bsixteencubits, bandyet bothers say twenty-fourcubits. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:He made it bsixtycubits. bAnd similarly you find with the arm of Pharaoh’s daughter,which she stretched out to take Moshe. bAnd so too, you find with the teeth of the wicked, as it is written: “You have broken the teeth of the wicked”(Psalms 3:8), with regard to which bReish Lakish said: Do not readit as b“You have broken [ ishibbarta /i],” butas: bYou have enlarged [ isheribavta /i]. Rabba bar oferan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who heard it from his teacher, whoin turn heard it bfrom his teacher:The scepter was stretched btwo hundredcubits.,The verse states: b“Then the king said to her” (Esther 5:3), to Esther the queen, “What is your wish, even to half the kingdom, it shall be performed”(Esther 5:6). The Gemara comments that Ahasuerus intended only a limited offer: Only bhalf the kingdom, but not the whole kingdom, and not something that would serve as a barrier to the kingdom,as there is one thing to which the kingdom will never agree. bAnd what is that? The building of the Temple;if that shall be your wish, realize that it will not be fulfilled.,The verse states that Esther requested: “If it seem good unto the king, blet the king and Haman come this day to the banquetthat I have prepared for him” (Esther 5:4). bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat did Esther see to invite Hamanto the banquet? bRabbi Elazar says: She hid a snare for him, as it is stated: “Let their table become a snare before them”(Psalms 69:23), as she assumed that she would be able to trip up Haman during the banquet., bRabbi Yehoshua says: She learnedto do bthis fromthe Jewish teachings of bher father’s house, as it is stated: “If your enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat”(Proverbs 25:21). bRabbi Meir says:She invited him bin orderthat he be near her at all times, bso that he would not take counsel and rebelagainst Ahasuerus when he discovered that the king was angry with him., bRabbi Yehuda says:She invited Haman bso that it not be found out that she was a Jew,as had she distanced him, he would have become suspicious. bRabbi Neḥemya says:She did this bso that the Jewish people would not say: We have a sister in the king’s house, andconsequently bneglect theirprayers for divine bmercy. Rabbi Yosei says:She acted in this manner, bso thatHaman would balways be on hand for her,as that would enable her to find an opportunity to cause him to stumble before the king. bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya saidthat Esther said to herself: bPerhaps the Omnipresent will take noticethat all are supporting Haman and nobody is supporting the Jewish people, band He will perform for us a miracle. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:She said to herself: bI will act kindly toward himand thereby bring the king to suspect that we are having an affair; she did so bin order thatboth bhe and she would be killed.Essentially, Esther was willing to be killed with Haman in order that the decree would be annulled. bRabban Gamliel says:Ahasuerus bwas a fickle king,and Esther hoped that if he saw Haman on multiple occasions, eventually he would change his opinion of him. bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe words of Rabbi Eliezer bHaModa’ito understand why Esther invited Haman to her banquet. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer HaModa’i says: She made the king jealous of him and she made theother bministers jealous of him,and in this way she brought about his downfall., bRabba says:Esther invited Haman to her banquet in order to fulfill that which is stated: b“Pride goes before destruction”(Proverbs 16:18), which indicates that in order to destroy the wicked, one must first bring them to pride. It can be understood according to bAbaye and Rava, who both saythat she invited Haman in order to fulfill the verse: b“When they are heated, I will make feasts for them,and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep” (Jeremiah 51:39). The Gemara relates that bRabba bar Avuhonce bhappened upon Elijahthe Prophet and bsaid to him: In accordance with whose understanding did Esther seefit to bact in this manner?What was the true reason behind her invitation? bHe,Elijah, bsaid to him:Esther was motivated by all the reasons previously mentioned and did so bfor allthe reasons previously stated by bthe itanna’imand allthe reasons stated by bthe iamora’im /i. /b,The verse states: b“And Haman recounted to them the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his sons”(Esther 5:11). The Gemara asks: bAnd how manysons did he in fact have that are referred to as b“the multitude of his sons”? Rav said:There were bthirtysons; btenof them bdiedin childhood, bten of them were hangedas recorded in the book of Esther, band tensurvived and were forced to bbeg atother people’s bdoors. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Those that begged atother people’s bdoorsnumbered bseventy, as it is written: “Those that were full, have hired themselves out for bread”(I Samuel 2:5). bDo not read it as: “Those that were full” [ iseve’im/b]; brather,read it as bseventy [ ishivim /i],indicating that there were seventy who “hired themselves out for bread.”, bAnd Rami bar Abba said: All ofHaman’s sons together numbered btwo hundred and eight, as it is stated: “And the multitude [ iverov /i] of his sons.”The numerical value of the word iverovequals two hundred and eight, alluding to the number of his sons. The Gemara comments: bButin fact, bthe numerical value [ igimatriyya /i] ofthe word iverovequals two hundred and fourteen,not two hundred and eight. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The word iverovis writtenin the Bible without the second ivav /i, and therefore its numerical value equals two hundred and eight.,The verse states: b“On that night the sleep of the king was disturbed”(Esther 6:1). bRabbi Tanḥum said:The verse alludes to another king who could not sleep; bthe sleep of the King of the universe,the Holy One, Blessed be He, bwas disturbed. And the Sages say:The sleep of bthe higher ones,the angels, bwas disturbed, andthe sleep of bthe lower ones,the Jewish people, bwas disturbed. Rava said:This should be understood bliterally: The sleep of King Ahasueruswas disturbed.,And this was the reason Ahasuerus could not sleep: bA thought occurred to himand bhe saidto himself: bWhat is this before us that Esther has invited Haman? Perhaps they are conspiring against that man,i.e., against me, bto kill him. Hethen bsaid againto himself: bIf this is so, is there no man who loves me and would inform meof this conspiracy? bHethen bsaid againto himself: bPerhaps there is some man who has done a favor for me and I have notproperly brewarded him, and due to thatreason bpeople refrain from revealing to meinformation regarding such plots, as they see no benefit for themselves. bImmediatelyafterward, the verse states: b“And he commanded the book of remembrances of the chronicles to be brought”(Esther 6:1).,The verse states: b“And they were readbefore the king” (Esther 6:1). The Gemara explains that bthispassive form: “And they were read,” bteaches that they were readmiraculously bby themselves.It further says: b“And it was found written [ ikatuv /i]”(Esther 6:2). The Gemara asks: Why does the Megilla use the word ikatuv /i, which indicates that it was newly written? bIt should have said: A writing [ iketav /i]was found, which would indicate that it had been written in the past. The Gemara explains: This bteaches /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אמר רבא הילכתא טעם מקדש וטעם מבדיל ומי שלא קידש בערב שבת מקדש והולך כל היום כולו עד מוצאי שבת מי שלא הבדיל במוצאי שבת מבדיל והולך כל השבת כולו,אמימר פתח לה להא שמעתא דרבא בהאי לישנא אמר רבא הילכתא טעם מקדש טעם מבדיל מי שלא קידש בע"ש מקדש והולך כל היום כולו מי שלא הבדיל במוצ"ש מבדיל והולך כל היום כולו,אמרי ליה מר ינוקא ומר קשישא בריה דרב חסדא לרב אשי זימנא חדא איקלע אמימר לאתרין ולא הוה לן חמרא אייתינא ליה שיכרא ולא אבדיל ובת טוות למחר טרחנא ואייתינא ליה חמרא ואבדיל וטעים מידי לשנה תו איקלע לאתרין לא הוה לן חמרא אייתינא שיכרא אמר אי הכי חמר מדינה הוא אבדיל וטעים מידי,שמע מינה תלת ש"מ המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס ושמע מינה אסור לו לאדם שיאכל קודם שיבדיל ושמע מינה מי שלא הבדיל במוצ"ש מבדיל והולך כל השבת כולו,בעא מיניה רב הונא מרב חסדא מהו לקדושי אשיכרא אמר השתא ומה פירזומא ותאיני ואסני דבעאי מיניה מרב ורב מר' חייא ורבי חייא מרבי ולא פשט ליה שיכרא מיבעיא,סבור מינה קדושי הוא דלא מקדשינן עילויה אבל אבדולי מבדלינן אמר להו רב חסדא הכי אמר רב כשם שאין מקדשין עליו כך אין מבדילין עליו איתמר נמי אמר רב תחליפא בר אבימי אמר שמואל כשם שאין מקדשין עליו כך אין מבדילין עליו,לוי שדר ליה לר' שיכרא בר תליסר מגני טעמיה הוה בסים טובא אמר כגון זה ראוי לקדש עליו ולומר עליו כל שירות ותושבחות שבעולם בליליא צעריה אמר מיסרן ומפייס,אמר רב יוסף אדור ברבים דלא אישתי שיכרא אמר רבא אישתי מי זוריון ולא אישתי שיכרא,ואמר רבא תיהוי שקיותיה שיכרא מאן דמקדש אשיכרא רב אשכחיה רב הונא דקדיש אשיכרא אמר ליה שרי אבא למיקני איסתירי משיכרא,ת"ר אין מקדשין אלא על היין ואין מברכין אלא על היין אטו אשיכרא ואמיא מי לא מברכין עליהו שהכל נהיה בדברו אמר אביי הכי קאמר אין אומרים הבא כוס של ברכה לברך אלא על היין ת"ר אין מקדשין על השכר משום ר' אלעזר בר רבי שמעון אמרו מקדשין,מטעימת יין כל שהוא ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר מלא לוגמא אמר רב הונא אמר רב וכן תני רב גידל דמן נרש המקדש וטעם מלא לוגמא יצא ואם לאו לא יצא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא תנינא לה לא גידול בר מנשיא ולא גידול בר מניומי אלא גידול סתמא למאי נפקא מינה למירמא דידי' אדידיה:,סמוך למנחה: איבעיא להו סמוך למנחה גדולה תנן או דילמא סמוך למנחה קטנה תנן,סמוך למנחה גדולה תנן ומשום פסח דילמא אתי למימשך 107a. bRava said:The ihalakha /iis that one who btastedfood before ikiddushmay brecite ikiddush /i; andone who btastedfood before ihavdalamay brecite ihavdala /i; and one who did not recite ikiddushon Shabbat eve,at night, may brecite ikiddushany timeduring bthe entire day until the conclusion of Shabbat.Likewise, bone who did not recite ihavdalaat the conclusion of Shabbatmay brecite ihavdalaany timeduring bthe entire week,i.e., during the first three days of the week, the time period called: After Shabbat., bAmeimar began this teaching of Rava in thisemended bformulation: Rava said:The ihalakha /iis that one who btastedfood before ikiddushmay brecite ikiddush /i;and one who btastedfood before ihavdalamay brecite ihavdala /i;and bone who did not recite ikiddushon Shabbat eve,at night, may brecite ikiddushany timeduring bthe entire day. One who did not recite ihavdalaat the conclusion of Shabbatmay brecite ihavdalaany timeduring bthe entire dayof Sunday, but no later.,The Gemara relates that bthe Mar Yanuka,the younger Mar, band Mar Kashisha,the elder Mar, both bsons of Rav Ḥisda, said to Rav Ashi: Once Ameimar happened tocome to bour place and we did not have winefor ihavdala /i. bWe brought him beer and he did not recite ihavdala /i, and he passed the night fasting,as it is prohibited to eat before ihavdala /i. bThe next day we exerted ourselves and brought him wine, and he recited ihavdalaand tasted somefood. bThe next year he again happenedto come bto our place.Once again bwe did not have wineand bwe broughthim bbeer. He said: If so,if it is so difficult to obtain wine in your place, beer bis the wine of the province. He recited ihavdala /iover the beer band tasted somefood.,The Gemara notes that one may blearn fromAmeimar’s conduct bthree ihalakhot /i: bLearn from itthat bone who recites ihavdalain the prayerservice bmust recite ihavdala /iagain bover a cup,as Ameimar had presumably recited the paragraph of ihavdalain his iAmidaprayer. bAnd learn from itthat bit is prohibited for a person to eat before he recites ihavdala /i. And learn from itthat bone who did not recite ihavdalaat the conclusion of Shabbatmay brecite ihavdalaanytimeduring bthe entire week,i.e., during the first three days of the week.,In the above story, Ameimar refused to recite ihavdalaover beer. The Gemara addresses this issue at greater length. bRav Huna raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether it is permitted bto recite ikiddushover date beer? He said: Now, ifwith regard to bbarley beer, fig beer, andbeer produced from bberries, I raised a dilemma before Ravas to whether or not they may be used for ikiddush /i, band Ravhad previously raised this dilemma bbefore Rabbi Ḥiyya, and Rabbi Ḥiyyahad inquired bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band he did not resolve it for him,as he could not find a source that clearly permits it, bis it necessary to say that date beer,which is inferior to those other types of beer, may not be used for ikiddush /i?,Those who heard this response bunderstood from itthat bit is ikiddushthat onemay bnot recite over it, but onemay brecite ihavdala /iover date beer. bRav Ḥisda said to themthat bRav said as follows: Just as onemay bnot recite ikiddushoverdate beer, bso onemay bnot recite ihavdalaover it. It was also statedthat bRav Taḥalifa bar Avimi saidthat bShmuel said: Just as onemay bnot recite ikiddushoverdate beer, bso onemay bnot recite ihavdalaover it. /b,The Gemara relates that bLevi sent RabbiYehuda HaNasi ba beer of thirteen soakings,i.e., thirteen batches of dates had been soaked in water until it had thoroughly absorbed the taste of the dates. This was considered a high-quality beer. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi btasted itand bit was especially pleasant. He said:A beer blike this is fit to recite ikiddushover and to say upon it all the songs and praises in the world,as it is as good as wine. bAt night, itdisrupted his digestion and bcaused him pain. He said: It painson the one hand band sootheson the other.,With regard to the discomfort caused by beer, the Gemara cites related statements of iamora’im /i. bRav Yosef said: I will take a vow in public,which cannot be nullified, bthat I will not drink beerdue to its negative effects, despite the fact that beer was a popular beverage in Babylonia. bRava said: I wouldrather bdrink waterused for bsoakingflax, band I will not drink beer. /b, bAnd Rava said: One who recites ikiddushover beer, hisregular bdrink should be beer.In other words, the fitting punishment for one who recites ikiddushover beer, the poor man’s drink in Babylonia, is for him to become poor himself and have to drink beer on a regular basis. The Gemara relates that bRavwas bfoundby bRav Huna reciting ikiddushover beer. He said to him: Abba,Rav’s first name, bhas started to acquire coins with beer.As Rav recently began selling beer, it has become his favorite beverage, to the extent that he uses it for ikiddush /i., bThe Sages taught: Onemay brecite ikiddushonly over wine, and onemay brecite blessings only over wine.The Gemara expresses surprise: bIs that to say that one does not say the blessing: By Whose word all things [ ishehakol /i] came to be, over beer and water? Abaye said: This iswhat the ibaraita bis saying: One only says: Bring a cup of blessing to recite the blessingof Grace after Meals, bover wine. The Rabbis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnemay bnot recite ikiddushover beer. In the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, they saidthat bonemay brecite ikiddush /iover beer.,With regard to the ihalakhathat one who recites ikiddushmust drink from the cup, the Gemara states that one fulfills the mitzva of ikiddush bby tasting any amount of wine. Rabbi Yosei, son of Yehuda, saysthat one must drink at least ba cheekful. Rav Huna saidthat bRav said, and Rav Giddel fromthe city of bNeresh likewise teaches: One who recites ikiddushand tastes a cheekful has fulfilledhis obligation, band if not,he bhas not fulfilledhis obligation., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: I teach this ibaraitain a precise manner, and I do bnotmention bGiddul bar Menashya, nor Giddul bar Minyumei, but ratherthe bplainname bGiddul,without any identifying moniker. The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe bpractical differencein Rav Giddel’s name? The Gemara answers: bTo raise a contradictionbetween one of bhisrulings and another one of bhisrulings. Since it is not clear exactly which Sage issued this ruling, it is impossible to prove that he reversed or contradicted his opinion in a later statement.,The Gemara returns to the mishna, which stated that it is prohibited to eat badjacent to iminḥatimeon Passover eve. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages in the study hall: Did bwe learnin the mishna that it is prohibited to eat badjacent tothe time of the bgreater iminḥa[ iminḥa gedola /i],which is half an hour after midday, bor perhaps we learnedin the mishna that it is prohibited to eat badjacent tothe time of the blesser iminḥa[ iminḥa ketana /i],two and a half hours before sunset?,The Gemara elaborates: Did bwe learnin the mishna that it is prohibited to eat badjacent tothe time of bthe greater iminḥa /i,and this is bbecause of the Paschal lamb, lest one come to be drawn afterthe meal and spend a long time eating, as was typical for large meals
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

102b. ומי איכא כי האי גוונא אין דחזיוה רבנן לרב יהודה דנפק בחמשא זוזי מוקי לשוקא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יבמה שהגדילה בין האחין מותרת לינשא לאחד מן האחין ואין חוששין שמא חלצה סנדל לאחד מהן טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חיישינן,והא תניא בין שנתכוון הוא ולא נתכוונה היא בין שנתכוונה היא ולא נתכוון הוא חליצתה פסולה עד שיתכוונו שניהם כאחד הכי קאמר אע"ג דחזינן אין חוששין שמא כוונו,ואיכא דאמרי טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חוששין ודקא תנא בעי כוונה הני מילי לאישתרויי לעלמא אבל לאחין מיפסלא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב סנדל התפור בפשתן אין חולצין בו שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, י) ואנעלך תחש ואימא תחש אין מידי אחרינא לא נעל נעל ריבה,אי נעל נעל ריבה אפי' כל מילי נמי אם כן תחש מאי אהני ליה,בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב הוא של עור ותריסיותיו של שער מהו אמר ליה מי לא קרינן ביה ואנעלך תחש אי הכי כולו של שער נמי ההוא קרקא מקרי,אמר ליה רב כהנא לשמואל ממאי דהאי וחלצה נעלו מעל רגלו מישלף הוא דכתיב (ויקרא יד, מ) וחלצו את האבנים אשר בהן הנגע,ואימא זרוזי הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, ג) החלצו מאתכם אנשים לצבא התם נמי שלופי מביתא לקרבא,והכתיב (איוב לו, טו) יחלץ עני בעניו בשכר עניו יחלצו מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (תהלים לד, ח) חונה מלאך ה' סביב ליראיו ויחלצם בשכר יראיו יחלצם מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יא) ועצמותיך יחליץ ואמר רבי אלעזר זו מעולה שבברכות ואמר רבא זרוזי גרמי אין משמע הכי ומשמע הכי דהכא אי ס"ד זרוזי הוא א"כ לכתוב רחמנא וחלצה נעלו ברגלו,אי כתב רחמנא ברגלו ה"א ברגלו אין בשוקו לא כתב רחמנא מעל רגלו דאפילו בשוקו א"כ לכתוב רחמנא במעל רגלו מאי מעל רגלו ש"מ מישלף הוא,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר"ג עמא דחלץ ליה מריה מיניה דכתיב (הושע ה, ו) בצאנם ובבקרם ילכו לבקש את ה' ולא ימצאו חלץ מהם,אמר ליה שוטה מי כתיב חלץ להם חלץ מהם כתיב ואילו יבמה דחלצו לה אחין מידי מששא אית ביה:,באנפיליא חליצתה פסולה כו': למימרא דאנפיליא לאו מנעל הוא,ותנן נמי אין התורם נכנס לא בפרגוד חפות ולא באנפיליא ואין צריך לומר במנעל וסנדל לפי שאין נכנסין במנעל וסנדל לעזרה,ורמינהו אחד מנעל וסנדל ואנפיליא לא יטייל בהן לא מבית לבית ולא ממטה למטה,אמר אביי דאית ביה כתיתי ומשום תענוג אמר ליה רבא ומשום תענוג בלא מנעל ביום הכפורים מי אסירי והא רבה בר רב הונא כריך סודרא אכרעיה ונפיק אלא אמר רבא לא קשיא כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד,ה"נ מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי קשיא יום הכפורים איום הכפורים דתניא לא יטייל אדם בקורדקיסין בתוך ביתו אבל מטייל הוא באנפילין בתוך ביתו אלא לאו ש"מ כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד ש"מ,תניא כוותיה דרבא חלצה במנעל הנפרם שחופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שמקבל את רוב הרגל בסנדל של שעם ושל סיב בקב הקיטע במוק בסמיכת הרגלים באנפיליא של עור והחולצת מן הגדול 102b. The Gemara asks: bIs there really a case like thiswhere people wear one shoe on top of another? The Gemara answers: bYes, for the Sages saw Rav Yehuda, who went outonce bto the market wearing five pairs ofshoes, which were similar to bslippers,one on top of another., bRav Yehuda saidanother ihalakhathat bRav said:An underage iyevamawho grew up amongher husband’s bbrothersbefore any iḥalitzawas performed bis permitted to marry one of the brothersthrough levirate marriage, band we are not concernedabout the possibility bthatduring the time she was in the company of her iyevamin bshe removed a sandal from one of them,and thereby she would have already performed iḥalitza /i. The Gemara infers from this statement: bThe reasonit is permitted to perform levirate marriage now bisspecifically bthat we did not seeher remove one of their shoes, bbut ifin fact bwe did seeher do so, bwe are concernedand treat her as a iyevamawho already performed iḥalitzaand is thereby forbidden to all the brothers.,The Gemara challenges: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhether he intendedto perform iḥalitza band she did not intendto, bor whether she intendedto perform iḥalitza band he did not intend to, the iḥalitzais invalid, unless they both intended it as oneto perform a proper act of iḥalitza /i? The Gemara answers: bThis is whatRav bsaid: Even if wedid bseethat she removed a shoe from one of them, bwe are not concerned that perhaps they intended toperform iḥalitza /i., bAnd there arethose bwho saythe inference from Rav’s statement should be made in the opposite manner: bThe reasonit is permitted for her to perform levirate marriage now bisspecifically bthat we did not seeher remove a shoe from one of the brothers. bBut if we did see, we would be concernedand would treat her as a iyevamawho already performed iḥalitza /i, despite our knowledge that she did not intend to perform iḥalitza /i. bAndwith regard to bthat which was taughtin the ibaraita /i, bthat intention is required, this appliesonly as far as validating the act of iḥalitzain order bto permit her to marry a stranger. Butperforming an act of iḥalitzaeven without intention is sufficient to bdisqualify her for the brothers,rendering prohibited an act of levirate marriage afterward., bRav Yehudaalso bsaidthat bRav said: One may not perform iḥalitzausing a sandalthat was bsewntogether bwiththreads made of bflax, as it is stated: “And I made you shoes of itaḥashskin”(Ezekiel 16:10), which is the skin of an animal, implying that a shoe is something made entirely of leather. The Gemara challenges: If the source is “ itaḥash /i,” blet us say:A shoe made of itaḥashskin, yes,it is valid; but if made of banything else, no.The Gemara rejects this: Because b“shoe”and b“shoe”are written in the Torah multiple times, this bamplifiesand includes all types of shoes crafted from leather skins as valid for performing iḥalitza /i.,The Gemara asks: bIfthe inclusion of the words b“shoe”and b“shoe” amplifies,then should one include as valid for performing iḥalitzashoes crafted from beven anyother bmaterials as well,including those not produced from leather at all? The Gemara answers: bIf so, what purpose does “ itaḥash /i” serve,as nothing is learned from it? Rather, from the word itaḥashit is derived that the shoe must be crafted entirely of leather, but all types of leather are included because the word “shoe” is repeated in the Torah numerous times., bRabbi Elazar asked Rav:What is the status of the following type of sandal used for performing iḥalitza /i? In a case where bit,the shoe itself, bis made of leather, andthe sections that hold bits straps [ itereisiyyot /i]are made bof hair,as they were woven together with goat’s hair, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? bHe said to him: Do we not refer tosuch a sandal bas: “And I made you shoes of itaḥash /i”?Since it is crafted from material that comes from an animal it is valid. The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,i.e., that anything derived from an animal is valid, then even if it is fashioned bentirely of hair it should also bevalid. The Gemara answers: bThat would be called a slipper,not a shoe., bRav Kahana said to Shmuel: From where is it known that thisphrase: b“And she shall remove [ iḥaltza /i] his shoe from on his foot”(Deuteronomy 25:9), bmeans to remove? As it is written:“Then the priest shall command, band they shall take out [ iḥiltzu /i] the stones in which the plague is”(Leviticus 14:40), indicating that the word iḥaltzameans that they shall remove the stones from their place.,The Gemara asks whether the word iḥaltzacan be interpreted differently based upon its apparent meaning in other contexts: bButcould you bsay it isa term for bstrengthening, as it is written: “Arm [ iheḥaletzu /i] men from among you for the army”(Numbers 31:3), meaning that men among you will be strengthened and take up arms to prepare for battle? The Gemara answers: bThere too,the meaning of the word is referring to taking something from its place, as it means bremovingpeople bfrom their housesin order bto goout bto war. /b,The Gemara challenges: bBut isn’t it written: “He delivers [ iyeḥaletz /i] the afflicted by His affliction [ ibe’onyo /i]”(Job 36:15)? This indicates that the afflicted one becomes stronger due to his affliction, as, if the intention was to deliver him from his affliction, it should have said: From His affliction, rather than “by His affliction.” The Gemara answers that the verse should be interpreted as follows: iBe’onyo /i, in other words, bas reward for hissuffering from baffliction, He shall deliver him from the judgment of Gehenna,as is understood from the term ibe’onyo /i, through the reward due to his affliction.,The Gemara challenges further: bButwith regard to bthat it is written: “The angel of the Lord encamps around those who fear Him and delivers them [ ivayeḥaltzem /i]”(Psalms 34:8), doesn’t ivayeḥaltzemrather mean: He shall strengthen them? The Gemara answers: The verse means: bAs a reward for those that fear Him, He shall deliver them from the judgment of Gehenna.Therefore, the Gemara interprets ivayeḥaltzemas “delivers them,” not as: Strengthens them.,The Gemara challenges further: bButwith regard to bthat which is written:“And the Lord will guide you, and satisfy your soul in drought, band make your bones strong [ iyaḥalitz /i]”(Isaiah 58:11), band Rabbi Elazar saidregarding that verse: bThis is the greatest of blessings, and Rava saidit means: bStrengthening of bones.This seems to indicate that the root of the word iḥalitzais referring to strengthening. The Gemara answers: bYes, it has this connotation, and it has this connotation,i.e., the root iḥ-l-tzsometimes connotes removal and sometimes connotes strengthening. bBut here,only one meaning is possible, as, bif it enters your mindthat iḥalitzahere bconnotes strengthening, then let the Merciful One writein the Torah: bShe shall strengthen [ iḥaletza /i] his shoe on his foot [ iberaglo /i],indicating that she should tighten the shoe on his foot, rather than stating: “From on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i],” which indicates that she is removing something from his foot.,The Gemara responds: bIf the Merciful One had writtenin the Torah: bOn his foot [ iberaglo /i], I would have saidshe must strengthen and tighten the shoe bon his foot, yes, but on his calf, no;and if his foot were amputated she may no longer perform iḥalitza /i. Therefore, bthe Merciful One writesin the Torah: b“From on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i],”to teach that she may strengthen the shoe beven on his calf,which is part of the leg, or iregel /i, above the foot. The Gemara answers: bIf so,and iḥalitzareally means strengthening, blet the Merciful One writein the Torah: She shall strengthen his shoe bon the upper part of his foot [ ibeme’al raglo /i],indicating that the shoe can also be tightened on the area of the calf. bWhatthen bisthe meaning of b“from on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i],”which is written in the verse? bLearn from herethat in this context the word iḥalitzaclearly bindicates removal,meaning that the mitzva of iḥalitzais for the iyevamato remove the shoe of the iyavamand not to tighten it on his foot.,Parenthetical to this discussion, the Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabban Gamliel:You, the children of Israel, are ba nation whose Master removed [ iḥalatz /i] Himself from them,for God has left you in much the same way in which a iyavamwould perform iḥalitzawith his iyevama /i, bas it is written: “With their flocks and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, but they shall not find Him. He has removed [ iḥalatz /i] Himself from them [ imeihem /i]”(Hoshea 5:6). The heretic tried to use this verse as scriptural support that God has performed iḥalitzawith the Jewish people., bHe,Rabban Gamliel, bsaid to him: Imbecile, does it say: He performed iḥalitzato them [ ilahem /i]?Rather, bit says “ iḥalatzfrom them [ imeihem /i],”meaning it is as if they, the Jewish people, performed iḥalitzaon Him. bBut if a iyevamahad her shoe removed by her iyevamin /i, does this have any significance?Here too, the meaning of the verse is that the nation of Israel abandoned God by removing themselves from Him, and this abandonment has no significance.,The Gemara analyzes the phrase used in the mishna that discusses the types of shoes that can be used for iḥalitza /i. It was taught in the mishna that if he was wearing ba soft shoe [ ianpileya /i]made of cloth for iḥalitza /i, bher iḥalitzais invalid.The Gemara explains: bThat is to say that an ianpileyais notconsidered ba shoe. /b, bAnd we also learnedsimilarly in a mishna ( iShekalim3:2): bThe one who collects the fundsof shekels donated to the Temple from the chamber and puts them it into baskets in order to be used bmay not enterto collect the funds bwearing a garment [ ipargod /i] that is cuffed [ iḥafut /i], nor wearing an ianpileya /i, and needless to saythat he may not enter wearing ba shoe or a sandal, because one may not enterthe Temple bcourtyard wearing a shoe or a sandal.It is prohibited for the one collecting funds from the chamber to enter the chamber wearing a garment or footwear in which money could be hidden, lest people come to suspect that he hid in them funds collected from the chamber. In any case, the wording of the mishna indicates that an ianpileyais not considered a type of shoe, since it is permitted to enter the Temple wearing an ianpileyawhen there is no reason for suspicion, unlike a shoe or sandal, which can never be worn in the Temple., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraitaconcerning what footwear is permitted on Yom Kippur, which seems to indicate otherwise: The halakha is bthe same for asoft leather bshoe, and ahard leather bsandal, and an ianpileya /i, as one may not walk in them from one house to another, nor from one bed to anotheron Yom Kippur, due to the prohibition against wearing shoes, indicating that at least as far as Yom Kippur is concerned, an ianpileyais considered a shoe., bAbaye said:There, with regard to Yom Kippur, it is referring to an ianpileya bthat has cushioning, andthis is forbidden bdue to the pleasurethat one derives from cushioned footwear on a day when people are commanded to afflict themselves. bRava said to him: Butis footwear bthat is not consideredto be bshoes forbidden on Yom Kippur due tothe bpleasureone derives from wearing them? bBut Rabba bar Rav Huna would wrap a scarf on his feet and go outon Yom Kippur so his feet would not be injured, implying that there is no prohibition against wearing something comfortable on one’s foot, as long as it is not defined as a shoe. bRather, Rava said: Thisis bnot difficult. Here,when they said that an ianpileyahas the status of a shoe, it is referring to ban ianpileya /imade bof leather. There,when they do not consider it a shoe, it is referring to ban ianpileya /imade bof cloth. /b,The Gemara adds: bAnd so too, it is reasonableto distinguish in this manner, bas, if you do not say so, itis bdifficultto reconcile the seeming contradiction between one statement about bYom Kippur andanother statement about bYom Kippur. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person shall not walkwhile wearing bslippers [ ikordakisin /i] within his houseon Yom Kippur, bbut he may walkwhile wearing ban ianpileyawithin his house.This would imply that wearing an ianpileyais permitted, but the ibaraitaquoted above taught that it is prohibited. bRather,must one bnot conclude from herethat bhere,where it indicates that an ianpileyais forbidden, it is referring bto an ianpileya /imade bof leather,as they are considered like a shoe, and bthere,where an ianpileyais permitted, it is referring bto an ianpileya /imade bof cloth?The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from herethat it is so.,It bis taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava:If bshe performed iḥalitzausing a shoe whose seams were opened up, whichstill bcovered most of the foot;or if she performed iḥalitza bwith a sandalwhose sole bwaspartially bopened thatstill bheld most of the foot;or if she performed iḥalitza bwith a sandalmade bof cork [ isha’am /i], or of fibersfrom a tree; or bwith a prosthetic foot of an amputee;or bwith a felt shoe [ imuk /i];or bwith a leg blanketthat an amputee makes for his feet as a covering in which to put the stumps of his legs, which is not an actual shoe; or bwith a leather ianpileya /i; andlikewise, a woman bwho performs iḥalitza /iwith her iyavamwhen he is an badult man, /b
31. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 4.8.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 2.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.1716-4.1870, 4.2145-4.2240, 5.96-5.172, 5.459-5.489, 12.201-12.269, 13.288-13.295 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Ambrose, On The Holy Spirit, 2.6 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Augustine, The City of God, 18.46 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.46. While Herod, therefore, reigned in Judea, and C sar Augustus was emperor at Rome, the state of the republic being already changed, and the world being set at peace by him, Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judah, man manifest out of a human virgin, God hidden out of God the Father. For so had the prophet foretold: Behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which, being interpreted, is, God with us. He did many miracles that He might commend God in Himself, some of which, even as many as seemed sufficient to proclaim Him, are contained in the evangelic Scripture. The first of these is, that He was so wonderfully born, and the last, that with His body raised up again from the dead He ascended into heaven. But the Jews who slew Him, and would not believe in Him, because it behooved Him to die and rise again, were yet more miserably wasted by the Romans, and utterly rooted out from their kingdom, where aliens had already ruled over them, and were dispersed through the lands (so that indeed there is no place where they are not), and are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ. And very many of them, considering this, even before His passion, but chiefly after His resurrection, believed on Him, of whom it was predicted, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remt shall be saved. But the rest are blinded, of whom it was predicted, Let their table be made before them a trap, and a retribution, and a stumbling-block. Let their eyes be darkened lest they see, and bow down their back always. Therefore, when they do not believe our Scriptures, their own, which they blindly read, are fulfilled in them, lest perchance any one should say that the Christians have forged these prophecies about Christ which are quoted under the name of the sibyl, or of others, if such there be, who do not belong to the Jewish people. For us, indeed, those suffice which are quoted from the books of our enemies, to whom we make our acknowledgment, on account of this testimony which, in spite of themselves, they contribute by their possession of these books, while they themselves are dispersed among all nations, wherever the Church of Christ is spread abroad. For a prophecy about this thing was sent before in the Psalms, which they also read, where it is written, My God, His mercy shall prevent me. My God has shown me concerning mine enemies, that You shall not slay them, lest they should at last forget Your law: disperse them in Your might. Therefore God has shown the Church in her enemies the Jews the grace of His compassion, since, as says the apostle, their offense is the salvation of the Gentiles. Romans 11:11 And therefore He has not slain them, that is, He has not let the knowledge that they are Jews be lost in them, although they have been conquered by the Romans, lest they should forget the law of God, and their testimony should be of no avail in this matter of which we treat. But it was not enough that he should say, Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Your law, unless he had also added, Disperse them; because if they had only been in their own land with that testimony of the Scriptures, and not every where, certainly the Church which is everywhere could not have had them as witnesses among all nations to the prophecies which were sent before concerning Christ.
36. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 5

37. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 14, 149, 16, 243, 31, 12



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abbahu, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 264
adam Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250; Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134
aion Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
aleppo, silver lamella Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55
allusion, to christian texts, motifs, traditions Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 392
ambrose Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 253, 254, 264
ambrose of milan Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 97, 103
amulet users, named Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
apostasy Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250
archangels Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
ark of the covenant Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
baal Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
baraitot, christian parallels Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391, 392
bible Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134
bishop Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 253
body, ear Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250
body, eye Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250, 253, 264
body, hand Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 264
body Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250, 251
chrestos Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
christ, inscriptions Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
christian traditions reflected in the bavli, familiarity with christian interpretive traditions Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391, 392
christian traditions reflected in the bavli, references to christian traditions Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391, 392
christianity and christian texts Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134, 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134, 135
christianization of the roman empire, satire of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 392
church fathers, rabbinic awareness of later christian literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391
coin Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 247, 269
communities, christian Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252
copper lamellae Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 58
counter-models Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 392
creation, and the unity of the creator Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 75, 103
creation, ex nihilo or ex materia? Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creation, in jewish-christian polemic Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 86
creation, in midrashim, and their relation to the dialogic reading Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creation, in trinitarian controversies Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 86
creation Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 67, 68, 71; Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creation myths, in feminine and masculine respect Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creation myths, reflect the birth from womb of chaos Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creation myths Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creativity Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
creator-god Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
creator Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
creators Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
danger Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250
darkness Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 251; Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
darkness versus light Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
david (king) Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250, 264
demiurge Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 135
derveni papyrus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
dialogue, and creation as a dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
dialogue, in midrashim Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
dialogue stories with minim or philosophers Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391, 392
discourse, boundary-creating Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 78
discourse, heresiological Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 2
disputation Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134
dualism Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 255; Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 135
egypt, amulets Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
egypt, exodus from Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 56
egypt deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
el Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
emperor Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250, 255
eros Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
esther Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 268
euthymius, ʿevron Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
ex materia, in the rabbinic view, means waters Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
ex materia, whoever claims that will have his lips fall silent Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
ex materia Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
exorcism and demons, amulets Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55
family Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 247, 264
fasting Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 68, 191
fevers Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 58
food Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 247, 268
freedom, see slavery, in pauline theology, r. gamliel Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 71, 105
gamliel, rabban Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134
gemstone amulets Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 53
gnostic/ gnosticism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
gnostics Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134, 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134, 135
god, and the creation Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
god, as creator Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 58
god, names of Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 56, 58
god, of israel Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
god, relationship with israel Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
god Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
gods Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252, 255
goshen-gottstein, alon Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
greek Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 251, 254
halakhah, halitzah (drawing of the shoe) Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32
halakhah, ḥaliṣah (drawing of the shoe) Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32
halevi, elimelech epstein Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
halevy, isaac Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250
hapax legomenon Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 73, 159
heart Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252, 254
heaven Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
hebrew Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 251, 252, 255
hebrew bible Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
helios Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
heresy, and christian exegesis Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 392
heresy, engagement with, in christian writings Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 2, 74
heresy Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 253, 254, 269
heresy and heretics Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134, 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134, 135
herr, moshe david Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
historiolae Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 56
horvat kanaf lamella Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55
hybridity, counter-models Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 392
iaoˉ sabaōth Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
inscriptions, aramaic and hebrew, biblical Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 53, 55
inscriptions, aramaic and hebrew, with greek Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
inscriptions, bilingual, greek-hebrew Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
inscriptions, bilingual, with biblical quotations Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 53
inscriptions, bilingual Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
inscriptions, greek, biblical Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 53
inscriptions, greek, with hebrew Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
inscriptions, samaritan, biblical Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 53, 56
israel, relationship with god Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
israel Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
jesus, christ Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 253, 255, 270
jesus Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 254, 268
kelly, j. g. Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252
ketef hinnom scrolls Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 53
king, simile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
king Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252, 268
kyrios Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
lamellae Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 58
languages Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 251
latin Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 253, 254
literature, rabbinic, chronological layers in Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 105
literature, rabbinic, historicity of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 105
macedonians Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 75
malaria Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 58
masculine-feminine relationship Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
masoretic text, and the septuagint Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 72, 73, 74, 86, 159
meal Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 247, 264, 267, 268
meals, as a social act in late antiquity Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107
meals, between different religious groups Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 101
meals, in rabbinic literature Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 97, 101, 102
messianism, christian Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391
messianism Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 73, 74, 80, 86
min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 2
min (pl. minim), definition of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 2
min (pl. minim), favorable representations of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 97, 101, 102, 103, 104
minim, encounters with Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391, 392
minim Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250, 264, 267, 268, 269, 270
minim stories, in the babylonian talmud, as a response to christian writings Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 86
minim stories, in the babylonian talmud, audience of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 191
minim stories, in the babylonian talmud, historicity of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 105, 191
minim stories, in the babylonian talmud, satire and irony in Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 105
minor prophets Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 72
money Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 264
monotheism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
moses Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134
moth, as a symbol of destruction Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159, 191
mount paran Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
mouth Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 250
much-suffering eye (polypathēs ophthalmos), nirim amulets Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187
myth, condensed Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
name Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
nasi, see patriarchs, nature, divine creation and control of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 72, 76, 86
near eastern parallels, canaanite Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
oracles (chaldean) deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
oracles (sibylline) deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
pagan Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 135
palace, in a place of garbage Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
papyri amulets Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
parallels (to other cultural traditions), to christian sources, overt, covert, or veiled Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 391, 392
parody Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 191
phanes / protogonos deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
philo of alexandria Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 135; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 135
philosopher, conversation with rabban gamaliel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
pindar Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
plagiarism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
pneumatomachoi Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 75
polemic, jewish-christian Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 107, 191
prayers, amulets Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55, 56
pride Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
priestly creation myth, reflects the birth from womb of chaos Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
priestly creation myth Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
priests Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252
prophet Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 251, 253
queen Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 268
r. isaac Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 97, 104
r. joshua b. r. Ḥananiah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 146, 159
r. joshua b. r. ḥananiah Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 146, 159
r. judah the prince Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 67, 68, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 159
rabban gamaliel, his conversation with the philosopher Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32, 191
rabbis (khazal), their conversations with romans Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
rabbis (khazal) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
rahab Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
ritual, as a mode of cultural transmission between judaism and christianity Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 101
ritual Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 267
roman emperor Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 71, 72, 104
rome, roman Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134; Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134
rome Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 247
sabaōth Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 58
sarapis Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
satire Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 191; Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 392
scripture, debates over correct interpretation of, in late antiquity Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81
scripture, theological implications of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81
sea, boundaries Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
sea, prince of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
septuagint' Pachoumi, The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri (2017) 98
septuagint, and jewish-christian relations Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32
septuagint, origin of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32
septuagint, rabbinic awareness of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
septuagint, variant readings in Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 72, 73, 74, 80
sibyl deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
stoicism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
suffering Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 268
swallowing Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
symbol Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 267
synagogues, nirim Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55
syncretism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 192
syria Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 55
syriac Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32, 74; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 254
talmud, babylonian, importance of external sources to understanding Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 104, 105, 107
talmud, babylonian, monastic material in Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 107
talmud, babylonian, tannaitic material in Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 105
tehom (deep), god speaks to the Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
tehom (deep) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
tertullian Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 74; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 252
tetragrammaton Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56, 58
theology, christian, euangelion (good tiding) Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 191
theology, christian, heavenly treasures Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 191
theology, christian, holy spirit Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 86, 97, 102, 103, 191
theology, christian, incarnation Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 78, 79
theology, christian, rejection of israel Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 159
theology, christian, resurrection Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 191
theophany Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187; Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 72
tohu vavohu (unformed and void) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32, 159
translation, of christian sources Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 72, 73, 74, 81
translation, theological implications of Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 73, 74, 75, 76, 77
translation Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 32
transmission of christian traditions into Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 80, 81, 86
trinitarian controversies Bar Asher Siegal, Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud (2018) 75, 76, 77, 78, 79
waters Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
weiss, ruhama Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 267
wine Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 264
yahweh Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 187; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 56
yam Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 119
yoḥa, rav Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 134
yoḥanan, rav Secunda, The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context (2014) 134
zeira, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 264
zeus, overpowered his father, cronus, and ruled the world, as a painter or great artist Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 180
zeus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 185, 192