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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6273
Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.31


וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ קִרְעוּ בִגְדֵיכֶם וְחִגְרוּ שַׂקִּים וְסִפְדוּ לִפְנֵי אַבְנֵר וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה׃And David said to Yo᾽av, and to all the people that were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn before Avner. And king David himself followed the bier.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.17 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.17. And Raphael was sent to heal the two of them: to scale away the white films of Tobits eyes; to give Sarah the daughter of Raguel in marriage to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodeus the evil demon, because Tobias was entitled to possess her. At that very moment Tobit returned and entered his house and Sarah the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper room.
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.1, 4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַהֲתָךְ וַתְּצַוֵּהוּ אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 4.1. וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה׃ 4.3. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד שַׂק וָאֵפֶר יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים׃ 4.1. Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;" 4.3. And in every province, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 26.8, 37.29, 37.34, 44.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.8. וַיְהִי כִּי אָרְכוּ־לוֹ שָׁם הַיָּמִים וַיַּשְׁקֵף אֲבִימֶלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ פְּלִשְׁתִּים בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה יִצְחָק מְצַחֵק אֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ׃ 37.29. וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 37.34. וַיִּקְרַע יַעֲקֹב שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם שַׂק בְּמָתְנָיו וַיִּתְאַבֵּל עַל־בְּנוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים׃ 44.13. וַיִּקְרְעוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם וַיַּעֲמֹס אִישׁ עַל־חֲמֹרוֹ וַיָּשֻׁבוּ הָעִירָה׃ 26.8. And it came to pass, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his wife." 37.29. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes." 37.34. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days." 44.13. And they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.20, 2.8, 16.15, 42.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃ 16.15. שַׂק תָּפַרְתִּי עֲלֵי גִלְדִּי וְעֹלַלְתִּי בֶעָפָר קַרְנִי׃ 42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 1.20. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;" 2.8. And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself therewith; and he sat among the ashes." 16.15. I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, And have laid my horn in the dust." 42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.6. וַיִּגַּע הַדָּבָר אֶל־מֶלֶך נִינְוֵה וַיָּקָם מִכִּסְאוֹ וַיַּעֲבֵר אַדַּרְתּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וַיְכַס שַׂק וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הָאֵפֶר׃ 3.8. וְיִתְכַּסּוּ שַׂקִּים הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל־אֱלֹהִים בְּחָזְקָה וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמִן־הֶחָמָס אֲשֶׁר בְּכַפֵּיהֶם׃ 3.6. And the tidings reached the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes." 3.8. but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast, and let them cry mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands." 3.10. And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, which He said He would do unto them; and He did it not."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 35.13, 102.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.13. וַאֲנִי בַּחֲלוֹתָם לְבוּשִׁי שָׂק עִנֵּיתִי בַצּוֹם נַפְשִׁי וּתְפִלָּתִי עַל־חֵיקִי תָשׁוּב׃ 102.8. שָׁקַדְתִּי וָאֶהְיֶה כְּצִפּוֹר בּוֹדֵד עַל־גָּג׃ 35.13. But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth, I afflicted my soul with fasting; And my prayer, may it return into mine own bosom." 102.8. I watch, and am become like a sparrow that is alone upon the housetop."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.12, 14.8-14.15, 17.43-17.49, 17.55-17.58, 18.7, 18.10-18.11, 19.5-19.6, 19.9-19.10, 26.9-26.11, 28.8-28.14, 31.3-31.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.12. וַיָּרָץ אִישׁ־בִּנְיָמִן מֵהַמַּעֲרָכָה וַיָּבֹא שִׁלֹה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמַדָּיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 14.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן הִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ עֹבְרִים אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁים וְנִגְלִינוּ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 14.9. אִם־כֹּה יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֵינוּ דֹּמּוּ עַד־הַגִּיעֵנוּ אֲלֵיכֶם וְעָמַדְנוּ תַחְתֵּינוּ וְלֹא נַעֲלֶה אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 14.11. וַיִּגָּלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶל־מַצַּב פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיֹּאמְרוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים הִנֵּה עִבְרִים יֹצְאִים מִן־הַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר הִתְחַבְּאוּ־שָׁם׃ 14.12. וַיַּעֲנוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַמַּצָּבָה אֶת־יוֹנָתָן וְאֶת־נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲלוּ אֵלֵינוּ וְנוֹדִיעָה אֶתְכֶם דָּבָר וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹנָתָן אֶל־נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו עֲלֵה אַחֲרַי כִּי־נְתָנָם יְהוָה בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 14.13. וַיַּעַל יוֹנָתָן עַל־יָדָיו וְעַל־רַגְלָיו וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו אַחֲרָיו וַיִּפְּלוּ לִפְנֵי יוֹנָתָן וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו מְמוֹתֵת אַחֲרָיו׃ 14.14. וַתְּהִי הַמַּכָּה הָרִאשֹׁנָה אֲשֶׁר הִכָּה יוֹנָתָן וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו כְּעֶשְׂרִים אִישׁ כְּבַחֲצִי מַעֲנָה צֶמֶד שָׂדֶה׃ 14.15. וַתְּהִי חֲרָדָה בַמַּחֲנֶה בַשָּׂדֶה וּבְכָל־הָעָם הַמַּצָּב וְהַמַּשְׁחִית חָרְדוּ גַּם־הֵמָּה וַתִּרְגַּז הָאָרֶץ וַתְּהִי לְחֶרְדַּת אֱלֹהִים׃ 17.43. וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל־דָּוִד הֲכֶלֶב אָנֹכִי כִּי־אַתָּה בָא־אֵלַי בַּמַּקְלוֹת וַיְקַלֵּל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶת־דָּוִד בֵּאלֹהָיו׃ 17.44. וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל־דָּוִד לְכָה אֵלַי וְאֶתְּנָה אֶת־בְּשָׂרְךָ לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 17.45. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֵלַי בְּחֶרֶב וּבַחֲנִית וּבְכִידוֹן וְאָנֹכִי בָא־אֵלֶיךָ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי מַעַרְכוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר חֵרַפְתָּ׃ 17.46. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְסַגֶּרְךָ יְהוָה בְּיָדִי וְהִכִּיתִךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־רֹאשְׁךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי פֶּגֶר מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי יֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.47. וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה כִּי־לֹא בְּחֶרֶב וּבַחֲנִית יְהוֹשִׁיעַ יְהוָה כִּי לַיהוָה הַמִּלְחָמָה וְנָתַן אֶתְכֶם בְּיָדֵנוּ׃ 17.48. וְהָיָה כִּי־קָם הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּקְרַב לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וַיְמַהֵר דָּוִד וַיָּרָץ הַמַּעֲרָכָה לִקְרַאת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי׃ 17.49. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶת־יָדוֹ אֶל־הַכֶּלִי וַיִּקַּח מִשָּׁם אֶבֶן וַיְקַלַּע וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל־מִצְחוֹ וַתִּטְבַּע הָאֶבֶן בְּמִצְחוֹ וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו אָרְצָה׃ 18.7. וַתַּעֲנֶינָה הַנָּשִׁים הַמְשַׂחֲקוֹת וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הִכָּה שָׁאוּל באלפו [בַּאֲלָפָיו] וְדָוִד בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃ 18.11. וַיָּטֶל שָׁאוּל אֶת־הַחֲנִית וַיֹּאמֶר אַכֶּה בְדָוִד וּבַקִּיר וַיִּסֹּב דָּוִד מִפָּנָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃ 19.5. וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ בְכַפּוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה תְּשׁוּעָה גְדוֹלָה לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל רָאִיתָ וַתִּשְׂמָח וְלָמָּה תֶחֱטָא בְּדָם נָקִי לְהָמִית אֶת־דָּוִד חִנָּם׃ 19.9. וַתְּהִי רוּחַ יְהוָה רָעָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְהוּא בְּבֵיתוֹ יוֹשֵׁב וַחֲנִיתוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָד׃ 26.9. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אֲבִישַׁי אַל־תַּשְׁחִיתֵהוּ כִּי מִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה וְנִקָּה׃ 26.11. חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהוָה מִשְּׁלֹחַ יָדִי בִּמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה וְעַתָּה קַח־נָא אֶת־הַחֲנִית אֲשֶׁר מראשתו [מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו] וְאֶת־צַפַּחַת הַמַּיִם וְנֵלֲכָה לָּנוּ׃ 28.8. וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר קסומי־[קָסֳמִי־] נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלָיִךְ׃ 28.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הִכְרִית אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִי מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלָמָה אַתָּה מִתְנַקֵּשׁ בְּנַפְשִׁי לַהֲמִיתֵנִי׃ 28.11. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מִי אַעֲלֶה־לָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל הַעֲלִי־לִי׃ 28.12. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל וַתִּזְעַק בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה רִמִּיתָנִי וְאַתָּה שָׁאוּל׃ 28.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי מָה רָאִית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל אֱלֹהִים רָאִיתִי עֹלִים מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־תָּאֳרוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אִישׁ זָקֵן עֹלֶה וְהוּא עֹטֶה מְעִיל וַיֵּדַע שָׁאוּל כִּי־שְׁמוּאֵל הוּא וַיִּקֹּד אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 31.3. וַתִּכְבַּד הַמִּלְחָמָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיִּמְצָאֻהוּ הַמּוֹרִים אֲנָשִׁים בַּקָּשֶׁת וַיָּחֶל מְאֹד מֵהַמּוֹרִים׃ 31.4. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו שְׁלֹף חַרְבְּךָ וְדָקְרֵנִי בָהּ פֶּן־יָבוֹאוּ הָעֲרֵלִים הָאֵלֶּה וּדְקָרֻנִי וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ־בִי וְלֹא אָבָה נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו כִּי יָרֵא מְאֹד וַיִּקַּח שָׁאוּל אֶת־הַחֶרֶב וַיִּפֹּל עָלֶיהָ׃ 31.5. וַיַּרְא נֹשֵׂא־כֵלָיו כִּי מֵת שָׁאוּל וַיִּפֹּל גַּם־הוּא עַל־חַרְבּוֹ וַיָּמָת עִמּוֹ׃ 31.6. וַיָּמָת שָׁאוּל וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת בָּנָיו וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו גַּם כָּל־אֲנָשָׁיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַחְדָּו׃ 4.12. And there ran a man of Binyamin out of the army, and came to Shilo the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head." 14.8. Then said Yonatan, Behold, we will pass over to these men, and we will reveal ourselves to them." 14.9. If they say thus to us, Tarry until we come to you; then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up to them." 14.10. But if they say thus, Come up to us; then we will go up: for the Lord has delivered them into our hand: and this shall be a sign to us." 14.11. And both of them showed themselves to the garrison of the Pelishtim: and the Pelishtim said, Behold, the Hebrews come out of the holes where they have hidden themselves." 14.12. And the men of the garrison answered Yonatan and his armourbearer, and said, Come up to us, and we will show you something. And Yonatan said to his armourbearer, Come up after me: for the Lord has delivered them into the hand of Yisra᾽el." 14.13. And Yonatan climbed up on his hands and feet, and his armourbearer after him: and they fell before Yonatan; and his armourbearer slew after him." 14.14. And that first slaughter, which Yonatan and his armour-bearer made, was about twenty men, within as it were half a furrow, which a yoke of oxen might plough." 14.15. And there was trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people: the garrison, and the raiding parties, they also trembled, and the earth quaked: so it was a very great trembling." 17.43. And the Pelishtian said to David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with sticks? And the Pelishtian cursed David by his gods." 17.44. And the Pelishtian said to David, Come to me, and I will give thy flesh to the birds of the sky, and to the beasts of the field." 17.45. Then said David to the Pelishtian, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin: but I come to thee in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Yisra᾽el, whom thou hast taunted." 17.46. This day will the Lord deliver thee into my hand; and I will smite thee, and take thy head from thee; and I will give the carcass of the camp of the Pelishtim this day to the birds of the sky, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Yisra᾽el." 17.47. And all this assembly shall know that the Lord saves not with sword and spear: for the battle is the Lord’s, and he will give you into our hands." 17.48. And it came to pass, when the Pelishtian arose, and came and drew near to meet David, that David hastened, and ran to the enemy line towards the Pelishtian." 17.49. And David put his hand in his bag, and took from there a stone, and slung it, and struck the Pelishtian in his forehead, that the stone buried itself in his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth." 18.7. And the women answered one another as they danced, and said, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands." 18.10. And it came to pass on the morrow, that an evil spirit from God came upon Sha᾽ul, and he raved in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and the spear was in Sha᾽ul’s hand." 18.11. And Sha᾽ul raised the spear; for he said, I will smite David to the wall with it. And David turned aside out of his presence twice." 19.5. for he did take his life in his hand, and slew the Pelishtian, and the Lord performed a great salvation for all Yisra᾽el: thou didst see it, and didst rejoice: why then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without cause?" 19.9. And an evil spirit from the Lord came upon Sha᾽ul, as he sat in his house with his spear in his hand: and David played with his hand." 19.10. And Sha᾽ul sought to smite David even to the wall with the spear; but he slipped away out of Sha᾽ul’s presence, so that he smote the spear into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night." 26.9. And David said to Avishay, Destroy him not: for who can stretch out his hand against the Lord’s anointed, and be guiltless?" 26.10. And David said, As the Lord lives, the Lord shall smite him; or his day shall come to die; or he shall descend into battle, and be swept away." 26.11. The Lord forbid that I should stretch out my hand against the Lord’s anointed: but, I pray thee, take thou now the spear that is at his head, and the jar of water, and let us go." 28.8. And Sha᾽ul disguised himself, and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine for me by means of the familiar spirit, and bring him up for me, whom I shall name to thee." 28.9. And the woman said to him, Behold, thou knowst what Sha᾽ul has done, how he has cut off the diviners, and the wizards, out of the land: why then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die?" 28.10. And Sha᾽ul swore to her by the Lord, saying, As the Lord lives, no punishment shall befall thee for this thing." 28.11. Then said the woman, Whom shall I bring up to thee? And he said, Bring me up Shemu᾽el." 28.12. And when the woman saw Shemu᾽el, she cried with a loud voice: and the woman spoke to Sha᾽ul, saying, Why hast thou deceived me? for thou art Sha᾽ul." 28.13. And the king said to her, Be not afraid: for what sawest thou? And the woman said to Sha᾽ul, I saw a godlike man ascending out of the earth." 28.14. And he said to her, What form is he of? And she said, An old man comes up; and he is covered with a mantle. And Sha᾽ul knew that it was Shemu᾽el, and he stooped with his face to the ground, and bowed himself." 31.3. And the battle went hard against Sha᾽ul, and the archers hit him; and he was greatly in dread of the archers." 31.4. Then Sha᾽ul said to his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and pierce me with it; lest these uncircumcised come and pierce me, and abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was very much afraid. Therefore Sha᾽ul took a sword, and fell on it." 31.5. And when his armourbearer saw that Sha᾽ul was dead, he fell likewise on his sword, and died with him." 31.6. So Sha᾽ul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and all his men, that same day together."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 9.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.30. And when Jehu was come to Jezreel, Jezebel heard of it; and she painted her eyes, and attired her head, and looked out at the window."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.2, 1.11, 2.18, 2.20, 2.28, 3.32-3.35, 6.14-6.16, 11.2, 13.19, 16.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ בָּא מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבְגָדָיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיְהִי בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל־דָּוִד וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 1.2. אַל־תַּגִּידוּ בְגַת אַל־תְּבַשְּׂרוּ בְּחוּצֹת אַשְׁקְלוֹן פֶּן־תִּשְׂמַחְנָה בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן־תַּעֲלֹזְנָה בְּנוֹת הָעֲרֵלִים׃ 1.11. וַיַּחֲזֵק דָּוִד בבגדו [בִּבְגָדָיו] וַיִּקְרָעֵם וְגַם כָּל־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 2.18. וַיִּהְיוּ־שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי צְרוּיָה יוֹאָב וַאֲבִישַׁי וַעֲשָׂהאֵל וַעֲשָׂהאֵל קַל בְּרַגְלָיו כְּאַחַד הַצְּבָיִם אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.32. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֶת־אַבְנֵר בְּחֶבְרוֹן וַיִשָּׂא הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־קוֹלוֹ וַיֵּבְךְּ אֶל־קֶבֶר אַבְנֵר וַיִּבְכּוּ כָּל־הָעָם׃ 3.33. וַיְקֹנֵן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־אַבְנֵר וַיֹּאמַר הַכְּמוֹת נָבָל יָמוּת אַבְנֵר׃ 3.34. יָדֶךָ לֹא־אֲסֻרוֹת וְרַגְלֶיךָ לֹא־לִנְחֻשְׁתַּיִם הֻגָּשׁוּ כִּנְפוֹל לִפְנֵי בְנֵי־עַוְלָה נָפָלְתָּ וַיֹּסִפוּ כָל־הָעָם לִבְכּוֹת עָלָיו׃ 3.35. וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לְהַבְרוֹת אֶת־דָּוִד לֶחֶם בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם וַיִּשָּׁבַע דָּוִד לֵאמֹר כֹּה יַעֲשֶׂה־לִּי אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה יֹסִיף כִּי אִם־לִפְנֵי בוֹא־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֶטְעַם־לֶחֶם אוֹ כָל־מְאוּמָה׃ 6.14. וְדָוִד מְכַרְכֵּר בְּכָל־עֹז לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד׃ 6.15. וְדָוִד וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲלִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר׃ 6.16. וְהָיָה אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בָּא עִיר דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל נִשְׁקְפָה בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד מְפַזֵּז וּמְכַרְכֵּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתִּבֶז לוֹ בְּלִבָּהּ׃ 11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 13.19. וַתִּקַּח תָּמָר אֵפֶר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וּכְתֹנֶת הַפַּסִּים אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ קָרָעָה וַתָּשֶׂם יָדָהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ וְזָעָקָה׃ 16.22. וַיַּטּוּ לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם הָאֹהֶל עַל־הַגָּג וַיָּבֹא אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־פִּלַגְשֵׁי אָבִיו לְעֵינֵי כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.2. it came to pass on the third day, that, behold, a man came out of the camp from Sha᾽ul, with his clothes rent, and earth upon his head: and so it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the earth, and bowed down." 1.11. Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him:" 2.18. And there were three sons of Żeruya there, Yo᾽av, and Avishay and ῾Asa᾽el: and ῾Asa᾽el was as light of foot as a wild gazelle." 3.32. And they buried Avner in Ĥevron: and the king lifted up his voice, and wept at the grave of Avner; and all the people wept." 3.33. And the king lamented over Avner, and said, Should Avner die as a churl dies." 3.34. Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters: as a man falls before the wicked thou didst fall. And all the people wept again over him." 3.35. And all the people came to cause David to eat bread while it was yet day, but David swore, saying, So do God to me, and more also, if I taste bread, or anything else, till the sun be down." 6.14. And David leaped about before the Lord with all his might; and David was girded with a linen efod." 6.15. So David and all the house of Yisra᾽el brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting, and with the sound of the shofar." 6.16. And as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, Mikhal, Sha᾽ul’s daughter looked through a window, and saw king David dancing and leaping before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart." 11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon." 13.19. And Tamar put ashes on her head, and tore her long sleeved garment that was on her, and laid her hand on her head, crying aloud as she went." 16.22. So they spread Avshalom a pavilion on the top of the house; and Avshalom went in to his father’s concubines in the sight of all Yisra᾽el."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 58.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

58.5. הֲכָזֶה יִהְיֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ יוֹם עַנּוֹת אָדָם נַפְשׁוֹ הֲלָכֹף כְּאַגְמֹן רֹאשׁוֹ וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר יַצִּיעַ הֲלָזֶה תִּקְרָא־צוֹם וְיוֹם רָצוֹן לַיהוָה׃ 58.5. Is such the fast that I have chosen? The day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, And to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? Wilt thou call this a fast, And an acceptable day to the LORD?"
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.26. בַּת־עַמִּי חִגְרִי־שָׂק וְהִתְפַּלְּשִׁי בָאֵפֶר אֵבֶל יָחִיד עֲשִׂי לָךְ מִסְפַּד תַּמְרוּרִים כִּי פִתְאֹם יָבֹא הַשֹּׁדֵד עָלֵינוּ׃ 6.26. O daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, And wallow thyself in ashes; Make thee mourning, as for an only son, Most bitter lamentation; For the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us."
13. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.6. וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה עַד־הָעֶרֶב הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם׃ 7.6. And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the evening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust upon their heads."
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 11.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.35. וַיְהִי כִרְאוֹתוֹ אוֹתָהּ וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲהָהּ בִּתִּי הַכְרֵעַ הִכְרַעְתִּנִי וְאַתְּ הָיִיתְ בְּעֹכְרָי וְאָנֹכִי פָּצִיתִי־פִי אֶל־יְהוָה וְלֹא אוּכַל לָשׁוּב׃ 11.35. And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou hast become the cause of trouble to me: for I have opened my mouth to the Lord, and I cannot go back."
15. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.7, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.7. זָנַח אֲדֹנָי מִזְבְּחוֹ נִאֵר מִקְדָּשׁוֹ הִסְגִּיר בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב חוֹמֹת אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ קוֹל נָתְנוּ בְּבֵית־יְהוָה כְּיוֹם מוֹעֵד׃ 2.7. The Lord hath cast off His altar, He hath abhorred His sanctuary, He hath given up into the hand of the enemy The walls of her palaces; They have made a noise in the house of the LORD, As in the day of a solemn assembly." 2.10. They sit upon the ground, and keep silence, The elders of the daughter of Zion; They have cast up dust upon their heads, They have girded themselves with sackcloth; The virgins of Jerusalem hang down Their heads to the ground."
16. Homer, Iliad, 1.220-1.225, 6.220-6.224, 7.76-7.91, 7.95-7.96, 7.100, 7.109-7.119, 7.123-7.160, 7.180, 7.189, 7.213, 7.226-7.232, 7.235-7.237, 7.242-7.245, 7.268, 10.152-10.153, 10.351-10.355, 10.484, 10.503-10.505, 13.825-13.830, 16.570-16.575, 16.595-16.599, 16.744, 16.818-16.822, 18.23-18.24, 18.230-18.231, 23.120-23.150, 24.440-24.446 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.220. /the word of Athene. She returned to Olympus to the palace of aegis-bearing Zeus, to join the company of the other gods.But the son of Peleus again addressed with violent words the son of Atreus, and in no way ceased from his wrath:Heavy with wine, with the face of a dog but the heart of a deer 1.221. /the word of Athene. She returned to Olympus to the palace of aegis-bearing Zeus, to join the company of the other gods.But the son of Peleus again addressed with violent words the son of Atreus, and in no way ceased from his wrath:Heavy with wine, with the face of a dog but the heart of a deer 1.222. /the word of Athene. She returned to Olympus to the palace of aegis-bearing Zeus, to join the company of the other gods.But the son of Peleus again addressed with violent words the son of Atreus, and in no way ceased from his wrath:Heavy with wine, with the face of a dog but the heart of a deer 1.223. /the word of Athene. She returned to Olympus to the palace of aegis-bearing Zeus, to join the company of the other gods.But the son of Peleus again addressed with violent words the son of Atreus, and in no way ceased from his wrath:Heavy with wine, with the face of a dog but the heart of a deer 1.225. /never have you had courage to arm for battle along with your people, or go forth to an ambush with the chiefs of the Achaeans. That seems to you even as death. Indeed it is far better throughout the wide camp of the Achaeans to deprive of his prize whoever speaks contrary to you. 6.220. /and Bellerophon a double cup of gold which I left in my palace as I came hither. But Tydeus I remember not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, what time the host of the Achaeans perished at Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend to thee in the midst of Argos 6.221. /and Bellerophon a double cup of gold which I left in my palace as I came hither. But Tydeus I remember not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, what time the host of the Achaeans perished at Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend to thee in the midst of Argos 6.222. /and Bellerophon a double cup of gold which I left in my palace as I came hither. But Tydeus I remember not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, what time the host of the Achaeans perished at Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend to thee in the midst of Argos 6.223. /and Bellerophon a double cup of gold which I left in my palace as I came hither. But Tydeus I remember not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, what time the host of the Achaeans perished at Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend to thee in the midst of Argos 6.224. /and Bellerophon a double cup of gold which I left in my palace as I came hither. But Tydeus I remember not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, what time the host of the Achaeans perished at Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend to thee in the midst of Argos 7.76. /come hither from among you all to be your champion against goodly Hector. And thus do I declare my word, and be Zeus our witness thereto: if so be he shall slay me with the long-edged bronze, let him spoil me of my armour and bear it to the hollow ships, but my body let him give back to my home 7.77. /come hither from among you all to be your champion against goodly Hector. And thus do I declare my word, and be Zeus our witness thereto: if so be he shall slay me with the long-edged bronze, let him spoil me of my armour and bear it to the hollow ships, but my body let him give back to my home 7.78. /come hither from among you all to be your champion against goodly Hector. And thus do I declare my word, and be Zeus our witness thereto: if so be he shall slay me with the long-edged bronze, let him spoil me of my armour and bear it to the hollow ships, but my body let him give back to my home 7.79. /come hither from among you all to be your champion against goodly Hector. And thus do I declare my word, and be Zeus our witness thereto: if so be he shall slay me with the long-edged bronze, let him spoil me of my armour and bear it to the hollow ships, but my body let him give back to my home 7.80. /that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships 7.81. /that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships 7.82. /that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships 7.83. /that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships 7.84. /that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships 7.85. /that the long-haired Achaeans may give him burial, and heap up for him a barrow by the wide Hellespont. And some one shall some day say even of men that are yet to be, as he saileth in his many-benched ship over the wine-dark sea: ‘This is a barrow of a man that died in olden days 7.86. /that the long-haired Achaeans may give him burial, and heap up for him a barrow by the wide Hellespont. And some one shall some day say even of men that are yet to be, as he saileth in his many-benched ship over the wine-dark sea: ‘This is a barrow of a man that died in olden days 7.87. /that the long-haired Achaeans may give him burial, and heap up for him a barrow by the wide Hellespont. And some one shall some day say even of men that are yet to be, as he saileth in his many-benched ship over the wine-dark sea: ‘This is a barrow of a man that died in olden days 7.88. /that the long-haired Achaeans may give him burial, and heap up for him a barrow by the wide Hellespont. And some one shall some day say even of men that are yet to be, as he saileth in his many-benched ship over the wine-dark sea: ‘This is a barrow of a man that died in olden days 7.89. /that the long-haired Achaeans may give him burial, and heap up for him a barrow by the wide Hellespont. And some one shall some day say even of men that are yet to be, as he saileth in his many-benched ship over the wine-dark sea: ‘This is a barrow of a man that died in olden days 7.90. /whom on a time in the midst of his prowess glorious Hector slew.’ So shall some man say, and my glory shall never die. 7.91. /whom on a time in the midst of his prowess glorious Hector slew.’ So shall some man say, and my glory shall never die. 7.95. /chiding them with words of reviling, and deeply did he groan at heart:Ah me, Ye braggarts, ye women of Achaea, men no more! Surely shall this be a disgrace dread and dire, if no man of the Danaans shall now go to meet Hector. Nay, may ye one and all turn to earth and water 7.96. /chiding them with words of reviling, and deeply did he groan at heart:Ah me, Ye braggarts, ye women of Achaea, men no more! Surely shall this be a disgrace dread and dire, if no man of the Danaans shall now go to meet Hector. Nay, may ye one and all turn to earth and water 7.100. /ye that sit there each man with no heart in him, utterly inglorious. Against this man will I myself arm me; but from on high are the issues of victory holden of the immortal gods. So spake he, and did on his fair armour. And now Menelaus, would the end of life have appeared for thee 7.123. /So spake the warrior and turned his brother's mind, for he counselled aright; and Menelaus obeyed. Then with gladness his squires took his armour from his shoulders; and Nestor rose up and spake amid the Argives:Fie upon you! In good sooth is great grief come upon the land of Achaea. 7.124. /So spake the warrior and turned his brother's mind, for he counselled aright; and Menelaus obeyed. Then with gladness his squires took his armour from his shoulders; and Nestor rose up and spake amid the Argives:Fie upon you! In good sooth is great grief come upon the land of Achaea. 7.125. /Verily aloud would old Peleus groan, the driver of chariots, goodly counsellor, and orator of the Myrmidons, who on a time questioned me in his own house, and rejoiced greatly as he asked of the lineage and birth of all the Argives. If he were to hear that these were now all cowering before Hector 7.126. /Verily aloud would old Peleus groan, the driver of chariots, goodly counsellor, and orator of the Myrmidons, who on a time questioned me in his own house, and rejoiced greatly as he asked of the lineage and birth of all the Argives. If he were to hear that these were now all cowering before Hector 7.127. /Verily aloud would old Peleus groan, the driver of chariots, goodly counsellor, and orator of the Myrmidons, who on a time questioned me in his own house, and rejoiced greatly as he asked of the lineage and birth of all the Argives. If he were to hear that these were now all cowering before Hector 7.128. /Verily aloud would old Peleus groan, the driver of chariots, goodly counsellor, and orator of the Myrmidons, who on a time questioned me in his own house, and rejoiced greatly as he asked of the lineage and birth of all the Argives. If he were to hear that these were now all cowering before Hector 7.129. /Verily aloud would old Peleus groan, the driver of chariots, goodly counsellor, and orator of the Myrmidons, who on a time questioned me in his own house, and rejoiced greatly as he asked of the lineage and birth of all the Argives. If he were to hear that these were now all cowering before Hector 7.130. /then would he lift up his hands to the immortals in instant prayer that his soul might depart from his limbs into the house of Hades. 7.131. /then would he lift up his hands to the immortals in instant prayer that his soul might depart from his limbs into the house of Hades. 7.132. /then would he lift up his hands to the immortals in instant prayer that his soul might depart from his limbs into the house of Hades. 7.133. /then would he lift up his hands to the immortals in instant prayer that his soul might depart from his limbs into the house of Hades. 7.134. /then would he lift up his hands to the immortals in instant prayer that his soul might depart from his limbs into the house of Hades. I would, O father Zeus and Athene and Apollo, that I were young as when beside swift-flowing Celadon the Pylians and Arcadians that rage with spears gathered together and fought 7.135. /beneath the walls of Pheia about the streams of Iardanus. On their side stood forth Ereuthalion as champion, a godlike man, bearing upon his shoulders the armour of king Areithous, goodly Areithous that men and fair-girdled women were wont to call the mace-man 7.136. /beneath the walls of Pheia about the streams of Iardanus. On their side stood forth Ereuthalion as champion, a godlike man, bearing upon his shoulders the armour of king Areithous, goodly Areithous that men and fair-girdled women were wont to call the mace-man 7.137. /beneath the walls of Pheia about the streams of Iardanus. On their side stood forth Ereuthalion as champion, a godlike man, bearing upon his shoulders the armour of king Areithous, goodly Areithous that men and fair-girdled women were wont to call the mace-man 7.138. /beneath the walls of Pheia about the streams of Iardanus. On their side stood forth Ereuthalion as champion, a godlike man, bearing upon his shoulders the armour of king Areithous, goodly Areithous that men and fair-girdled women were wont to call the mace-man 7.139. /beneath the walls of Pheia about the streams of Iardanus. On their side stood forth Ereuthalion as champion, a godlike man, bearing upon his shoulders the armour of king Areithous, goodly Areithous that men and fair-girdled women were wont to call the mace-man 7.140. /for that he fought not with bow or long spear, but with a mace of iron brake the battalions. Him Lycurgus slew by guile and nowise by might, in a narrow way, where his mace of iron saved him not from destruction. For ere that might be Lycurgus came upon him at unawares 7.141. /for that he fought not with bow or long spear, but with a mace of iron brake the battalions. Him Lycurgus slew by guile and nowise by might, in a narrow way, where his mace of iron saved him not from destruction. For ere that might be Lycurgus came upon him at unawares 7.142. /for that he fought not with bow or long spear, but with a mace of iron brake the battalions. Him Lycurgus slew by guile and nowise by might, in a narrow way, where his mace of iron saved him not from destruction. For ere that might be Lycurgus came upon him at unawares 7.143. /for that he fought not with bow or long spear, but with a mace of iron brake the battalions. Him Lycurgus slew by guile and nowise by might, in a narrow way, where his mace of iron saved him not from destruction. For ere that might be Lycurgus came upon him at unawares 7.144. /for that he fought not with bow or long spear, but with a mace of iron brake the battalions. Him Lycurgus slew by guile and nowise by might, in a narrow way, where his mace of iron saved him not from destruction. For ere that might be Lycurgus came upon him at unawares 7.145. /and pierced him through the middle with his spear, and backward was he hurled upon the earth; and Lycurgus despoiled him of the armour that brazen Ares had given him. This armour he thereafter wore himself amid the turmoil of Ares, but when Lycurgus grew old within his halls 7.146. /and pierced him through the middle with his spear, and backward was he hurled upon the earth; and Lycurgus despoiled him of the armour that brazen Ares had given him. This armour he thereafter wore himself amid the turmoil of Ares, but when Lycurgus grew old within his halls 7.147. /and pierced him through the middle with his spear, and backward was he hurled upon the earth; and Lycurgus despoiled him of the armour that brazen Ares had given him. This armour he thereafter wore himself amid the turmoil of Ares, but when Lycurgus grew old within his halls 7.148. /and pierced him through the middle with his spear, and backward was he hurled upon the earth; and Lycurgus despoiled him of the armour that brazen Ares had given him. This armour he thereafter wore himself amid the turmoil of Ares, but when Lycurgus grew old within his halls 7.149. /and pierced him through the middle with his spear, and backward was he hurled upon the earth; and Lycurgus despoiled him of the armour that brazen Ares had given him. This armour he thereafter wore himself amid the turmoil of Ares, but when Lycurgus grew old within his halls 7.150. /he gave it to Ereuthalion, his dear squire, to wear. And wearing this armour did Ereuthalion challenge all the bravest; but they trembled sore and were afraid, nor had any man courage to abide him. But me did my enduring heart set on to battle with him in my hardihood, though in years I was youngest of all. So fought I with him, and Athene gave me glory. 7.151. /he gave it to Ereuthalion, his dear squire, to wear. And wearing this armour did Ereuthalion challenge all the bravest; but they trembled sore and were afraid, nor had any man courage to abide him. But me did my enduring heart set on to battle with him in my hardihood, though in years I was youngest of all. So fought I with him, and Athene gave me glory. 7.152. /he gave it to Ereuthalion, his dear squire, to wear. And wearing this armour did Ereuthalion challenge all the bravest; but they trembled sore and were afraid, nor had any man courage to abide him. But me did my enduring heart set on to battle with him in my hardihood, though in years I was youngest of all. So fought I with him, and Athene gave me glory. 7.153. /he gave it to Ereuthalion, his dear squire, to wear. And wearing this armour did Ereuthalion challenge all the bravest; but they trembled sore and were afraid, nor had any man courage to abide him. But me did my enduring heart set on to battle with him in my hardihood, though in years I was youngest of all. So fought I with him, and Athene gave me glory. 7.154. /he gave it to Ereuthalion, his dear squire, to wear. And wearing this armour did Ereuthalion challenge all the bravest; but they trembled sore and were afraid, nor had any man courage to abide him. But me did my enduring heart set on to battle with him in my hardihood, though in years I was youngest of all. So fought I with him, and Athene gave me glory. 7.155. /The tallest was he and the strongest man that ever I slew: as a huge sprawling bulk he lay stretched this way and that. Would I were now as young and my strength as firm, then should Hector of the flashing helm soon find one to face him. Whereas ye that are chieftains of the whole host of the Achaeans 7.156. /The tallest was he and the strongest man that ever I slew: as a huge sprawling bulk he lay stretched this way and that. Would I were now as young and my strength as firm, then should Hector of the flashing helm soon find one to face him. Whereas ye that are chieftains of the whole host of the Achaeans 7.157. /The tallest was he and the strongest man that ever I slew: as a huge sprawling bulk he lay stretched this way and that. Would I were now as young and my strength as firm, then should Hector of the flashing helm soon find one to face him. Whereas ye that are chieftains of the whole host of the Achaeans 7.158. /The tallest was he and the strongest man that ever I slew: as a huge sprawling bulk he lay stretched this way and that. Would I were now as young and my strength as firm, then should Hector of the flashing helm soon find one to face him. Whereas ye that are chieftains of the whole host of the Achaeans 7.159. /The tallest was he and the strongest man that ever I slew: as a huge sprawling bulk he lay stretched this way and that. Would I were now as young and my strength as firm, then should Hector of the flashing helm soon find one to face him. Whereas ye that are chieftains of the whole host of the Achaeans 7.160. /even ye are not minded with a ready heart to meet Hector face to face. So the old man chid them, and there stood up nine in all. Upsprang far the first the king of men, Agamemnon, and after him Tydeus' son, mighty Diomedes, and after them the Aiantes, clothed in furious valour 7.180. /or else on the king himself of Mycene rich in gold. So spake they, and the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia, shook the helmet, and forth therefrom leapt the lot that themselves desired, even the lot of Aias. And the herald bare it everywhither throughout the throng, and showed it from left to right to all the chieftains of the Achaeans; 7.189. /but they knew it not, and denied it every man. But when in bearing it everywhither throughout the throng he was come to him that had marked it and cast it into the helm, even to glorious Aias, then Aias held forth his hand, and the herald drew near and laid the lot therein; and Aias knew at a glance the token on the lot, and waxed glad at heart. 7.235. /in no wise make thou trial of me as of some puny boy or a woman that knoweth not deeds of war. Nay, full well know I battles and slayings of men. I know well how to wield to right, and well how to wield to left my shield of seasoned hide, which I deem a sturdy thing to wield in fight; 7.236. /in no wise make thou trial of me as of some puny boy or a woman that knoweth not deeds of war. Nay, full well know I battles and slayings of men. I know well how to wield to right, and well how to wield to left my shield of seasoned hide, which I deem a sturdy thing to wield in fight; 7.237. /in no wise make thou trial of me as of some puny boy or a woman that knoweth not deeds of war. Nay, full well know I battles and slayings of men. I know well how to wield to right, and well how to wield to left my shield of seasoned hide, which I deem a sturdy thing to wield in fight; 7.242. /and I know how to charge into the mellay of chariots drawn by swift mares; and I know how in close fight to tread the measure of furious Ares. Yet am I not minded to smite thee, being such a one as thou art, by spying thee at unawares; but rather openly, if so be I may hit thee. 7.243. /and I know how to charge into the mellay of chariots drawn by swift mares; and I know how in close fight to tread the measure of furious Ares. Yet am I not minded to smite thee, being such a one as thou art, by spying thee at unawares; but rather openly, if so be I may hit thee. 7.244. /and I know how to charge into the mellay of chariots drawn by swift mares; and I know how in close fight to tread the measure of furious Ares. Yet am I not minded to smite thee, being such a one as thou art, by spying thee at unawares; but rather openly, if so be I may hit thee. He spake, and poised his far-shadowing spear, and hurled it; 10.152. /And they came to Tydeus' son, Diomedes, and him they found outside his hut with his arms; and around him his comrades were sleeping with their shields beneath their heads, but their spears were driven into the ground erect on their spikes, and afar shone the bronze like the lightning of father Zeus. But the warrior was sleeping 10.153. /And they came to Tydeus' son, Diomedes, and him they found outside his hut with his arms; and around him his comrades were sleeping with their shields beneath their heads, but their spears were driven into the ground erect on their spikes, and afar shone the bronze like the lightning of father Zeus. But the warrior was sleeping 10.351. /but he ran quickly past them in his witlessness. But when he was as far off as is the range of mules in ploughing—for they are better than oxen to draw through deep fallow land the jointed plough—then the two ran after him, and he stood still when he heard the sound 10.352. /but he ran quickly past them in his witlessness. But when he was as far off as is the range of mules in ploughing—for they are better than oxen to draw through deep fallow land the jointed plough—then the two ran after him, and he stood still when he heard the sound 10.353. /but he ran quickly past them in his witlessness. But when he was as far off as is the range of mules in ploughing—for they are better than oxen to draw through deep fallow land the jointed plough—then the two ran after him, and he stood still when he heard the sound 10.354. /but he ran quickly past them in his witlessness. But when he was as far off as is the range of mules in ploughing—for they are better than oxen to draw through deep fallow land the jointed plough—then the two ran after him, and he stood still when he heard the sound 10.355. /for in his heart he supposed that they were friends coming from amid the Trojans to turn him back, and that Hector was withdrawing the host. But when they were a spear-cast off or even less, he knew them for foemen and plied his limbs swiftly in flight, and they speedily set out in pursuit. 10.484. /to stand idle with thy weapons; nay, loose the horses; or do thou slay the men, and I will look to the horses. So spake he, and into the other's heart flashing-eyed Athene breathed might, and he fell to slaving on this side and on that, and from them uprose hideous groaning as they were smitten with the sword, and the earth grew red with blood. 10.503. /smiting them with his bow, for he had not thought to take in his hands the bright whip from the richly dight car; and he whistled to give a sign to goodly Diomedes. 10.504. /smiting them with his bow, for he had not thought to take in his hands the bright whip from the richly dight car; and he whistled to give a sign to goodly Diomedes. But he tarried and pondered what most reckless deed he might do, whether to take the chariot, where lay the war-gear richly dight 10.505. /and draw it out by the pole, or lift it on high and so bear it forth, or whether he should rather take the lives of yet more Thracians. The while he was pondering this in heart, even then Athene drew nigh and spake to goodly Diomedes:Bethink thee now of returning, son of great-souled Tydeus 13.825. /I would that I mine own self were all my days as surely the son of Zeus, that beareth the aegis, and my mother were the queenly Hera, and that I were honoured even as are Athene and Apollo, as verily this day beareth evil for the Argives, one and all; and among them shalt thou too be slain, if thou have the heart 13.825. /And the Argives over against them shouted in answer, and forgat not their valour, but abode the oncoming of the best of the Trojans; and the clamour of the two hosts went up to the aether and the splendour of Zeus. 13.826. /I would that I mine own self were all my days as surely the son of Zeus, that beareth the aegis, and my mother were the queenly Hera, and that I were honoured even as are Athene and Apollo, as verily this day beareth evil for the Argives, one and all; and among them shalt thou too be slain, if thou have the heart 13.826. /And the Argives over against them shouted in answer, and forgat not their valour, but abode the oncoming of the best of the Trojans; and the clamour of the two hosts went up to the aether and the splendour of Zeus. 13.827. /I would that I mine own self were all my days as surely the son of Zeus, that beareth the aegis, and my mother were the queenly Hera, and that I were honoured even as are Athene and Apollo, as verily this day beareth evil for the Argives, one and all; and among them shalt thou too be slain, if thou have the heart 13.827. /And the Argives over against them shouted in answer, and forgat not their valour, but abode the oncoming of the best of the Trojans; and the clamour of the two hosts went up to the aether and the splendour of Zeus. 13.828. /I would that I mine own self were all my days as surely the son of Zeus, that beareth the aegis, and my mother were the queenly Hera, and that I were honoured even as are Athene and Apollo, as verily this day beareth evil for the Argives, one and all; and among them shalt thou too be slain, if thou have the heart 13.828. /And the Argives over against them shouted in answer, and forgat not their valour, but abode the oncoming of the best of the Trojans; and the clamour of the two hosts went up to the aether and the splendour of Zeus. 13.829. /I would that I mine own self were all my days as surely the son of Zeus, that beareth the aegis, and my mother were the queenly Hera, and that I were honoured even as are Athene and Apollo, as verily this day beareth evil for the Argives, one and all; and among them shalt thou too be slain, if thou have the heart 13.829. /And the Argives over against them shouted in answer, and forgat not their valour, but abode the oncoming of the best of the Trojans; and the clamour of the two hosts went up to the aether and the splendour of Zeus. 13.830. /to abide my long spear, that shall rend thy lily-like skin; and thou shalt glut with thy fat and thy flesh the dogs and birds of the Trojans, when thou art fallen amid the ships of the Achaeans. So spake he, and led the way; and they followed after with a wondrous din, and the host shouted behind. 16.570. /for smitten was a man in no wise the worst among the Myrmidons, even the son of great-souled Agacles, goodly Epeigeus, that was king in well-peopled Budeum of old, but when he had slain a goodly man of his kin, to Peleus he came as a suppliant, and to silver-footed Thetis; 16.571. /for smitten was a man in no wise the worst among the Myrmidons, even the son of great-souled Agacles, goodly Epeigeus, that was king in well-peopled Budeum of old, but when he had slain a goodly man of his kin, to Peleus he came as a suppliant, and to silver-footed Thetis; 16.572. /for smitten was a man in no wise the worst among the Myrmidons, even the son of great-souled Agacles, goodly Epeigeus, that was king in well-peopled Budeum of old, but when he had slain a goodly man of his kin, to Peleus he came as a suppliant, and to silver-footed Thetis; 16.573. /for smitten was a man in no wise the worst among the Myrmidons, even the son of great-souled Agacles, goodly Epeigeus, that was king in well-peopled Budeum of old, but when he had slain a goodly man of his kin, to Peleus he came as a suppliant, and to silver-footed Thetis; 16.574. /for smitten was a man in no wise the worst among the Myrmidons, even the son of great-souled Agacles, goodly Epeigeus, that was king in well-peopled Budeum of old, but when he had slain a goodly man of his kin, to Peleus he came as a suppliant, and to silver-footed Thetis; 16.575. /and they sent him to follow with Achilles, breaker of the ranks of men, to Ilios, famed for its horses, that he might fight with the Trojans. Him, as he was laying hold of the corpse, glorious Hector smote upon the head with a stone; and his head was wholly cloven asunder within the heavy helmet 16.595. /the dear son of Chalcon, him that had his abode in Hellas, and for wealth and substance was pre-eminent among the Myrmidons. Him did Glaucus smite full upon the breast with a thrust of his spear, turning suddenly upon rum, when the other was about to overtake him in pursuit. And he fell with a thud, and sore grief gat hold of the Achaeans 16.596. /the dear son of Chalcon, him that had his abode in Hellas, and for wealth and substance was pre-eminent among the Myrmidons. Him did Glaucus smite full upon the breast with a thrust of his spear, turning suddenly upon rum, when the other was about to overtake him in pursuit. And he fell with a thud, and sore grief gat hold of the Achaeans 16.597. /the dear son of Chalcon, him that had his abode in Hellas, and for wealth and substance was pre-eminent among the Myrmidons. Him did Glaucus smite full upon the breast with a thrust of his spear, turning suddenly upon rum, when the other was about to overtake him in pursuit. And he fell with a thud, and sore grief gat hold of the Achaeans 16.598. /the dear son of Chalcon, him that had his abode in Hellas, and for wealth and substance was pre-eminent among the Myrmidons. Him did Glaucus smite full upon the breast with a thrust of his spear, turning suddenly upon rum, when the other was about to overtake him in pursuit. And he fell with a thud, and sore grief gat hold of the Achaeans 16.599. /the dear son of Chalcon, him that had his abode in Hellas, and for wealth and substance was pre-eminent among the Myrmidons. Him did Glaucus smite full upon the breast with a thrust of his spear, turning suddenly upon rum, when the other was about to overtake him in pursuit. And he fell with a thud, and sore grief gat hold of the Achaeans 16.818. /Patroclus, unarmed though he was, in the fray. But Patroclus, overcome by the stroke of the god and by the spear, drew back into the throng of his comrades, avoiding fate. 16.819. /Patroclus, unarmed though he was, in the fray. But Patroclus, overcome by the stroke of the god and by the spear, drew back into the throng of his comrades, avoiding fate. But Hector, when he beheld great-souled Patroclus drawing back, smitten with the sharp bronze 16.820. /came nigh him through the ranks, and smote him with a thrust of his spear in the nethermost belly, and drave the bronze clean through; and he fell with a thud, and sorely grieved the host of the Achaeans. And as a lion overmastereth in fight an untiring boar, when the twain fight with high hearts on the peaks of a mountain 16.821. /came nigh him through the ranks, and smote him with a thrust of his spear in the nethermost belly, and drave the bronze clean through; and he fell with a thud, and sorely grieved the host of the Achaeans. And as a lion overmastereth in fight an untiring boar, when the twain fight with high hearts on the peaks of a mountain 16.822. /came nigh him through the ranks, and smote him with a thrust of his spear in the nethermost belly, and drave the bronze clean through; and he fell with a thud, and sorely grieved the host of the Achaeans. And as a lion overmastereth in fight an untiring boar, when the twain fight with high hearts on the peaks of a mountain 18.23. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. 18.24. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. So spake he, and a black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles, and with both his hands he took the dark dust 18.230. /And there in that hour perished twelve men of their best amid their own chariots and their own spears. But the Achaeans with gladness drew Patroclus forth from out the darts and laid him on a bier, and his dear comrades thronged about him weeping; and amid them followed swift-footed Achilles 18.231. /And there in that hour perished twelve men of their best amid their own chariots and their own spears. But the Achaeans with gladness drew Patroclus forth from out the darts and laid him on a bier, and his dear comrades thronged about him weeping; and amid them followed swift-footed Achilles 23.120. /Then the Achaeans split the trunks asunder and bound them behind the mules, and these tore up the earth with their feet as they hasted toward the plain through the thick underbrush. And all the woodcutters bare logs; for so were they bidden of Meriones, squire of kindly Idomeneus. 23.121. /Then the Achaeans split the trunks asunder and bound them behind the mules, and these tore up the earth with their feet as they hasted toward the plain through the thick underbrush. And all the woodcutters bare logs; for so were they bidden of Meriones, squire of kindly Idomeneus. 23.122. /Then the Achaeans split the trunks asunder and bound them behind the mules, and these tore up the earth with their feet as they hasted toward the plain through the thick underbrush. And all the woodcutters bare logs; for so were they bidden of Meriones, squire of kindly Idomeneus. 23.123. /Then the Achaeans split the trunks asunder and bound them behind the mules, and these tore up the earth with their feet as they hasted toward the plain through the thick underbrush. And all the woodcutters bare logs; for so were they bidden of Meriones, squire of kindly Idomeneus. 23.124. /Then the Achaeans split the trunks asunder and bound them behind the mules, and these tore up the earth with their feet as they hasted toward the plain through the thick underbrush. And all the woodcutters bare logs; for so were they bidden of Meriones, squire of kindly Idomeneus. 23.125. /Then down upon the shore they cast these, man after man, where Achilles planned a great barrow for Patroclus and for himself. But when on all sides they had cast down the measureless wood, they sate them down there and abode, all in one throng. And Achilles straightway bade the war-loving Myrmidons 23.126. /Then down upon the shore they cast these, man after man, where Achilles planned a great barrow for Patroclus and for himself. But when on all sides they had cast down the measureless wood, they sate them down there and abode, all in one throng. And Achilles straightway bade the war-loving Myrmidons 23.127. /Then down upon the shore they cast these, man after man, where Achilles planned a great barrow for Patroclus and for himself. But when on all sides they had cast down the measureless wood, they sate them down there and abode, all in one throng. And Achilles straightway bade the war-loving Myrmidons 23.128. /Then down upon the shore they cast these, man after man, where Achilles planned a great barrow for Patroclus and for himself. But when on all sides they had cast down the measureless wood, they sate them down there and abode, all in one throng. And Achilles straightway bade the war-loving Myrmidons 23.129. /Then down upon the shore they cast these, man after man, where Achilles planned a great barrow for Patroclus and for himself. But when on all sides they had cast down the measureless wood, they sate them down there and abode, all in one throng. And Achilles straightway bade the war-loving Myrmidons 23.130. /gird them about with bronze, and yoke each man his horses to his car. And they arose and did on their armour and mounted their chariots,warriors and charioteers alike. In front fared the men in chariots, and thereafter followed a cloud of footmen, a host past counting and in the midst his comrades bare Patroclus. 23.131. /gird them about with bronze, and yoke each man his horses to his car. And they arose and did on their armour and mounted their chariots,warriors and charioteers alike. In front fared the men in chariots, and thereafter followed a cloud of footmen, a host past counting and in the midst his comrades bare Patroclus. 23.132. /gird them about with bronze, and yoke each man his horses to his car. And they arose and did on their armour and mounted their chariots,warriors and charioteers alike. In front fared the men in chariots, and thereafter followed a cloud of footmen, a host past counting and in the midst his comrades bare Patroclus. 23.133. /gird them about with bronze, and yoke each man his horses to his car. And they arose and did on their armour and mounted their chariots,warriors and charioteers alike. In front fared the men in chariots, and thereafter followed a cloud of footmen, a host past counting and in the midst his comrades bare Patroclus. 23.134. /gird them about with bronze, and yoke each man his horses to his car. And they arose and did on their armour and mounted their chariots,warriors and charioteers alike. In front fared the men in chariots, and thereafter followed a cloud of footmen, a host past counting and in the midst his comrades bare Patroclus. 23.135. /And as with a garment they wholly covered the corpse with their hair that they shore off and cast thereon; and behind them goodly Achilles clasped the head, sorrowing the while; for peerless was the comrade whom he was speeding to the house of Hades. 23.136. /And as with a garment they wholly covered the corpse with their hair that they shore off and cast thereon; and behind them goodly Achilles clasped the head, sorrowing the while; for peerless was the comrade whom he was speeding to the house of Hades. 23.137. /And as with a garment they wholly covered the corpse with their hair that they shore off and cast thereon; and behind them goodly Achilles clasped the head, sorrowing the while; for peerless was the comrade whom he was speeding to the house of Hades. 23.138. /And as with a garment they wholly covered the corpse with their hair that they shore off and cast thereon; and behind them goodly Achilles clasped the head, sorrowing the while; for peerless was the comrade whom he was speeding to the house of Hades. 23.139. /And as with a garment they wholly covered the corpse with their hair that they shore off and cast thereon; and behind them goodly Achilles clasped the head, sorrowing the while; for peerless was the comrade whom he was speeding to the house of Hades. But when they were come to the place that Achilles had appointed unto them, they set down the dead, and swiftly heaped up for him abundant store of wood. 23.140. /Then again swift-footed goodly Achilles took other counsel; he took his stand apart from the fire and shore off a golden lock, the rich growth whereof he had nursed for the river Spercheüs, and his heart mightily moved, he spake, with a look over the wine-dark sea:Spercheüs, to no purpose did my father Peleus vow to thee 23.141. /Then again swift-footed goodly Achilles took other counsel; he took his stand apart from the fire and shore off a golden lock, the rich growth whereof he had nursed for the river Spercheüs, and his heart mightily moved, he spake, with a look over the wine-dark sea:Spercheüs, to no purpose did my father Peleus vow to thee 23.142. /Then again swift-footed goodly Achilles took other counsel; he took his stand apart from the fire and shore off a golden lock, the rich growth whereof he had nursed for the river Spercheüs, and his heart mightily moved, he spake, with a look over the wine-dark sea:Spercheüs, to no purpose did my father Peleus vow to thee 23.143. /Then again swift-footed goodly Achilles took other counsel; he took his stand apart from the fire and shore off a golden lock, the rich growth whereof he had nursed for the river Spercheüs, and his heart mightily moved, he spake, with a look over the wine-dark sea:Spercheüs, to no purpose did my father Peleus vow to thee 23.144. /Then again swift-footed goodly Achilles took other counsel; he took his stand apart from the fire and shore off a golden lock, the rich growth whereof he had nursed for the river Spercheüs, and his heart mightily moved, he spake, with a look over the wine-dark sea:Spercheüs, to no purpose did my father Peleus vow to thee 23.145. /that when I had come home thither to my dear native land, I would shear my hair to thee and offer a holy hecatomb, and on the selfsame spot would sacrifice fifty rams, males without blemish, into thy waters, where is thy demesne and thy fragrant altar. So vowed that old man, but thou didst not fulfill for him his desire. 23.146. /that when I had come home thither to my dear native land, I would shear my hair to thee and offer a holy hecatomb, and on the selfsame spot would sacrifice fifty rams, males without blemish, into thy waters, where is thy demesne and thy fragrant altar. So vowed that old man, but thou didst not fulfill for him his desire. 23.147. /that when I had come home thither to my dear native land, I would shear my hair to thee and offer a holy hecatomb, and on the selfsame spot would sacrifice fifty rams, males without blemish, into thy waters, where is thy demesne and thy fragrant altar. So vowed that old man, but thou didst not fulfill for him his desire. 23.148. /that when I had come home thither to my dear native land, I would shear my hair to thee and offer a holy hecatomb, and on the selfsame spot would sacrifice fifty rams, males without blemish, into thy waters, where is thy demesne and thy fragrant altar. So vowed that old man, but thou didst not fulfill for him his desire. 23.149. /that when I had come home thither to my dear native land, I would shear my hair to thee and offer a holy hecatomb, and on the selfsame spot would sacrifice fifty rams, males without blemish, into thy waters, where is thy demesne and thy fragrant altar. So vowed that old man, but thou didst not fulfill for him his desire. 23.150. /Now, therefore, seeing I go not home to my dear native land, I would fain give unto the warrior Patroclus this lock to fare with him. He spake and set the lock in the hands of his dear comrade, and in them all aroused the desire of lament. And now would the light of the sun have gone down upon their weeping 24.440. /So spake the Helper, and leaping upon the chariot behind the horses quickly grasped in his hands the lash and reins, and breathed great might into the horses and mules. But when they were come to the walls and the trench that guarded the ships, even as the watchers were but now busying them about their supper 24.441. /So spake the Helper, and leaping upon the chariot behind the horses quickly grasped in his hands the lash and reins, and breathed great might into the horses and mules. But when they were come to the walls and the trench that guarded the ships, even as the watchers were but now busying them about their supper 24.442. /So spake the Helper, and leaping upon the chariot behind the horses quickly grasped in his hands the lash and reins, and breathed great might into the horses and mules. But when they were come to the walls and the trench that guarded the ships, even as the watchers were but now busying them about their supper 24.443. /So spake the Helper, and leaping upon the chariot behind the horses quickly grasped in his hands the lash and reins, and breathed great might into the horses and mules. But when they were come to the walls and the trench that guarded the ships, even as the watchers were but now busying them about their supper 24.444. /So spake the Helper, and leaping upon the chariot behind the horses quickly grasped in his hands the lash and reins, and breathed great might into the horses and mules. But when they were come to the walls and the trench that guarded the ships, even as the watchers were but now busying them about their supper 24.445. /upon all of these the messenger Argeiphontes shed sleep, and forthwith opened the gates, and thrust back the bars, and brought within Priam, and the splendid gifts upon the wain. But when they were come to the hut of Peleus' son, the lofty hut which the Myrmidons had builded for their king 24.446. /upon all of these the messenger Argeiphontes shed sleep, and forthwith opened the gates, and thrust back the bars, and brought within Priam, and the splendid gifts upon the wain. But when they were come to the hut of Peleus' son, the lofty hut which the Myrmidons had builded for their king
17. Homer, Odyssey, 10.315-10.380 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 27.30 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.30. And shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, And shall cry bitterly, And shall cast up dust upon their heads, They shall roll themselves in the ashes;"
19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 23.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.13. וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל־עַמּוּדוֹ בַּמָּבוֹא וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ וְתוֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַמְשׁוֹרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר וּמוֹדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־בְּגָדֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר׃ 23.13. and she looked, and, behold, the king stood on his platform at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets; the singers also [played] on instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said: ‘Treason, treason.’"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.3. וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה קָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶמְרְטָה מִשְּׂעַר רֹאשִׁי וּזְקָנִי וָאֵשְׁבָה מְשׁוֹמֵם׃ 9.3. And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled."
21. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה נֶאֶסְפוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְשַׂקִּים וַאֲדָמָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.1. וַתִּתֵּן אֹתֹת וּמֹפְתִים בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּבְכָל־עַם אַרְצוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתָּ כִּי הֵזִידוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַתַּעַשׂ־לְךָ שֵׁם כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 9.1. Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackcloth, and earth upon them."
22. Herodotus, Histories, 3.33, 3.36, 8.90 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.33. Such were Cambyses' mad acts to his own household, whether they were done because of Apis or grew from some of the many troubles that are wont to beset men; for indeed he is said to have been afflicted from his birth with that grievous disease which some call “sacred.” It is not unlikely then that when his body was grievously afflicted his mind too should be diseased. 3.36. For these acts Croesus the Lydian thought fit to take him to task, and addressed him thus: “Sire, do not sacrifice everything to youth and temper, but restrain and control yourself; prudence is a good thing, forethought is wise. But you kill men of your own country whom you have convicted of some minor offense, and you kill boys. ,If you do so often, beware lest the Persians revolt from you. As for me, your father Cyrus earnestly begged me to counsel you and to give you such advice as I think to be good.” Croesus gave him this counsel out of goodwill; but Cambyses answered: ,“It is very well that you should even dare to counsel me; you, who governed your own country so well, and gave fine advice to my father—telling him, when the Massagetae were willing to cross over into our lands, to pass the Araxes and attack them; thus you worked your own ruin by misgoverning your country and Cyrus', who trusted you. But you shall regret it; I have long waited for an occasion to deal with you.” ,With that Cambyses took his bow to shoot him dead; but Croesus leapt up and ran out; and Cambyses, being unable to shoot him, ordered his attendants to catch and kill him. ,They, knowing Cambyses' mood, hid Croesus; intending to reveal him and receive gifts for saving his life, if Cambyses should repent and ask for Croesus, but if he should not repent nor wish Croesus back, then to kill the Lydian. ,Not long after this Cambyses did wish Croesus back, and the attendants, understanding this, told him that Croesus was alive still. Cambyses said that he was glad of it; but that they, who had saved Croesus, should not escape with impunity, but be killed; and this was done. 8.90. It also happened in this commotion that certain Phoenicians whose ships had been destroyed came to the king and accused the Ionians of treason, saying that it was by their doing that the ships had been lost. It turned out that the Ionian generals were not put to death, and those Phoenicians who slandered them were rewarded as I will show. ,While they were still speaking, a Samothracian ship rammed an Attic ship. The Attic ship sank and an Aeginetan ship bore down and sank the Samothracian ship, but the Samothracians, being javelin-throwers, by pelting them with missiles knocked the fighters off the ship that had sunk theirs and boarded and seized it. ,This saved the Ionians. In his deep vexation Xerxes blamed everyone. When he saw the Ionians performing this great feat, he turned to the Phoenicians and commanded that their heads be cut off, so that they who were base not slander men more noble. ,Whenever Xerxes, as he sat beneath the mountain opposite Salamis which is called Aegaleos, saw one of his own men achieve some feat in the battle, he inquired who did it, and his scribes wrote down the captain's name with his father and city of residence. The presence of Ariaramnes, a Persian and a friend of the Ionians, contributed still more to this calamity of the Phoenicians. Thus they dealt with the Phoenicians.
23. Sophocles, Ajax, 816-860, 815 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.17 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.17. And Raphael was sent to heal the two of them: to scale away the white films of Tobits eyes; to give Sarah the daughter of Raguel in marriage to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodeus the evil demon, because Tobias was entitled to possess her. At that very moment Tobit returned and entered his house and Sarah the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper room.
25. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. I therefore, when I heard this, rent my garments, and said unto her: Woman, reverence God, and do not this evil deed, lest thou be destroyed; for know indeed that I will declare this thy device unto all men.
26. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.3. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃ 9.3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes."
27. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.14, 3.47, 11.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. And Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned greatly. 3.47. They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes. 11.71. Jonathan rent his garments and put dust on his head, and prayed.
28. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.19, 10.25, 14.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.19. Women, girded with sackcloth under their breasts, thronged the streets. Some of the maidens who were kept indoors ran together to the gates, and some to the walls, while others peered out of the windows.' 10.25. As he drew near, Maccabeus and his men sprinkled dust upon their heads and girded their loins with sackcloth, in supplication to God.' 14.15. When the Jews heard of Nicanor's coming and the gathering of the Gentiles, they sprinkled dust upon their heads and prayed to him who established his own people for ever and always upholds his own heritage by manifesting himself.'
29. Septuagint, Judith, 4.10-4.11, 4.13-4.15, 8.5, 9.1, 10.3, 14.16, 14.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.10. They and their wives and their children and their cattle and every resident alien and hired laborer and purchased slave -- they all girded themselves with sackcloth. 4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.13. So the Lord heard their prayers and looked upon their affliction; for the people fasted many days throughout Judea and in Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty. 4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 8.5. She set up a tent for herself on the roof of her house, and girded sackcloth about her loins and wore the garments of her widowhood. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments. 14.19. When the leaders of the Assyrian army heard this, they rent their tunics and were greatly dismayed, and their loud cries and shouts arose in the midst of the camp.
30. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.18-1.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.18. The virgins who had been enclosed in their chambers rushed out with their mothers, sprinkled their hair with dust, and filled the streets with groans and lamentations. 1.19. Those women who had recently been arrayed for marriage abandoned the bridal chambers prepared for wedded union, and, neglecting proper modesty, in a disorderly rush flocked together in the city.
31. Anon., 2 Baruch, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.322, 4.320 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.322. Whence we are not to wonder at what was then done, while to this very day the writings left by Moses have so great a force, that even those that hate us do confess, that he who established this settlement was God, and that it was by the means of Moses, and of his virtue; but as to these matters, let every one take them as he thinks fit.
33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.316 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.316. at which the men of power were affrighted, together with the high priests, and rent their garments, and fell down before each of them, and besought them to leave off, and not to provoke Florus to some incurable procedure, besides what they had already suffered.
34. Mishnah, Moed Qatan, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.2, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8)." 7.5. The blasphemer is punished only if he utters [the divine] name. Rabbi Joshua b. Korcha said: “The whole day [of the trial] the witnesses are examined by means of a substitute for the divine name:, ‘may Yose smite Yose.” When the trial was finished, the accused was not executed on this evidence, but all persons were removed [from court], and the chief witness was told, ‘State literally what you heard.’ Thereupon he did so, [using the divine name]. The judges then arose and tore their garments, which were not to be resewn. The second witness stated: “I too have heard thus” [but not uttering the divine name], and the third says: “I too heard thus.”"
36. New Testament, Acts, 14.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out
37. New Testament, Apocalypse, 18.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her great wealth!' For in one hour is she made desolate.
38. New Testament, Luke, 23.27, 23.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.27. A great multitude of the people followed him, including women who also mourned and lamented him. 23.48. All the multitudes that came together to see this, when they saw the things that were done, returned home beating their breasts.
39. New Testament, Mark, 14.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses?
40. New Testament, Matthew, 26.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God.
41. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26a. ואלו קרעין שאין מתאחין הקורע על אביו ועל אמו ועל רבו שלימדו תורה ועל נשיא ועל אב ב"ד ועל שמועות הרעות ועל ברכת השם ועל ספר תורה שנשרף ועל ערי יהודה ועל המקדש ועל ירושלים וקורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים,אביו ואמו ורבו שלימדו תורה מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ואלישע ראה והוא מצעק אבי אבי רכב ישראל ופרשיו אבי אבי זה אביו ואמו רכב ישראל ופרשיו זה רבו שלימדו תורה,מאי משמע כדמתרגם רב יוסף רבי רבי דטב להון לישראל בצלותיה מרתיכין ופרשין,ולא מתאחין מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ויחזק בבגדיו ויקרעם לשנים קרעים ממשמע שנאמר ויקרעם איני יודע שלשנים אלא מלמד שקרועים ועומדים לשנים לעולם,אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן אליהו חי הוא אמר ליה כיון דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ולא ראהו עוד לגבי דידיה כמת דמי,נשיא ואב בית דין ושמועות הרעות מנלן דכתיב (שמואל ב א, יא) ויחזק דוד בבגדיו ויקרעם וגם כל האנשים אשר אתו ויספדו ויבכו ויצומו עד הערב על שאול ועל יהונתן בנו ועל עם ה' ועל בית ישראל כי נפלו בחרב,שאול זה נשיא יהונתן זה אב ב"ד על עם ה' ועל בית ישראל אלו שמועות הרעות,א"ל רב בר שבא לרב כהנא ואימא עד דהוו כולהו א"ל על על הפסיק הענין,ומי קרעינן אשמועות הרעות והא אמרו ליה לשמואל קטל שבור מלכא תריסר אלפי יהודאי במזיגת קסרי ולא קרע לא אמרו אלא ברוב צבור וכמעשה שהיה,ומי קטל שבור מלכא יהודאי והא א"ל שבור מלכא לשמואל תיתי לי דלא קטלי יהודי מעולם התם אינהו גרמי לנפשייהו דא"ר אמי לקל יתירי דמזיגת קסרי פקע שורא דלודקיא,על ברכת השם מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, לז) ויבא אליקים בן חלקיה אשר על הבית ושבנא הסופר ויואח בן אסף המזכיר אל חזקיהו קרועי בגדים,ת"ר אחד השומע ואחד השומע מפי השומע חייב לקרוע והעדים אינן חייבין לקרוע שכבר קרעו בשעה ששמעו,בשעה ששמעו מאי הוי הא קא שמעי השתא לא ס"ד דכתיב (מלכים ב יט, א) ויהי כשמוע המלך חזקיהו ויקרע את בגדיו המלך קרע והם לא קרעו,ולא מתאחין מנלן אתיא קריעה קריעה,ספר תורה שנשרף מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו לו, כג) ויהי כקרא יהודי שלש דלתות וארבעה ויקרעה בתער הסופר והשלך אל האש אשר אל האח וגו' מאי שלש דלתות וארבעה,אמרו ליה ליהויקים כתב ירמיה ספר קינות אמר להו מה כתיב ביה (איכה א, א) איכה ישבה בדד אמר להו אנא מלכא א"ל (איכה א, ב) בכה תבכה בלילה אנא מלכא (איכה א, ג) גלתה יהודה מעוני אנא מלכא (איכה א, ד) דרכי ציון אבלות אנא מלכא,(איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש אמר להו מאן אמרה (איכה א, ה) כי ה' הוגה על רוב פשעיה מיד קדר כל אזכרות שבה ושרפן באש והיינו דכתיב (ירמיהו לו, כד) ולא פחדו ולא קרעו את בגדיהם מכלל דבעו למיקרע,אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי אימר משום שמועות הרעות א"ל שמועות רעות בההיא שעתא מי הוו,א"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא הרואה ספר תורה שנקרע חייב לקרוע שתי קריעות אחד על הגויל ואחד על הכתב שנאמר (ירמיהו לו, כז) אחרי שרוף המלך את המגלה ואת הדברים,רבי אבא ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי קמיה דרבי אבא בעא לאפנויי שקליה לטוטפתיה אחתיה אבי סדיא אתאי בת נעמיתא בעא למיבלעיה,אמר השתא איחייבין לי שתי קריעות א"ל מנא לך הא והא בדידי הוה עובדא ואתאי לקמיה דרב מתנה ולא הוה בידיה אתאי לקמיה דרב יהודה ואמר לי הכי אמר שמואל לא אמרו אלא בזרוע וכמעשה שהיה,ערי יהודה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו מא, ה) ויבאו אנשים משכם משילו ומשמרון שמונים איש מגולחי זקן וקרועי בגדים ומתגודדים ומנחה ולבונה בידם להביא בית ה' וגו',א"ר חלבו אמר עולא ביראה אמר ר' אלעזר הרואה ערי יהודה בחורבנן אומר (ישעיהו סד, ט) ערי קדשך היו מדבר וקורע ירושלים בחורבנה אומר (ישעיהו סד, ט) ציון מדבר היתה ירושלם שממה וקורע בית המקדש בחורבנו אומר (ישעיהו סד, י) בית קדשנו ותפארתנו אשר הללוך אבותינו היה לשריפת אש וכל מחמדינו היה לחרבה וקורע:,קורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים: ורמינהו אחד השומע ואחד הרואה כיון שהגיע לצופים קורע וקורע על מקדש בפני עצמו ועל ירושלים בפני עצמה,לא קשיא הא דפגע במקדש ברישא הא דפגע בירושלים ברישא,תנו רבנן וכולן רשאין לשוללן ולמוללן וללוקטן ולעשותן כמין סולמות אבל לא לאחותן,אמר רב חסדא 26a. bAnd these are the rentsof mourning bthat may never beproperly bmended: One who rendshis garments bforthe death bhis father, or for his mother, or for his teacher who taught him Torah, or forthe iNasi /i, or forthe bpresident of the court; or uponhearing bevil tidings; orhearing God’s bname being blessed,which is a euphemism for hearing God’s name being cursed; bor when a Torah scroll has been burned; or uponseeing bthe cities of Judeathat were destroyed bor thedestroyed bTemple or Jerusalemin ruins. This is the way one conducts himself when approaching Jerusalem when it lies in ruin: bHefirst brendshis garments bfor the Temple andthen bextendsthe rent bfor Jerusalem. /b,The Gemara elaborates upon the ihalakhotmentioned in this ibaraita /i: bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his clothing for bhis father, his mother, and his teacher who taught him Torah? As it is writtenwith regard to the prophet Elijah, when he ascended to Heaven in a tempest: b“And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen”(II Kings 2:12). The Gemara interprets this verse as follows: b“My father, my father”; thiscomes to teach that one must rend his garments for the death of bhis father or mother. “The chariots of Israel and their horsemen”; thiscomes to include also bone’s teacher who taught him Torah. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to one’s teacher? The Gemara explains: bAsthe verse bwas translated by Rav Yosef: My teacher, my teacher, who was better forthe protection of the bJewish people with his prayers thanan army with bchariots and horsemen. /b, bAnd from where do wederive that these rents bare neverto be properly bmended? As it is written: “And he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces”(II Kings 2:12). bFrom the fact thatit bis stated: “And he rent them,” do I not know thathe rent them bin twopieces? bRather,when the verse adds that they were torn into two pieces, bit teaches that they must remain torn in twopieces bforever.Accordingly, this rent must never be properly mended., bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa:But isn’t bElijahstill balive?Why, then, did Elisha rend his garments for him? bHe said to him: Since it is written: “And he saw him no more”(II Kings 2:12), Elijah was bconsidered dead fromElisha’s perspective, and so Elisha rent his clothing for him.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his clothing for the death of the iNasiorthe bpresident of the court andupon hearing bevil tidings? As it is written,when David heard about the defeat of Israel and the death of Saul and his sons: b“Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him: And they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Saul and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the sword”(II Samuel 1:11–12).,The Gemara explains how the aforementioned ihalakhotare derived from the verse: b“Saul”; this isa reference to the iNasi /i,as Saul was king of Israel. b“Jonathan”; this isa reference to the bpresident of the court. “For the people of the Lord, and for the house of the Israel”; these area reference to bevil tidings. /b, bRav bar Shaba said to Rav Kahana: Butperhaps you can bsaythat one need not rend his clothing buntil all thesecalamities occur together, and that rending clothing is performed only over a tragedy of this magnitude. bHe said to him:The repetition of the word “for”: b“ForSaul,” b“forJonathan,” and “for the people of the Lord” bdivides the matterand teaches that each individual misfortune is sufficient cause to rend one’s garments.,The Gemara asks: bBut do weactually brendour clothing upon hearing bevil tidings? But didn’t they say to Shmuel: King Shapur killed twelve thousand Jews in Mezigat Caesarea, andShmuel bdid not rendhis clothing?The Gemara answers: bThey saidthat one must rend his clothing upon hearing evil tidings bonlyin a case where the calamity involved bthe majority of the communityof Israel band resembles the incident that occurredwhen Saul was killed and the entire nation of Israel suffered defeat.,The Gemara tangentially asks: bDid King Shapurreally bkill Jews? But didn’t King Shapur say to Shmuel: I havea blessing bcoming to me, for I have never killed a Jew?The Gemara answers: King Shapur never instigated the killing of Jews; bthere,however, bthey brought it upon themselves, as Rabbi Ami saidin an exaggerated manner: bDue to the noise of theharp bstringsof bMezigat Caesarea, the walls of Laodicea were breached,for the residents of the city celebrated when they rebelled against King Shapur. Because they rebelled against him and threatened his rule, he was forced to kill them.,§ The Gemara continues its analysis of the ibaraita /i: bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments buponhearing God’s bname being blessed,i.e., cursed? bAs it is writtenwith regard to the blasphemous words said by Rab-shakeh: b“Then came Eliakim, son of Hilkiya, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent”(II Kings 18:37)., bThe Sages taughta ibaraitawith regard to this issue: Both bone whoactually bhearsthe curse band one who hears from the mouth ofthe one bwho heardthe curse bare obligated to rendtheir garments. bBut the witnesseswho testify against the person who uttered the blasphemy bare not obligated to rendtheir clothing when they testify as to what they heard bbecause they already renttheir clothing bwhen they heardthe curse the first time.,The Gemara asks: bWhatdifference bdoesit make that they rent their garments bwhen they heardthe curse the first time? bDidn’t they hearit again bnow?The Gemara rejects this argument: bThis will not enter your mind, as it is written: “And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes”(II Kings 19:1). This indicates that bthe king renthis garments, bbutthose who reported the blasphemy to him bdid not rendtheirs, as they had already rent their garments the first time., bAnd from where do wederive that these rents bmay not beproperly bmended? This is derivedby way of a verbal analogy between the verb brendingused here with regard to Hezekiah and the verb brendingused in the case of Elijah and Elisha.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments when ba Torah scroll has been burned? As it is written: “And it came to pass, that when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he would cut it with a penknife, and cast it into the fire that was in the brazier”(Jeremiah 36:23). With regard to the verse itself the Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by b“three or four leaves,”and why did he cut the book only at that point?,The Gemara explains: bThey said to Jehoiakim: Jeremiah has written a book of Lamentationsover the future downfall and destruction of Jerusalem. bHe said to them: What is written in it?They read him the first verse: b“How does the city sit solitary”(Lamentations 1:1). bHe said to them: I am king,and this does not apply to me. bThey read himthe second verse: b“She weeps sore in the night”(Lamentations 1:2). He said to them: bI am king,and this does not apply to me. They read him the third verse: b“Judah is gone into exile due to affliction”(Lamentations 1:3). He said to them: bI am king.They read to him: b“The ways of Zion do mourn”(Lamentations 1:4). He said to them: bI am king.These are the four leaves, or verses, that he read first.,They read him an additional verse: b“Her adversaries have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), i.e., the reigning king will be removed from power. Once he heard this, bhe said to them: Who saidthis? They said to him: This is the continuation of the verse: b“For the Lord has afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions”(Lamentations 1:5). bImmediately, he cut out all the namesof God bfromthe book band burned them in fire. This is as it is written: “Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments,neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words” (Jeremiah 36:24). bBy inference,this shows bthatthey bwere required to rendtheir clothing when they saw this., bRav Pappa said to Abaye:Perhaps you can bsaythat they should have rent their garments bdue to the evil tidingscontained in the scroll and not because of the destruction of the book? Abaye bsaid to him: Were they evil tidings at that time?This was a prophecy and not an account of current events., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who sees a Torah scroll that was torn is obligated to make two rents, one for the parchmentthat was damaged band one for the writing, as it is stated:“Then the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah, bafter the king had burned the scroll and the words”(Jeremiah 36:27). This implies that a separate rent must be made for each of them, both the parchment and the writing.,It was related that bRabbi Abba and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya were sitting before Rabbi Abba.Rabbi Abba bneeded to relieve himself. He removed his phylacteriesfrom his head and bplaced them on the cushionon which he was sitting. bAn ostrich came and wanted to swallowthe phylacteries., bHe said: Now,had it succeeded to swallow it, bI would have been obligated to make two rents. He said to him: From where do youderive bthis? There was an incident in which Iwas involved band I came before Rav Mattanaasking what to do, bbut he did not havean answer readily available. bIthen bcame before Rav Yehuda, and he said to me: Shmuel said as follows: They saidthat one is obligated to rend his clothing bonlywhen a Torah scroll or some other sacred book is torn bby force, and it resembles the incident that occurredwith Jehoiakim.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments upon seeing bthe cities of Judeain ruin? bAs it is written: “There came certain men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, eighty people, their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring to the house of the Lord”(Jeremiah 41:5). This indicates that they rent their garments upon seeing the destruction., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bUlla Bira’a saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: One who sees the cities of Judea in their desolation says: “Your sacred cities are become a wilderness”(Isaiah 64:9), bandthen brendshis garments. One who sees bJerusalem in its desolation says: “Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation”(Isaiah 64:9), bandthen brendshis garments. One who sees bthe Temple in its desolation says: “Our sacred and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised You, is burned with fire; and all our pleasant things are laid waste” ( /bIsaiah 64:10), bandthen brendshis garments.,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: bHefirst brendshis garments bfor the Temple andthen bextendsthe rent bfor Jerusalem. And they raise a contradictionfrom another ibaraitathat states: Both bone who hearsthat Jerusalem is in ruin band one who seesthe destruction, bonce he reachesMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i], rendshis garments. bAnd he rendshis garments bfor the Temple separately and for Jerusalem separately. /b,The Gemara answers: bThis is not difficult. This ibaraita /i, which states that instead of making a separate rent for Jerusalem one may extend the first rent that he had made for the Temple, is referring to the case where bone reached the Temple first,before seeing the rest of Jerusalem, and saw it in ruin. bThat ibaraita /i, which states that one must make separate rents for Jerusalem and for the Temple, is referring to the case where bone reached Jerusalem first,and only afterward the Temple.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bAnd all of theserents, bone may tack themtogether with loose stitches, band hem them, and gather them, and fix themwith imprecise bladder-likestitches. bBut one may not mend themwith precise stitches., bRav Ḥisda said: /b
42. Anon., 4 Ezra, 9.38

9.38. When I said these things in my heart, I lifted up my eyes and saw a woman on my right, and behold, she was mourning and weeping with a loud voice, and was deeply grieved at heart, and her clothes were rent, and there were ashes on her head.
43. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 2.1, 2.11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech, king of gerar Gera, Judith (2014) 263
abner, son of ner Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
abner Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 149, 151
abraham, isaac, and jacob/patriarchs Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
absalom Gera, Judith (2014) 263
achilles Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
adonijah Gera, Judith (2014) 263
ajax Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
anthropomorphism Gera, Judith (2014) 184
aseneth Gera, Judith (2014) 263
ashes Gera, Judith (2014) 184
bathsheba Gera, Judith (2014) 263
berthe of blois, queen of france, hebrew Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
biblical women, watch at windows Gera, Judith (2014) 263
body, saul and his sons, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 184
changing, tearing Gera, Judith (2014) 263
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
communal laments Gera, Judith (2014) 184
david, his narratives Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
david Gera, Judith (2014) 263; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045; Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 149, 151; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
day, seven Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
en-dor Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
fasting Gera, Judith (2014) 184
goliath Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
greek, language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
hair Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
hebrew language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
israelites, prayers and blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 184
israelites Gera, Judith (2014) 184
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 263
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 184
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
jezebel Gera, Judith (2014) 263
jonathan, son of saul Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 263
judith, piety and asceticism Gera, Judith (2014) 263
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 184
judith, seclusion Gera, Judith (2014) 263
judith, widow Gera, Judith (2014) 263
language and style, book of judith, nominatives and subjects Gera, Judith (2014) 184
maids and female servants Gera, Judith (2014) 263
michal Gera, Judith (2014) 263
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
mourning Gera, Judith (2014) 184, 263; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
patroclus Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
penitence and sins Gera, Judith (2014) 184
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 184
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
prostration and bowing Gera, Judith (2014) 184
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
roofs, biblical, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 263
roofs, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 263
rooms, upper Gera, Judith (2014) 263
rule/ruler Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 184, 263
sarah, tobias wife Gera, Judith (2014) 263
saul, body of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
saul, king of israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
saul Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 263
sin/sinner, sin, forgiveness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
singing Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 28
sisera, mother of Gera, Judith (2014) 263
solomon Gera, Judith (2014) 263
tears Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
temple in jerusalem, altar and vessels Gera, Judith (2014) 184
temple in jerusalem, altar of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
temple in jerusalem, destruction of' Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 184
tents, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 263
tomb Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1045
vulgate judith Gera, Judith (2014) 263
widows, clothing of Gera, Judith (2014) 263