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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6270
Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 16.23


וְהָיָה בִּהְיוֹת רוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְלָקַח דָּוִד אֶת־הַכִּנּוֹר וְנִגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְרָוַח לְשָׁאוּל וְטוֹב לוֹ וְסָרָה מֵעָלָיו רוּחַ הָרָעָה׃And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Sha᾽ul, that David took a lyre, and played with his hand: so Sha᾽ul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 11-14, 8-10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 8.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.15. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הַחַרְטֻמִּים אֶל־פַּרְעֹה אֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים הִוא וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב־פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא־שָׁמַע אֲלֵהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 8.15. Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh: ‘This is the finger of God’; and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken."
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 1.6-2.7, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.10. Hast not Thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions are increased in the land."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 103.20-103.21, 104.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

103.21. בָּרֲכוּ יְהוָה כָּל־צְבָאָיו מְשָׁרְתָיו עֹשֵׂי רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 103.20. Bless the LORD, ye angels of His, Ye mighty in strength, that fulfil His word, Hearkening unto the voice of His word." 103.21. Bless the LORD, all ye His hosts; Ye ministers of His, that do His pleasure." 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.18, 22.19-22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.18. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּאתָ אֵלַי לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי וּלְהָמִית אֶת־בְּנִי׃ 22.19. וַיֹּאמֶר לָכֵן שְׁמַע דְּבַר־יְהוָה רָאִיתִי אֶת־יְהוָה יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ וְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם עֹמֵד עָלָיו מִימִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ׃ 22.21. וַיֵּצֵא הָרוּחַ וַיַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אֲפַתֶּנּוּ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו בַּמָּה׃ 22.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵצֵא וְהָיִיתִי רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאָיו וַיֹּאמֶר תְּפַתֶּה וְגַם־תּוּכָל צֵא וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן׃ 22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 17.18. And she said unto Elijah: ‘What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son?’" 22.19. And he said: ‘Therefore hear thou the word of the LORD. I saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on his left." 22.20. And the LORD said: Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead. And one said: On this manner; and another said: On that manner." 22.21. And there came forth the spirit, and stood before the LORD, and said: I will entice him." 22.22. And the LORD said unto him: Wherewith? And he said: I will go forth, and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said: Thou shalt entice him, and shalt prevail also; go forth, and do so." 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 9.10, 16.1-16.22, 17.31, 17.52-17.58, 18.2, 18.10, 19.9, 24.3-24.7, 24.15, 26.9-26.11, 26.19-26.21, 26.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל עַד־מָתַי אַתָּה מִתְאַבֵּל אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַאֲנִי מְאַסְתִּיו מִמְּלֹךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלֵּא קַרְנְךָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֵךְ אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל־יִשַׁי בֵּית־הַלַּחְמִי כִּי־רָאִיתִי בְּבָנָיו לִי מֶלֶךְ׃ 16.1. וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שִׁבְעַת בָּנָיו לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יִשַׁי לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה בָּאֵלֶּה׃ 16.2. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה עֶגְלַת בָּקָר תִּקַּח בְּיָדֶךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהוָה בָּאתִי׃ 16.2. וַיִּקַּח יִשַׁי חֲמוֹר לֶחֶם וְנֹאד יַיִן וּגְדִי עִזִּים אֶחָד וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד־דָּוִד בְּנוֹ אֶל־שָׁאוּל׃ 16.3. וְקָרָאתָ לְיִשַׁי בַּזָּבַח וְאָנֹכִי אוֹדִיעֲךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּמָשַׁחְתָּ לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ 16.4. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁמוּאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה וַיָּבֹא בֵּית לָחֶם וַיֶּחֶרְדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלֹם בּוֹאֶךָ׃ 16.5. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהוָה בָּאתִי הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ וּבָאתֶם אִתִּי בַּזָּבַח וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יִשַׁי וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא לָהֶם לַזָּבַח׃ 16.6. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם וַיַּרְא אֶת־אֱלִיאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אַךְ נֶגֶד יְהוָה מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 16.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל אַל־תַּבֵּט אֶל־מַרְאֵהוּ וְאֶל־גְּבֹהַּ קוֹמָתוֹ כִּי מְאַסְתִּיהוּ כִּי לֹא אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָאָדָם כִּי הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם וַיהוָה יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב׃ 16.8. וַיִּקְרָא יִשַׁי אֶל־אֲבִינָדָב וַיַּעֲבִרֵהוּ לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־בָּזֶה לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה׃ 16.9. וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שַׁמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־בָּזֶה לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה׃ 16.11. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יִשַׁי הֲתַמּוּ הַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד שָׁאַר הַקָּטָן וְהִנֵּה רֹעֶה בַּצֹּאן וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יִשַׁי שִׁלְחָה וְקָחֶנּוּ כִּי לֹא־נָסֹב עַד־בֹּאוֹ פֹה׃ 16.12. וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי עִם־יְפֵה עֵינַיִם וְטוֹב רֹאִי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה קוּם מְשָׁחֵהוּ כִּי־זֶה הוּא׃ 16.13. וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־קֶרֶן הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ בְּקֶרֶב אֶחָיו וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ־יְהוָה אֶל־דָּוִד מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָמָעְלָה וַיָּקָם שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ הָרָמָתָה׃ 16.14. וְרוּחַ יְהוָה סָרָה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבִעֲתַתּוּ רוּחַ־רָעָה מֵאֵת יְהוָה׃ 16.15. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי־שָׁאוּל אֵלָיו הִנֵּה־נָא רוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים רָעָה מְבַעִתֶּךָ׃ 16.16. יֹאמַר־נָא אֲדֹנֵנוּ עֲבָדֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ יְבַקְשׁוּ אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ מְנַגֵּן בַּכִּנּוֹר וְהָיָה בִּהְיוֹת עָלֶיךָ רוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים רָעָה וְנִגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְטוֹב לָךְ׃ 16.17. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־עֲבָדָיו רְאוּ־נָא לִי אִישׁ מֵיטִיב לְנַגֵּן וַהֲבִיאוֹתֶם אֵלָי׃ 16.18. וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי בֵּן לְיִשַׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי יֹדֵעַ נַגֵּן וְגִבּוֹר חַיִל וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה וּנְבוֹן דָּבָר וְאִישׁ תֹּאַר וַיהוָה עִמּוֹ׃ 16.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים אֶל־יִשָׁי וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁלְחָה אֵלַי אֶת־דָּוִד בִּנְךָ אֲשֶׁר בַּצֹּאן׃ 16.21. וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ מְאֹד וַיְהִי־לוֹ נֹשֵׂא כֵלִים׃ 16.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל אֶל־יִשַׁי לֵאמֹר יַעֲמָד־נָא דָוִד לְפָנַי כִּי־מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָי׃ 17.52. וַיָּקֻמוּ אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וַיָּרִעוּ וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים עַד־בּוֹאֲךָ גַיְא וְעַד שַׁעֲרֵי עֶקְרוֹן וַיִּפְּלוּ חַלְלֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים בְּדֶרֶךְ שַׁעֲרַיִם וְעַד־גַּת וְעַד־עֶקְרוֹן׃ 17.53. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִדְּלֹק אַחֲרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיָּשֹׁסּוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם׃ 17.54. וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־רֹאשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיְבִאֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֶת־כֵּלָיו שָׂם בְּאָהֳלוֹ׃ 18.2. וַתֶּאֱהַב מִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל אֶת־דָּוִד וַיַּגִּדוּ לְשָׁאוּל וַיִּשַׁר הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 18.2. וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ שָׁאוּל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לָשׁוּב בֵּית אָבִיו׃ 19.9. וַתְּהִי רוּחַ יְהוָה רָעָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְהוּא בְּבֵיתוֹ יוֹשֵׁב וַחֲנִיתוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָד׃ 24.3. וַיִּקַּח שָׁאוּל שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ בָּחוּר מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־דָּוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו עַל־פְּנֵי צוּרֵי הַיְּעֵלִים׃ 24.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל־גִּדְרוֹת הַצֹּאן עַל־הַדֶּרֶךְ וְשָׁם מְעָרָה וַיָּבֹא שָׁאוּל לְהָסֵךְ אֶת־רַגְלָיו וְדָוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו בְּיַרְכְּתֵי הַמְּעָרָה יֹשְׁבִים׃ 24.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אַנְשֵׁי דָוִד אֵלָיו הִנֵּה הַיּוֹם אֲ‍שֶׁר־אָמַר יְהוָה אֵלֶיךָ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן אֶת־איביך [אֹיִבְךָ] בְּיָדֶךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִטַב בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַיָּקָם דָּוִד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־כְּנַף־הַמְּעִיל אֲשֶׁר־לְשָׁאוּל בַּלָּט׃ 24.6. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיַּךְ לֵב־דָּוִד אֹתוֹ עַל אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל׃ 24.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לַאֲנָשָׁיו חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהוָה אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לַאדֹנִי לִמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹחַ יָדִי בּוֹ כִּי־מְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה הוּא׃ 24.15. אַחֲרֵי מִי יָצָא מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי מִי אַתָּה רֹדֵף אַחֲרֵי כֶּלֶב מֵת אַחֲרֵי פַּרְעֹשׁ אֶחָד׃ 26.9. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אֲבִישַׁי אַל־תַּשְׁחִיתֵהוּ כִּי מִי שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה וְנִקָּה׃ 26.11. חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהוָה מִשְּׁלֹחַ יָדִי בִּמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה וְעַתָּה קַח־נָא אֶת־הַחֲנִית אֲשֶׁר מראשתו [מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו] וְאֶת־צַפַּחַת הַמַּיִם וְנֵלֲכָה לָּנוּ׃ 26.19. וְעַתָּה יִשְׁמַע־נָא אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת דִּבְרֵי עַבְדּוֹ אִם־יְהוָה הֱסִיתְךָ בִי יָרַח מִנְחָה וְאִם בְּנֵי הָאָדָם אֲרוּרִים הֵם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי־גֵרְשׁוּנִי הַיּוֹם מֵהִסְתַּפֵּחַ בְּנַחֲלַת יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֵךְ עֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 26.21. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל חָטָאתִי שׁוּב בְּנִי־דָוִד כִּי לֹא־אָרַע לְךָ עוֹד תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר יָקְרָה נַפְשִׁי בְּעֵינֶיךָ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הִנֵּה הִסְכַּלְתִּי וָאֶשְׁגֶּה הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 26.24. וְהִנֵּה כַּאֲשֶׁר גָּדְלָה נַפְשְׁךָ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה בְּעֵינָי כֵּן תִּגְדַּל נַפְשִׁי בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְיַצִּלֵנִי מִכָּל־צָרָה׃ 9.10. Then said Sha᾽ul to his servant, Well said; come, let us go. So they went to the city where the man of God was." 16.1. And the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, How long wilt thou mourn for Sha᾽ul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Yisra᾽el? fill thy horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Yishay, the Bet-hallaĥmite: for I have provided for me a king among his sons," 16.2. And Shemu᾽el said, How can I go? if Sha᾽ul hears it, he will kill me. And the Lord said, Take a heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the Lord." 16.3. And call Yishay to the sacrifice, and I will make known to thee what thou shalt do: and thou shalt anoint to me him whom I name to thee." 16.4. And Shemu᾽el did that which the Lord spoke, and came to Bet-leĥem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou in peace?" 16.5. And he said, In peace: I am come to sacrifice to the Lord: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Yishay and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice." 16.6. And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eli᾽av, and said, Surely the Lord’s anointed is before him." 16.7. But the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, Look not on his countece, nor on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for it is not as a man sees; for a man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart." 16.8. Then Yishay called Avinadav, and made him pass before Shemu᾽el. And he said, Neither has the Lord chosen this." 16.9. Then Yishay made Shamma pass by. And he said, Neither has the Lord chosen this." 16.10. And Yishay made seven of his sons to pass before Shemu᾽el. And Shemu᾽el said to Yishay, The Lord has not chosen these." 16.11. And Shemu᾽el said to Yishay, Are these all thy children? And he said, There remains yet the youngest, and he is tending the sheep. Then Shemu᾽el said to Yishay, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he comes here." 16.12. And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, with fine eyes, and good looking. And the Lord said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he." 16.13. Then Shemu᾽el took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day onwards. So Shemu᾽el rose up, and went to Rama." 16.14. But the spirit of the Lord departed from Sha᾽ul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him." 16.15. And Sha᾽ul’s servants said to him, Behold now, an evil spirit from God is tormenting thee." 16.16. Let our lord now command thy servants, who are before thee, to seek out a man, who knows how to play on the lyre: and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he will play with his hand, and thou shalt be well." 16.17. And Sha᾽ul said to his servants, Provide me now a man that can play well, and bring him to me." 16.18. Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Yishay the Bet-hallaĥmite, that knows how to play, and a fine warrior, and a man of war, and prudent in speech, and a comely person, and the Lord is with him." 16.19. So Sha᾽ul sent messengers to Yishay, and said, Send me David thy son, who is with the sheep." 16.20. And Yishay took an ass laden with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them by David his son to Sha᾽ul." 16.21. And David came to Sha᾽ul, and stood before him: and he loved him greatly; and he became his armourbearer." 16.22. And Sha᾽ul sent to Yishay, saying, Let David, I pray thee, stand before me; for he has found favour in my eyes." 17.52. And the men of Yisra᾽el and of Yehuda arose, and shouted, and pursued the Pelishtim, until the approaches of Gay, and to the gates of ῾Eqron. And the dead of the Pelishtim fell by the way to Sha῾arayim, and to Gat, and to ῾Eqron." 17.53. And the children of Yisra᾽el returned from chasing after the Pelishtim, and they plundered their tents." 17.54. And David took the head of the Pelishtian, and brought it to Yerushalayim; and he put his armour in his tent." 18.2. And Sha᾽ul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his father’s house." 18.10. And it came to pass on the morrow, that an evil spirit from God came upon Sha᾽ul, and he raved in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and the spear was in Sha᾽ul’s hand." 19.9. And an evil spirit from the Lord came upon Sha᾽ul, as he sat in his house with his spear in his hand: and David played with his hand." 24.3. Then Sha᾽ul took three thousand chosen men out of all Yisra᾽el, and went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats." 24.4. And he came to the sheepfolds by the way, where there was a cave; and Sha᾽ul went in to relieve himself: and David and his men remained in the back of the cave." 24.5. And the men of David said to him, Behold the day of which the Lord said to thee, Behold, I will deliver thy enemy into thy hand, that thou mayst do to him as it shall seem good to thee. Then David arose, and secretly cut off the corner of Sha᾽ul’s robe." 24.6. And it came to pass afterwards, that David’s heart smote him, because he had cut off Sha᾽ul’s robe." 24.7. And he said to his men, The Lord forbid that I should do this thing to my master, the Lord’s anointed, to stretch forth my hand against him, seeing he is the anointed of the Lord." 24.15. After whom is the king of Yisra᾽el come out? after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a single flea." 26.9. And David said to Avishay, Destroy him not: for who can stretch out his hand against the Lord’s anointed, and be guiltless?" 26.10. And David said, As the Lord lives, the Lord shall smite him; or his day shall come to die; or he shall descend into battle, and be swept away." 26.11. The Lord forbid that I should stretch out my hand against the Lord’s anointed: but, I pray thee, take thou now the spear that is at his head, and the jar of water, and let us go." 26.19. Now therefore I pray thee, let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If the Lord has stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering: but if they be the children of men, cursed be they before the Lord; for they have driven me out this day from being joined to the inheritance of the Lord, saying, Go, serve other gods." 26.20. Now therefore, let not my blood fall to the earth before the face of the Lord: for the king of Yisra᾽el is come out to seek a single flea, as when one hunts the partridge in the mountains." 26.21. Then said Sha᾽ul, I have sinned: return, my son David: for I will no more do thee harm, because my life was precious in thy eyes this day: behold, I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly." 26.24. And, behold, as thy life was much esteemed this day in my eyes, so let my life be much esteemed in the eyes of the Lord, and let him deliver me out of all tribulation."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 5.1-5.4, 5.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנַעֲמָן שַׂר־צְבָא מֶלֶךְ־אֲרָם הָיָה אִישׁ גָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנָיו וּנְשֻׂא פָנִים כִּי־בוֹ נָתַן־יְהוָה תְּשׁוּעָה לַאֲרָם וְהָאִישׁ הָיָה גִּבּוֹר חַיִל מְצֹרָע׃ 5.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֵלָיו אֱלִישָׁע מַלְאָךְ לֵאמֹר הָלוֹךְ וְרָחַצְתָּ שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים בַּיַּרְדֵּן וְיָשֹׁב בְּשָׂרְךָ לְךָ וּטְהָר׃ 5.2. וַיֹּאמֶר גֵּיחֲזִי נַעַר אֱלִישָׁע אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים הִנֵּה חָשַׂךְ אֲדֹנִי אֶת־נַעֲמָן הָאֲרַמִּי הַזֶּה מִקַּחַת מִיָּדוֹ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא חַי־יְהוָה כִּי־אִם־רַצְתִּי אַחֲרָיו וְלָקַחְתִּי מֵאִתּוֹ מְאוּמָה׃ 5.2. וַאֲרָם יָצְאוּ גְדוּדִים וַיִּשְׁבּוּ מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל נַעֲרָה קְטַנָּה וַתְּהִי לִפְנֵי אֵשֶׁת נַעֲמָן׃ 5.3. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־גְּבִרְתָּהּ אַחֲלֵי אֲדֹנִי לִפְנֵי הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן אָז יֶאֱסֹף אֹתוֹ מִצָּרַעְתּוֹ׃ 5.4. וַיָּבֹא וַיַּגֵּד לַאדֹנָיו לֵאמֹר כָּזֹאת וְכָזֹאת דִּבְּרָה הַנַּעֲרָה אֲשֶׁר מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.14. וַיֵּרֶד וַיִּטְבֹּל בַּיַּרְדֵּן שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים כִּדְבַר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיָּשָׁב בְּשָׂרוֹ כִּבְשַׂר נַעַר קָטֹן וַיִּטְהָר׃ 5.1. Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Aram, was a great man with his master, and held in esteem, because by him the LORD had given victory unto Aram; he was also a mighty man of valour, but he was a leper." 5.2. And the Arameans had gone out in bands, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited on Naaman’s wife." 5.3. And she said unto her mistress: ‘Would that my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! then would he recover him of his leprosy.’" 5.4. And he went in, and told his lord, saying: ‘Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel.’" 5.14. Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God; and his flesh came back like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 21.8, 24.10, 24.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.8. וַיִּקַּח הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי רִצְפָּה בַת־אַיָּה אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה לְשָׁאוּל אֶת־אַרְמֹנִי וְאֶת־מְפִבֹשֶׁת וְאֶת־חֲמֵשֶׁת בְּנֵי מִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה לְעַדְרִיאֵל בֶּן־בַּרְזִלַּי הַמְּחֹלָתִי׃ 24.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה בִּרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּכֶּה בָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי וְאָנֹכִי הֶעֱוֵיתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי׃ 21.8. But the king took the two sons of Riżpa the daughter of Ayya, whom she bore to Sha᾽ul, Armoni and Mefivoshet; and the five sons of Mikhal the daughter of Sha᾽ul, whom she bore to ῾Adri᾽el the son of Barzillay the Meĥolatite:" 24.10. And David’s heart smote him after he had numbered the people. And David said to the Lord, I have sinned greatly in that which I have done: and now, O Lord, take away, I pray Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly." 24.17. And David spoke to the Lord when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done perversely: but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, be against me, and against my father’s house."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 11.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.23. וַיִּקַּח יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיִּתְּנָהּ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְנַחֲלָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמַחְלְקֹתָם לְשִׁבְטֵיהֶם וְהָאָרֶץ שָׁקְטָה מִמִּלְחָמָה׃ 11.23. So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD spoke unto Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land had rest from war."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.4-1.28 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ סְעָרָה בָּאָה מִן־הַצָּפוֹן עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב וּמִתּוֹכָהּ כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַל מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 1.5. וּמִתּוֹכָהּ דְּמוּת אַרְבַּע חַיּוֹת וְזֶה מַרְאֵיהֶן דְּמוּת אָדָם לָהֵנָּה׃ 1.6. וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָת וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם לְאַחַת לָהֶם׃ 1.7. וְרַגְלֵיהֶם רֶגֶל יְשָׁרָה וְכַף רַגְלֵיהֶם כְּכַף רֶגֶל עֵגֶל וְנֹצְצִים כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל׃ 1.8. וידו [וִידֵי] אָדָם מִתַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם עַל אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם׃ 1.9. חֹבְרֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ כַּנְפֵיהֶם לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ בְלֶכְתָּן אִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ׃ 1.11. וּפְנֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם פְּרֻדוֹת מִלְמָעְלָה לְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם חֹבְרוֹת אִישׁ וּשְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת אֵת גְּוִיֹתֵיהֶנָה׃ 1.12. וְאִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ אֶל אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה־שָׁמָּה הָרוּחַ לָלֶכֶת יֵלֵכוּ לֹא יִסַּבּוּ בְּלֶכְתָּן׃ 1.13. וּדְמוּת הַחַיּוֹת מַרְאֵיהֶם כְּגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ בֹּעֲרוֹת כְּמַרְאֵה הַלַּפִּדִים הִיא מִתְהַלֶּכֶת בֵּין הַחַיּוֹת וְנֹגַהּ לָאֵשׁ וּמִן־הָאֵשׁ יוֹצֵא בָרָק׃ 1.14. וְהַחַיּוֹת רָצוֹא וָשׁוֹב כְּמַרְאֵה הַבָּזָק׃ 1.15. וָאֵרֶא הַחַיּוֹת וְהִנֵּה אוֹפַן אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ אֵצֶל הַחַיּוֹת לְאַרְבַּעַת פָּנָיו׃ 1.16. מַרְאֵה הָאוֹפַנִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כְּעֵין תַּרְשִׁישׁ וּדְמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּן וּמַרְאֵיהֶם וּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃ 1.17. עַל־אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶן בְּלֶכְתָּם יֵלֵכוּ לֹא יִסַּבּוּ בְּלֶכְתָּן׃ 1.18. וְגַבֵּיהֶן וְגֹבַהּ לָהֶם וְיִרְאָה לָהֶם וְגַבֹּתָם מְלֵאֹת עֵינַיִם סָבִיב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּן׃ 1.19. וּבְלֶכֶת הַחַיּוֹת יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבְהִנָּשֵׂא הַחַיּוֹת מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ יִנָּשְׂאוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים׃ 1.21. בְּלֶכְתָּם יֵלֵכוּ וּבְעָמְדָם יַעֲמֹדוּ וּבְהִנָּשְׂאָם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ יִנָּשְׂאוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם כִּי רוּחַ הַחַיָּה בָּאוֹפַנִּים׃ 1.22. וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.23. וְתַחַת הָרָקִיעַ כַּנְפֵיהֶם יְשָׁרוֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ לְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת לָהֵנָּה וּלְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת לָהֵנָּה אֵת גְּוִיֹּתֵיהֶם׃ 1.24. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל כַּנְפֵיהֶם כְּקוֹל מַיִם רַבִּים כְּקוֹל־שַׁדַּי בְּלֶכְתָּם קוֹל הֲמֻלָּה כְּקוֹל מַחֲנֶה בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.25. וַיְהִי־קוֹל מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם בְּעָמְדָם תְּרַפֶּינָה כַנְפֵיהֶן׃ 1.26. וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28. כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃ 1.4. And I looked, and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst thereof as the colour of electrum, out of the midst of the fire." 1.5. And out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the likeness of a man." 1.6. And every one had four faces, and every one of them had four wings." 1.7. And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot; and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass." 1.8. And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and as for the faces and wings of them four," 1.9. their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward." 1.10. As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle." 1.11. Thus were their faces; and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies." 1.12. And they went every one straight forward; whither the spirit was to go, they went; they turned not when they went." 1.13. As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like coals of fire, burning like the appearance of torches; it flashed up and down among the living creatures; and there was brightness to the fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning." 1.14. And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning." 1.15. Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel at the bottom hard by the living creatures, at the four faces thereof." 1.16. The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl; and they four had one likeness; and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel within a wheel." 1.17. When they went, they went toward their four sides; they turned not when they went." 1.18. As for their rings, they were high and they were dreadful; and they four had their rings full of eyes round about." 1.19. And when the living creatures went, the wheels went hard by them; and when the living creatures were lifted up from the bottom, the wheels were lifted up." 1.20. Whithersoever the spirit was to go, as the spirit was to go thither, so they went; and the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels." 1.21. When those went, these went, and when those stood, these stood; and when those were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels." 1.22. And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above." 1.23. And under the firmament were their wings conformable the one to the other; this one of them had two which covered, and that one of them had two which covered, their bodies." 1.24. And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, a noise of tumult like the noise of a host; when they stood, they let down their wings." 1.25. For, when there was a voice above the firmament that was over their heads, as they stood, they let down their wings." 1.26. And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 1.28. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.17 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים הֲלֹא אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי לִמְנוֹת בָּעָם וַאֲנִי־הוּא אֲשֶׁר־חָטָאתִי וְהָרֵעַ הֲרֵעוֹתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי וּבְעַמְּךָ לֹא לְמַגֵּפָה׃ 21.17. And David said unto God: ‘Is it not I that commanded the people to be numbered? even I it is that have sinned and done very wickedly; but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, O LORD my God, be against me, and against my father’s house; but not against Thy people, that they should be plagued.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.1-3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃ 3.1. וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃ 3.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַשָּׂטָן וְיִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַבֹּחֵר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם הֲלוֹא זֶה אוּד מֻצָּל מֵאֵשׁ׃ 3.1. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him." 3.2. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan, yea, the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this man a brand plucked out of the fire?’"
15. Septuagint, Tobit, 11-14, 8-10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 6.166-6.169, 6.209-6.211, 8.42-8.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.166. 2. So Samuel, when he had given him these admonitions, went away. But the Divine Power departed from Saul, and removed to David; who, upon this removal of the Divine Spirit to him, began to prophesy. But as for Saul, some strange and demoniacal disorders came upon him, and brought upon him such suffocations as were ready to choke him; for which the physicians could find no other remedy but this, That if any person could charm those passions by singing, and playing upon the harp, they advised them to inquire for such a one, and to observe when these demons came upon him and disturbed him, and to take care that such a person might stand over him, and play upon the harp, and recite hymns to him. 6.167. Accordingly Saul did not delay, but commanded them to seek out such a man. And when a certain stander-by said that he had seen in the city of Bethlehem a son of Jesse, who was yet no more than a child in age, but comely and beautiful, and in other respects one that was deserving of great regard, who was skillful in playing on the harp, and in singing of hymns, [and an excellent soldier in war,] he sent to Jesse, and desired him to take David away from the flocks, and send him to him, for he had a mind to see him, as having heard an advantageous character of his comeliness and his valor. 6.168. So Jesse sent his son, and gave him presents to carry to Saul. And when he was come, Saul was pleased with him, and made him his armor-bearer, and had him in very great esteem; for he charmed his passion, and was the only physician against the trouble he had from the demons, whensoever it was that it came upon him, and this by reciting of hymns, and playing upon the harp, and bringing Saul to his right mind again. 8.42. 5. Now the sagacity and wisdom which God had bestowed on Solomon was so great, that he exceeded the ancients; insomuch that he was no way inferior to the Egyptians, who are said to have been beyond all men in understanding; nay, indeed, it is evident that their sagacity was very much inferior to that of the king’s. 8.42. Accordingly Ahab appears to have been deceived thereby, till he disbelieved those that foretold his defeat; but, by giving credit to such as foretold what was grateful to him, was slain; and his son Ahaziah succeeded him. 8.43. He also excelled and distinguished himself in wisdom above those who were most eminent among the Hebrews at that time for shrewdness; those I mean were Ethan, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol. 8.44. He also composed books of odes and songs a thousand and five, of parables and similitudes three thousand; for he spake a parable upon every sort of tree, from the hyssop to the cedar; and in like manner also about beasts, about all sorts of living creatures, whether upon the earth, or in the seas, or in the air; for he was not unacquainted with any of their natures, nor omitted inquiries about them, but described them all like a philosopher, and demonstrated his exquisite knowledge of their several properties. 8.45. God also enabled him to learn that skill which expels demons, which is a science useful and sanative to men. He composed such incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. And he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms, by which they drive away demons, so that they never return; 8.46. and this method of cure is of great force unto this day; for I have seen a certain man of my own country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing people that were demoniacal in the presence of Vespasian, and his sons, and his captains, and the whole multitude of his soldiers. The manner of the cure was this: 8.47. He put a ring that had a root of one of those sorts mentioned by Solomon to the nostrils of the demoniac, after which he drew out the demon through his nostrils; and when the man fell down immediately, he abjured him to return into him no more, making still mention of Solomon, and reciting the incantations which he composed. 8.48. And when Eleazar would persuade and demonstrate to the spectators that he had such a power, he set a little way off a cup or basin full of water, and commanded the demon, as he went out of the man, to overturn it, and thereby to let the spectators know that he had left the man; 8.49. and when this was done, the skill and wisdom of Solomon was shown very manifestly: for which reason it is, that all men may know the vastness of Solomon’s abilities, and how he was beloved of God, and that the extraordinary virtues of every kind with which this king was endowed may not be unknown to any people under the sun for this reason, I say, it is that we have proceeded to speak so largely of these matters.
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.139-5.140, 5.142-5.155, 5.159, 5.161-5.162, 5.181, 5.184-5.247 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.139. However, in those times when the Asamoneans reigned, they filled up that valley with earth, and had a mind to join the city to the temple. They then took off part of the height of Acra, and reduced it to be of less elevation than it was before, that the temple might be superior to it. 5.142. 2. Now, of these three walls, the old one was hard to be taken, both by reason of the valleys, and of that hill on which it was built, and which was above them. 5.143. But besides that great advantage, as to the place where they were situated, it was also built very strong; because David and Solomon, and the following kings, were very zealous about this work. 5.144. Now that wall began on the north, at the tower called “Hippicus,” and extended as far as the “Xistus,” a place so called, and then, joining to the council-house, ended at the west cloister of the temple. 5.145. But if we go the other way westward, it began at the same place, and extended through a place called “Bethso,” to the gate of the Essenes; and after that it went southward, having its bending above the fountain Siloam, where it also bends again towards the east at Solomon’s pool, and reaches as far as a certain place which they called “Ophlas,” where it was joined to the eastern cloister of the temple. 5.146. The second wall took its beginning from that gate which they called “Gennath,” which belonged to the first wall; it only encompassed the northern quarter of the city, and reached as far as the tower Antonia. 5.147. The beginning of the third wall was at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter of the city, and the tower Psephinus, and then was so far extended till it came over against the monuments of Helena, which Helena was queen of Adiabene, the daughter of Izates; it then extended further to a great length, and passed by the sepulchral caverns of the kings, and bent again at the tower of the corner, at the monument which is called the “Monument of the Fuller,” and joined to the old wall at the valley called the “Valley of Cedron.” 5.148. It was Agrippa who encompassed the parts added to the old city with this wall, which had been all naked before; for as the city grew more populous, it gradually crept beyond its old limits 5.149. and those parts of it that stood northward of the temple, and joined that hill to the city, made it considerably larger, and occasioned that hill, which is in number the fourth, and is called “Bezetha,” to be inhabited also. It lies over against the tower Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep valley 5.151. for which reason also that depth of the ditch made the elevation of the towers more remarkable. This new-built part of the city was called “Bezetha,” in our language, which, if interpreted in the Grecian language, may be called “the New City.” 5.152. Since, therefore, its inhabitants stood in need of a covering, the father of the present king, and of the same name with him, Agrippa, began that wall we spoke of; but he left off building it when he had only laid the foundations, out of the fear he was in of Claudius Caesar, lest he should suspect that so strong a wall was built in order to make some innovation in public affairs; 5.153. for the city could no way have been taken if that wall had been finished in the manner it was begun; as its parts were connected together by stones twenty cubits long, and ten cubits broad, which could never have been either easily undermined by any iron tools, or shaken by any engines. 5.154. The wall was, however, ten cubits wide, and it would probably have had a height greater than that, had not his zeal who began it been hindered from exerting itself. 5.155. After this, it was erected with great diligence by the Jews, as high as twenty cubits, above which it had battlements of two cubits, and turrets of three cubits altitude, insomuch that the entire altitude extended as far as twenty-five cubits. 5.159. while the whole compass of the city was thirty-three furlongs. Now the third wall was all of it wonderful; yet was the tower Psephinus elevated above it at the north-west corner, and there Titus pitched his own tent; 5.161. and over against it was the tower Hippicus; and hard by two others were erected by king Herod, in the old wall. These were for largeness, beauty, and strength beyond all that were in the habitable earth; 5.162. for besides the magimity of his nature, and his magnificence towards the city on other occasions, he built these after such an extraordinary manner, to gratify his own private affections, and dedicated these towers to the memory of those three persons who had been dearest to him, and from whom he named them. They were his brother, his friend, and his wife. This wife he had slain, out of his love [and jealousy], as we have already related; the other two he lost in war, as they were courageously fighting. 5.181. There were, moreover, several groves of trees, and long walks through them, with deep canals, and cisterns, that in several parts were filled with brazen statues, through which the water ran out. There were withal many dove-courts of tame pigeons about the canals. 5.184. 1. Now this temple, as I have already said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it was very uneven, and like a precipice; 5.185. but when king Solomon, who was the person that built the temple, had built a wall to it on its east side, there was then added one cloister founded on a bank cast up for it, and on the other parts the holy house stood naked. But in future ages the people added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. 5.186. They then broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed afterward for the compass of the entire temple. 5.187. And when they had built walls onthree sides of the temple round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than could be hoped for (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to God from the whole habitable earth), they then encompassed their upper courts with cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest [court of the] temple. 5.188. The lowest part of this was erected to the height of three hundred cubits, and in some places more; yet did not the entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth, and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city; 5.189. wherein they made use of stones of forty cubits in magnitude; for the great plenty of money they then had, and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible degree; and what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished, was, by perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection. 5.191. and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable; nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. 5.192. The cloisters [of the outmost court] were in breadth thirty cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure six furlongs, including the tower of Antonia; those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts. 5.193. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; 5.194. upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;” 5.195. and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court. This court was foursquare, and had a wall about it peculiar to itself; 5.196. the height of its buildings, although it were on the outside forty cubits, was hidden by the steps, and on the inside that height was but twenty-five cubits; for it being built over against a higher part of the hill with steps, it was no further to be entirely discerned within, being covered by the hill itself. 5.197. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the distance of ten cubits; this was all plain; 5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 5.207. 4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court], that most sacred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each a hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits further. 5.208. Its first gate was seventy cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad; but this gate had no doors; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; 5.209. but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. 5.211. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth; 5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.215. 5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height sixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits: 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies. 5.221. But the superior part of the temple had no such little houses any further, because the temple was there narrower, and forty cubits higher, and of a smaller body than the lower parts of it. Thus we collect that the whole height, including the sixty cubits from the floor, amounted to a hundred cubits. 5.222. 6. Now the outward face of the temple in its front wanted nothing that was likely to surprise either men’s minds or their eyes; for it was covered all over with plates of gold of great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendor, and made those who forced themselves to look upon it to turn their eyes away, just as they would have done at the sun’s own rays. 5.223. But this temple appeared to strangers, when they were coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow; for as to those parts of it that were not gilt, they were exceeding white. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time. 5.226. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight; this encompassed the holy house and the altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests. 5.227. Moreover, those that had the gonorrhea and the leprosy were excluded out of the city entirely; women also, when their courses were upon them, were shut out of the temple; nor when they were free from that impurity, were they allowed to go beyond the limit before-mentioned; men also, that were not thoroughly pure, were prohibited to come into the inner [court of the] temple; nay, the priests themselves that were not pure were prohibited to come into it also. 5.228. 7. Now all those of the stock of the priests that could not minister by reason of some defect in their bodies, came within the partition, together with those that had no such imperfection, and had their share with them by reason of their stock, but still made use of none except their own private garments; for nobody but he that officiated had on his sacred garments; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. 5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. 5.236. However, the high priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God. 5.237. And thus much concerning the city and the temple; but for the customs and laws hereto relating, we shall speak more accurately another time; for there remain a great many things thereto relating which have not been here touched upon. 5.238. 8. Now, as to the tower of Antonia, it was situated at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the temple; of that on the west, and that on the north; it was erected upon a rock of fifty cubits in height, and was on a great precipice; it was the work of king Herod, wherein he demonstrated his natural magimity. 5.239. In the first place, the rock itself was covered over with smooth pieces of stone, from its foundation, both for ornament, and that anyone who would either try to get up or to go down it might not be able to hold his feet upon it. 5.241. The inward parts had the largeness and form of a palace, it being parted into all kinds of rooms and other conveniences, such as courts, and places for bathing, and broad spaces for camps; insomuch that, by having all conveniences that cities wanted, it might seem to be composed of several cities, but by its magnificence it seemed a palace. 5.242. And as the entire structure resembled that of a tower, it contained also four other distinct towers at its four corners; whereof the others were but fifty cubits high; whereas that which lay upon the southeast corner was seventy cubits high, that from thence the whole temple might be viewed; 5.243. but on the corner where it joined to the two cloisters of the temple, it had passages down to them both, through which the guard 5.244. (for there always lay in this tower a Roman legion) went several ways among the cloisters, with their arms, on the Jewish festivals, in order to watch the people, that they might not there attempt to make any innovations; 5.245. for the temple was a fortress that guarded the city, as was the tower of Antonia a guard to the temple; and in that tower were the guards of those three. There was also a peculiar fortress belonging to the upper city, which was Herod’s palace; 5.246. but for the hill Bezetha, it was divided from the tower of Antonia, as we have already told you; and as that hill on which the tower of Antonia stood was the highest of these three, so did it adjoin to the new city, and was the only place that hindered the sight of the temple on the north. 5.247. And this shall suffice at present to have spoken about the city and the walls about it, because I have proposed to myself to make a more accurate description of it elsewhere.
18. New Testament, Acts, 10.38-10.39, 16.18, 19.11-19.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.38. even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him. 10.39. We are witnesses of all things which he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree. 16.18. This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour. 19.11. God worked special miracles by the hands of Paul 19.12. so that even handkerchiefs or aprons were carried away from his body to the sick, and the evil spirits went out. 19.13. But some of the itinerant Jews, exorcists, took on themselves to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, "We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preaches. 19.14. There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this. 19.15. The evil spirit answered, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who are you? 19.16. The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overpowered them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 19.17. This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived at Ephesus. Fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. 19.18. Many also of those who had believed came, confessing, and declaring their deeds. 19.19. Many of those who practiced magical arts brought their books together and burned them in the sight of all. They counted the price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. 19.20. So the word of the Lord was growing and becoming mighty.
19. New Testament, John, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.1. I am the true vine, and my Father is the farmer.
20. New Testament, Luke, 1.1, 4.33-4.41, 7.21, 8.35-8.39, 9.42, 11.14, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 4.33. In the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean demon, and he cried out with a loud voice 4.34. saying, "Ah! what have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 4.35. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 4.36. Amazement came on all, and they spoke together, one with another, saying, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out! 4.37. News about him went out into every place of the surrounding region. 4.38. He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's mother-in-law was afflicted with a great fever, and they begged him for her. 4.39. He stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her. Immediately she rose up and served them. 4.40. When the sun was setting, all those who had any sick with various diseases brought them to him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them. 4.41. Demons also came out from many, crying out, and saying, "You are the Christ, the Son of God!" Rebuking them, he didn't allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ. 7.21. In that hour he cured many of diseases and plagues and evil spirits; and to many who were blind he gave sight. 8.35. People went out to see what had happened. They came to Jesus, and found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sitting at Jesus' feet, clothed and in his right mind; and they were afraid. 8.36. Those who saw it told them how he who had been possessed by demons was healed. 8.37. All the people of the surrounding country of the Gadarenes asked him to depart from them, for they were very much afraid. He entered into the boat, and returned. 8.38. But the man from whom the demons had gone out begged him that he might go with him, but Jesus sent him away, saying 8.39. Return to your house, and declare what great things God has done for you." He went his way, proclaiming throughout the whole city what great things Jesus had done for him. 9.42. While he was still coming, the demon threw him down and convulsed him violently. But Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 11.14. He was casting out a demon, and it was mute. It happened, when the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke; and the multitudes marveled. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up.
21. New Testament, Mark, 1.32, 5.1-5.5, 5.15-5.20, 7.25, 9.18, 9.25-9.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.32. At evening, when the sun had set, they brought to him all who were sick, and those who were possessed by demons. 5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit 5.3. who had his dwelling in the tombs. Nobody could bind him any more, not even with chains 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 5.5. Always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 5.15. They came to Jesus, and saw him who had been possessed by demons sitting, clothed, and in his right mind, even him who had the legion; and they were afraid. 5.16. Those who saw it declared to them how it happened to him who was possessed by demons, and about the pigs. 5.17. They began to beg him to depart from their region. 5.18. As he was entering into the boat, he who had been possessed by demons begged him that he might be with him. 5.19. He didn't allow him, but said to him, "Go to your house, to your friends, and tell them what great things the Lord has done for you, and how he had mercy on you. 5.20. He went his way, and began to proclaim in Decapolis how Jesus had done great things for him, and everyone marveled. 7.25. For a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. 9.18. and wherever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, and grinds his teeth, and wastes away. I asked your disciples to cast it out, and they weren't able. 9.25. When Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to him, "You mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him, and never enter him again! 9.26. Having cried out, and convulsed greatly, it came out of him. The boy became like one dead; so much that most of them said, "He is dead. 9.27. But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 4.24, 9.32, 12.22, 17.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.24. The report about him went out into all Syria. They brought to him all who were sick, afflicted with various diseases and torments, possessed with demons, epileptics, and paralytics; and he healed them. 9.32. As they went out, behold, a mute man who was demon possessed was brought to him. 12.22. Then one possessed by a demon, blind and mute, was brought to him and he healed him, so that the blind and mute man both spoke and saw. 17.15. Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is epileptic, and suffers grievously; for he often falls into the fire, and often into the water.
23. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 60.2-60.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 4.20, 4.44 (2nd cent. CE

4.20. Now while he was discussing the question of libations, there chanced to be present in his audience a young dandy who bore so evil a reputation for licentiousness that his conduct had long been the subject of coarse street-corner songs. His home was Corcyra, and he traced his pedigree to Alcinous the Phaeacian who entertained Odysseus. Apollonius then was talking about libations, and was urging them not to drink out of a particular cup, but to reserve it for the gods, without ever touching it or drinking out of it. But when he also urged them to have handles on the cup, and to pour the libation over the handle, because that is the part at which men are least likely to drink, the youth burst out into loud and coarse laughter, and quite drowned his voice. Then Apollonius looked up and said: It is not yourself that perpetrates this insult, but the demon, who drives you without your knowing it. And in fact the youth was, without knowing it, possessed by a devil; for he would laugh at things that no one else laughed at, and then would fall to weeping for no reason at all, and he would talk and sing to himself. Now most people thought that it was boisterous humor of youth which led him into excesses; but he was really the mouthpiece of a devil, though it only seemed a drunken frolic in which on that occasion he was indulging. Now, when Apollonius gazed on him, the ghost in him began to utter cries of fear and rage, such as one hears from people who are being branded or racked; and the ghost swore that he would leave the you man alone and never take possession of any man again. But Apollonius addressed him with anger, as a master might a shifty, rascally, and shameless slave and so on, and he ordered him to quit the young man and show by a visible sign that he had done so. I will throw down yonder statue, said the devil, and pointed to one of the images which were there in the Royal Stoa, for there it was that the scene took place. But when the statue began by moving gently, and then fell down, it would defy anyone to describe the hubbub which arose thereat and the way they clapped their hand with wonder. But the young man rubbed his eyes as if he had just woke up, and he looked towards the rays of the sun, and assumed a modest aspect, as all had their attention concentrated on him; for he no longer showed himself licentious, nor did he stare madly about, but he had returned to his own self, as thoroughly as if he had been treated with drugs; and he gave up his dainty dress and summery garments and the rest of his sybaritic way of life, and he fell in love with the austerity of philosophers, and donned their cloak, and stripping off his old self modeled his life and future upon that of Apollonius. 4.44. Just then a distemper broke out in Rome, called by the physicians influenza; and it was attended, it seems, by coughings, and the voice of speakers was affected by it. Now the temples were full of people supplicating the gods, because Nero had a swollen throat, and his voice was hoarse. But Apollonius vehemently denounced the folly of the crowd, though without rebuking anyone in particular; nay, he even restrained Menippus, who was irritated by such goings on, and persuaded him to moderate his indignation, urging him to pardon the gods if they did show pleasure in the mimes of buffoons. This utterance was reported to Tigellinus, who immediately sent police to take him to prison, and summoned him to defend himself from the charge of impiety against Nero. And an accuser was retained against him who had already undone a great many people, and won a number of such Olympic victories. This accuser too held in his hands a scroll of paper on which the charge was written out, and he brandished it like a sword against the sage, and declared that it was so sharp that it would slay and ruin him. But when Tigellinus unrolled the scroll, and did not find upon it the trace of a single word or letter, and his eyes fell on a perfectly blank book, he came to the conclusion that he had to do with a demon; and this is said also subsequently to have been the feeling which Domitian afterwards entertained towards Apollonius. Tigellinus then took his victim apart into a secret tribunal, in which this class of magistrate tries in private the most important charges; and having ordered all to leave the court he plied him with questions, asking who he was. Apollonius gave his father's name and that of his country, and explained his motive in practicing wisdom, declaring that the sole use he had made of it was to gain knowledge of the gods and an understanding of human affairs, for that the difficulty of knowing another man exceeded that of knowing oneself. And about the demons, said Tigellinus, and the apparitions of specters, how, O Apollonius, do you exorcise them? In the same way, he answered, as I should murderers and impious men. This was a sarcastic allusion to Tigellinus himself, for he taught and encouraged in Nero every excess of cruelty and wanton violence. And, said the other, could you prophesy, if I asked you to? How, said Apollonius, can I, being no prophet? And yet, replied the other, they say that it is you who predicted that some great event would come to pass and yet not come to pass. Quite true, said Apollonius, is what you heard; but you must not put this down to any prophetic gift, but rather to the wisdom which God reveals to wise men. And, said the other, why are you not afraid of Nero? Because, said Apollonius, the same God who allows him to seem formidable, has also granted to me to feel no fear. And what do you think, said the other, about Nero? And Apollonius answered: Much better than you do; for you think it dignified for him to sing, but I think it dignified for him to keep silent. Tigellinus was astonished and said: You may go, but you must give sureties for your person. And Apollonius answered: And who can go surety for a body that no one can bind? This answer struck Tigellinus as inspired and above the wit of man; and as he was careful not to fight with a god, he said: You may go wherever you choose, for you are too powerful to be controlled by me.
25. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. א"ר חנן אפי' בעל החלומות אומר לו לאדם למחר הוא מת אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנאמר (קהלת ה, ו) כי ברוב חלומות והבלים ודברים הרבה כי את האלהים ירא,מיד (ישעיהו לח, ב) ויסב חזקיהו פניו אל הקיר ויתפלל אל ה',מאי קיר אמר רשב"ל מקירות לבו שנא' (ירמיהו ד, יט) מעי מעי אוחילה קירות לבי וגו',ר' לוי אמר על עסקי הקיר אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם ומה שונמית שלא עשתה אלא קיר אחת קטנה החיית את בנה אבי אבא שחפה את ההיכל כולו בכסף ובזהב על אחת כמה וכמה (ישעיהו לח, ג) זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך באמת ובלב שלם והטוב בעיניך עשיתי,מאי והטוב בעיניך עשיתי א"ר יהודה אמר רב שסמך גאולה לתפלה ר' לוי אמר שגנז ספר רפואות,תנו רבנן ששה דברים עשה חזקיהו המלך על ג' הודו לו ועל ג' לא הודו לו,על ג' הודו לו גנז ספר רפואות והודו לו כתת נחש הנחשת והודו לו גירר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבלים והודו לו,ועל ג' לא הודו לו סתם מי גיחון ולא הודו לו קצץ דלתות היכל ושגרם למלך אשור ולא הודו לו עבר ניסן בניסן ולא הודו לו,ומי לית ליה לחזקיהו (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם ראש חדשים זה ניסן ואין אחר ניסן,אלא טעה בדשמואל דאמר שמואל אין מעברין את השנה ביום שלשים של אדר הואיל וראוי לקובעו ניסן סבר הואיל וראוי לא אמרינן:,א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זמרא כל התולה בזכות עצמו תולין לו בזכות אחרים וכל התולה בזכות אחרים תולין לו בזכות עצמו,משה תלה בזכות אחרים שנא' (שמות לב, יג) זכור לאברהם ליצחק ולישראל עבדיך תלו לו בזכות עצמו שנאמר (תהלים קו, כג) ויאמר להשמידם לולי משה בחירו עמד בפרץ לפניו להשיב חמתו מהשחית,חזקיהו תלה בזכות עצמו דכתיב זכר נא את אשר התהלכתי לפניך תלו לו בזכות אחרים שנא' (מלכים ב יט, לד) וגנותי אל העיר הזאת להושיעה למעני ולמען דוד עבדי והיינו דריב"ל דאמר ריב"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, יז) הנה לשלום מר לי מר אפי' בשעה ששיגר לו הקב"ה שלום מר הוא לו:,(מלכים ב ד, י) נעשה נא עליית קיר קטנה,רב ושמואל חד אמר עלייה פרועה היתה וקירוה וחד אמר אכסדרה גדולה היתה וחלקוה לשנים,בשלמא למ"ד אכסדרה היינו דכתיב קיר אלא למ"ד עלייה מאי קיר,שקירוה,בשלמא למ"ד עלייה היינו דכתיב עליית אלא למ"ד אכסדרה מאי עליית,מעולה שבבתים.,ונשים לו שם מטה ושולחן וכסא ומנורה,אמר אביי ואיתימא ר' יצחק הרוצה להנות יהנה כאלישע ושאינו רוצה להנות אל יהנה כשמואל הרמתי שנאמר (שמואל א ז, יז) ותשובתו הרמתה כי שם ביתו וא"ר יוחנן שכל מקום שהלך שם ביתו עמו.,(מלכים ב ד, ט) ותאמר אל אישה הנה נא ידעתי כי איש אלהים קדוש הוא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מכאן שהאשה מכרת באורחין יותר מן האיש,קדוש הוא מנא ידעה רב ושמואל חד אמר שלא ראתה זבוב עובר על שולחנו וחד אמר סדין של פשתן הציעה על מטתו ולא ראתה קרי עליו,קדוש הוא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא הוא קדוש ומשרתו אינו קדוש (שנא') (מלכים ב ד, כז) ויגש גיחזי להדפה א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא שאחזה בהוד יפיה.,עובר עלינו תמיד א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב כל המארח תלמיד חכם בתוך ביתו ומהנהו מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מקריב תמידין.,וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י אל יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה ויתפלל אלא במקום נמוך ויתפלל שנא' (תהלים קל, א) ממעמקים קראתיך ה',תניא נמי הכי לא יעמוד אדם לא על גבי כסא ולא ע"ג שרפרף ולא במקום גבוה ויתפלל אלא במקום נמוך ויתפלל לפי שאין גבהות לפני המקום שנאמר ממעמקים קראתיך ה' וכתיב (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטוף.,וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י המתפלל צריך שיכוין את רגליו שנא' (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה,(א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן) וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י מאי דכתיב (ויקרא יט, כו) לא תאכלו על הדם לא תאכלו קודם שתתפללו על דמכם,(א"ד) א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא משום ראב"י כל האוכל ושותה ואח"כ מתפלל עליו הכתוב אומר (מלכים א יד, ט) ואותי השלכת אחרי גויך אל תקרי גויך אלא גאיך אמר הקב"ה לאחר שנתגאה זה קבל עליו מלכות שמים:,ר' יהושע אומר עד ג' שעות: אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי יהושע:,הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד:,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא ובלבד שלא יאמר יוצר אור,מיתיבי הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם שהוא קורא בתורה אבל מברך הוא שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה תיובתא דרב חסדא תיובתא,איכא דאמרי אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא מאי לא הפסיד שלא הפסיד ברכות תניא נמי הכי הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם שקורא בתורה אבל מברך הוא שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה,א"ר מני גדול הקורא ק"ש בעונתה יותר מהעוסק בתורה מדקתני הקורא מכאן ואילך לא הפסיד כאדם הקורא בתורה מכלל דקורא בעונתה עדיף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים בערב כל אדם יטה ויקרא ובבקר יעמוד שנאמר (דברים ו, ז) ובשכבך ובקומך,ובית הלל אומרים כל אדם קורא כדרכו שנאמר ובלכתך בדרך,אם כן למה נאמר ובשכבך ובקומך בשעה שבני אדם שוכבים ובשעה שבני אדם עומדים,א"ר טרפון אני הייתי בא בדרך והטתי לקרות כדברי ב"ש וסכנתי בעצמי מפני הלסטים,אמרו לו כדי היית לחוב בעצמך שעברת על דברי ב"ה: 10b. Similarly, bRabbi Ḥa said: Even if the master of dreams,in a true dream, an angel ( iMa’ayan HaBerakhot /i) btells a person that tomorrow he will die, he should not prevent himself frompraying for bmercy, as it is stated: “For in the multitude of dreams and vanities there are many words; but fear God”(Ecclesiastes 5:6). Although the dream may seem real to him, that is not necessarily the case, and one must place his trust in God.,Having heard Isaiah’s harsh prophecy, bimmediately “Hezekiah turned his face toward the wall and prayed to the Lord”(Isaiah 38:2).,The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by the word b“wall [ ikir /i]”in this context? Why did Hezekiah turn his face to a wall? bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:This symbolically alludes to the fact that Hezekiah prayed to God bfrom the chambers [ ikirot /i] of his heart, as it is statedelsewhere: b“My anguish, my anguish, I am in pain. The chambers of my heart.My heart moans within me” (Jeremiah 4:19)., bRabbi Levi said:Hezekiah intended to evoke bmattersrelating bto a wall,and bhe said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, and if the woman from Shunem, who made only a single small wallon the roof for the prophet Elisha, and byou revived her son, all the more soshould you bring life to the descendant of bmy father’s father,King Solomon, bwho covered the entireTemple bSanctuary with silver and gold.In his prayer, Hezekiah said: “Please, Lord, bplease remember that I walked before You in truth, and with a complete heart, and what was good in Your eyes I did.And Hezekiah wept sore” (Isaiah 38:3).,The Gemara asks: To bwhatspecific action was he referring when he said: b“And what was good in your sight I did”?Various opinions are offered: Mentioning Hezekiah’s merits, bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav that he juxtaposed redemption and prayerat sunrise instead of sleeping late, as was the custom of most kings ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i). bRabbi Levi said: He suppressed the Book of Remediesupon which everyone relied., bThe Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed sixinnovative bactions. With regard to threethe Sages bagreed with him, and with regard to three they did not agree with him. /b, bWith regard to threeactions the Sages bagreed with him: br bHe suppressed the Book of Remedies, and they agreed with him. br bHe ground the copper snakethrough which miracles were performed for Israel (Numbers 21:9), destroying it because it had been used in idol worship (II Kings 18:4), band they agreed with him. br bHe dragged the bones of hisevil bfather,King Ahaz, bon a bed of ropes;meaning he did not accord his father a funeral fit for a king (II Chronicles 28:27), band they agreed with him. /b,Yet, bwith regard to threeother innovations, the Sages of his generation bdid not agree with him: br bHe stopped up the waters of the Gihon,the Pool of Siloam, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel (II Chronicles 32:30), band they did not agree with him. br bHe cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the king of Assyria(II Kings 18:16), band they did not agree with him. br bHe intercalated Nisan in Nisan,creating a leap year by adding an extra month during the month of Nisan. That intercalation must be performed before the end of Adar (II Chronicles 30:2).,With regard to his intercalation of Nisan, the Gemara asks: bDid Hezekiah notaccept the ihalakha /i: b“This month will be for you the first of the months;it shall be the first for you of the months of the year” (Exodus 12:2)? By inference, bthisfirst month bis Nisan, and no othermonth bis Nisan.How could Hezekiah add an additional Nisan in violation of Torah law?,The Gemara answers that the scenario was different. bRather, Hezekiah erred with regard tothe halakhic opinion ascribed in later generations to bShmuel,as bShmuel said: One may not intercalate the year on the thirtieth day of Adar, since it is fit to establish itas the New Moon of bNisan.On the thirtieth day of each month, those who witnessed the new moon would come and testify before the court, which, based on their testimony, would declare that day the first day of the next month. Therefore, one may not declare a leap year on the thirtieth day of Adar, as it could potentially become the first of Nisan. Therefore, the Sages of Hezekiah’s generation did not agree with his decision to intercalate the year on the thirtieth of Adar. Hezekiah bheldthat bwe do not say: Sincethat day bis fit to establish itas the New Moon is reason enough to refrain from intercalation of the year.,Stemming from the analysis of Hezekiah’s prayer, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Anyone who baseshis prayer or request bupon his own merit,when God answers his prayer, bit is based upon the merit of others. And anyone whomodestly bbaseshis prayer or request bupon the merit of others,when God answers his prayer, bit is based upon his own merit. /b,The Gemara cites proof from Moses. When he prayed to God for forgiveness after the incident of the Golden Calf, bhe basedhis request bupon the merit of others, as it is stated: “Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel your servants,to whom You swore upon Yourself, and told them: I will increase your descendants like the stars of the heavens, and all of this land of which I have spoken, I will give to your descendants and they will inherit it forever” (Exodus 32:13). Yet when this story is related, God’s forgiveness of Israel bis based upon Moses’ own merit, as it is stated: “And He said He would destroy them, had Moses, His chosen, not stood before Him in the breach to turn back His destructive fury, lest He should destroy them”(Psalms 106:23)., bHezekiah,however, bbasedhis request bupon his own merit, as it is written: “Please, remember that I walked before You”(Isaiah 38:3). When God answered his prayers, bit was based upon the merit of otherswith no mention made of Hezekiah’s own merit, bas it is stated: “And I will protect this city to save it, for My sake and for the sake of David, My servant”(II Kings 19:34). bAnd that is what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levisaid. bAs Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Behold, for my peace I had great bitterness;but You have, in love to my soul, delivered it from the pit of corruption; for You have thrown all my sins behind Your back” (Isaiah 38:17)? This verse teaches that beven when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sent him peaceand told him that he would recover from his illness, bit was bitter for him,because God did not take his merit into consideration.,Having mentioned the chamber on the roof built for Elisha by the woman from Shunem, the Gemara now describes the entire event. The woman from Shunem suggested to her husband: b“Let us make, I pray thee, a small chamber on the roof,and let us place a bed, table, stool and candlestick for him there, and it will be, when he comes to us, that he will turn in there” (II Kings 4:10)., bRav and Shmuelargued over the meaning of small chamber. bOneof them bsaid: They had an uncovered second storyon their roof, bover which they built a ceiling;and boneof them bsaid: There was an enclosed veranda [ iakhsadra /i] and they divided it in half. /b,The Gemara comments: bGranted, according to the one who said that it was an enclosed verandawhich they divided in two, it makes sense bthatthe term bwall [ ikir /i] was written. However, according to the one who said that they had anopen bsecond story, what isthe meaning of bwall? /b,The Gemara responds: The one who said that they had an uncovered second story interprets ikirnot as wall but as ceiling meaning that they bbuilt a ceiling[ ikirui /i] over it.,On the other hand, bgranted, according to the one who said that they had anuncovered bsecond story,it makes sense bthatthe term bsecond story[ialiyat /i] was written. But according to the one who saidthat it was ban enclosed veranda, what isthe meaning of the term bsecond story? /b,The Gemara responds: The one who said that it was an enclosed veranda interprets ialiyatnot as second story, but bas the most outstanding [ ime’ula /i] of the rooms. /b,Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara analyzes the statement made by the woman from Shunem to her husband with regard to the provisions that they would place in the room for Elisha: b“And let us place a bed, table, stool and candlestick for him there.” /b, bAbaye, and some say Rabbi Yitzḥak, said:A great man bwho seeks to enjoythe contributions of those who seek to honor him bmay enjoythose gifts, bas Elishaenjoyed gifts given him by the woman from Shunem, among others. bAnd one who does not seek to enjoythese gifts bshould not enjoy them, aswas the practice of the prophet bSamuel from Rama,who would not accept gifts from anyone at all. From where do we know that this was Samuel’s custom? bAs it is stated: “And he returned to Rama, for there was his house,and there he judged Israel, and he built an altar to the Lord” (I Samuel 7:17). bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Every place whereSamuel bwent, his house was with him,so he would have everything that he needed and not be forced to benefit from public contributions. One may opt to conduct himself in accordance with either of these paths.,Regarding the woman from Shunem: b“And she said to her husband: Behold now, I perceive that he is a holy man of Godwho passes by us continually” (II Kings 4:9). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: From here,where the woman from Shunem perceived the prophet’s greatness before her husband did, derive bthat a woman recognizesthe character of her bguests more than a mandoes.,The Gemara notes that the woman from Shunem said that b“he is holy.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where did she knowthat he was holy? bRav and Shmueldisagreed over this. bOneof them bsaid: She never saw a fly pass over his table; and the other said: She spread awhite blinen sheet on his bed,and despite that even the smallest stain is visible on white linen, and nocturnal seminal emissions are not uncommon, bshe never sawthe residue of ba seminal emission on it. /b,With regard to the verse: b“He is holy,” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The woman from Shunem intimated that: bHe is holy,but bhis attendant,Geihazi, bis not holy,as she saw no indication of holiness in him ( iIyyun Ya’akov /i). Here too, she correctly perceived the character of her guest, bas it islater bstated: “And Geihazi approached her to push her away [ ilehodfa /i]”(II Kings 4:27). And bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: He grabbed her by the majesty of her beauty [ ihod yofya /i],meaning that when he pushed her he grabbed her breasts in a licentious manner.,With regard to the phrasing of the verse: “He is a holy man of God bwho passes by us continually,” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov:From this verse we derive that bone who hosts a Torah scholar in his home and lets him enjoy his possessions, the verse ascribes to himcredit bas if he is sacrificing the daily [ itamid /i] offering,as the verse states: “Passes by us continually [ itamid /i].”,With regard to the ihalakhotof prayer, bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: A person should not stand in a high place and pray; rather,he should stand bin a low place and pray, as it is stated: “I called to You, Lord, from the depths”(Psalms 130:1)., bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should neither stand upon a chair nor upon a stool, nor in a high place and pray. Rather,one should stand bin a low place and pray, for there is no haughtiness before God. As it is stated: “I called to You, Lord, from the depths” and it is written: “A prayer for the impoverished, when he is faintand pours out his complaint before God” (Psalms 102:1). It is appropriate to feel impoverished when praying and make one’s requests humbly., bAnd Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: When praying, one should align his feetnext to each other, as a single foot, in order to model oneself after the angels, with regard to whom bit is stated: “And their feet were a straight foot”(Ezekiel 1:7)., bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said and Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “You shall not eat with the blood”(Leviticus 19:26)? bYou may not eat before you pray for your blood.One may not eat before he prays., bOthers saythat bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: One who eats and drinks and later prays, about him the verse statesthe rebuke of the prophet in the name of God: b“And Me you have cast behind your back”(I Kings 14:9). One who sees to his own bodily needs by eating and drinking before prayer casts God aside, according his arrogance and ego priority over God (Maharsha). Indeed, bdo not read your back [ igavekha /i]; rather, your pride [ ige’ekha /i]. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: After thisone bhas become arrogantand engaged in satisfying his own needs, bheonly then baccepted upon himself the kingdom of Heaven. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehoshua says:One may recite the morning iShema buntil three hoursof the day. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. /b,We also learned in the mishna that bone who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing;although he does not fulfill the mitzva of reciting of iShemaat its appointed time, bhe isnevertheless considered like one who reads the Torah, and is rewarded accordingly.,With regard to this ruling, bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva said:This only applies bprovided one does not recite: Who forms light [ iyotzer or /i],or the rest of the blessings recited along with iShema /i, as they pertain only to the fulfillment of the mitzva of reciting of the morning iShema /i; after the third hour, they are inappropriate.,The Gemara braises an objection toRav Ḥisda’s statement from a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShema bfrom that time onward loses nothing, and is considered like one who reads Torah, but he recites two blessings beforehand and oneblessing bthereafter. /bThis directly contradicts Rav Ḥisda’s statement, and the Gemara notes: Indeed, bthe refutationof the statement bof Rav Ḥisda is aconclusive brefutation,and Rav Ḥisda’s opinion is rejected in favor of that of the ibaraita /i., bSome say that Rav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva saidthe opposite: bWhat isthe meaning of: bLoses nothing,in the mishna? This means that one who recites iShemaafter the third hour bdoes not losethe opportunity to recite bthe blessingsand is permitted to recite them although the time for the recitation of iShemahas passed. bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who recites iShema bafter this time loses nothing, and is considered like one who reads the Torah, but he recites two blessings beforehand and one thereafter. /b,With regard to our mishna, bRabbi Mani said: Greater is one who recites iShemaat itsappropriate btime than one who engages in Torahstudy. A proof is cited based on bwhat was taughtin the mishna: bOne who recites iShema bafter this time loses nothing and isconsidered blike one who reads the Torah.This is proven bby inference,since bone who recites iShema bat itsappointed btime is greaterthan one who does not, and one who does not is equal to one who reads the Torah, when one recites iShemaat its appointed time he fulfills two mitzvot, that of Torah study and that of the recitation of iShema /i., strongMISHNA: /strong Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel disputed the proper way to recite iShema /i. bBeit Shammai say:One should recite iShemain the manner indicated in the text of iShemaitself. Therefore, bin the evening every person must reclineon his side and recite iShema /i, in fulfillment of the verse: “When you lie down,” band in the morning he must standand recite iShema /i, in fulfillment of the verse: When you rise, bas it is stated: “When you lie down, and when you rise.” /b, bAnd Beit Hillel say: Every person recites iShema bas he is,and he may do so in whatever position is most comfortable for him, both day and night, bas it is stated: “And when you walk along the way,”when one is neither standing nor reclining ( iMe’iri /i)., bIf so,according to Beit Hillel, bwhy was it stated: “When you lie down, and when you rise”?This is merely to denote time; bat the time when people lie down and the time when people rise. /b,With regard to this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Tarfon said:Once, bI was coming on the roadwhen I stopped and breclined to recite iShema bin accordance with the statement of Beit Shammai.Although Rabbi Tarfon was a disciple of Beit Hillel, he thought that fulfilling the mitzva in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai would be a more meticulous fulfillment of the mitzva, acceptable to all opinions. Yet in so doing, bI endangered myself due to the highwaymen [ ilistim /i]who accost travelers.,The Sages bsaid to him: You deservedto be in a position where you were bliableto pay bwith your life, as you transgressed the statement of Beit Hillel.This statement will be explained in the Gemara.
26. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.17 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.17. But will not those narratives, especially when they are understood in their proper sense, appear far more worthy of respect than the story that Dionysus was deceived by the Titans, and expelled from the throne of Jupiter, and torn in pieces by them, and his remains being afterwards put together again, he returned as it were once more to life, and ascended to heaven? Or are the Greeks at liberty to refer such stories to the doctrine of the soul, and to interpret them figuratively, while the door of a consistent explanation, and one everywhere in accord and harmony with the writings of the Divine Spirit, who had His abode in pure souls, is closed against us? Celsus, then, is altogether ignorant of the purpose of our writings, and it is therefore upon his own acceptation of them that he casts discredit, and not upon their real meaning; whereas, if he had reflected on what is appropriate to a soul which is to enjoy an everlasting life, and on the opinion which we are to form of its essence and principles, he would not so have ridiculed the entrance of the immortal into a mortal body, which took place not according to the metempsychosis of Plato, but agreeably to another and higher view of things. And he would have observed one descent, distinguished by its great benevolence, undertaken to convert (as the Scripture mystically terms them) the lost sheep of the house of Israel, which had strayed down from the mountains, and to which the Shepherd is said in certain parables to have gone down, leaving on the mountains those which had not strayed.
27. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.1231-4.1239 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

28. Augustine, The City of God, 10.8, 12.3-12.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

10.8. I should seem tedious were I to recount all the ancient miracles, which were wrought in attestation of God's promises which He made to Abraham thousands of years ago, that in his seed all the nations of the earth should be blessed. Genesis 18:18 For who can but marvel that Abraham's barren wife should have given birth to a son at an age when not even a prolific woman could bear children; or, again, that when Abraham sacrificed, a flame from heaven should have run between the divided parts; or that the angels in human form, whom he had hospitably entertained, and who had renewed God's promise of offspring, should also have predicted the destruction of Sodom by fire from heaven; Genesis xviii and that his nephew Lot should have been rescued from Sodom by the angels as the fire was just descending, while his wife, who looked back as she went, and was immediately turned into salt, stood as a sacred beacon warning us that no one who is being saved should long for what he is leaving? How striking also were the wonders done by Moses to rescue God's people from the yoke of slavery in Egypt, when the magi of the Pharaoh, that is, the king of Egypt, who tyrannized over this people, were suffered to do some wonderful things that they might be vanquished all the more signally! They did these things by the magical arts and incantations to which the evil spirits or demons are addicted; while Moses, having as much greater power as he had right on his side, and having the aid of angels, easily conquered them in the name of the Lord who made heaven and earth. And, in fact, the magicians failed at the third plague; whereas Moses, dealing out the miracles delegated to him, brought ten plagues upon the land, so that the hard hearts of Pharaoh and the Egyptians yielded, and the people were let go. But, quickly repenting, and essaying to overtake the departing Hebrews, who had crossed the sea on dry ground, they were covered and overwhelmed in the returning waters. What shall I say of those frequent and stupendous exhibitions of divine power, while the people were conducted through the wilderness?- of the waters which could not be drunk, but lost their bitterness, and quenched the thirsty, when at God's command a piece of wood was cast into them? of the manna that descended from heaven to appease their hunger, and which begot worms and putrefied when any one collected more than the appointed quantity, and yet, though double was gathered on the day before the Sabbath (it not being lawful to gather it on that day), remained fresh? of the birds which filled the camp, and turned appetite into satiety when they longed for flesh, which it seemed impossible to supply to so vast a population? of the enemies who met them, and opposed their passage with arms, and were defeated without the loss of a single Hebrew, when Moses prayed with his hands extended in the form of a cross? of the seditious persons who arose among God's people, and separated themselves from the divinely-ordered community, and were swallowed up alive by the earth, a visible token of an invisible punishment? of the rock struck with the rod, and pouring out waters more than enough for all the host? of the deadly serpents' bites, sent in just punishment of sin, but healed by looking at the lifted brazen serpent, so that not only were the tormented people healed, but a symbol of the crucifixion of death set before them in this destruction of death by death? It was this serpent which was preserved in memory of this event, and was afterwards worshipped by the mistaken people as an idol, and was destroyed by the pious and God-fearing king Hezekiah, much to his credit. 12.3. In Scripture they are called God's enemies who oppose His rule, not by nature, but by vice; having no power to hurt Him, but only themselves. For they are His enemies, not through their power to hurt, but by their will to oppose Him. For God is unchangeable, and wholly proof against injury. Therefore the vice which makes those who are called His enemies resist Him, is an evil not to God, but to themselves. And to them it is an evil, solely because it corrupts the good of their nature. It is not nature, therefore, but vice, which is contrary to God. For that which is evil is contrary to the good. And who will deny that God is the supreme good? Vice, therefore, is contrary to God, as evil to good. Further, the nature it vitiates is a good, and therefore to this good also it is contrary. But while it is contrary to God only as evil to good, it is contrary to the nature it vitiates, both as evil and as hurtful. For to God no evils are hurtful; but only to natures mutable and corruptible, though, by the testimony of the vices themselves, originally good. For were they not good, vices could not hurt them. For how do they hurt them but by depriving them of integrity, beauty, welfare, virtue, and, in short, whatever natural good vice is wont to diminish or destroy? But if there be no good to take away, then no injury can be done, and consequently there can be no vice. For it is impossible that there should be a harmless vice. Whence we gather, that though vice cannot injure the unchangeable good, it can injure nothing but good; because it does not exist where it does not injure. This, then, may be thus formulated: Vice cannot be in the highest good, and cannot be but in some good. Things solely good, therefore, can in some circumstances exist; things solely evil, never; for even those natures which are vitiated by an evil will, so far indeed as they are vitiated, are evil, but in so far as they are natures they are good. And when a vitiated nature is punished, besides the good it has in being a nature, it has this also, that it is not unpunished. For this is just, and certainly everything just is a good. For no one is punished for natural, but for voluntary vices. For even the vice which by the force of habit and long continuance has become a second nature, had its origin in the will. For at present we are speaking of the vices of the nature, which has a mental capacity for that enlightenment which discriminates between what is just and what is unjust. 12.4. But it is ridiculous to condemn the faults of beasts and trees, and other such mortal and mutable things as are void of intelligence, sensation, or life, even though these faults should destroy their corruptible nature; for these creatures received, at their Creator's will, an existence fitting them, by passing away and giving place to others, to secure that lowest form of beauty, the beauty of seasons, which in its own place is a requisite part of this world. For things earthly were neither to be made equal to things heavenly, nor were they, though inferior, to be quite omitted from the universe. Since, then, in those situations where such things are appropriate, some perish to make way for others that are born in their room, and the less succumb to the greater, and the things that are overcome are transformed into the quality of those that have the mastery, this is the appointed order of things transitory. of this order the beauty does not strike us, because by our mortal frailty we are so involved in a part of it, that we cannot perceive the whole, in which these fragments that offend us are harmonized with the most accurate fitness and beauty. And therefore, where we are not so well able to perceive the wisdom of the Creator, we are very properly enjoined to believe it, lest in the vanity of human rashness we presume to find any fault with the work of so great an Artificer. At the same time, if we attentively consider even these faults of earthly things, which are neither voluntary nor penal, they seem to illustrate the excellence of the natures themselves, which are all originated and created by God; for it is that which pleases us in this nature which we are displeased to see removed by the fault - unless even the natures themselves displease men, as often happens when they become hurtful to them, and then men estimate them not by their nature, but by their utility; as in the case of those animals whose swarms scourged the pride of the Egyptians. But in this way of estimating, they may find fault with the sun itself; for certain criminals or debtors are sentenced by the judges to be set in the sun. Therefore it is not with respect to our convenience or discomfort, but with respect to their own nature, that the creatures are glorifying to their Artificer. Thus even the nature of the eternal fire, penal though it be to the condemned sinners, is most assuredly worthy of praise. For what is more beautiful than fire flaming, blazing, and shining? What more useful than fire for warming, restoring, cooking, though nothing is more destructive than fire burning and consuming? The same thing, then, when applied in one way, is destructive, but when applied suitably, is most beneficial. For who can find words to tell its uses throughout the whole world? We must not listen, then, to those who praise the light of fire but find fault with its heat, judging it not by its nature, but by their convenience or discomfort. For they wish to see, but not to be burnt. But they forget that this very light which is so pleasant to them, disagrees with and hurts weak eyes; and in that heat which is disagreeable to them, some animals find the most suitable conditions of a healthy life.
29. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.106



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron, high priest Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
afflict/afflictions Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
allegory Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
aram Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
ark of the covenant / of god / of the lord Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563
berthe of blois, queen of france, hebrew Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29
bethesda Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
bloodguilt Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
breviary Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
canaan Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
celsus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 286
cherub Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
church(es) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 102
curses Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54, 102
david, his dancing Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563
david, his kingship Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
david, his narratives Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29, 563, 582
david, his story Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29, 532, 582
david, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
david Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29, 532, 563, 582; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116, 286
david (biblical king) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
david (king) Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 61, 62
deliver/deliverance Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 102
demoniacs, post-exorcism future of Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 260
deuteronomistic material Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29
dionysus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
divine/god, chariot Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
divine/god, connection to human realm Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
divine/god, messengers Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
divine/god, throne Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
ekphrasis Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
elisha, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
elisha Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 61
en-gedi Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
epilepsy Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 61, 62
ethan ben hoshaja Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563
evil spirit Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
exorcism, methods of Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 62, 260
exorcism, traditions of Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 260
exorcism and demons, david Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
exorcism and demons, solomon Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
fire Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
forgive/forgiveness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
furor Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
gibeonites Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 582
godhead; see also attributes, hierarchy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
goliath Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532, 563
greek, language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29
hachilah Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54, 102
healing Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 62
hellenistic culture Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29
iconography deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116
illness Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 62; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
impurity, moral Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
impurity Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
incantations Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 62, 260
ishbosheth Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 582
israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
jerusalem temple Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
jesus, as healer/exorcist Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
jesus, silencing by Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 102
jesus, work/acts/miracles of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
jesus christ Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
job Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
jonathan, son of saul Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563
josephus (historian) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
joshua, son of nun Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
judaism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116
king/βασιλεύς/kingdom/βασιλεία Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
kingship Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
lectionary (for the mass) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
libertas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
liturgical collections (roman catholic) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
love Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563, 582
magic Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 260; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 286
marriage Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563
medicines/medical Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
merab Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 582
michal, daughter of saul Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563, 582
miracles, angelic vs demonic Wiebe, Fallen Angels in the Theology of St Augustine (2021) 142
moses Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
music Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 563; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116
naaman (the syrian) Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
natural and meteorological phenomena Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
orpheus / david / christ deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116, 286
paralytic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
paul/pauline Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 102
philistines Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 532
plague Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
pray/prayers, of nabonidus ( Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
pray/prayers Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
prayer Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
prophecy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
religion, cult Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
ritual authority Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
ritual practitioners Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
ritual words Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
samaria Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 138
satan (samael) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
saul, king of israel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29, 532, 563, 582
saul Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
scale diseases Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
sick/sickness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
silence/silencing Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 102
solomon Klutz, The Exorcism Stories in Luke-Acts: A Sociostylistic Reading (2004) 260; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 124
spirits, evil Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
spirits, impure Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
syncretism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116, 286
telete deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116
temple (in jerusalem), second Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29
theology Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 207
theophany Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
watchers, the Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 54
will Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
wonders/wonder-working Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 102
yehud (persian province) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 29
zeus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 116, 286
ḥayyot, powers within Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
ḥayyot Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), suffering of' Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 72