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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6270
Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 12.17


הֲלוֹא קְצִיר־חִטִּים הַיּוֹם אֶקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וְיִתֵּן קֹלוֹת וּמָטָר וּדְעוּ וּרְאוּ כִּי־רָעַתְכֶם רַבָּה אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לִשְׁאוֹל לָכֶם מֶלֶךְ׃Is it not wheat harvest today? I will call to the Lord, and he shall send thunder and rain; that you may know and see that your wickedness is great, which you have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking for a king for yourselves.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.26, 4.36, 11.10, 11.13-11.17, 23.4-23.7, 26.5-26.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.26. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ כִּי־אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן מַהֵר מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ לֹא־תַאֲרִיכֻן יָמִים עָלֶיהָ כִּי הִשָּׁמֵד תִּשָּׁמֵדוּן׃ 4.36. מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם הִשְׁמִיעֲךָ אֶת־קֹלוֹ לְיַסְּרֶךָּ וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ הֶרְאֲךָ אֶת־אִשּׁוֹ הַגְּדוֹלָה וּדְבָרָיו שָׁמַעְתָּ מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 11.15. וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃ 11.16. הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃ 11.17. וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.6. וְלֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵבְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 4.26. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over the Jordan to possess it; ye shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed." 4.36. Out of heaven He made thee to hear His voice, that He might instruct thee; and upon earth He made thee to see His great fire; and thou didst hear His words out of the midst of the fire." 11.10. For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou didst sow thy seed, and didst water it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs;" 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 11.15. And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied." 11.16. Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;" 11.17. and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.6. Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage." 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 17.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.6. הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.6. Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 19.30-19.38, 21.14-21.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.31. וַתֹּאמֶר הַבְּכִירָה אֶל־הַצְּעִירָה אָבִינוּ זָקֵן וְאִישׁ אֵין בָּאָרֶץ לָבוֹא עָלֵינוּ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.32. לְכָה נַשְׁקֶה אֶת־אָבִינוּ יַיִן וְנִשְׁכְּבָה עִמּוֹ וּנְחַיֶּה מֵאָבִינוּ זָרַע׃ 19.33. וַתַּשְׁקֶיןָ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶן יַיִן בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא וַתָּבֹא הַבְּכִירָה וַתִּשְׁכַּב אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְלֹא־יָדַע בְּשִׁכְבָהּ וּבְקוּמָהּ׃ 19.34. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתֹּאמֶר הַבְּכִירָה אֶל־הַצְּעִירָה הֵן־שָׁכַבְתִּי אֶמֶשׁ אֶת־אָבִי נַשְׁקֶנּוּ יַיִן גַּם־הַלַּיְלָה וּבֹאִי שִׁכְבִי עִמּוֹ וּנְחַיֶּה מֵאָבִינוּ זָרַע׃ 19.35. וַתַּשְׁקֶיןָ גַּם בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא אֶת־אֲבִיהֶן יָיִן וַתָּקָם הַצְּעִירָה וַתִּשְׁכַּב עִמּוֹ וְלֹא־יָדַע בְּשִׁכְבָהּ וּבְקֻמָהּ׃ 19.36. וַתַּהֲרֶיןָ שְׁתֵּי בְנוֹת־לוֹט מֵאֲבִיהֶן׃ 19.37. וַתֵּלֶד הַבְּכִירָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מוֹאָב הוּא אֲבִי־מוֹאָב עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 19.38. וְהַצְּעִירָה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־עַמִּי הוּא אֲבִי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 21.14. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח־לֶחֶם וְחֵמַת מַיִם וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הָגָר שָׂם עַל־שִׁכְמָהּ וְאֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַיְשַׁלְּחֶהָ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתֵּתַע בְּמִדְבַּר בְּאֵר שָׁבַע׃ 21.15. וַיִּכְלוּ הַמַּיִם מִן־הַחֵמֶת וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד תַּחַת אַחַד הַשִּׂיחִם׃ 21.16. וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתֵּשֶׁב לָהּ מִנֶּגֶד הַרְחֵק כִּמְטַחֲוֵי קֶשֶׁת כִּי אָמְרָה אַל־אֶרְאֶה בְּמוֹת הַיָּלֶד וַתֵּשֶׁב מִנֶּגֶד וַתִּשָּׂא אֶת־קֹלָהּ וַתֵּבְךְּ׃ 21.17. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־קוֹל הַנַּעַר וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָגָר מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־לָּךְ הָגָר אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־שָׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶל־קוֹל הַנַּעַר בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא־שָׁם׃ 21.18. קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת־הַנַּעַר וְהַחֲזִיקִי אֶת־יָדֵךְ בּוֹ כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ׃ 21.19. וַיִּפְקַח אֱלֹהִים אֶת־עֵינֶיהָ וַתֵּרֶא בְּאֵר מָיִם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתְּמַלֵּא אֶת־הַחֵמֶת מַיִם וַתַּשְׁקְ אֶת־הַנָּעַר׃ 19.30. And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar; and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters." 19.31. And the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth." 19.32. Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.’" 19.33. And they made their father drink wine that night. And the first-born went in, and lay with her father; and he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose." 19.34. And it came to pass on the morrow, that the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Behold, I lay yesternight with my father. Let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.’" 19.35. And they made their father drink wine that night also. And the younger arose, and lay with him; and he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose." 19.36. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father." 19.37. And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moab—the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day." 19.38. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-ammi—the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day." 21.14. And Abraham arose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away; and she departed, and strayed in the wilderness of Beer-sheba." 21.15. And the water in the bottle was spent, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs." 21.16. And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bow-shot; for she said: ‘Let me not look upon the death of the child.’ And she sat over against him, and lifted up her voice, and wept." 21.17. And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her: ‘What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is." 21.18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast by thy hand; for I will make him a great nation.’" 21.19. And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 20.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.11. וַיָּרֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַסֶּלַע בְּמַטֵּהוּ פַּעֲמָיִם וַיֵּצְאוּ מַיִם רַבִּים וַתֵּשְׁתְּ הָעֵדָה וּבְעִירָם׃ 20.11. And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106, 78, 105 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.35-8.36, 17.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.35. בְּהֵעָצֵר שָׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וּמֵחַטָּאתָם יְשׁוּבוּן כִּי תַעֲנֵם׃ 8.36. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עֲבָדֶיךָ וְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי תוֹרֵם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ וְנָתַתָּה מָטָר עַל־אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לְעַמְּךָ לְנַחֲלָה׃ 17.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד אֶל־אַחְאָב חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם־יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר כִּי אִם־לְפִי דְבָרִי׃ 17.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ צָרְפַתָה וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פֶּתַח הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת עֵצִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר קְחִי־נָא לִי מְעַט־מַיִם בַּכְּלִי וְאֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 8.35. When heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, when they do sin against Thee; if they pray toward this place, and confess Thy name, and turn from their sin, when Thou dost afflict them;" 8.36. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy servants, and of Thy people Israel, when Thou teachest them the good way wherein they should walk; and send rain upon Thy land, which Thou hast given to Thy people for an inheritance." 17.1. And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the settlers of Gilead, said unto Ahab: ‘As the LORD, the God of Israel, liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 8.6, 12.6-12.15, 12.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי שְׁמוּאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמְרוּ תְּנָה־לָּנוּ מֶלֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵנוּ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 12.6. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־הָעָם יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלָה אֶת־אֲבֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.7. וְעַתָּה הִתְיַצְּבוּ וְאִשָּׁפְטָה אִתְּכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־צִדְקוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 12.8. כַּאֲשֶׁר־בָּא יַעֲקֹב מִצְרָיִם וַיִּזְעֲקוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וַיּוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֵיכֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיֹּשִׁבוּם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 12.9. וַיִּשְׁכְּחוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיִּמְכֹּר אֹתָם בְּיַד סִיסְרָא שַׂר־צְבָא חָצוֹר וּבְיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּבְיַד מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ בָּם׃ 12.11. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֻבַּעַל וְאֶת־בְּדָן וְאֶת־יִפְתָּח וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל וַיַּצֵּל אֶתְכֶם מִיַּד אֹיְבֵיכֶם מִסָּבִיב וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בֶּטַח׃ 12.12. וַתִּרְאוּ כִּי־נָחָשׁ מֶלֶךְ בְּנֵי־עַמּוֹן בָּא עֲלֵיכֶם וַתֹּאמְרוּ לִי לֹא כִּי־מֶלֶךְ יִמְלֹךְ עָלֵינוּ וַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מַלְכְּכֶם׃ 12.13. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתֶּם אֲשֶׁר שְׁאֶלְתֶּם וְהִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם מֶלֶךְ׃ 12.14. אִם־תִּירְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֹתוֹ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּקֹלוֹ וְלֹא תַמְרוּ אֶת־פִּי יְהוָה וִהְיִתֶם גַּם־אַתֶּם וְגַם־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר מָלַךְ עֲלֵיכֶם אַחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 12.15. וְאִם־לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה וּמְרִיתֶם אֶת־פִּי יְהוָה וְהָיְתָה יַד־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וּבַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה קֹלֹת וּמָטָר בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיִּירָא כָל־הָעָם מְאֹד אֶת־יְהוָה וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל׃ 8.6. But the thing displeased Shemu᾽el when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Shemu᾽el prayed to the Lord." 12.6. And Shemu᾽el said to the people, It is the Lord that made Moshe and Aharon, and that brought your fathers up out of the land of Miżrayim." 12.7. Now therefore stand still, that I may plead with you before the Lord concerning all the righteous acts of the Lord, which he did to you and to your fathers." 12.8. When Ya῾aqov was come into Miżrayim, and your fathers cried to the Lord, then the Lord sent Moshe and Aharon, who brought your fathers out of Miżrayim, and made them dwell in this place." 12.9. And when they forgot the Lord their God, he sold them into the hand of Sisera, captain of the host of Ĥażor, and into the hand of the Pelishtim, and into the hand of the king of Mo᾽av, and they fought against them." 12.10. And they cried to the Lord, and said, We have sinned, because we have forsaken the Lord, and have served the Ba῾alim and the ῾Ashtarot: but now deliver us out of the hand of our enemies, and we will serve Thee." 12.11. And the Lord sent Yerubba῾al, and Bedan, and Yiftaĥ, and Shemu᾽el, and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies round about, and you dwelled secure." 12.12. And when you saw that Naĥash the king of the children of ῾Ammon came against you, you said to me, No; but a king shall reign over us: when the Lord your God was your king." 12.13. Now therefore behold the king whom you have chosen, and whom you have desired! for behold, the Lord has set a king over you." 12.14. If you will fear the Lord, and serve him, and obey his voice, and not rebel against the commandment of the Lord, and if both you and also the king that reigns over you will follow the Lord your God –" 12.15. but if you will not obey the voice of the Lord, but rebel against the commandment of the Lord, then shall the hand of the Lord be against you, as it was against your fathers." 12.18. So Shemu᾽el called to the Lord; and the Lord sent thunder and rain that day: and all the people greatly feared the Lord and Shemu᾽el."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 3.9, 3.11-3.20, 17.7-17.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. וַיֵּלֶךְ מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶך־יְהוּדָה וּמֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם וַיָּסֹבּוּ דֶּרֶךְ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְלֹא־הָיָה מַיִם לַמַּחֲנֶה וְלַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָט הַאֵין פֹּה נָבִיא לַיהוָה וְנִדְרְשָׁה אֶת־יְהוָה מֵאוֹתוֹ וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵעַבְדֵי מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר פֹּה אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט אֲשֶׁר־יָצַק מַיִם עַל־יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָט יֵשׁ אוֹתוֹ דְּבַר־יְהוָה וַיֵּרְדוּ אֵלָיו מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוֹשָׁפָט וּמֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם׃ 3.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע אֶל־מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ לֵךְ אֶל־נְבִיאֵי אָבִיךָ וְאֶל־נְבִיאֵי אִמֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל כִּי־קָרָא יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה לָתֵת אוֹתָם בְּיַד־מוֹאָב׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע חַי־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו כִּי לוּלֵי פְּנֵי יְהוֹשָׁפָט מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה אֲנִי נֹשֵׂא אִם־אַבִּיט אֵלֶיךָ וְאִם־אֶרְאֶךָּ׃ 3.15. וְעַתָּה קְחוּ־לִי מְנַגֵּן וְהָיָה כְּנַגֵּן הַמְנַגֵּן וַתְּהִי עָלָיו יַד־יְהוָה׃ 3.16. וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עָשֹׂה הַנַּחַל הַזֶּה גֵּבִים גֵּבִים׃ 3.17. כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה לֹא־תִרְאוּ רוּחַ וְלֹא־תִרְאוּ גֶשֶׁם וְהַנַּחַל הַהוּא יִמָּלֵא מָיִם וּשְׁתִיתֶם אַתֶּם וּמִקְנֵיכֶם וּבְהֶמְתְּכֶם׃ 3.18. וְנָקַל זֹאת בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְנָתַן אֶת־מוֹאָב בְּיֶדְכֶם׃ 3.19. וְהִכִּיתֶם כָּל־עִיר מִבְצָר וְכָל־עִיר מִבְחוֹר וְכָל־עֵץ טוֹב תַּפִּילוּ וְכָל־מַעְיְנֵי־מַיִם תִּסְתֹּמוּ וְכֹל הַחֶלְקָה הַטּוֹבָה תַּכְאִבוּ בָּאֲבָנִים׃ 17.7. וַיְהִי כִּי־חָטְאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם הַמַּעֲלֶה אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִתַּחַת יַד פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם וַיִּירְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 17.8. וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּחֻקּוֹת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִישׁ יְהוָה מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ׃ 17.9. וַיְחַפְּאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל דְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כֵן עַל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיִּבְנוּ לָהֶם בָּמוֹת בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם מִמִּגְדַּל נוֹצְרִים עַד־עִיר מִבְצָר׃ 17.11. וַיְקַטְּרוּ־שָׁם בְּכָל־בָּמוֹת כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֶגְלָה יְהוָה מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ דְּבָרִים רָעִים לְהַכְעִיס אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.12. וַיַּעַבְדוּ הַגִּלֻּלִים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 17.13. וַיָּעַד יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִיהוּדָה בְּיַד כָּל־נביאו [נְבִיאֵי] כָל־חֹזֶה לֵאמֹר שֻׁבוּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶם הָרָעִים וְשִׁמְרוּ מִצְוֺתַי חֻקּוֹתַי כְּכָל־הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת־אֲבֹתֵיכֶם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׁלַחְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם בְּיַד עֲבָדַי הַנְּבִיאִים׃ 17.14. וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם כְּעֹרֶף אֲבוֹתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא הֶאֱמִינוּ בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 17.15. וַיִּמְאֲסוּ אֶת־חֻקָּיו וְאֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם וְאֵת עֵדְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר הֵעִיד בָּם וַיֵּלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל וַיֶּהְבָּלוּ וְאַחֲרֵי הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתָם לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת כָּהֶם׃ 17.16. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מַסֵּכָה שנים [שְׁנֵי] עֲגָלִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֲשֵׁירָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבָּעַל׃ 17.17. וַיַּעֲבִירוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ וַיִּקְסְמוּ קְסָמִים וַיְנַחֵשׁוּ וַיִּתְמַכְּרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְהַכְעִיסוֹ׃ 17.18. וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה מְאֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְסִרֵם מֵעַל פָּנָיו לֹא נִשְׁאַר רַק שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה לְבַדּוֹ׃ 17.19. גַּם־יְהוּדָה לֹא שָׁמַר אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּחֻקּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ׃ 17.21. כִּי־קָרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעַל בֵּית דָּוִד וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֶת־יָרָבְעָם בֶּן־נְבָט וידא [וַיַּדַּח] יָרָבְעָם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאַחֲרֵי יְהוָה וְהֶחֱטֵיאָם חֲטָאָה גְדוֹלָה׃ 17.22. וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל־חַטֹּאות יָרָבְעָם אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לֹא־סָרוּ מִמֶּנָּה׃ 17.23. עַד אֲשֶׁר־הֵסִיר יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעַל פָּנָיו כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד כָּל־עֲבָדָיו הַנְּבִיאִים וַיִּגֶל יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעַל אַדְמָתוֹ אַשּׁוּרָה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 3.9. So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah, and the king of Edom; and they made a circuit of seven days’journey; and there was no water for the host, nor for the beasts that followed them." 3.11. But Jehoshaphat said: ‘Is there not here a prophet of the LORD, that we may inquire of the LORD by him?’ And one of the king of Israel’s servants answered and said: ‘Elisha the son of Shaphat is here, who poured water on the hands of Elijah.’" 3.12. And Jehoshaphat said: ‘The word of the LORD is with him.’ So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him." 3.13. And Elisha said unto the king of Israel: ‘What have I to do with thee? get thee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother.’ And the king of Israel said unto him: ‘Nay; for the LORD hath called these three kings together to deliver them into the hand of Moab.’" 3.14. And Elisha said: ‘As the LORD of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, I would not look toward thee, nor see thee." 3.15. But now bring me a minstrel.’ And it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the LORD came upon him." 3.16. And he said: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Make this valley full of trenches." 3.17. For thus saith the LORD: Ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see rain, yet that valley shall be filled with water; and ye shall drink, both ye and your cattle and your beasts." 3.18. And this is but a light thing in the sight of the LORD; He will also deliver the Moabites into your hand." 3.19. And ye shall smite every fortified city, and every choice city, and shall fell every good tree, and stop all fountains of water, and mar every good piece of land with stones.’" 3.20. And it came to pass in the morning, about the time of making the offering, that, behold, there came water by the way of Edom, and the country was filled with water. ." 17.7. And it was so, because the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who brought them up out of the land of Egypt from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods," 17.8. and walked in the statutes of the nations, whom the LORD cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they practised;" 17.9. and the children of Israel did impute things that were not right unto the LORD their God, and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fortified city;" 17.10. and they set them up pillars and Asherim upon every high hill, and under every leafy tree;" 17.11. and there they offered in all the high places, as did the nations whom the LORD carried away before them; and wrought wicked things to provoke the LORD;" 17.12. and they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them: ‘Ye shall not do this thing’;" 17.13. yet the LORD forewarned Israel, and Judah, by the hand of every prophet, and of every seer, saying: ‘Turn ye from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by the hand of My servants the prophets’;" 17.14. notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their neck, like to the neck of their fathers, who believed not in the LORD their God;" 17.15. and they rejected His statutes, and His covet that He made with their fathers, and His testimonies wherewith He testified against them; and they went after things of nought, and became nought, and after the nations that were round about them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them that they should not do like them;" 17.16. and they forsook all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made an Asherah, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal;" 17.17. and they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire, and used divination and enchantments, and gave themselves over to do that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him;" 17.18. that the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of His sight; there was none left but the tribe of Judah only." 17.19. Also Judah kept not the commandments of the LORD their God, but walked in the statutes of Israel which they practised." 17.20. And the LORD rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers, until He had cast them out of His sight." 17.21. For He rent Israel from the house of David; and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king; and Jeroboam drew Israel away from following the LORD, and made them sin a great sin." 17.22. And the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they departed not from them;" 17.23. until the LORD removed Israel out of His sight, as He spoke by the hand of all His servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away out of their own land to Assyria, unto this day."
9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.1-24.15, 24.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.1. וְלֹא אָבִיתִי לִשְׁמֹעַ לְבִלְעָם וַיְבָרֶךְ בָּרוֹךְ אֶתְכֶם וָאַצִּל אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדוֹ׃ 24.1. וַיֶּאֶסֹף יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־כָּל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁכֶמָה וַיִּקְרָא לְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר יָשְׁבוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵעוֹלָם תֶּרַח אֲבִי אַבְרָהָם וַאֲבִי נָחוֹר וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 24.2. כִּי תַעַזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהֵי נֵכָר וְשָׁב וְהֵרַע לָכֶם וְכִלָּה אֶתְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵיטִיב לָכֶם׃ 24.3. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־אֲבִיכֶם אֶת־אַבְרָהָם מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וָאוֹלֵךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וארב [וָאַרְבֶּה] אֶת־זַרְעוֹ וָאֶתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־יִצְחָק׃ 24.3. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ בִּגְבוּל נַחֲלָתוֹ בְּתִמְנַת־סֶרַח אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר־אֶפְרָיִם מִצְּפוֹן לְהַר־גָּעַשׁ׃ 24.4. וָאֶתֵּן לְיִצְחָק אֶת־יַעֲקֹב וְאֶת־עֵשָׂו וָאֶתֵּן לְעֵשָׂו אֶת־הַר שֵׂעִיר לָרֶשֶׁת אוֹתוֹ וְיַעֲקֹב וּבָנָיו יָרְדוּ מִצְרָיִם׃ 24.5. וָאֶשְׁלַח אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וָאֶגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחַר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 24.6. וָאוֹצִיא אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם וַתָּבֹאוּ הַיָּמָּה וַיִּרְדְּפוּ מִצְרַיִם אַחֲרֵי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים יַם־סוּף׃ 24.7. וַיִּצְעֲקוּ אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּשֶׂם מַאֲפֵל בֵּינֵיכֶם וּבֵין הַמִּצְרִים וַיָּבֵא עָלָיו אֶת־הַיָּם וַיְכַסֵּהוּ וַתִּרְאֶינָה עֵינֵיכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי בְּמִצְרָיִם וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר יָמִים רַבִּים׃ 24.8. ואבאה [וָאָבִיא] אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הָאֱמֹרִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ אִתְּכֶם וָאֶתֵּן אוֹתָם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַתִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־אַרְצָם וָאַשְׁמִידֵם מִפְּנֵיכֶם׃ 24.9. וַיָּקָם בָּלָק בֶּן־צִפּוֹר מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיִּקְרָא לְבִלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר לְקַלֵּל אֶתְכֶם׃ 24.11. וַתַּעַבְרוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וַתָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְרִיחוֹ וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ בָכֶם בַּעֲלֵי־יְרִיחוֹ הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי וָאֶתֵּן אוֹתָם בְּיֶדְכֶם׃ 24.12. וָאֶשְׁלַח לִפְנֵיכֶם אֶת־הַצִּרְעָה וַתְּגָרֶשׁ אוֹתָם מִפְּנֵיכֶם שְׁנֵי מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי לֹא בְחַרְבְּךָ וְלֹא בְקַשְׁתֶּךָ׃ 24.13. וָאֶתֵּן לָכֶם אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָגַעְתָּ בָּהּ וְעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־בְנִיתֶם וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בָּהֶם כְּרָמִים וְזֵיתִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נְטַעְתֶּם אַתֶּם אֹכְלִים׃ 24.14. וְעַתָּה יְראוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וְעִבְדוּ אֹתוֹ בְּתָמִים וּבֶאֱמֶת וְהָסִירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וּבְמִצְרַיִם וְעִבְדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 24.15. וְאִם רַע בְּעֵינֵיכֶם לַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה בַּחֲרוּ לָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־מִי תַעֲבֹדוּן אִם אֶת־אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר בעבר [מֵעֵבֶר] הַנָּהָר וְאִם אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בְּאַרְצָם וְאָנֹכִי וּבֵיתִי נַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 24.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן הַזֹּאת תִּהְיֶה־בָּנוּ לְעֵדָה כִּי־הִיא שָׁמְעָה אֵת כָּל־אִמְרֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עִמָּנוּ וְהָיְתָה בָכֶם לְעֵדָה פֶּן־תְּכַחֲשׁוּן בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 24.1. And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers; and they presented themselves before God." 24.2. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor; and they served other gods." 24.3. And I took your father Abraham from beyond the River, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac." 24.4. And I gave unto Isaac Jacob and Esau; and I gave unto Esau mount Seir, to possess it; and Jacob and his children went down into Egypt." 24.5. And I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt, according to that which I did in the midst thereof; and afterward I brought you out." 24.6. And I brought your fathers out of Egypt; and ye came unto the sea; and the Egyptians pursued after your fathers with chariots and with horsemen unto the Red Sea." 24.7. And when they cried out unto the LORD, He put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them; and your eyes saw what I did in Egypt; and ye dwelt in the wilderness many days." 24.8. And I brought you into the land of the Amorites, that dwelt beyond the Jordan; and they fought with you; and I gave them into your hand, and ye possessed their land; and I destroyed them from before you." 24.9. Then Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab, arose and fought against Israel; and he sent and called Balaam the son of Beor to curse you." 24.10. But I would not hearken unto Balaam; therefore he even blessed you; so I delivered you out of his hand." 24.11. And ye went over the Jordan, and came unto Jericho; and the men of Jericho fought against you, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Girgashite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; and I delivered them into your hand." 24.12. And I sent the hornet before you, which drove them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites; not with thy sword, nor with thy bow." 24.13. And I gave you a land whereon thou hadst not laboured, and cities which ye built not, and ye dwell therein; of vineyards and olive-yards which ye planted not do ye eat." 24.14. Now therefore fear the LORD, and serve Him in sincerity and in truth; and put away the gods which your fathers served beyond the River, and in Egypt; and serve ye the LORD." 24.15. And if it seem evil unto you to serve the LORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell; but as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD.’" 24.27. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Behold, this stone shall be a witness against us; for it hath heard all the words of the LORD which He spoke unto us; it shall be therefore a witness against you, lest ye deny your God.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 15.18-15.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15.18. וַיִּצְמָא מְאֹד וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר אַתָּה נָתַתָּ בְיַד־עַבְדְּךָ אֶת־הַתְּשׁוּעָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְעַתָּה אָמוּת בַּצָּמָא וְנָפַלְתִּי בְּיַד הָעֲרֵלִים׃ 15.19. וַיִּבְקַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַמַּכְתֵּשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בַּלֶּחִי וַיֵּצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַתָּשָׁב רוּחוֹ וַיֶּחִי עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ עֵין הַקּוֹרֵא אֲשֶׁר בַּלֶּחִי עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 15.18. And he was very thirsty, and called on the Lord, and said, Thou hast given this great deliverance into the hand of Thy servant: and now shall I die of thirst, and fall into the hand of the uncircumcised?" 15.19. But God split the hollow place that was in Leĥi, and water came out; and when he had drunk, his spirit was restored, and he revived: therefore he called the name of it ῾En-haqqore, which is in Leĥi to this day."
11. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.6-9.37 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.6. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃ 9.7. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בְּאַבְרָם וְהוֹצֵאתוֹ מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים וְשַׂמְתָּ שְּׁמוֹ אַבְרָהָם׃ 9.8. וּמָצָאתָ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ וְכָרוֹת עִמּוֹ הַבְּרִית לָתֵת אֶת־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי לָתֵת לְזַרְעוֹ וַתָּקֶם אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ כִּי צַדִּיק אָתָּה׃ 9.9. וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־עֳנִי אֲבֹתֵינוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־זַעֲקָתָם שָׁמַעְתָּ עַל־יַם־סוּף׃ 9.11. וְהַיָּם בָּקַעְתָּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְרוּ בְתוֹךְ־הַיָּם בַּיַּבָּשָׁה וְאֶת־רֹדְפֵיהֶם הִשְׁלַכְתָּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אֶבֶן בְּמַיִם עַזִּים׃ 9.12. וּבְעַמּוּד עָנָן הִנְחִיתָם יוֹמָם וּבְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לַיְלָה לְהָאִיר לָהֶם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.13. וְעַל הַר־סִינַי יָרַדְתָּ וְדַבֵּר עִמָּהֶם מִשָּׁמָיִם וַתִּתֵּן לָהֶם מִשְׁפָּטִים יְשָׁרִים וְתוֹרוֹת אֱמֶת חֻקִּים וּמִצְוֺת טוֹבִים׃ 9.14. וְאֶת־שַׁבַּת קָדְשְׁךָ הוֹדַעַתָ לָהֶם וּמִצְווֹת וְחֻקִּים וְתוֹרָה צִוִּיתָ לָהֶם בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 9.15. וְלֶחֶם מִשָּׁמַיִם נָתַתָּה לָהֶם לִרְעָבָם וּמַיִם מִסֶּלַע הוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם לִצְמָאָם וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לָבוֹא לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָשָׂאתָ אֶת־יָדְךָ לָתֵת לָהֶם׃ 9.16. וְהֵם וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ הֵזִידוּ וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃ 9.17. וַיְמָאֲנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ וְלֹא־זָכְרוּ נִפְלְאֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּהֶם וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם וַיִּתְּנוּ־רֹאשׁ לָשׁוּב לְעַבְדֻתָם בְּמִרְיָם וְאַתָּה אֱלוֹהַּ סְלִיחוֹת חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אֶרֶךְ־אַפַּיִם וְרַב־וחסד [חֶסֶד] וְלֹא עֲזַבְתָּם׃ 9.18. אַף כִּי־עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ זֶה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הֶעֶלְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ נֶאָצוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 9.19. וְאַתָּה בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים לֹא עֲזַבְתָּם בַּמִּדְבָּר אֶת־עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן לֹא־סָר מֵעֲלֵיהֶם בְּיוֹמָם לְהַנְחֹתָם בְּהַדֶּרֶךְ וְאֶת־עַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ בְּלַיְלָה לְהָאִיר לָהֶם וְאֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.21. וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה כִּלְכַּלְתָּם בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא חָסֵרוּ שַׂלְמֹתֵיהֶם לֹא בָלוּ וְרַגְלֵיהֶם לֹא בָצֵקוּ׃ 9.22. וַתִּתֵּן לָהֶם מַמְלָכוֹת וַעֲמָמִים וַתַּחְלְקֵם לְפֵאָה וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־אֶרֶץ סִיחוֹן וְאֶת־אֶרֶץ מֶלֶךְ חֶשְׁבּוֹן וְאֶת־אֶרֶץ עוֹג מֶלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁן׃ 9.23. וּבְנֵיהֶם הִרְבִּיתָ כְּכֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וַתְּבִיאֵם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אָמַרְתָּ לַאֲבֹתֵיהֶם לָבוֹא לָרָשֶׁת׃ 9.24. וַיָּבֹאוּ הַבָּנִים וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַתַּכְנַע לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִים וַתִּתְּנֵם בְּיָדָם וְאֶת־מַלְכֵיהֶם וְאֶת־עַמְמֵי הָאָרֶץ לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהֶם כִּרְצוֹנָם׃ 9.25. וַיִּלְכְּדוּ עָרִים בְּצֻרוֹת וַאֲדָמָה שְׁמֵנָה וַיִּירְשׁוּ בָּתִּים מְלֵאִים־כָּל־טוּב בֹּרוֹת חֲצוּבִים כְּרָמִים וְזֵיתִים וְעֵץ מַאֲכָל לָרֹב וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׂבְּעוּ וַיַּשְׁמִינוּ וַיִּתְעַדְּנוּ בְּטוּבְךָ הַגָּדוֹל׃ 9.26. וַיַּמְרוּ וַיִּמְרְדוּ בָּךְ וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתְךָ אַחֲרֵי גַוָּם וְאֶת־נְבִיאֶיךָ הָרָגוּ אֲשֶׁר־הֵעִידוּ בָם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֵלֶיךָ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ נֶאָצוֹת גְּדוֹלֹת׃ 9.27. וַתִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד צָרֵיהֶם וַיָּצֵרוּ לָהֶם וּבְעֵת צָרָתָם יִצְעֲקוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְאַתָּה מִשָּׁמַיִם תִּשְׁמָע וּכְרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים תִּתֵּן לָהֶם מוֹשִׁיעִים וְיוֹשִׁיעוּם מִיַּד צָרֵיהֶם׃ 9.28. וּכְנוֹחַ לָהֶם יָשׁוּבוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת רַע לְפָנֶיךָ וַתַּעַזְבֵם בְּיַד אֹיְבֵיהֶם וַיִּרְדּוּ בָהֶם וַיָּשׁוּבוּ וַיִּזְעָקוּךָ וְאַתָּה מִשָּׁמַיִם תִּשְׁמַע וְתַצִּילֵם כְּרַחֲמֶיךָ רַבּוֹת עִתִּים׃ 9.29. וַתָּעַד בָּהֶם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְהֵמָּה הֵזִידוּ וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לְמִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּבְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ חָטְאוּ־בָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וְחָיָה בָהֶם וַיִּתְּנוּ כָתֵף סוֹרֶרֶת וְעָרְפָּם הִקְשׁוּ וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ׃ 9.31. וּבְרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים לֹא־עֲשִׂיתָם כָּלָה וְלֹא עֲזַבְתָּם כִּי אֵל־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אָתָּה׃ 9.32. וְעַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל הַגִּבּוֹר וְהַנּוֹרָא שׁוֹמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד אַל־יִמְעַט לְפָנֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־הַתְּלָאָה אֲשֶׁר־מְצָאַתְנוּ לִמְלָכֵינוּ לְשָׂרֵינוּ וּלְכֹהֲנֵינוּ וְלִנְבִיאֵנוּ וְלַאֲבֹתֵינוּ וּלְכָל־עַמֶּךָ מִימֵי מַלְכֵי אַשּׁוּר עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 9.33. וְאַתָּה צַדִּיק עַל כָּל־הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ כִּי־אֱמֶת עָשִׂיתָ וַאֲנַחְנוּ הִרְשָׁעְנוּ׃ 9.34. וְאֶת־מְלָכֵינוּ שָׂרֵינוּ כֹּהֲנֵינוּ וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לֹא עָשׂוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְלֹא הִקְשִׁיבוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּלְעֵדְוֺתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הַעִידֹתָ בָּהֶם׃ 9.35. וְהֵם בְּמַלְכוּתָם וּבְטוּבְךָ הָרָב אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּ לָהֶם וּבְאֶרֶץ הָרְחָבָה וְהַשְּׁמֵנָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּ לִפְנֵיהֶם לֹא עֲבָדוּךָ וְלֹא־שָׁבוּ מִמַּעַלְלֵיהֶם הָרָעִים׃ 9.36. הִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַיּוֹם עֲבָדִים וְהָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לֶאֱכֹל אֶת־פִּרְיָהּ וְאֶת־טוּבָהּ הִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ עֲבָדִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 9.37. וּתְבוּאָתָהּ מַרְבָּה לַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה עָלֵינוּ בְּחַטֹּאותֵינוּ וְעַל גְּוִיֹּתֵינוּ מֹשְׁלִים וּבִבְהֶמְתֵּנוּ כִּרְצוֹנָם וּבְצָרָה גְדוֹלָה אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 9.6. Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee." 9.7. Thou art the LORD the God, who didst choose Abram, and broughtest him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gavest him the name of Abraham;" 9.8. and foundest his heart faithful before Thee, and madest a covet with him to give the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite, and the Girgashite, even to give it unto his seed, and hast performed Thy words; for Thou art righteous;" 9.9. And Thou sawest the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heardest their cry by the Red Sea;" 9.10. and didst show signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land; for Thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them; and didst get Thee a name, as it is this day." 9.11. And Thou didst divide the sea before them, so that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; and their pursuers Thou didst cast into the depths, as a stone into the mighty waters." 9.12. Moreover in a pillar of cloud Thou didst lead them by day; and in a pillar of fire by night, to give them light in the way wherein they should go." 9.13. Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spokest with them from heaven, and gavest them right ordices and laws of truth, good statutes and commandments;" 9.14. and madest known unto them Thy holy sabbath, and didst command them commandments, and statutes, and a law, by the hand of Moses Thy servant;" 9.15. and gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and didst command them that they should go in to possess the land which Thou hadst lifted up Thy hand to give them." 9.16. But they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardened their neck, and hearkened not to Thy commandments," 9.17. and refused to hearken, neither were mindful of Thy wonders that Thou didst among them; but hardened their neck, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage; but Thou art a God ready to pardon, gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy, and forsookest them not." 9.18. Yea, when they had made them a molten calf, and said: ‘This is thy God that brought thee up out of Egypt, and had wrought great provocations;" 9.19. yet Thou in Thy manifold mercies forsookest them not in the wilderness; the pillar of cloud departed not from over them by day, to lead them in the way; neither the pillar of fire by night, to show them light, and the way wherein they should go." 9.20. Thou gavest also Thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not Thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst." 9.21. Yea, forty years didst Thou sustain them in the wilderness, and they lacked nothing; their clothes waxed not old, and their feet swelled not." 9.22. Moreover Thou gavest them kingdoms and peoples, which Thou didst allot quarter by quarter; so they possessed the land of Sihon, even the land of the king of Heshbon, and the land of Og king of Bashan." 9.23. Their children also didst Thou multiply as the stars of heaven, and didst bring them into the land, concerning which Thou didst say to their fathers, that they should go in to possess it." 9.24. So the children went in and possessed the land, and Thou didst subdue before them the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, and gavest them into their hands, with their kings, and the peoples of the land, that they might do with them as they would." 9.25. And they took fortified cities, and a fat land, and possessed houses full of all good things, cisterns hewn out, vineyards, and oliveyards, and fruit-trees in abundance; so they did eat, and were filled, and became fat, and luxuriated in Thy great goodness." 9.26. Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against Thee, and cast Thy law behind their back, and slew Thy prophets that did forewarn them to turn them back unto Thee, and they wrought great provocations." 9.27. Therefore Thou didst deliver them into the hand of their adversaries, who distressed them; and in the time of their trouble, when they cried unto Thee, Thou heardest from heaven; and according to Thy manifold mercies Thou gavest them saviours who might save them out of the hand of their adversaries." 9.28. But after they had rest, they did evil again before Thee; therefore didst Thou leave them in the hand of their enemies, so that they had the dominion over them; yet when they returned, and cried unto Thee, many times didst Thou hear from heaven, and deliver them according to Thy mercies;" 9.29. and didst forewarn them, that Thou mightest bring them back unto Thy law; yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto Thy commandments, but sinned against Thine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them, and presented a stubborn shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear." 9.30. Yet many years didst Thou extend mercy unto them, and didst forewarn them by Thy spirit through Thy prophets; yet would they not give ear; therefore gavest Thou them into the hand of the peoples of the lands." 9.31. Nevertheless in Thy manifold mercies Thou didst not utterly consume them, nor forsake them; for Thou art a gracious and merciful God." 9.32. Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and the awful God, who keepest covet and mercy, let not all the travail seem little before Thee, that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and on our fathers, and on all Thy people, since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day." 9.33. Howbeit Thou art just in all that is come upon us; for Thou hast dealt truly, but we have done wickedly;" 9.34. neither have our kings, our princes, our priests, nor our fathers, kept Thy law, nor hearkened unto Thy commandments and Thy testimonies, wherewith Thou didst testify against them." 9.35. For they have not served Thee in their kingdom, and in Thy great goodness that Thou gavest them, and in the large and fat land which Thou gavest before them, neither turned they from their wicked works." 9.36. Behold, we are servants this day, and as for the land that Thou gavest unto our fathers to eat the fruit thereof and the good thereof, behold, we are servants in it." 9.37. And it yieldeth much increase unto the kings whom Thou hast set over us because of our sins; also they have power over our bodies, and over our cattle, at their pleasure, and we are in great distress.’"
12. Herodotus, Histories, 7.101-7.104 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.101. After he passed by all his fleet and disembarked from the ship, he sent for Demaratus son of Ariston, who was on the expedition with him against Hellas. He summoned him and said, “Demaratus, it is now my pleasure to ask you what I wish to know. You are a Greek, and, as I am told both by you and by the other Greeks whom I have talked to, a man from neither the least nor the weakest of Greek cities. ,So tell me: will the Greeks offer battle and oppose me? I think that even if all the Greeks and all the men of the western lands were assembled together, they are not powerful enough to withstand my attack, unless they are united. ,Still I want to hear from you what you say of them.” To this question Demaratus answered, “O king, should I speak the truth or try to please you?” Xerxes bade him speak the truth and said that it would be no more unpleasant for him than before. 7.102. Demaratus heard this and said, “O King, since you bid me by all means to speak the whole truth, and to say what you will not later prove to be false, in Hellas poverty is always endemic, but courage is acquired as the fruit of wisdom and strong law; by use of this courage Hellas defends herself from poverty and tyranny. ,Now I praise all the Greeks who dwell in those Dorian lands, yet I am not going to speak these words about all of them, but only about the Lacedaemonians. First, they will never accept conditions from you that bring slavery upon Hellas; and second, they will meet you in battle even if all the other Greeks are on your side. ,Do not ask me how many these men are who can do this; they will fight with you whether they have an army of a thousand men, or more than that, or less.” 7.103. When he heard this, Xerxes smiled and said, “What a strange thing to say, Demaratus, that a thousand men would fight with so great an army! Come now, tell me this: you say that you were king of these men. Are you willing right now to fight with ten men? Yet if your state is entirely as you define it, you as their king should by right encounter twice as many according to your laws. ,If each of them is a match for ten men of my army, then it is plain to me that you must be a match for twenty; in this way you would prove that what you say is true. But if you Greeks who so exalt yourselves are just like you and the others who come to speak with me, and are also the same size, then beware lest the words you have spoken be only idle boasting. ,Let us look at it with all reasonableness: how could a thousand, or ten thousand, or even fifty thousand men, if they are all equally free and not under the rule of one man, withstand so great an army as mine? If you Greeks are five thousand, we still would be more than a thousand to one. ,If they were under the rule of one man according to our custom, they might out of fear of him become better than they naturally are, and under compulsion of the lash they might go against greater numbers of inferior men; but if they are allowed to go free they would do neither. I myself think that even if they were equal in numbers it would be hard for the Greeks to fight just against the Persians. ,What you are talking about is found among us alone, and even then it is not common but rare; there are some among my Persian spearmen who will gladly fight with three Greeks at once. You have no knowledge of this and are spouting a lot of nonsense.” 7.104. To this Demaratus answered, “O king I knew from the first that the truth would be unwelcome to you. But since you compelled me to speak as truly as I could, I have told you how it stands with the Spartans. ,You yourself best know what love I bear them: they have robbed me of my office and the privileges of my house, and made me a cityless exile; your father received me and gave me a house and the means to live on. It is not reasonable for a sensible man to reject goodwill when it appears; rather he will hold it in great affection. ,I myself do not promise that I can fight with ten men or with two, and I would not even willingly fight with one; yet if it were necessary, or if some great contest spurred me, I would most gladly fight with one of those men who claim to be each a match for three Greeks. ,So is it with the Lacedaemonians; fighting singly they are as brave as any man living, and together they are the best warriors on earth. They are free, yet not wholly free: law is their master, whom they fear much more than your men fear you. ,They do whatever it bids; and its bidding is always the same, that they must never flee from the battle before any multitude of men, but must abide at their post and there conquer or die. If I seem to you to speak foolishness when I say this, then let me hereafter hold my peace; it is under constraint that I have now spoken. But may your wish be fulfilled, King.”
13. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.6. Then he crossed over to attack the Ammonites, where he found a strong band and many people with Timothy as their leader.
14. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 46.20, 47.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

47.1. And after him Nathan rose up to prophesy in the days of David. 47.1. He gave beauty to the feasts,and arranged their times throughout the year,while they praised Gods holy name,and the sanctuary resounded from early morning.
15. Septuagint, Judith, 7.9, 7.20, 7.25, 7.27-7.31, 8.11, 14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

7.9. Let our lord hear a word, lest his army be defeated. 7.20. The whole Assyrian army, their infantry, chariots, and cavalry, surrounded them for thirty-four days, until all the vessels of water belonging to every inhabitant of Bethulia were empty; 7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 7.27. For it would be better for us to be captured by them; for we will be slaves, but our lives will be spared, and we shall not witness the death of our babes before our eyes, or see our wives and children draw their last breath. 7.28. We call to witness against you heaven and earth and our God, the Lord of our fathers, who punishes us according to our sins and the sins of our fathers. Let him not do this day the things which we have described! 7.29. Then great and general lamentation arose throughout the assembly, and they cried out to the Lord God with a loud voice. 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 7.31. But if these days pass by, and no help comes for us, I will do what you say. 8.11. They came to her, and she said to them, "Listen to me, rulers of the people of Bethulia! What you have said to the people today is not right; you have even sworn and pronounced this oath between God and you, promising to surrender the city to our enemies unless the Lord turns and helps us within so many days. 14.10. And when Achior saw all that the God of Israel had done, he believed firmly in God, and was circumcised, and joined the house of Israel, remaining so to this day.
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 46.20, 47.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.1-1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. There are four new years:The first of Nisan is the new year for kings and for festivals. The first of Elul is the new year for the tithe of beasts. Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: the first of Tishri. The first of Tishri is the new year for years, for shmitta and jubilee years, for planting and for [tithe of] vegetables. The first of Shevat is the new year for trees, according to the words of Bet Shammai. Bet Hillel says: on the fifteenth of that month." 1.2. At four set times the world is judged:On Pesah in respect to the produce. On Shavuot in respect to the fruit of the tree. On Rosh Hashanah all the people of the world pass before Him like a division of soldier [a numerus], as it says, “He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings” (Psalms 33:15). And on Sukkot they are judged in respect of rain." 1.3. There are six months [at the beginning of which] messengers go out.On Nisan because of Pesah; On Av because of the fast. On Elul because of Rosh Hashanah. On Tishri because of the setting of the festivals. On Kislev because of Hanukah. And on Adar because of Purim. When the Temple stood, they used also to go out to report Iyar because of Pesah Katan (Pesah Sheni)." 1.4. On account of two months they profane Shabbat: on account of Nissan and Tishri, for on those months messengers go forth to Syria and in them the dates of the festivals are fixed. When the Temple stood they used to profane Shabbat for all the months, in order that the sacrifice might be offered on the right day."
18. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.2-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat."
19. New Testament, Acts, 7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Luke, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.26. If anyone comes to me, and doesn't hate his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he can't be my disciple.
21. New Testament, Matthew, 2.9-2.10, 10.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. They, having heard the king, went their way; and behold, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the young child was. 2.10. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. 10.37. He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; and he who loves son or daughter more than me isn't worthy of me.
22. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

85a. ובני בתירה ויונתן בן שאול רבן שמעון בן גמליאל הא דאמרן בני בתירה דאמר מר הושיבוהו בראש ומינוהו לנשיא עליהן יונתן בן שאול דקא"ל לדוד (שמואל א כג, יז) ואתה תמלוך על ישראל ואני אהיה לך למשנה,ממאי דלמא יונתן בן שאול דחזא דגריר עלמא בתר דוד בני בתירה נמי דחזו להלל דעדיף מינייהו אלא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ודאי ענוותן הוה,אמר רבי חביבין יסורין קבל עליה תליסר שני שית בצמירתא ושבע בצפרנא ואמרי לה שבעה בצמירתא ושית בצפרנא,אהורייריה דבי רבי הוה עתיר משבור מלכא כד הוה רמי כיסתא לחיותא הוה אזיל קלא בתלתא מילי הוה מכוין דרמי בההיא שעתא דעייל רבי לבית הכסא ואפי' הכי מעבר ליה קליה לקלייהו ושמעו ליה נחותי ימא,ואפ"ה יסורי דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון עדיפי מדרבי דאילו ר"א בר"ש מאהבה באו ומאהבה הלכו דרבי ע"י מעשה באו וע"י מעשה הלכו,ע"י מעשה באו מאי היא דההוא עגלא דהוו קא ממטו ליה לשחיטה אזל תליא לרישיה בכנפיה דרבי וקא בכי אמר ליה זיל לכך נוצרת אמרי הואיל ולא קא מרחם ליתו עליה יסורין,וע"י מעשה הלכו יומא חד הוה קא כנשא אמתיה דרבי ביתא הוה שדיא בני כרכושתא וקא כנשא להו אמר לה שבקינהו כתיב (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו אמרי הואיל ומרחם נרחם עליה,כולהו שני יסורי דר' אלעזר לא שכיב איניש בלא זמניה כולהו שני יסורי דרבי לא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא דאמר רבה בר רב שילא קשי יומא דמיטרא כיומא דדינא ואמר אמימר אי לאו צריך לעלמא בעו רבנן רחמי עליה ומבטלי ליה אפי' הכי כי הוו עקרי פוגלא ממשרא הוה קיימא בירא מליא מיא,איקלע רבי לאתריה דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון א"ל יש לו בן לאותו צדיק אמרו לו יש לו בן וכל זונה שנשכרת בשנים שוכרתו בשמנה אתייה אסמכיה ברבי ואשלמיה לר' שמעון בן איסי בן לקוניא אחות דאמיה,כל יומא הוה אמר לקרייתי אנא איזיל אמר ליה חכים עבדו יתך וגולתא דדהבא פרסו עלך ורבי קרו לך ואת אמרת לקרייתי אנא איזיל אמר ליה מומי עזובה דא כי גדל אתא יתיב במתיבתא דרבי שמעיה לקליה אמר הא קלא דמי לקליה דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון אמרו ליה בריה הוא,קרי עליה (משלי יא, ל) פרי צדיק עץ חיים ולוקח נפשות חכם פרי צדיק עץ חיים זה ר' יוסי בר' אלעזר בר' שמעון ולוקח נפשות חכם זה ר' שמעון בן איסי בן לקוניא,כי נח נפשיה אמטוהו למערתא דאבוה הוה הדרא לה עכנא למערתא אמר ליה עכנא עכנא פתח פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו לא פתחא להו כסבורים העם לומר שזה גדול מזה,יצתה בת קול ואמרה לא מפני שזה גדול מזה אלא זה היה בצער מערה וזה לא היה בצער מערה,איקלע רבי לאתריה דר' טרפון אמר להו יש לו בן לאותו צדיק שהיה מקפח את בניו אמרו לו בן אין לו בן בת יש לו וכל זונה שנשכרת בשנים שוכרתו בשמנה,אתיוהו לקמיה אמר ליה אי הדרת בך יהיבנא לך ברתאי הדר ביה איכא דאמרי נסבה וגירשה איכא דאמרי לא נסבה כלל כדי שלא יאמרו בשביל זו חזר זה,ולמה ליה כולי האי דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה זוכה ויושב בישיבה של מעלה שנאמר (ירמיהו טו, יט) אם תשוב ואשיבך לפני תעמוד,וכל המלמד את בן עם הארץ תורה אפילו הקב"ה גוזר גזירה מבטלה בשבילו שנאמר (ירמיהו טו, יט) ואם תוציא יקר מזולל כפי תהיה,אמר ר' פרנך אמר ר' יוחנן כל שהוא תלמיד חכם ובנו תלמיד חכם ובן בנו תלמיד חכם שוב אין תורה פוסקת מזרעו לעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, כא) ואני זאת בריתי וגו' לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך ומפי זרע זרעך אמר ה' מעתה ועד עולם,מאי אמר ה' אמר הקב"ה אני ערב לך בדבר זה מאי מעתה ועד עולם אמר ר' ירמיה מכאן ואילך תורה מחזרת על אכסניא שלה,רב יוסף יתיב ארבעין תעניתא ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך יתיב ארבעים תעניתא אחריני ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך יתיב מאה תעניתא אחריני אתא ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך ומפי זרע זרעך אמר מכאן ואילך לא צריכנא תורה מחזרת על אכסניא שלה,ר' זירא כי סליק לארעא דישראל יתיב מאה תעניתא דלשתכח גמרא בבלאה מיניה כי היכי דלא נטרדיה יתיב מאה אחרניתא דלא לשכוב ר' אלעזר בשניה ונפלין עילויה מילי דצבורא ויתיב מאה אחריני דלא נשלוט ביה נורא דגיהנם,כל תלתין יומי הוה בדיק נפשיה שגר תנורא סליק ויתיב בגויה ולא הוה שלטא ביה נורא יומא חד יהבו ביה רבנן עינא ואיחרכו שקיה וקרו ליה קטין חריך שקיה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו ט, יא) מי האיש החכם ויבן את זאת ואשר דבר פי ה' אליו ויגידה על מה אבדה הארץ דבר זה 85a. bthe sons of Beteira; and Jonathan, son of Saul.The Gemara discusses each case: The incident revealing the modesty of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel is thatwhich bwejust bsaid,as he referred to himself modestly as a fox. bThe sons of Beteirawere exceptionally modest, as they served in the position of iNasiand yet abdicated their positions in favor of Hillel when he emigrated from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael. bAs the Master said:The sons of Beteira, upon recognizing that Hillel was a superior expert in ihalakha /i, bseated him at the head and appointed him iNasiover them(see iPesaḥim66a). bJonathan, son of Saul,was extremely modest, bas he said to David: “And you shall be king over Israel, and I shall be second to you”(I Samuel 23:17), despite the fact that his father, Saul, was the current king.,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredo we know that the aforementioned men were truly modest? bPerhaps Jonathan, son of Saul,relinquished his rights to the kingship not due to modesty, but bbecause he saw that the world,i.e., the masses, were bdrawn after David,and he felt he had no other recourse. With regard to the bsons of Beteira also,perhaps they abdicated only because they bsaw that Hillel was greater than they,as he was able to answer questions that they could not resolve. The Gemara adds: bBut Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel certainly wasa truly bmodestindividual.,§ The Gemara returns to the previous incident. When he heard that the greatness of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was due to his suffering, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaidto himself: bAfflictions areevidently bprecious. He accepted thirteen yearsof afflictions bupon himself; sixyears bof stones in the kidneys and sevenyears bof scurvy [ ibitzfarna /i]. And some sayit was bsevenyears bof stones in the kidneys and sixyears bof scurvy. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe stableman [ iahuriyareih /i] of the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas wealthier than King Shapurof Persia, due to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s abundant livestock. bWhenthe stableman bwould place fodder before the livestock, the soundof their lowing bwould travelthe distance bof three imil /i. He would calculatethe right moment so bthathe would bplacethe fodder before the animals batprecisely bthat time when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bentered the latrine,so that the lowing of the animals would drown out Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s screams of pain. bBut even so,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s bvoicewas so loud that it bovercame the sound ofthe livestock, bandeven bsailors heard itout at sea.,The Gemara says: bBut even so, the afflictions of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,were bgreater thanthose bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi. The reason is bthat whereasthe afflictions of bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, cameupon him bout of love, and lefthim bout of love,i.e., they were solely the result of his own request, not because he deserved them, those bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcameupon him bdue to an incident and lefthim bdue toanother bincident. /b,The Gemara stated that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s suffering bcameupon him bdue to an incident. What was thatincident that led to his suffering? The Gemara answers bthatthere was ba certain calf that was being led to slaughter.The calf bwent and hung its head on the corner of RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s garment band was weeping.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to it: Go,as byou were created for thispurpose. It was bsaidin Heaven: bSince he was not compassionatetoward the calf, blet afflictions come upon him. /b,The Gemara explains the statement: bAnd lefthim bdue toanother bincident. One day, the maidservant of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas sweepinghis bhouse. There were young weasels [ ikarkushta /i] lyingabout, band she wasin the process of bsweeping themout. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to her: Let them be,as bit is written:“The Lord is good to all; band His mercies are over all His works”(Psalms 145:9). bThey saidin Heaven: bSince he was compassionate, we shall be compassionate on him,and he was relieved of his suffering.,The Gemara relates: During ball the years of the suffering of Rabbi Elazar,son of Rabbi Shimon, bno one died prematurely,as his afflictions atoned for the entire generation. During ball the years of the suffering of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthe world did not requireany brain,as the moisture of the dew was sufficient. bAs Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: A day of rain is as difficult as a day of judgment,due to the damage that storms and flooding can cause. bAnd Ameimar said: Wereit bnotfor the fact bthatrain is bneeded by people, the Sages would pray for mercy and annul it,due to the nuisances of rain. And beven so,despite the fact that there was no rain all those years, bwhen a radish was uprooted from its rowin the field, bthere remainedin its place ba hole filled with water,due to the moisture in the earth.,The Gemara continues discussing Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s relationship with Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Once bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barrived at the place of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. He said tothe locals: bDoes that righteous person have a son? They said to him: He has a sonwho is wayward, band any prostitute who hires herselfout to others bfor twocoins bhires him for eight,due to his handsomeness. Upon hearing this report, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi resolved to extricate Rabbi Elazar’s son from his plight. bHe brought himback with him, bordained him as a rabbi, and gave him over to Rabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya,the bbrother ofthe boy’s bmother,to teach him Torah., bEach day,the boy bwould say: I am going back to my town,because it was difficult for him to study. Rabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya bsaid to him: You have been made wise, and a golden cloak has been spread over youwhen you were ordained, band you are calledby the title bRabbi, andyet byou say: I am going back to my town?The boy bsaid to him: I vow [ imomei /i]that bthisthought of leaving is now babandoned,i.e., I will stay and improve my ways. bWhenthe boy bmaturedand became a Torah scholar, bhe came and sat in the academy of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheard his voice and said: This voice is similar to the voice of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon.Those who were present bsaid to him: It is his son. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse babout him: “The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life; and he that is wise wins souls”(Proverbs 11:30). The Gemara explains, with regard to the phrase b“the fruit of the righteous,”that bthisis referring to bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,who was the son of a righteous individual and became a great scholar in his own right. When the verse states: b“And he that is wise wins souls,” thisis referring to bRabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya,who successfully helped Rabbi Yosei reach his potential., bWhenthis Rabbi Yosei bdied, he was brought to his father’s cavefor burial. bA serpent encircled theentrance of the bcave,denying any access. Those present bsaid to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth, so that a son may enter next to his father.The serpent bdid not openits mouth bfor them. The peoplethere bthought thatRabbi Yosei was denied burial alongside his father because bthisone, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was bgreater than thatone, Rabbi Yosei., bA Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bnot because this one is greater than that one; rather,it is because bthis one,Rabbi Elazar, bexperienced the suffering of the cave, while that one,i.e., Rabbi Yosei, bdid not experience suffering of the cave.Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, suffered with his father for thirteen years in a cave while hiding from the Romans (see iShabbat33b).,The Gemara relates a similar incident: Once bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barrived at the place of Rabbi Tarfon. He said tothe townspeople: bDoes that righteous person,Rabbi Tarfon, bwho would take an oath by the life of his children, have a son?Rabbi Tarfon was wont to take oaths by the lives of his children (see iOholot16:1). bThey said to him: He does not have a son,but bhe hasa grandson, ba sonfrom bhis daughter, and every prostitutewho is bhired for twocoins bhires him for eight. /b,The townspeople bbroughtRabbi Tarfon’s grandson bbeforeRabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who bsaid to him: If you repentfrom your evil ways, bI will give you my daughterin marriage. bHe repentedand became a righteous individual. bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe marriedRabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s daughter bandsubsequently bdivorced her. There arethose bwho saythat bhe did not marry her at all, so that it would not be saidabout him: It was bfor the sake of thatwoman that bthisman brepented. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bAnd whydid Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi exert himself bso muchto save these wayward sons? The Gemara answers: It is because of bthatwhich bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some saythat which bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says, and some saythat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another merits to sitand study bin the heavenly academy, as it is stated:“Therefore so says the Lord: bIf you return, and I bring you back, you shall stand before Me”(Jeremiah 15:19). This verse, which is addressed to Jeremiah, indicates that if he is able to cause the Jewish people to return to God, he himself will be brought to stand before God., bAnd anyone who teaches Torah to the son of an ignoramusachieves such an exalted status that beven if the Holy One, Blessed be He,were to bissuea harsh bdecree, Hemay bnullify it for his sake, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse: b“And if you bring forth the precious out of the worthless, you shall be as My mouth,”i.e., you will be like the mouth of God that can rescind a decree.,The Gemara relates other statements pertaining to Torah scholars and their descendants. bRabbi Parnakh saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to banyone who is a Torah scholar, and whose sonis ba Torah scholar, and whose grandsonis ba Torah scholar, the Torah will never again cease from his descendants, as it is stated: “And as for Me, this is My covet… /bMy spirit that is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, bshall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed, nor out of the mouth of your seed’s seed, says the Lord, from now and forever”(Isaiah 59:21).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the significance of the phrase b“says the Lord”?The Gemara answers that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am your guarantor in this matter.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“from now and forever”?The verse mentioned only three generations. bRabbi Yirmeya says:The verse means that bfrom thispoint bforward,after three generations, bthe Torah returns to its lodging,i.e., the Torah is now ingrained in the family.,The Gemara relates that bRav Yosef fasted forty fastsso that the Torah would become ingrained in his family, band he was readthe verse in a dream: “My words… bshall not depart out of your mouth.” He fasted an additional forty fasts and he was read: “Shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed.” He fasted an additional one hundred fasts.In a dream, bhe came and was readthe conclusion of the verse: b“Shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed, nor out of the mouth of your seed’s seed.” He said: From thispoint bforward I do not needto fast anymore, as I am now assured that the bTorahwill breturn to its lodging. /b,The Gemara relates a similar occurrence: bWhen Rabbi Zeira ascendedfrom Babylonia bto Eretz Yisrael, he fasted one hundred fasts so that hewould bforget the Babylonianmethod of studying bGemara, so that it would not hinder himfrom adapting to the unique style of study prevalent in Eretz Yisrael. bHe fasted an additional one hundredfasts so bthat Rabbi Elazar,son of Rabbi Shimon, would bnot die during his lifetime,which would have caused the burden of bcommunal mattersto fall bupon him.As dean of the Torah academy, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was in charge of all public affairs, leaving Rabbi Zeira unencumbered to study Torah. Rabbi Zeira bfasted an additional one hundredfasts bso that the fire of Gehennashould bnot affect him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to Rabbi Zeira: bEvery thirty days, he would examine himselfto ascertain if he remained on his exalted level. He would bignite an oven, climb in, and sit inside it, and the fire would not affect him. One day, the Sages gave him theevil beye,i.e., they were envious of him, band his legs became singedin the fire. bAndfrom then on bthey referred to himas: The bshort one with singed legs. /b,§ The Gemara discusses the topic of the acquisition of Torah knowledge. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who is the wise man, that he may understand this? And who is he to whom the mouth of the Lord has spoken, that he may declare it? Why has the land been lostand laid waste like a wilderness, so that none passes through?” (Jeremiah 9:11). bThis matter,i.e., the question: Why has the land been lost
23. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26b. תנו רבנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת מתפלל בליל שבת שתים טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת מתפלל במוצאי שבת שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשניה ואם הבדיל בשניה ולא הבדיל בראשונה שניה עלתה לו ראשונה לא עלתה לו,למימרא דכיון דלא אבדיל בקמייתא כמאן דלא צלי דמי ומהדרינן ליה,ורמינהו טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו הבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס קשיא,איתמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר תפלות אבות תקנום רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר תפלות כנגד תמידין תקנום,תניא כוותיה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא ותניא כוותיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי תניא כוותיה דרבי יוסי בר' חנינא אברהם תקן תפלת שחרית שנא' (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פינחס ויפלל,יצחק תקן תפלת מנחה שנאמר (בראשית כד, סג) ויצא יצחק לשוח בשדה לפנות ערב ואין שיחה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטף ולפני ה' ישפוך שיחו,יעקב תקן תפלת ערבית שנאמר (בראשית כח, יא) ויפגע במקום וילן שם ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ואל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי,ותניא כוותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה אמרו תפלת השחר עד חצות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד חצות ורבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד ארבע שעות,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת המנחה עד הערב שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד פלג המנחה,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת הערב אין לה קבע שהרי אברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב קרבים והולכים כל הלילה,ומפני מה אמרו של מוספין כל היום שהרי קרבן של מוספין קרב כל היום רבי יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות שהרי קרבן מוסף קרב והולך עד שבע שעות,ואיזו היא מנחה גדולה משש שעות ומחצה ולמעלה ואיזו היא מנחה קטנה מתשע שעות ומחצה ולמעלה,איבעיא להו רבי יהודה פלג מנחה קמא קאמר או פלג מנחה אחרונה קאמר תא שמע דתניא ר' יהודה אומר פלג המנחה אחרונה אמרו והיא י"א שעות חסר רביע,נימא תיהוי תיובתיה דר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמר לך ר' יוסי בר' חנינא לעולם אימא לך תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות דאי לא תימא הכי תפלת מוסף לר' יוסי בר' חנינא מאן תקנה אלא תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות:,רבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות: איבעיא להו עד ועד בכלל או דלמא עד ולא עד בכלל תא שמע ר' יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה אי אמרת בשלמא עד ולא עד בכלל היינו דאיכא בין ר' יהודה לרבנן אלא אי אמרת עד ועד בכלל ר' יהודה 26b. On a similar note, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays inthe evening prayer btwo iAmidaprayers bon Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday iAmidaprayers in the evening prayer bat the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites ihavdala[ /bthe prayer of bdistinction]between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the iAmida,which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, bin the firstprayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, bbut he does not recite ihavdalain the secondprayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, bif he recited ihavdalain the secondprayer band did not recite ihavdalain the first, the second prayer fulfilled hisobligation, the bfirst one did not fulfill hisobligation.,The Gemara comments: bIs that to saythat bsince he did not recite ihavdalain the firstprayer, he is bas one who did not pray and we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite ihavdalain the prayer must repeat that prayer.,The Gemara braises a contradictionto the above conclusion from the iTosefta /i: bOne who erred and did not mention the might of the rains:He makes the wind blow and rain fall binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing on bthe revival of the dead, andone who erred and failed to recite bthe requestfor rain binthe ninth blessing of the iAmida /i, bthe blessing of the years, we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite ihavdalainthe blessing: bWho graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, bas he can recite ihavdala bover the cupof wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains bdifficult. /b,The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. bIt was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; bprayers were instituted by the Patriarchs.However, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat the bprayers were instituted based on the daily offeringssacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.,The Gemara comments: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara elaborates: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is statedwhen Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: b“And Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stoodbefore the Lord” (Genesis 19:27), bandfrom the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb bstandingmeans bnothing other than prayer,as this language is used to describe Pinehas’ prayer after the plague, bas it is stated: “And Pinehas stood up and prayedand the plague ended” (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning., bIsaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And Isaac went out to converse [ ilasuaḥ /i] in the field toward evening”(Genesis 24:63), band conversationmeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “A prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [ isiḥo /i] before the Lord”(Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer., bJacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: “And he encountered [ ivayifga /i] the place and he slept therefor the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). The word bencountermeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is statedwhen God spoke to Jeremiah: b“And you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [ itifga /i] Mefor I do not hear you” (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set., bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levithat the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: bWhy didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe morning prayermay be recited buntil noon? Because,although the bdaily morning offeringis typically brought early in the morning, it may be bsacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says:My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursinto the day, is bbecause the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited buntil the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon because,according to his opinion, bthe daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b, bAnd why did they saythat bthe evening prayer is not fixed? Becausethe burning of the blimbs and fatsof the offerings that were bnot consumedby the fire on the altar buntil the evening.They remained on the altar and were boffered continuouslythroughout bthe entire night. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe additional prayermay be recited ball day? Because the additional offering is broughtthroughout bthe entire day.However, bRabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe additional prayermay be recited buntil the seventh hourof the day, bbecause the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour. /b,The ibaraitacontinues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier iminḥa[ iminḥa gedola /i] and lesser, later iminḥa[ iminḥa ketana /i]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: bWhich is iminḥa gedola /i? From six-and-a-half hoursafter sunrise band on,which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. bWhich is iminḥa ketana /i? From nine-and-a-half hours and on,which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.,On that note, ba dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda,who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does bhe say the midpoint of the first iminḥa /i, iminḥa gedola /i? bOr,does bhe say the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i? Come and hearan explicit resolution to this dilemma: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bRabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i, and that is eleven hours minus a quarterof an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.,In any case, it is clear that according to this ibaraitathe ihalakhotof prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,could have bsaid to you: Actually, I will say to youthat bthe Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages basedthe times and characteristics of prayer bon the Temple offerings,even though they do not stem from the same source. bAs, if you do not say so,that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, bthen, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who instituted the additional prayer?It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. bRather,even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bthe prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based themon the laws of the bofferings. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says:The morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursof the day. bA dilemma was raised beforethe yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says buntil,does he mean buntil and includingthe fourth hour, bor, perhapswhen he says b“until”he means buntil and not including,in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? bCome and heara resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. bRabbi Yehuda says:The afternoon prayer may be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon.Now, bgranted, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and not including, then there isa difference bbetweenthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda andthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. However, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and including,then the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. בברייתו של עולם,ת"ר א"י נבראת תחילה וכל העולם כולו נברא לבסוף שנאמר (משלי ח, כו) עד לא עשה ארץ וחוצות א"י משקה אותה הקב"ה בעצמו וכל העולם כולו ע"י שליח שנאמר (איוב ה, י) הנותן מטר על פני ארץ ושולח מים על פני חוצות,א"י שותה מי גשמים וכל העולם כולו מתמצית שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' א"י שותה תחילה וכל העולם כולו לבסוף שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' משל לאדם שמגבל את הגבינה נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,אמר מר ממתקין הן בעבים מנליה דא"ר יצחק בר יוסף א"ר יוחנן כתיב (תהלים יח, יב) חשכת מים עבי שחקים וכתיב (שמואל ב כב, יב) חשרת מים עבי שחקים,שקול כף ושדי אריש וקרי ביה חכשרת,ור' יהושע בהני קראי מאי דריש בהו סבר לה כי הא דכי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא נהור ענני זעירין מוהי חשוך ענני סגיין מוהי,כמאן אזלא הא דתניא מים העליונים במאמר הם תלוים ופירותיהן מי גשמים שנאמר (תהלים קד, יג) מפרי מעשיך תשבע הארץ כמאן כר' יהושע ור' אליעזר ההוא במעשה ידיו של הקב"ה הוא דכתיב,אריב"ל כל העולם כולו מתמצית גן עדן הוא שותה שנאמר (בראשית ב, י) ונהר יוצא מעדן וגו' תנא מתמצית בית כור שותה תרקב:,ת"ר ארץ מצרים הויא ד' מאות פרסה על ד' מאות פרסה והוא אחד מששים בכוש וכוש אחד מששים בעולם ועולם א' מששים בגן וגן אחד מששים לעדן ועדן אחד מס' לגיהנם נמצא כל העולם כולו ככיסוי קדרה לגיהנם וי"א גיהנם אין לה שיעור וי"א עדן אין לה שיעור,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, יג) שוכנת על מים רבים רבת אוצרות מי גרם לבבל שיהו אוצרותיה מליאות בר הוי אומר מפני ששוכנת על מים רבים אמר רב עתירה בבל דחצדא בלא מיטרא אמר אביי נקיטינן טובעני ולא יובשני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בג' במרחשון שואלין את הגשמים רבן גמליאל אומר בשבעה בו ט"ו יום אחר החג כדי שיגיע אחרון שבישראל לנהר פרת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבן גמליאל תניא חנניה אומר ובגולה עד ששים בתקופה אמר רב הונא בר חייא אמר שמואל הלכה כחנניה,איני והא בעו מיניה משמואל מאימת מדכרינן ותן טל ומטר אמר להו מכי מעיילי ציבי לבי טבות רישבא דילמא אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא,איבעיא להו יום ששים כלפני ששים או כלאחר ששים ת"ש רב אמר יום ששים כלאחר ששים ושמואל אמר יום ששים כלפני ששים,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק וסימנך עילאי בעו מיא תתאי לא בעו מיא אמר רב פפא הלכתא יום ששים כלאחר ששים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיע י"ז במרחשון ולא ירדו גשמים התחילו היחידים מתענין ג' תעניות אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה הגיע ר"ח כסליו ולא ירדו גשמים ב"ד גוזרין שלש תעניות על הצבור אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן יחידים אמר רב הונא רבנן ואמר רב הונא יחידים מתענין שלשה תעניות שני וחמישי ושני,מאי קמשמע לן תנינא אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחילה בחמישי שלא להפקיע את השערים אלא שלש תעניות הראשונות שני וחמישי ושני,מהו דתימא הני מילי צבור אבל יחיד לא קמשמע לן תניא נמי הכי כשהתחילו היחידים להתענות מתענין שני וחמישי ושני ומפסיקין בראשי חדשים 10a. verse deals bwith the creation of the world,when all the water was contained in the deep., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEretz Yisrael was created first and the rest of the entire world was created afterward, as it is stated: “While as yet He had not made the land, nor the fields”(Proverbs 8:26). Here, and in the following statements, the term “land” is understood as a reference to the Land of Israel, while “the fields” means all the fields in other lands. Furthermore, bEretz Yisrael is watered by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, and the rest of the entire worldis watered bthrough an intermediary, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the land, and sends water upon the fields”(Job 5:10).,Additionally, bEretz Yisrael drinks rainwater andthe rest of bthe entire worlddrinks bfromthe remaining bresidueof rainwater left in the clouds, bas it is statedthat God is He b“who gives rain upon the land”and only afterward takes what is left “and sends water upon the fields.” bEretz Yisrael drinks first, andthe rest of bthe entire world afterward, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the landand sends water upon the fields.” There is ba parablethat illustrates this: bA personwho bkneadshis bcheeseafter it has curdled btakes the food and leaves the refuse. /b, bThe Master saidabove: The ocean waters bare sweetened in the clouds.The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredoes Rabbi Eliezer derive bthis?The Gemara answers bthat Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bit is written: “Darkness [ iḥeshkhat /i] of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). bAnd it is written,in a similar verse: b“Gathering of [ iḥashrat /i] waters, thick clouds of the skies”(II Samuel 22:12).,The Gemara explains the significance of this minor variation. These two phrases vary in only one word, which themselves differ by only one letter, a ikaffor a ireish /i. If you join the two versions together, and btakethe letter ikaf /ifrom the first version bandplace it bwiththe second version of the word, which has ba ireish /i,you can bread intothe verse a new word meaning brendering fit [ iḥakhsharat /i].Accordingly, the verse can be interpreted as: The rendering fit of water is performed in the clouds of the sky.,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua,with regard bto these verses, whatdoes he learn from bthem?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehoshua bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bthisSage, Rav Dimi. bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat bthey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael: When bclouds are bright, they have little water;when bclouds are dark, they have much water.Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that when there is “a darkness of waters” in the clouds, there is also “a gathering of waters,” as rain will fall from them.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe upper watersdo not stand in any defined place; rather, they are bsuspended bythe bwordof God, band their fruit is rainwater, as it is stated:“Who waters the mountains from His upper chambers; bthe earth is full of the fruit of Your works”(Psalms 104:13). bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this statement? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. And Rabbi Eliezer,how does he explain this verse? Rabbi Eliezer could say: bThatverse from Psalms bis written with regard to the handiwork of the Holy One, Blessed be He,not the upper waters., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The entire world drinks from the runoff of the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “And a river went out of Edento water the garden” (Genesis 2:10). It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom the runoff of a ibeit kor /i,a field in which a ikorof seed can be planted, which is approximately seventy-five thousand square cubits, a field in which ba half- ise’a[ itarkav /i],of seed can be sown, i.e. one-sixtieth the size of a ibeit kor /i, bcan be watered.If the runoff from a ibeit koris sufficient for a field one-sixtieth its size, it can be inferred that the rest of the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The area of the bland of Egypt is four hundred parasangs [ iparsa /i] by four hundred parasangs. Andthis bis one sixtieththe size bof Cush, and Cushitself bis one sixtieththe size bofthe rest of bthe world. And the world is one sixtieth of the Gardenof Eden, band the Gardenof Eden bis one sixtieth of Edenitself, band Eden is one sixtieth of Gehenna.You bfindthat bthe entire world is like a pot cover for Gehenna,as Eden, which is far larger than the rest of the world, is only one sixtieth the size of Gehenna. bAnd some say: Gehenna has no measure. And some saythat bEden has no measure. /b, bRabbi Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenabout Babylonia: b“You who dwells on many waters, abundant in storehouses”(Jeremiah 51:13)? bWhat caused Babylonia to have storehouses full of grain? You must saythat it is bdue tothe fact that bit resides on many waters,the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which render its land easy to irrigate. Similarly, bRav said: Babylonia is wealthy sinceit can bgrow cropsfor harvest beven without rain. Abaye said: We holdthat it is better for a land to be bswampylike Babylonia, band not dry,as crops in Babylonia grow all year., strongMISHNA: /strong bOn the third ofthe month of bMarḥeshvanone starts to brequest rainby inserting the phrase: And give dew and rain, in the blessing of the years, the ninth blessing of the iAmida /i. bRabban Gamliel says:One starts to request rain bon the seventh ofMarḥeshvan, which is bfifteen days after the festivalof iSukkot /i. Rabban Gamliel explains that one waits these extra four days bso thatthe blastpilgrim bof the Jewish people,who traveled to Jerusalem on foot for the Festival, bcan reach the Euphrates Riverwithout being inconvenienced by rain on his journey home., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Elazar said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel,that one does not begin to request rain until the seventh of Marḥeshvan. It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bḤaya says: And in the Diasporaone does not begin to request rain buntil sixtydays binto the season,i.e., sixty days after the autumnal equinox. bRav Huna bar Ḥiyya saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But they raised a dilemma before Shmuel: From when does one mention: And give dew and rain? He said to them: From when they bring wood into the house of Tavut the bird hunter [ irishba /i].This is apparently a different date than that mentioned by Ḥaya. The Gemara suggests: bPerhaps this and that are one measureof time, i.e., Shmuel merely provided a sign of sixty days after the autumnal equinox., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the bsixtieth dayitself treated as part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtiethday boris it included binthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday? The Gemara answers. bComeand bhearthat there is a dispute in this regard. bRav said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, band Shmuel said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtieth. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonicto remember the divergent opinions is: bThose above require water; those below do not require water.Since water flows downward, those who live in low places receive their water from above and are generally in less need of additional water. Accordingly, Shmuel, who lived in the lowlands of Babylonia, ruled that one begins to request for rain later, whereas Rav, who studied in Eretz Yisrael, which is higher in elevation and has a greater need for rain, stated an earlier date. bRav Pappa said: The ihalakhaisthat the bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, as stated by bRav,and therefore one begins to mention the request for rain on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox., strongMISHNA: /strong If the bseventeenth of Marḥeshvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals,but not the entire community, bbegin to fast three fastsfor rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one bmay eat and drink after dark, and one is permittedduring the days of the fasts themselves to engage binthe performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearing oilon one’s body, bin wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations.If the bNew Moon of Kislev arrived and rain hasstill bnot fallen,the bcourt decrees three fasts on theentire bcommunity.Similar to the individual fasts, everyone bmay eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted toengage in the performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearingone’s body bwith oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWho arethese bindividualsmentioned in the mishna? bRav Huna said:This is referring to bthe Sages,who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. bAnd Rav Hunafurther said: The bindividualswho bfastthe bthree fastsdo so bon a Monday, andon the next bThursday, andagain on the following bMonday. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isRav Huna bteaching us? Wealready blearnedthis (15b): The court bmay not decree a fast on the community starting from a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. Rather,the bfirst three fastsare established on bMonday, and Thursday, and Monday.What does Rav Huna’s statement add to this ruling?,The Gemara answers: Rav Huna’s comment is necessary, blest you saythat bthis appliesonly to ba community, butthat in the case of ban individual, no,the series of three fasts does not have to start on a Monday. bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to those mentioned in the mishna: bWhen the individuals begin to fast, they fast on a Monday, a Thursday, and a Monday. Andif one of the fast days occurs on a day with special observances, bthey interruptthe sequence bfor New Moons, /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gera (2014), Judith, 201
achior,an ammonite Gera (2014), Judith, 202
achior,and judith Gera (2014), Judith, 202
achior,name Gera (2014), Judith, 202
achior,talks to holophernes Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
achior,theology Gera (2014), Judith, 201
achior Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
akiba Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
ammon and ammonites Gera (2014), Judith, 202
angel of god Gera (2014), Judith, 291
athena Gera (2014), Judith, 291
ben sira Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
bethulia,elders Gera (2014), Judith, 291
book of judith,message Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
canaan and canaanites Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
chozê (חזה ( Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
cosmic order Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
cosmos Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
councils and conferences Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
covenant with god Gera (2014), Judith, 202
creation Gera (2014), Judith, 201
cross Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
david Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
demaratus Gera (2014), Judith, 201
deuternomistic theology Gera (2014), Judith, 202
diaspora Gera (2014), Judith, 201
edom and edomites Gera (2014), Judith, 291
elephantine Gera (2014), Judith, 202
eliezer Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
elijah,prophet Gera (2014), Judith, 291
equinox Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
exile,captivity,and return,exodus,story of Gera (2014), Judith, 201
exile,captivity,and return Gera (2014), Judith, 201
god,tests and chastises Gera (2014), Judith, 291
hagar Gera (2014), Judith, 291
haninah ben dosa Gera (2014), Judith, 291
harvest,wheat Gera (2014), Judith, 291
hebrew Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
herodotus Gera (2014), Judith, 201
high priest Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
hilkiah,honis grandson Gera (2014), Judith, 291
historical surveys,biblical Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
honi Gera (2014), Judith, 291
ishmael Gera (2014), Judith, 291
israel see jacob,israel,kingdom of Gera (2014), Judith, 201
jesus Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
joakim of judith Gera (2014), Judith, 291
judas maccabeusnan,influence on judith Gera (2014), Judith, 202
judea/judah Gera (2014), Judith, 291
judith,chastises elders Gera (2014), Judith, 291
language and style,book of judith,transliteration Gera (2014), Judith, 202
lindos chronicle Gera (2014), Judith, 291
lord,as master of servants Gera (2014), Judith, 202
lot,daughers of Gera (2014), Judith, 202
lulav Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
medieval hebrew tales of judith Gera (2014), Judith, 202
moab and moabites Gera (2014), Judith, 291
moses Gera (2014), Judith, 291
nathan Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
new testament Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
penitence and sins Gera (2014), Judith, 201, 202
pharaoh Gera (2014), Judith, 201
philo Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
plato Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
prayer Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
priest Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
priests Gera (2014), Judith, 291
prophets and prophetesses Gera (2014), Judith, 291
rabbis,on prayer Gera (2014), Judith, 291
rain Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
rain and rainmakers Gera (2014), Judith, 291
sacrifices Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
samson Gera (2014), Judith, 291
samuel Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72; Gera (2014), Judith, 291
scribe Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
seer Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
self-proclaimed Gera (2014), Judith, 202
septuagint/septuaginta/lxx Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
sieges Gera (2014), Judith, 291
syriac Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
temple Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
timotheus Gera (2014), Judith, 202
uzziah Gera (2014), Judith, 291
vulgate judith Gera (2014), Judith, 291
water libation Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
water shortage Gera (2014), Judith, 291
wisdom,and cosmos Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
wisdom,in gospels' Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
wisdom Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72
wisdom of solomon,book of Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 222
xerxes Gera (2014), Judith, 201
zechariah Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 178
zeus Gera (2014), Judith, 291
חזה) chozê) Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021), Prophecy and Hellenism, 72