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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6269
Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 18-19


nanAnd Elijah said unto them: ‘Take the prophets of Baal; let not one of them escape.’ And they took them; and Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon, and slew them there.,And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces; and they said: ‘The LORD, He is God; the LORD, He is God.’,And with the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD; and he made a trench about the altar, as great as would contain two measures of seed.,Then said Elijah unto the people: ‘I, even I only, am left a prophet of the LORD; but Baal’s prophets are four hundred and fifty men.,And Elijah said unto all the people: ‘Come near unto me’; and all the people came near unto him. And he repaired the altar of the LORD that was thrown down.,And now thou sayest: Go, tell thy lord: Behold, Elijah is here; and he will slay me.’,Was it not told my lord what I did when Jezebel slew the prophets of the LORD, how I hid a hundred men of the LORD’S prophets by fifty in a cave, and fed them with bread and water?,And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said: ‘Cry aloud; for he is a god; either he is musing, or he is gone aside, or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked.’,And it came to pass after many days, that the word of the LORD came to Elijah, in the third year, saying: ‘Go, show thyself unto Ahab, and I will send rain upon the land.’,And he said: ‘Fill four jars with water, and pour it on the burnt-offering, and on the wood.’ And he said: ‘Do it the second time’; and they did it the second time. And he said: ‘Do it the third time’; and they did it the third time.,And Elijah said: ‘As the LORD of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, I will surely show myself unto him to-day.’,And the water ran round about the altar; and he filled the trench also with water.,And he put the wood in order, and cut the bullock in pieces, and laid it on the wood.,Now therefore send, and gather to me all Israel unto mount Carmel, and the prophets of Baal four hundred and fifty, and the prophets of the Asherah four hundred, that eat at Jezebel’s table.’,And be answered: ‘I have not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy father’s house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the LORD, and thou hast followed the Baalim.,And call ye on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of the LORD; and the God that answereth by fire, let him be God.’ And all the people answered and said: ‘It is well spoken.’,And Ahab sent unto all the children of Israel, and gathered the prophets together unto mount Carmel.,for it was so, when Jezebel cut off the prophets of the LORD, that Obadiah took a hundred prophets, and hid them fifty in a cave, and fed them with bread and water.—,So Obadiah went to meet Ahab, and told him; and Ahab went to meet Elijah.,And it came to pass at the seventh time, that he said: ‘Behold, there ariseth a cloud out of the sea, as small as a man’s hand.’ And he said: ‘Go up, say unto Ahab: Make ready thy chariot, and get thee down, that the rain stop thee not.’,And Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal: ‘Choose you one bullock for yourselves, and dress it first; for ye are many; and call on the name of your god, but put no fire under.’,And Elijah came near unto all the people, and said: ‘How long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD be God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him.’ And the people answered him not a word.,And Elijah went to show himself unto Ahab. And the famine was sore in Samaria.,And Ahab said unto Obadiah: ‘Go through the land, unto all the springs of water, and unto all the brooks; peradventure we may find grass and save the horses and mules alive, that we lose not all the beasts.’,And the hand of the LORD was on Elijah; and he girded up his loins, and ran before Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel.,And now thou sayest: Go, tell thy lord: Behold, Elijah is here.,So they divided the land between them to pass throughout it: Ahab went one way by himself, and Obadiah went another way by himself.,And it came to pass, when Ahab saw Elijah, that Ahab said unto him: ‘Is it thou, thou troubler of Israel?’,And he answered him: ‘It is I; go, tell thy lord: Behold, Elijah is here.’,And Ahab called Obadiah, who was over the household.—Now Obadiah feared the LORD greatly;,And Elijah said unto Ahab: ‘Get thee up, eat and drink; for there is the sound of abundance of rain.’,And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their manner with swords and lances, till the blood gushed out upon them.,Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that Thou, LORD, art God, for Thou didst turn their heart backward.’,And it will come to pass, as soon as I am gone from thee, that the spirit of the LORD will carry thee whither I know not; and so when I come and tell Ahab, and he cannot find thee, he will slay me; but I thy servant fear the LORD from my youth.,And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening offering, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said: ‘O LORD, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel, and that I am Thy servant, and that I have done all these things at Thy word.,And as Obadiah was in the way, behold, Elijah met him; and he knew him, and fell on his face, and said: ‘Is it thou, my lord Elijah?’,And he said: ‘Wherein have I sinned, that thou wouldest deliver thy servant into the hand of Ahab, to slay me?,So Ahab went up to eat and to drink. And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; and he bowed himself down upon the earth, and put his face between his knees.,And it came to pass in a little while, that the heaven grew black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain. And Ahab rode, and went to Jezreel.,And they took the bullock which was given them, and they dressed it, and called on the name of Baal from morning even until noon, saying: ‘O Baal, answer us.’ But there was no voice, nor any that answered. And they danced in halting wise about the altar which was made.,Let them therefore give us two bullocks; and let them choose one bullock for themselves, and cut it in pieces, and lay it on the wood, and put no fire under; and I will dress the other bullock, and lay it on the wood, and put no fire under.,And Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, unto whom the word of the LORD came, saying: ‘Israel shall be thy name.’,And he said to his servant: ‘Go up now, look toward the sea.’ And he went up, and looked, and said: ‘There is nothing.’ And he said: ‘Go again seven times.’,As the LORD thy God liveth, there is no nation or kingdom, whither my lord hath not sent to seek thee; and when they said: He is not here, he took an oath of the kingdom and nation, that they found thee not.,And it was so, when midday was past, that they prophesied until the time of the offering of the evening offering; but their was neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any that regarded.,Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt-offering, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.


nanAnd he returned from following him, and took the yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen, and gave unto the people, and they did eat. Then he arose, and went after Elijah, and ministered unto him.,And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out, and stood in the entrance of the cave. And, behold, there came a voice unto him, and said: ‘What doest thou here, Elijah?’,And the LORD said unto him: ‘Go, return on thy way to the wilderness of Damascus; and when thou comest, thou shalt anoint Hazael to be king over Aram;,And he came thither unto a cave, and lodged there; and, behold, the word of the LORD came to him, and He said unto him: ‘What doest thou here, Elijah?’,But he himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a broom-tree; and he requested for himself that he might die; and said: ‘It is enough; now, O LORD, take away my life; for I am not better than my fathers.’,And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and withal how he had slain all the prophets with the sword.,And the angel of the LORD came again the second time, and touched him, and said: ‘Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee.’,And he looked, and, behold, there was at his head a cake baked on the hot stones, and a cruse of water. And he did eat and drink, and laid him down again.,and Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel; and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room.,Yet will I leave seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him.’,And he said: ‘I have been very jealous for the LORD, the God of hosts; for the children of Israel have forsaken Thy covenant, thrown down Thine altars, and slain Thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.’,And he said: ‘I have been very jealous for the LORD, the God of hosts; for the children of Israel have forsaken Thy covenant, thrown down Thine altars, and slain Thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.’,And he lay down and slept under a broom-tree; and, behold, an angel touched him, and said unto him: ‘Arise and eat.’,And when he saw that, he arose, and went for his life, and came to Beer-sheba, which belongeth to Judah, and left his servant there.,And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said: ‘Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee.’ And he said unto him: ‘Go back; for what have I done to thee?’,Then Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah, saying: ‘So let the gods do [to me], and more also, if I make not thy life as the life of one of them by to-morrow about this time.’,and after the earthquake a fire; but the LORD was not in the fire; and after the fire a still small voice.,And he arose, and did eat and drink, and went in the strength of that meal forty days and forty nights unto Horeb the mount of God.,And it shall come to pass, that him that escapeth from the sword of Hazael shall Jehu slay; and him that escapeth from the sword of Jehu shall Elisha slay.,So he departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was plowing, with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth; and Elijah passed over unto him, and cast his mantle upon him.,And He said: ‘Go forth, and stand upon the mount before the LORD.’ And, behold, the LORD passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and broke in pieces the rocks before the LORD; but the LORD was not in the wind; and after the wind an earthquake; but the LORD was not in the earthquake;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁב מִגִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן אֶל־בֵּית מִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן וְהָמָן נֹפֵל עַל־הַמִּטָּה אֲשֶׁר אֶסְתֵּר עָלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲגַם לִכְבּוֹשׁ אֶת־הַמַּלְכָּה עִמִּי בַּבָּיִת הַדָּבָר יָצָא מִפִּי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּפְנֵי הָמָן חָפוּ׃ 7.8. Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the couch whereon Esther was. Then said the king: ‘Will he even force the queen before me in the house?’ As the word went out of the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.9, 7.11, 12.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.9. כִּי יְדַבֵּר אֲלֵכֶם פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר תְּנוּ לָכֶם מוֹפֵת וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־אַהֲרֹן קַח אֶת־מַטְּךָ וְהַשְׁלֵךְ לִפְנֵי־פַרְעֹה יְהִי לְתַנִּין׃ 7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 12.12. וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה וְהִכֵּיתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 7.9. ’When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying: Show a wonder for you; then thou shalt say unto Aaron: Take thy rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it become a serpent.’" 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 12.12. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 20.7, 20.17, 39.7-39.20, 40.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 20.17. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אַבְרָהָם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּרְפָּא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאַמְהֹתָיו וַיֵּלֵדוּ׃ 39.7. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַתִּשָּׂא אֵשֶׁת־אֲדֹנָיו אֶת־עֵינֶיהָ אֶל־יוֹסֵף וַתֹּאמֶר שִׁכְבָה עִמִּי׃ 39.8. וַיְמָאֵן וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵשֶׁת אֲדֹנָיו הֵן אֲדֹנִי לֹא־יָדַע אִתִּי מַה־בַּבָּיִת וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יֶשׁ־לוֹ נָתַן בְּיָדִי׃ 39.9. אֵינֶנּוּ גָדוֹל בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה מִמֶּנִּי וְלֹא־חָשַׂךְ מִמֶּנִּי מְאוּמָה כִּי אִם־אוֹתָךְ בַּאֲשֶׁר אַתְּ־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֵיךְ אֶעֱשֶׂה הָרָעָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְחָטָאתִי לֵאלֹהִים׃ 39.11. וַיְהִי כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיָּבֹא הַבַּיְתָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ וְאֵין אִישׁ מֵאַנְשֵׁי הַבַּיִת שָׁם בַּבָּיִת׃ 39.12. וַתִּתְפְּשֵׂהוּ בְּבִגְדוֹ לֵאמֹר שִׁכְבָה עִמִּי וַיַּעֲזֹב בִּגְדוֹ בְּיָדָהּ וַיָּנָס וַיֵּצֵא הַחוּצָה׃ 39.13. וַיְהִי כִּרְאוֹתָהּ כִּי־עָזַב בִּגְדוֹ בְּיָדָהּ וַיָּנָס הַחוּצָה׃ 39.14. וַתִּקְרָא לְאַנְשֵׁי בֵיתָהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לֵאמֹר רְאוּ הֵבִיא לָנוּ אִישׁ עִבְרִי לְצַחֶק בָּנוּ בָּא אֵלַי לִשְׁכַּב עִמִּי וָאֶקְרָא בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל׃ 39.15. וַיְהִי כְשָׁמְעוֹ כִּי־הֲרִימֹתִי קוֹלִי וָאֶקְרָא וַיַּעֲזֹב בִּגְדוֹ אֶצְלִי וַיָּנָס וַיֵּצֵא הַחוּצָה׃ 39.16. וַתַּנַּח בִּגְדוֹ אֶצְלָהּ עַד־בּוֹא אֲדֹנָיו אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ׃ 39.17. וַתְּדַבֵּר אֵלָיו כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר בָּא־אֵלַי הָעֶבֶד הָעִבְרִי אֲשֶׁר־הֵבֵאתָ לָּנוּ לְצַחֶק בִּי׃ 39.18. וַיְהִי כַּהֲרִימִי קוֹלִי וָאֶקְרָא וַיַּעֲזֹב בִּגְדוֹ אֶצְלִי וַיָּנָס הַחוּצָה׃ 39.19. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ אֲדֹנָיו אֶת־דִּבְרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרָה אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה עָשָׂהּ לִי עַבְדֶּךָ וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ׃ 20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’" 20.17. And Abraham prayed unto God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maid-servants; and they bore children." 39.7. And it came to pass after these things, that his master’s wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said: ‘Lie with me.’" 39.8. But he refused, and said unto his master’s wife: ‘Behold, my master, having me, knoweth not what is in the house, and he hath put all that he hath into my hand;" 39.9. he is not greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept back any thing from me but thee, because thou art his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?’" 39.10. And it came to pass, as she spoke to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her." 39.11. And it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work, and there was none of the men of the house there within," 39.12. that she caught him by his garment, saying: ‘Lie with me.’ And he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out." 39.13. And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth," 39.14. that she called unto the men of her house, and spoke unto them, saying: ‘See, he hath brought in a Hebrew unto us to mock us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice." 39.15. And it came to pass, when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment by me, and fled, and got him out.’" 39.16. And she laid up his garment by her, until his master came home." 39.17. And she spoke unto him according to these words, saying: ‘The Hebrew servant, whom thou hast brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me." 39.18. And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment by me, and fled out.’" 39.19. And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke unto him, saying: ‘After this manner did thy servant to me’; that his wrath was kindled." 39.20. And Joseph’s master took him, and put him into the prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were bound; and he was there in the prison." 40.20. And it came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh’s birthday, that he made a feast unto all his servants; and he lifted up the head of the chief butler and the head of the chief baker among his servants."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 3.13-3.19, 26.5-26.6, 42.7-42.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.13. כִּי־עַתָּה שָׁכַבְתִּי וְאֶשְׁקוֹט יָשַׁנְתִּי אָז יָנוּחַ לִי׃ 3.14. עִם־מְלָכִים וְיֹעֲצֵי אָרֶץ הַבֹּנִים חֳרָבוֹת לָמוֹ׃ 3.15. אוֹ עִם־שָׂרִים זָהָב לָהֶם הַמְמַלְאִים בָּתֵּיהֶם כָּסֶף׃ 3.16. אוֹ כְנֵפֶל טָמוּן לֹא אֶהְיֶה כְּעֹלְלִים לֹא־רָאוּ אוֹר׃ 3.17. שָׁם רְשָׁעִים חָדְלוּ רֹגֶז וְשָׁם יָנוּחוּ יְגִיעֵי כֹחַ׃ 3.18. יַחַד אֲסִירִים שַׁאֲנָנוּ לֹא שָׁמְעוּ קוֹל נֹגֵשׂ׃ 3.19. קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל שָׁם הוּא וְעֶבֶד חָפְשִׁי מֵאֲדֹנָיו׃ 26.5. הָרְפָאִים יְחוֹלָלוּ מִתַּחַת מַיִם וְשֹׁכְנֵיהֶם׃ 26.6. עָרוֹם שְׁאוֹל נֶגְדּוֹ וְאֵין כְּסוּת לָאֲבַדּוֹן׃ 42.7. וַיְהִי אַחַר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי חָרָה אַפִּי בְךָ וּבִשְׁנֵי רֵעֶיךָ כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.8. וְעַתָּה קְחוּ־לָכֶם שִׁבְעָה־פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים וּלְכוּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב וְהַעֲלִיתֶם עוֹלָה בַּעַדְכֶם וְאִיּוֹב עַבְדִּי יִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיכֶם כִּי אִם־פָּנָיו אֶשָּׂא לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת עִמָּכֶם נְבָלָה כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.9. וַיֵּלְכוּ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי צֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוָה וַיִּשָּׂא יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי אִיּוֹב׃ 3.13. For now should I have lain still and been quiet; I should have slept; then had I been at rest—" 3.14. With kings and counsellors of the earth, Who built up waste places for themselves;" 3.15. Or with princes that had gold, Who filled their houses with silver;" 3.16. Or as a hidden untimely birth I had not been; As infants that never saw light." 3.17. There the wicked cease from troubling; And there the weary are at rest." 3.18. There the prisoners are at ease together; They hear not the voice of the taskmaster." 3.19. The small and great are there alike; And the servant is free from his master." 26.5. The shades tremble Beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof." 26.6. The nether-world is naked before Him, And Destruction hath no covering." 42.7. And it was so, that after the LORD had spoken these words unto Job, the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite: ‘My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as My servant Job hath." 42.8. Now therefore, take unto you seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt-offering; and My servant Job shall pray for you; for him will I accept, that I do not unto you aught unseemly; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath.’" 42.9. So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did according as the LORD commanded them; and the LORD accepted Job."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25.9, 25.14, 25.20-25.21, 25.30, 25.36-25.38, 25.55 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.9. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶם׃ 25.14. וְכִי־תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ אַל־תּוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו׃ 25.21. וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלֹשׁ הַשָּׁנִים׃ 25.36. אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ׃ 25.37. אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ׃ 25.38. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 25.55. כִּי־לִי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 25.9. Then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn on the tenth day of the seventh month; in the day of atonement shall ye make proclamation with the horn throughout all your land." 25.14. And if thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buy of thy neighbour’s hand, ye shall not wrong one another." 25.20. And if ye shall say: ‘What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we may not sow, nor gather in our increase’;" 25.21. then I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth produce for the three years." 25.30. And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him that bought it, throughout his generations; it shall not go out in the jubilee." 25.36. Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee." 25.37. Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase." 25.38. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be your God." 25.55. For unto Me the children of Israel are servants; they are My servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.37-15.41, 23.22, 25.1-25.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 23.22. אֵל מוֹצִיאָם מִמִּצְרָיִם כְּתוֹעֲפֹת רְאֵם לוֹ׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 25.1. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃ 25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.5. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃ 25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.14. וְשֵׁם אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמֻּכֶּה אֲשֶׁר הֻכָּה אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית זִמְרִי בֶּן־סָלוּא נְשִׂיא בֵית־אָב לַשִּׁמְעֹנִי׃ 25.15. וְשֵׁם הָאִשָּׁה הַמֻּכָּה הַמִּדְיָנִית כָּזְבִּי בַת־צוּר רֹאשׁ אֻמּוֹת בֵּית־אָב בְּמִדְיָן הוּא׃ 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’" 23.22. God who brought them forth out of Egypt Is for them like the lofty horns of the wild-ox." 25.1. And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab." 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’" 25.5. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’" 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand." 25.10. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’" 25.14. Now the name of the man of Israel that was slain, who was slain with the Midianitish woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince of a fathers’house among the Simeonites." 25.15. And the name of the Midianitish woman that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter of Zur; he was head of the people of a fathers’house in Midian."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 30.4, 30.10, 141.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.4. יְהוָה הֶעֱלִיתָ מִן־שְׁאוֹל נַפְשִׁי חִיִּיתַנִי מיורדי־[מִיָּרְדִי־] בוֹר׃ 141.2. תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 30.4. O LORD, Thou broughtest up my soul from the nether-world; Thou didst kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit." 30.10. 'What profit is there in my blood, when I go down to the pit? Shall the dust praise Thee? shall it declare Thy truth?" 141.2. Let my prayer be set forth as incense before Thee, The lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.28-8.54, 11.1-11.13, 17.1, 17.17, 18.15, 18.29, 18.36-18.37, 18.39 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.28. וּפָנִיתָ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תְּחִנָּתוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הָרִנָּה וְאֶל־הַתְּפִלָּה אֲשֶׁר עַבְדְּךָ מִתְפַּלֵּל לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 8.29. לִהְיוֹת עֵינֶךָ פְתֻחוֹת אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה לַיְלָה וָיוֹם אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ יִהְיֶה שְׁמִי שָׁם לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַתְּפִלָּה אֲשֶׁר יִתְפַּלֵּל עַבְדְּךָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.31. אֵת אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וְנָשָׁא־בוֹ אָלָה לְהַאֲלֹתוֹ וּבָא אָלָה לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּחֲךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.32. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעָשִׂיתָ וְשָׁפַטְתָּ אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ לְהַרְשִׁיעַ רָשָׁע לָתֵת דַּרְכּוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וּלְהַצְדִּיק צַדִּיק לָתֶת לוֹ כְּצִדְקָתוֹ׃ 8.33. בְּהִנָּגֵף עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב אֲשֶׁר יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ וְהִתְחַנְּנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.34. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָם אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּ לַאֲבוֹתָם׃ 8.35. בְּהֵעָצֵר שָׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְהוֹדוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וּמֵחַטָּאתָם יְשׁוּבוּן כִּי תַעֲנֵם׃ 8.36. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם וְסָלַחְתָּ לְחַטַּאת עֲבָדֶיךָ וְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי תוֹרֵם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ וְנָתַתָּה מָטָר עַל־אַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לְעַמְּךָ לְנַחֲלָה׃ 8.37. רָעָב כִּי־יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ דֶּבֶר כִּי־יִהְיֶה שִׁדָּפוֹן יֵרָקוֹן אַרְבֶּה חָסִיל כִּי יִהְיֶה כִּי יָצַר־לוֹ אֹיְבוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ שְׁעָרָיו כָּל־נֶגַע כָּל־מַחֲלָה׃ 8.38. כָּל־תְּפִלָּה כָל־תְּחִנָּה אֲשֶׁר תִהְיֶה לְכָל־הָאָדָם לְכֹל עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יֵדְעוּן אִישׁ נֶגַע לְבָבוֹ וּפָרַשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.39. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְסָלַחְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ וְנָתַתָּ לָאִישׁ כְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲשֶׁר תֵּדַע אֶת־לְבָבוֹ כִּי־אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ לְבַדְּךָ אֶת־לְבַב כָּל־בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 8.41. וְגַם אֶל־הַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מֵעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא וּבָא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.42. כִּי יִשְׁמְעוּן אֶת־שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־יָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָא וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.43. אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּן כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ לְיִרְאָה אֹתְךָ כְּעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלָדַעַת כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.44. כִּי־יֵצֵא עַמְּךָ לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹיְבוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁלָחֵם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־יְהוָה דֶּרֶךְ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ בָּהּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּנִתִי לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.45. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתָם וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 8.46. כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ כִּי אֵין אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֶחֱטָא וְאָנַפְתָּ בָם וּנְתַתָּם לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב וְשָׁבוּם שֹׁבֵיהֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הָאוֹיֵב רְחוֹקָה אוֹ קְרוֹבָה׃ 8.47. וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֶל־לִבָּם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבּוּ־שָׁם וְשָׁבוּ וְהִתְחַנְּנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּאֶרֶץ שֹׁבֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר חָטָאנוּ וְהֶעֱוִינוּ רָשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.48. וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁבוּ אֹתָם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֵלֶיךָ דֶּרֶךְ אַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לַאֲבוֹתָם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בנית [בָּנִיתִי] לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.49. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתְּךָ אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם וְאֶת־תְּחִנָּתָם וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 8.51. כִּי־עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ הֵם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם מִתּוֹךְ כּוּר הַבַּרְזֶל׃ 8.52. לִהְיוֹת עֵינֶיךָ פְתֻחוֹת אֶל־תְּחִנַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תְּחִנַּת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁמֹעַ אֲלֵיהֶם בְּכֹל קָרְאָם אֵלֶיךָ׃ 8.53. כִּי־אַתָּה הִבְדַּלְתָּם לְךָ לְנַחֲלָה מִכֹּל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 8.54. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַתְּפִלָּה וְהַתְּחִנָּה הַזֹּאת קָם מִלִּפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה מִכְּרֹעַ עַל־בִּרְכָּיו וְכַפָּיו פְּרֻשׂוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 11.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃ 11.1. וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃ 11.2. מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃ 11.3. וַיְהִי־לוֹ נָשִׁים שָׂרוֹת שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּפִלַגְשִׁים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיַּטּוּ נָשָׁיו אֶת־לִבּוֹ׃ 11.3. וַיִּתְפֹּשׂ אֲחִיָּה בַּשַּׂלְמָה הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּקְרָעֶהָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר קְרָעִים׃ 11.4. וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃ 11.4. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 11.6. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃ 11.7. אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 11.8. וְכֵן עָשָׂה לְכָל־נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 11.9. וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה בִּשְׁלֹמֹה כִּי־נָטָה לְבָבוֹ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּרְאָה אֵלָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃ 11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה־זֹּאת עִמָּךְ וְלֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ בְּרִיתִי וְחֻקֹּתַי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי עָלֶיךָ קָרֹעַ אֶקְרַע אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מֵעָלֶיךָ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ׃ 11.12. אַךְ־בְּיָמֶיךָ לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂנָּה לְמַעַן דָּוִד אָבִיךָ מִיַּד בִּנְךָ אֶקְרָעֶנָּה׃ 11.13. רַק אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּמְלָכָה לֹא אֶקְרָע שֵׁבֶט אֶחָד אֶתֵּן לִבְנֶךָ לְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתִּי׃ 17.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד אֶל־אַחְאָב חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם־יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר כִּי אִם־לְפִי דְבָרִי׃ 17.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ צָרְפַתָה וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פֶּתַח הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת עֵצִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר קְחִי־נָא לִי מְעַט־מַיִם בַּכְּלִי וְאֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 17.17. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה חָלָה בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה בַּעֲלַת הַבָּיִת וַיְהִי חָלְיוֹ חָזָק מְאֹד עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נוֹתְרָה־בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה׃ 18.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ חַי יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו כִּי הַיּוֹם אֵרָאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 18.29. וַיְהִי כַּעֲבֹר הַצָּהֳרַיִם וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ עַד לַעֲלוֹת הַמִּנְחָה וְאֵין־קוֹל וְאֵין־עֹנֶה וְאֵין קָשֶׁב׃ 18.36. וַיְהִי בַּעֲלוֹת הַמִּנְחָה וַיִּגַּשׁ אֵלִיָּהוּ הַנָּבִיא וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיִשְׂרָאֵל הַיּוֹם יִוָּדַע כִּי־אַתָּה אֱלֹהִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי עַבְדֶּךָ ובדבריך [וּבִדְבָרְךָ] עָשִׂיתִי אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 18.37. עֲנֵנִי יְהוָה עֲנֵנִי וְיֵדְעוּ הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים וְאַתָּה הֲסִבֹּתָ אֶת־לִבָּם אֲחֹרַנִּית׃ 18.39. וַיַּרְא כָּל־הָעָם וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 8.28. Yet have Thou respect unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplication, O LORD my God, to hearken unto the cry and to the prayer which Thy servant prayeth before Thee this day;" 8.29. that Thine eyes may be open toward this house night and day, even toward the place whereof Thou hast said: My name shall be there; to hearken unto the prayer which Thy servant shall pray toward this place." 8.30. And hearken Thou to the supplication of Thy servant, and of Thy people Israel, when they shall pray toward this place; yea, hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place; and when Thou hearest, forgive." 8.31. If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be exacted of him to cause him to swear, and he come and swear before Thine altar in this house;" 8.32. then hear Thou in heaven, and do, and judge Thy servants, condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his own head; and justifying the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness." 8.33. When Thy people Israel are smitten down before the enemy, when they do sin against Thee, if they turn again to Thee, and confess Thy name, and pray and make supplication unto Thee in this house;" 8.34. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy people Israel, and bring them back unto the land which Thou gavest unto their fathers." 8.35. When heaven is shut up, and there is no rain, when they do sin against Thee; if they pray toward this place, and confess Thy name, and turn from their sin, when Thou dost afflict them;" 8.36. then hear Thou in heaven, and forgive the sin of Thy servants, and of Thy people Israel, when Thou teachest them the good way wherein they should walk; and send rain upon Thy land, which Thou hast given to Thy people for an inheritance." 8.37. If there be in the land famine, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting or mildew, locust or caterpillar; if their enemy besiege them in the land of their cities; whatsoever plague, whatsoever sickness there be;" 8.38. what prayer and supplication soever be made by any man of all Thy people Israel, who shall know every man the plague of his own heart, and spread forth his hands toward this house;" 8.39. then hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and forgive, and do, and render unto every man according to all his ways, whose heart Thou knowest—for Thou, even Thou only, knowest the hearts of all the children of men—" 8.40. that they may fear Thee all the days that they live in the land which Thou gavest unto our fathers." 8.41. Moreover concerning the stranger that is not of Thy people Israel, when he shall come out of a far country for Thy name’s sake—" 8.42. for they shall hear of Thy great name, and of Thy mighty hand, and of Thine outstretched arm—when he shall come and pray toward this house;" 8.43. hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to Thee for; that all the peoples of the earth may know Thy name, to fear Thee, as doth Thy people Israel, and that they may know that Thy name is called upon this house which I have built." 8.44. If Thy people go out to battle against their enemy, by whatsoever way Thou shalt send them, and they pray unto the LORD toward the city which Thou hast chosen, and toward the house which I have built for Thy name;" 8.45. then hear Thou in heaven their prayer and their supplication, and maintain their cause." 8.46. If they sin against Thee—for there is no man that sinneth not—and Thou be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captive unto the land of the enemy, far off or near;" 8.47. yet if they shall bethink themselves in the land whither they are carried captive, and turn back, and make supplication unto Thee in the land of them that carried them captive, saying: We have sinned, and have done iniquitously, we have dealt wickedly;" 8.48. if they return unto Thee with all their heart and with all their soul in the land of their enemies, who carried them captive, and pray unto Thee toward their land, which Thou gavest unto their fathers, the city which Thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for Thy name;" 8.49. then hear Thou their prayer and their supplication in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and maintain their cause;" 8.50. and forgive Thy people who have sinned against Thee, and all their transgressions wherein they have transgressed against Thee; and give them compassion before those who carried them captive, that they may have compassion on them;" 8.51. for they are Thy people, and Thine inheritance, which Thou broughtest forth out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron;" 8.52. that Thine eyes may be open unto the supplication of Thy servant, and unto the supplication of Thy people Israel, to hearken unto them whensoever they cry unto Thee." 8.53. For Thou didst set them apart from among all the peoples of the earth, to be Thine inheritance, as Thou didst speak by the hand of Moses Thy servant, when Thou broughtest our fathers out of Egypt, O Lord GOD.’" 8.54. And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying all this prayer and supplication unto the LORD, he arose from before the altar of the LORD, from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread forth toward heaven." 11.1. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;" 11.2. of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel: ‘Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods’; Solomon did cleave unto these in love." 11.3. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart." 11.4. For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father." 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites." 11.6. And Solomon did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father." 11.7. Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh the detestation of Moab, in the mount that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech the detestation of the children of Ammon." 11.8. And so did he for all his foreign wives, who offered and sacrificed unto their gods." 11.9. And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel, who had appeared unto him twice," 11.10. and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; but he kept not that which the LORD commanded." 11.11. Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon: ‘Forasmuch as this hath been in thy mind, and thou hast not kept My covet and My statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant." 11.12. Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it, for David thy father’s sake; but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son." 11.13. Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but I will give one tribe to thy son; for David My servant’s sake, and for Jerusalem’s sake which I have chosen.’" 17.1. And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the settlers of Gilead, said unto Ahab: ‘As the LORD, the God of Israel, liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.’" 17.17. And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, that there was no breath left in him." 18.15. And Elijah said: ‘As the LORD of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, I will surely show myself unto him to-day.’" 18.29. And it was so, when midday was past, that they prophesied until the time of the offering of the evening offering; but their was neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any that regarded." 18.36. And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening offering, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said: ‘O LORD, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel, and that I am Thy servant, and that I have done all these things at Thy word." 18.37. Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that Thou, LORD, art God, for Thou didst turn their heart backward.’" 18.39. And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces; and they said: ‘The LORD, He is God; the LORD, He is God.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.10, 1.26-1.27, 5.4, 5.11, 7.3-7.6, 12.17-12.19, 13.10-13.11, 13.13-13.14, 28.3-28.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנִי חֵי נַפְשְׁךָ אֲדֹנִי אֲנִי הָאִשָּׁה הַנִּצֶּבֶת עִמְּכָה בָּזֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 1.27. אֶל־הַנַּעַר הַזֶּה הִתְפַּלָּלְתִּי וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה לִי אֶת־שְׁאֵלָתִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתִּי מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 5.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר מִמָּחֳרָת וְהִנֵּה דָגוֹן נֹפֵל לְפָנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה וְרֹאשׁ דָּגוֹן וּשְׁתֵּי כַּפּוֹת יָדָיו כְּרֻתוֹת אֶל־הַמִּפְתָּן רַק דָּגוֹן נִשְׁאַר עָלָיו׃ 5.11. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ וַיַּאַסְפוּ אֶת־כָּל־סַרְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיֹּאמְרוּ שַׁלְּחוּ אֶת־אֲרוֹן אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיָשֹׁב לִמְקֹמוֹ וְלֹא־יָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־עַמִּי כִּי־הָיְתָה מְהוּמַת־מָוֶת בְּכָל־הָעִיר כָּבְדָה מְאֹד יַד הָאֱלֹהִים שָׁם׃ 7.3. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִם־בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם אַתֶּם שָׁבִים אֶל־יְהוָה הָסִירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הַנֵּכָר מִתּוֹכְכֶם וְהָעַשְׁתָּרוֹת וְהָכִינוּ לְבַבְכֶם אֶל־יְהוָה וְעִבְדֻהוּ לְבַדּוֹ וְיַצֵּל אֶתְכֶם מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 7.4. וַיָּסִירוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַבְּעָלִים וְאֶת־הָעַשְׁתָּרֹת וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה לְבַדּוֹ׃ 7.5. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל קִבְצוּ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּצְפָּתָה וְאֶתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְכֶם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 7.6. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ הַמִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ־מַיִם וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמְרוּ שָׁם חָטָאנוּ לַיהוָה וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה׃ 12.17. הֲלוֹא קְצִיר־חִטִּים הַיּוֹם אֶקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וְיִתֵּן קֹלוֹת וּמָטָר וּדְעוּ וּרְאוּ כִּי־רָעַתְכֶם רַבָּה אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לִשְׁאוֹל לָכֶם מֶלֶךְ׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה קֹלֹת וּמָטָר בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיִּירָא כָל־הָעָם מְאֹד אֶת־יְהוָה וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל׃ 12.19. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הָעָם אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־עֲבָדֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאַל־נָמוּת כִּי־יָסַפְנוּ עַל־כָּל־חַטֹּאתֵינוּ רָעָה לִשְׁאֹל לָנוּ מֶלֶךְ׃ 13.11. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל מֶה עָשִׂיתָ וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל כִּי־רָאִיתִי כִי־נָפַץ הָעָם מֵעָלַי וְאַתָּה לֹא־בָאתָ לְמוֹעֵד הַיָּמִים וּפְלִשְׁתִּים נֶאֱסָפִים מִכְמָשׂ׃ 13.13. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־שָׁאוּל נִסְכָּלְתָּ לֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־מִצְוַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ כִּי עַתָּה הֵכִין יְהוָה אֶת־מַמְלַכְתְּךָ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 13.14. וְעַתָּה מַמְלַכְתְּךָ לֹא־תָקוּם בִּקֵּשׁ יְהוָה לוֹ אִישׁ כִּלְבָבוֹ וַיְצַוֵּהוּ יְהוָה לְנָגִיד עַל־עַמּוֹ כִּי לֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוְּךָ יְהוָה׃ 28.3. וּשְׁמוּאֵל מֵת וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־לוֹ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בָרָמָה וּבְעִירוֹ וְשָׁאוּל הֵסִיר הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים מֵהָאָרֶץ׃ 28.4. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְשׁוּנֵם וַיִּקְבֹּץ שָׁאוּל אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּגִּלְבֹּעַ׃ 28.5. וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל אֶת־מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּרָא וַיֶּחֱרַד לִבּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 28.6. וַיִּשְׁאַל שָׁאוּל בַּיהוָה וְלֹא עָנָהוּ יְהוָה גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת גַּם בָּאוּרִים גַּם בַּנְּבִיאִם׃ 28.7. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַעֲבָדָיו בַּקְּשׁוּ־לִי אֵשֶׁת בַּעֲלַת־אוֹב וְאֵלְכָה אֵלֶיהָ וְאֶדְרְשָׁה־בָּהּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אֵשֶׁת בַּעֲלַת־אוֹב בְּעֵין דּוֹר׃ 28.8. וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר קסומי־[קָסֳמִי־] נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלָיִךְ׃ 28.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הִכְרִית אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִי מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלָמָה אַתָּה מִתְנַקֵּשׁ בְּנַפְשִׁי לַהֲמִיתֵנִי׃ 28.11. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מִי אַעֲלֶה־לָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל הַעֲלִי־לִי׃ 28.12. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל וַתִּזְעַק בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה רִמִּיתָנִי וְאַתָּה שָׁאוּל׃ 28.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי מָה רָאִית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל אֱלֹהִים רָאִיתִי עֹלִים מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־תָּאֳרוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אִישׁ זָקֵן עֹלֶה וְהוּא עֹטֶה מְעִיל וַיֵּדַע שָׁאוּל כִּי־שְׁמוּאֵל הוּא וַיִּקֹּד אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 1.10. And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed to the Lord, and wept bitterly." 1.26. And she said, O my lord, as thy soul lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying to the Lord." 1.27. For this child I prayed; and the Lord has given me my petition which I asked of him:" 5.4. And they arose early on the next morning, and behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands lay severed on the threshold; only the trunk of Dagon was left to him." 5.11. So they sent and gathered together all the lords of the Pelishtim, and said, Send away the ark of the God of Yisra᾽el, and let it go back to its own place, that it slay us not, and our people: for there was a deadly panic throughout all the city; the hand of God was very heavy there." 7.3. And Shemu᾽el spoke to all the house of Yisra᾽el, saying, If you return to the Lord with all your hearts, then put away the foreign gods and the ῾Ashtarot from among you, and direct your hearts to the Lord, and serve him only: and he will deliver you out of the hand of the Pelishtim." 7.4. Then the children of Yisra᾽el put away the Be῾alim and the ῾Ashtarot, and served the Lord only." 7.5. And Shemu᾽el said, Gather all Yisra᾽el to Miżpa, and I will pray for you to the Lord." 7.6. And they gathered together to Miżpa, and drew water, and poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against the Lord. And Shemu᾽el judged the children of Yisra᾽el in Miżpa." 12.17. Is it not wheat harvest today? I will call to the Lord, and he shall send thunder and rain; that you may know and see that your wickedness is great, which you have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking for a king for yourselves." 12.18. So Shemu᾽el called to the Lord; and the Lord sent thunder and rain that day: and all the people greatly feared the Lord and Shemu᾽el." 12.19. And all the people said to Shemu᾽el, Pray for thy servants to the Lord thy God, that we die not: for we have added to all our sins this evil, to ask for a king for ourselves." 13.10. And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, behold, Shemu᾽el came; and Sha᾽ul went out to meet him, that he might greet him." 13.11. And Shemu᾽el said, What hast thou done? And Sha᾽ul said, Because I saw that the people were scattering from me, and that thou camest not within the days appointed, and that the Pelishtim gathered themselves together at Mikhmash;" 13.13. And Shemu᾽el said to Sha᾽ul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the Lord thy God, which he commanded thee: for now the Lord would have established thy kingdom upon Yisra᾽el for ever." 13.14. But now thy kingdom shall not endure: the Lord has sought him a man after his own heart, and the Lord has commanded him to be a prince over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee." 28.3. Now Shemu᾽el was dead, and all Yisra᾽el had mourned him, and buried him in Rama in his own city. And Sha᾽ul had put away the mediums and the wizards, out of the land." 28.4. And the Pelishtim gathered themselves together, and came and pitched in Shunem: and Sha᾽ul gathered all Yisra᾽el together, and they pitched on the Gilboa." 28.5. And when Sha᾽ul saw the camp of the Pelishtim, he was afraid, and his heart greatly trembled." 28.6. And when Sha᾽ul inquired of the Lord, the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by the Urim, nor by prophets." 28.7. Then said Sha᾽ul to his servants, Seek me a woman who is a medium, that I may go to her, and inquire of her. And his servants said to him, Behold, there is a medium at ῾En-dor." 28.8. And Sha᾽ul disguised himself, and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine for me by means of the familiar spirit, and bring him up for me, whom I shall name to thee." 28.9. And the woman said to him, Behold, thou knowst what Sha᾽ul has done, how he has cut off the diviners, and the wizards, out of the land: why then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die?" 28.10. And Sha᾽ul swore to her by the Lord, saying, As the Lord lives, no punishment shall befall thee for this thing." 28.11. Then said the woman, Whom shall I bring up to thee? And he said, Bring me up Shemu᾽el." 28.12. And when the woman saw Shemu᾽el, she cried with a loud voice: and the woman spoke to Sha᾽ul, saying, Why hast thou deceived me? for thou art Sha᾽ul." 28.13. And the king said to her, Be not afraid: for what sawest thou? And the woman said to Sha᾽ul, I saw a godlike man ascending out of the earth." 28.14. And he said to her, What form is he of? And she said, An old man comes up; and he is covered with a mantle. And Sha᾽ul knew that it was Shemu᾽el, and he stooped with his face to the ground, and bowed himself."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 3.11, 4.33, 16.10-16.16, 17.7-17.18, 21.1-21.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָט הַאֵין פֹּה נָבִיא לַיהוָה וְנִדְרְשָׁה אֶת־יְהוָה מֵאוֹתוֹ וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵעַבְדֵי מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר פֹּה אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט אֲשֶׁר־יָצַק מַיִם עַל־יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ׃ 4.33. וַיָּבֹא וַיִּסְגֹּר הַדֶּלֶת בְּעַד שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 16.11. וַיִּבֶן אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז מִדַּמֶּשֶׂק כֵּן עָשָׂה אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן עַד־בּוֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ־אָחָז מִדַּמָּשֶׂק׃ 16.12. וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ מִדַּמֶּשֶׂק וַיַּרְא הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיִּקְרַב הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיַּעַל עָלָיו׃ 16.13. וַיַּקְטֵר אֶת־עֹלָתוֹ וְאֶת־מִנְחָתוֹ וַיַּסֵּךְ אֶת־נִסְכּוֹ וַיִּזְרֹק אֶת־דַּם־הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 16.14. וְאֵת הַמִּזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיַּקְרֵב מֵאֵת פְּנֵי הַבַּיִת מִבֵּין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִבֵּין בֵּית יְהוָה וַיִּתֵּן אֹתוֹ עַל־יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפוֹנָה׃ 16.15. ויצוהו [וַיְצַוֶּה] הַמֶּלֶךְ־אָחָז אֶת־אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן לֵאמֹר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַגָּדוֹל הַקְטֵר אֶת־עֹלַת־הַבֹּקֶר וְאֶת־מִנְחַת הָעֶרֶב וְאֶת־עֹלַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶת־מִנְחָתוֹ וְאֵת עֹלַת כָּל־עַם הָאָרֶץ וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם וְכָל־דַּם עֹלָה וְכָל־דַּם־זֶבַח עָלָיו תִּזְרֹק וּמִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבַקֵּר׃ 16.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז׃ 17.7. וַיְהִי כִּי־חָטְאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם הַמַּעֲלֶה אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִתַּחַת יַד פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם וַיִּירְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 17.8. וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּחֻקּוֹת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִישׁ יְהוָה מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ׃ 17.9. וַיְחַפְּאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל דְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כֵן עַל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיִּבְנוּ לָהֶם בָּמוֹת בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם מִמִּגְדַּל נוֹצְרִים עַד־עִיר מִבְצָר׃ 17.11. וַיְקַטְּרוּ־שָׁם בְּכָל־בָּמוֹת כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֶגְלָה יְהוָה מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ דְּבָרִים רָעִים לְהַכְעִיס אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.12. וַיַּעַבְדוּ הַגִּלֻּלִים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 17.13. וַיָּעַד יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִיהוּדָה בְּיַד כָּל־נביאו [נְבִיאֵי] כָל־חֹזֶה לֵאמֹר שֻׁבוּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶם הָרָעִים וְשִׁמְרוּ מִצְוֺתַי חֻקּוֹתַי כְּכָל־הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת־אֲבֹתֵיכֶם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׁלַחְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם בְּיַד עֲבָדַי הַנְּבִיאִים׃ 17.14. וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם כְּעֹרֶף אֲבוֹתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא הֶאֱמִינוּ בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 17.15. וַיִּמְאֲסוּ אֶת־חֻקָּיו וְאֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם וְאֵת עֵדְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר הֵעִיד בָּם וַיֵּלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל וַיֶּהְבָּלוּ וְאַחֲרֵי הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתָם לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת כָּהֶם׃ 17.16. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מַסֵּכָה שנים [שְׁנֵי] עֲגָלִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֲשֵׁירָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבָּעַל׃ 17.17. וַיַּעֲבִירוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ וַיִּקְסְמוּ קְסָמִים וַיְנַחֵשׁוּ וַיִּתְמַכְּרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְהַכְעִיסוֹ׃ 17.18. וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה מְאֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְסִרֵם מֵעַל פָּנָיו לֹא נִשְׁאַר רַק שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה לְבַדּוֹ׃ 21.1. בֶּן־שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מְנַשֶּׁה בְמָלְכוֹ וַחֲמִשִּׁים וְחָמֵשׁ שָׁנָה מָלַךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ חֶפְצִי־בָהּ׃ 21.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־עֲבָדָיו הַנְּבִיאִים לֵאמֹר׃ 21.2. וַיַּעַשׂ הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִישׁ יְהוָה מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.2. וַיַּעַשׂ הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מְנַשֶּׁה אָבִיו׃ 21.3. וַיָּשָׁב וַיִּבֶן אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר אִבַּד חִזְקִיָּהוּ אָבִיו וַיָּקֶם מִזְבְּחֹת לַבַּעַל וַיַּעַשׂ אֲשֵׁרָה כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אַחְאָב מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעֲבֹד אֹתָם׃ 21.4. וּבָנָה מִזְבְּחֹת בְּבֵית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִַם אָשִׂים אֶת־שְׁמִי׃ 21.5. וַיִּבֶן מִזְבְּחוֹת לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם בִּשְׁתֵּי חַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃ 21.6. וְהֶעֱבִיר אֶת־בְּנוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְעוֹנֵן וְנִחֵשׁ וְעָשָׂה אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִים הִרְבָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְהַכְעִיס׃ 21.7. וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־פֶּסֶל הָאֲשֵׁרָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה בַּבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־דָּוִד וְאֶל־שְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָשִׂים אֶת־שְׁמִי לְעוֹלָם׃ 21.8. וְלֹא אֹסִיף לְהָנִיד רֶגֶל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לַאֲבוֹתָם רַק אִם־יִשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִים וּלְכָל־הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה אֹתָם עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה׃ 21.9. וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ וַיַּתְעֵם מְנַשֶּׁה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הָרָע מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד יְהוָה מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.11. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מְנַשֶּׁה מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה הַתֹּעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הֵרַע מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר לְפָנָיו וַיַּחֲטִא גַם־אֶת־יְהוּדָה בְּגִלּוּלָיו׃ 21.12. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי מֵבִיא רָעָה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וִיהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר כָּל־שמעיו [שֹׁמְעָהּ] תִּצַּלְנָה שְׁתֵּי אָזְנָיו׃ 21.13. וְנָטִיתִי עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֵת קָו שֹׁמְרוֹן וְאֶת־מִשְׁקֹלֶת בֵּית אַחְאָב וּמָחִיתִי אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם כַּאֲשֶׁר־יִמְחֶה אֶת־הַצַּלַּחַת מָחָה וְהָפַךְ עַל־פָּנֶיהָ׃ 21.14. וְנָטַשְׁתִּי אֵת שְׁאֵרִית נַחֲלָתִי וּנְתַתִּים בְּיַד אֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ לְבַז וְלִמְשִׁסָּה לְכָל־אֹיְבֵיהֶם׃ 21.15. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינַי וַיִּהְיוּ מַכְעִסִים אֹתִי מִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ אֲבוֹתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם וְעַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 21.16. וְגַם דָּם נָקִי שָׁפַךְ מְנַשֶּׁה הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד עַד אֲשֶׁר־מִלֵּא אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם פֶּה לָפֶה לְבַד מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱטִיא אֶת־יְהוּדָה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 3.11. But Jehoshaphat said: ‘Is there not here a prophet of the LORD, that we may inquire of the LORD by him?’ And one of the king of Israel’s servants answered and said: ‘Elisha the son of Shaphat is here, who poured water on the hands of Elijah.’" 4.33. He went in therefore, and shut the door upon them twain, and prayed unto the LORD." 16.10. And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and saw the altar that was at Damascus; and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the workmanship thereof." 16.11. And Urijah the priest built an altar; according to all that king Ahaz had sent from Damascus, so did Urijah the priest make it against the coming of king Ahaz from Damascus." 16.12. And when the king was come from Damascus, the king saw the altar; and the king drew near unto the altar, and offered thereon." 16.13. And he offered his burnt-offering and his meal-offering, and poured his drink-offering, and dashed the blood of his peace-offerings against the altar." 16.14. And the brazen altar, which was before the LORD, he brought from the forefront of the house, from between his altar and the house of the LORD, and put it on the north side of his altar." 16.15. And king Ahaz commanded Urijah the priest, saying: ‘Upon the great altar offer the morning burnt-offering, and the evening meal-offering, and the king’s burnt-offering, and his meal-offering, with the burnt-offering of all the people of the land, and their meal-offering, and their drink-offerings; and dash against it all the blood of the burnt-offering, and all the blood of the sacrifice; but the brazen altar shall be for me to look to.’" 16.16. Thus did Urijah the priest, according to all that king Ahaz commanded." 17.7. And it was so, because the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who brought them up out of the land of Egypt from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods," 17.8. and walked in the statutes of the nations, whom the LORD cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they practised;" 17.9. and the children of Israel did impute things that were not right unto the LORD their God, and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fortified city;" 17.10. and they set them up pillars and Asherim upon every high hill, and under every leafy tree;" 17.11. and there they offered in all the high places, as did the nations whom the LORD carried away before them; and wrought wicked things to provoke the LORD;" 17.12. and they served idols, whereof the LORD had said unto them: ‘Ye shall not do this thing’;" 17.13. yet the LORD forewarned Israel, and Judah, by the hand of every prophet, and of every seer, saying: ‘Turn ye from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by the hand of My servants the prophets’;" 17.14. notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their neck, like to the neck of their fathers, who believed not in the LORD their God;" 17.15. and they rejected His statutes, and His covet that He made with their fathers, and His testimonies wherewith He testified against them; and they went after things of nought, and became nought, and after the nations that were round about them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them that they should not do like them;" 17.16. and they forsook all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made an Asherah, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal;" 17.17. and they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire, and used divination and enchantments, and gave themselves over to do that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him;" 17.18. that the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of His sight; there was none left but the tribe of Judah only." 21.1. Manasseh was twelve years old when he began to reign; and he reigned five and fifty years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Hephzi-bah." 21.2. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, after the abominations of the nations, whom the LORD cast out before the children of Israel." 21.3. For he built again the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; and he reared up altars for Baal, and made an Asherah, as did Ahab king of Israel, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served them." 21.4. And he built altars in the house of the LORD, whereof the LORD said: ‘In Jerusalem will I put My name.’" 21.5. And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the LORD." 21.6. And he made his son to pass through the fire, and practised soothsaying, and used enchantments, and appointed them that divined by a ghost or a familiar spirit: he wrought much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him." 21.7. And he set the graven image of Asherah, that he had made, in the house of which the LORD said to David and to Solomon his son: ‘In this house, and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, will I put My name for ever;" 21.8. neither will I cause the feet of Israel to wander any more out of the land which I gave their fathers; if only they will observe to do according to all that I have commanded them, and according to all the law that My servant Moses commanded them.’" 21.9. But they hearkened not; and Manasseh seduced them to do that which is evil more than did the nations, whom the LORD destroyed before the children of Israel." 21.10. And the LORD spoke by His servants the prophets, saying:" 21.11. ’Because Manasseh king of Judah hath done these abominations, and hath done wickedly above all that the Amorites did, that were before him, and hath made Judah also to sin with his idols;" 21.12. therefore thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Behold, I bring such evil upon Jerusalem and Judah, that whosoever heareth of it, both his ears shall tingle." 21.13. And I will stretch over Jerusalem the line of Samaria, and the plummet of the house of Ahab; and I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down." 21.14. And I will cast off the remt of Mine inheritance, and deliver them into the hand of their enemies; and they shall become a prey and a spoil to all their enemies;" 21.15. because they have done that which is evil in My sight, and have provoked Me, since the day their fathers came forth out of Egypt, even unto this day.’" 21.16. Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing that which was evil in the sight of the LORD."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.1-12.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.1. וְעַתָּה לֹא־תָסוּר חֶרֶב מִבֵּיתְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם עֵקֶב כִּי בְזִתָנִי וַתִּקַּח אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 12.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד וַיָּבֹא אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים הָיוּ בְּעִיר אֶחָת אֶחָד עָשִׁיר וְאֶחָד רָאשׁ׃ 12.2. לְעָשִׁיר הָיָה צֹאן וּבָקָר הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.2. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיִּרְחַץ וַיָּסֶךְ וַיְחַלֵּף שמלתו [שִׂמְלֹתָיו] וַיָּבֹא בֵית־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁאַל וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לֶחֶם וַיֹּאכַל׃ 12.3. וַיִּקַּח אֶת־עֲטֶרֶת־מַלְכָּם מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ כִּכַּר זָהָב וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה וַתְּהִי עַל־רֹאשׁ דָּוִד וּשְׁלַל הָעִיר הוֹצִיא הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.3. וְלָרָשׁ אֵין־כֹּל כִּי אִם־כִּבְשָׂה אַחַת קְטַנָּה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה וַיְחַיֶּהָ וַתִּגְדַּל עִמּוֹ וְעִם־בָּנָיו יַחְדָּו מִפִּתּוֹ תֹאכַל וּמִכֹּסוֹ תִשְׁתֶּה וּבְחֵיקוֹ תִשְׁכָּב וַתְּהִי־לוֹ כְּבַת׃ 12.4. וַיָּבֹא הֵלֶךְ לְאִישׁ הֶעָשִׁיר וַיַּחְמֹל לָקַחַת מִצֹּאנוֹ וּמִבְּקָרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָאֹרֵחַ הַבָּא־לוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כִּבְשַׂת הָאִישׁ הָרָאשׁ וַיַּעֲשֶׂהָ לָאִישׁ הַבָּא אֵלָיו׃ 12.5. וַיִּחַר־אַף דָּוִד בָּאִישׁ מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־נָתָן חַי־יְהוָה כִּי בֶן־מָוֶת הָאִישׁ הָעֹשֶׂה זֹאת׃ 12.6. וְאֶת־הַכִּבְשָׂה יְשַׁלֵּם אַרְבַּעְתָּיִם עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְעַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָמָל׃ 12.7. וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד אַתָּה הָאִישׁ כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָנֹכִי מְשַׁחְתִּיךָ לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָנֹכִי הִצַּלְתִּיךָ מִיַּד שָׁאוּל׃ 12.8. וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְאִם־מְעָט וְאֹסִפָה לְּךָ כָּהֵנָּה וְכָהֵנָּה׃ 12.9. מַדּוּעַ בָּזִיתָ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בעינו [בְּעֵינַי] אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי הִכִּיתָ בַחֶרֶב וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ לָקַחְתָּ לְּךָ לְאִשָּׁה וְאֹתוֹ הָרַגְתָּ בְּחֶרֶב בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 12.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מֵקִים עָלֶיךָ רָעָה מִבֵּיתֶךָ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי לְרֵעֶיךָ וְשָׁכַב עִם־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ הַזֹּאת׃ 12.12. כִּי אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ בַסָּתֶר וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 12.13. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־נָתָן חָטָאתִי לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד גַּם־יְהוָה הֶעֱבִיר חַטָּאתְךָ לֹא תָמוּת׃ 12.14. אֶפֶס כִּי־נִאֵץ נִאַצְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֵי יְהוָה בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה גַּם הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד לְךָ מוֹת יָמוּת׃ 12.1. And the Lord sent Natan to David. And he came to him, and said to him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor." 12.2. The rich man had very many flocks and herds:" 12.3. but the poor man had nothing, except one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and reared: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own bread, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was like a daughter to him." 12.4. And there came a traveller to the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare it for the wayfaring man that was come to him; but took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him." 12.5. And David’s anger burned greatly against the man; and he said to Natan, As the Lord lives, the man that has done this is worthy to die:" 12.6. and he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity." 12.7. And Natan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus says the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, I anointed thee king over Yisra᾽el, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Sha᾽ul;" 12.8. and I gave thee thy master’s house, and thy master’s wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Yisra᾽el and of Yehuda; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given thee as much again." 12.9. Why hast thou despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriyya the Ĥittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of ῾Ammon." 12.10. Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thy house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite to be thy wife." 12.11. Thus says the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house, and I will take thy wives before thy eyes, and give them to thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun." 12.12. For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Yisra᾽el, and before the sun." 12.13. And David said to Natan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Natan said to David, The Lord also has commuted thy sin; thou shalt not die." 12.14. Howbeit because by this deed thou hast greatly blasphemed the Lord, the child also that is born to thee shall surely die."
14. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.3-3.6, 3.8-3.12 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.4. וְנֹגַהּ כָּאוֹר תִּהְיֶה קַרְנַיִם מִיָּדוֹ לוֹ וְשָׁם חֶבְיוֹן עֻזֹּה׃ 3.5. לְפָנָיו יֵלֶךְ דָּבֶר וְיֵצֵא רֶשֶׁף לְרַגְלָיו׃ 3.6. עָמַד וַיְמֹדֶד אֶרֶץ רָאָה וַיַּתֵּר גּוֹיִם וַיִּתְפֹּצְצוּ הַרְרֵי־עַד שַׁחוּ גִּבְעוֹת עוֹלָם הֲלִיכוֹת עוֹלָם לוֹ׃ 3.8. הֲבִנְהָרִים חָרָה יְהוָה אִם בַּנְּהָרִים אַפֶּךָ אִם־בַּיָּם עֶבְרָתֶךָ כִּי תִרְכַּב עַל־סוּסֶיךָ מַרְכְּבֹתֶיךָ יְשׁוּעָה׃ 3.9. עֶרְיָה תֵעוֹר קַשְׁתֶּךָ שְׁבֻעוֹת מַטּוֹת אֹמֶר סֶלָה נְהָרוֹת תְּבַקַּע־אָרֶץ׃ 3.11. שֶׁמֶשׁ יָרֵחַ עָמַד זְבֻלָה לְאוֹר חִצֶּיךָ יְהַלֵּכוּ לְנֹגַהּ בְּרַק חֲנִיתֶךָ׃ 3.12. בְּזַעַם תִּצְעַד־אָרֶץ בְּאַף תָּדוּשׁ גּוֹיִם׃ 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise." 3.4. And a brightness appeareth as the light; rays hath He at His side; and there is the hiding of His power. 3.5. Before him goeth the pestilence, and fiery bolts go forth at His feet." 3.6. He standeth, and shaketh the earth, He beholdeth, and maketh the nations to tremble; And the everlasting mountains are dashed in pieces, The ancient hills do bow; His goings are as of old." 3.8. Is it, O LORD, that against the rivers, is it that Thine anger is kindled against the rivers, or Thy wrath against the sea? That Thou dost ride upon Thy horses, upon Thy chariots of victory?" 3.9. Thy bow is made quite bare; Sworn are the rods of the word. Selah. Thou dost cleave the earth with rivers." 3.10. The mountains have seen Thee, and they tremble; the tempest of waters floweth over; the deep uttereth its voice, And lifteth up its hands on high." 3.11. The sun and moon stand still in their habitation; at the light of Thine arrows as they go, At the shining of Thy glittering spear." 3.12. Thou marchest through the earth in indignation, Thou threshest the nations in anger."
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.9, 28.15, 46.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.9. שְׁאוֹל מִתַּחַת רָגְזָה לְךָ לִקְרַאת בּוֹאֶךָ עוֹרֵר לְךָ רְפָאִים כָּל־עַתּוּדֵי אָרֶץ הֵקִים מִכִּסְאוֹתָם כֹּל מַלְכֵי גוֹיִם׃ 28.15. כִּי אֲמַרְתֶּם כָּרַתְנוּ בְרִית אֶת־מָוֶת וְעִם־שְׁאוֹל עָשִׂינוּ חֹזֶה שיט [שׁוֹט] שׁוֹטֵף כִּי־עבר [יַעֲבֹר] לֹא יְבוֹאֵנוּ כִּי שַׂמְנוּ כָזָב מַחְסֵנוּ וּבַשֶּׁקֶר נִסְתָּרְנוּ׃ 46.1. כָּרַע בֵּל קֹרֵס נְבוֹ הָיוּ עֲצַבֵּיהֶם לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה נְשֻׂאֹתֵיכֶם עֲמוּסוֹת מַשָּׂא לַעֲיֵפָה׃ 46.1. מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית וּמִקֶּדֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נַעֲשׂוּ אֹמֵר עֲצָתִי תָקוּם וְכָל־חֶפְצִי אֶעֱשֶׂה׃ 14.9. The nether-world from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming; the shades are stirred up for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; all the kings of the nations are raised up from their thrones." 28.15. Because ye have said: ‘We have made a covet with death, And with the nether-world are we at agreement; When the scouring scourge shall pass through, It shall not come unto us; For we have made lies our refuge, And in falsehood have we hid ourselves’;" 46.1. Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth; their idols are upon the beasts, and upon the cattle; the things that ye carried about are made a load, a burden to the weary beast."
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 9.20, 26.20-26.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26.21. וַיִּשְׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ־יְהוֹיָקִים וְכָל־גִּבּוֹרָיו וְכָל־הַשָּׂרִים אֶת־דְּבָרָיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲמִיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע אוּרִיָּהוּ וַיִּרָא וַיִּבְרַח וַיָּבֹא מִצְרָיִם׃ 26.22. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹיָקִים אֲנָשִׁים מִצְרָיִם אֵת אֶלְנָתָן בֶּן־עַכְבּוֹר וַאֲנָשִׁים אִתּוֹ אֶל־מִצְרָיִם׃ 26.23. וַיּוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־אוּרִיָּהוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיְבִאֻהוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹיָקִים וַיַּכֵּהוּ בֶּחָרֶב וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־נִבְלָתוֹ אֶל־קִבְרֵי בְּנֵי הָעָם׃ 9.20. ‘For death is come up into our windows, it is entered into our palaces, to cut off the children from the street, and the young men from the broad places.—" 26.20. And there was also a man that prophesied in the name of the LORD, Uriah the son of Shemaiah of Kiriath-jearim; and he prophesied against this city and against this land according to all the words of Jeremiah;" 26.21. and when Jehoiakim the king, with all his mighty men, and all the princes, heard his words, the king sought to put him to death; but when Uriah heard it, he was afraid, and fled, and went into Egypt;" 26.22. and Jehoiakim the king sent men into Egypt, Elnathan the son of Achbor, and certain men with him, into Egypt;" 26.23. and they fetched forth Uriah out of Egypt, and brought him unto Jehoiakim the king; who slew him with the sword, and cast his dead body into the graves of the children of the people."
17. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.5-3.7, 14.16-14.18, 16.28-16.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.5. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יָשְׁבוּ בְּקֶרֶב הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 3.6. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם נָתְנוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 3.7. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁכְּחוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבְּעָלִים וְאֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרוֹת׃ 14.16. וַתֵּבְךְּ אֵשֶׁת שִׁמְשׁוֹן עָלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר רַק־שְׂנֵאתַנִי וְלֹא אֲהַבְתָּנִי הַחִידָה חַדְתָּ לִבְנֵי עַמִּי וְלִי לֹא הִגַּדְתָּה וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הִנֵּה לְאָבִי וּלְאִמִּי לֹא הִגַּדְתִּי וְלָךְ אַגִּיד׃ 14.17. וַתֵּבְךְּ עָלָיו שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה לָהֶם הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיַּגֶּד־לָהּ כִּי הֱצִיקַתְהוּ וַתַּגֵּד הַחִידָה לִבְנֵי עַמָּהּ׃ 14.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַחַרְסָה מַה־מָּתוֹק מִדְּבַשׁ וּמֶה עַז מֵאֲרִי וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לוּלֵא חֲרַשְׁתֶּם בְּעֶגְלָתִי לֹא מְצָאתֶם חִידָתִי׃ 16.28. וַיִּקְרָא שִׁמְשׁוֹן אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה זָכְרֵנִי נָא וְחַזְּקֵנִי נָא אַךְ הַפַּעַם הַזֶּה הָאֱלֹהִים וְאִנָּקְמָה נְקַם־אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵי עֵינַי מִפְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 16.29. וַיִּלְפֹּת שִׁמְשׁוֹן אֶת־שְׁנֵי עַמּוּדֵי הַתָּוֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הַבַּיִת נָכוֹן עֲלֵיהֶם וַיִּסָּמֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם אֶחָד בִּימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ׃ 3.5. And the children of Yisra᾽el dwelt among the Kena῾ani, the Ĥitti, and the Emori, and the Perizzi, and the Ĥivvi, and the Yevusi:" 3.6. and they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods." 3.7. And the children of Yisra᾽el did evil in the sight of the Lord, and forgot the Lord their God, and served the Ba῾alim and the Asherot." 14.16. And Shimshon’s wife wept before him, and said, Thou dost but hate me, and lovest me not: thou hast propounded a riddle to the children of my people, and hast not told it me. And he said to her, Behold, I have not told it my father nor my mother and shall I tell it thee?" 14.17. And she wept before him the seven days, while their feast lasted: and it came to pass on the seventh day, that he told her, because she harassed him: and she told the riddle to the children of her people." 14.18. And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down, What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion? And he said to them, If you had not ploughed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle." 16.28. And Shimshon called to the Lord, and said, O Lord God, remember me, I pray Thee, and strengthen me, I pray Thee, only this once, O God, that I may be avenged on the Pelishtim for one of my two eyes." 16.29. And Shimshon took hold of the two central pillars upon which the house stood, and he supported himself on them, on the one with his right hand, and on the other with his left." 16.30. And Shimshon said, Let me die with the Pelishtim. And he bowed with all his might; and the house fell upon the lords, and upon all the people that were in it. So the dead whom he slew at his death were more than those whom he slew in his life."
18. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 9, 6 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.5. וּבְמִנְחַת הָעֶרֶב קַמְתִּי מִתַּעֲנִיתִי וּבְקָרְעִי בִגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶכְרְעָה עַל־בִּרְכַּי וָאֶפְרְשָׂה כַפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃ 9.5. And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God;"
20. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 14.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא תִּהְיֶה מְהוּמַת־יְהוָה רַבָּה בָּהֶם וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ אִישׁ יַד רֵעֵהוּ וְעָלְתָה יָדוֹ עַל־יַד רֵעֵהוּ׃ 14.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; And they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, And his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour."
21. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.21. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 9.21. yea, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering."
22. Septuagint, Judith, 9.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.284-2.286, 8.111, 8.114, 8.117 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.284. 3. But when the king derided Moses; he made him in earnest see the signs that were done at Mount Sinai. Yet was the king very angry with him and called him an ill man, who had formerly run away from his Egyptian slavery, and came now back with deceitful tricks, and wonders, and magical arts, to astonish him. 2.285. And when he had said this, he commanded the priests to let him see the same wonderful sights; as knowing that the Egyptians were skillful in this kind of learning, and that he was not the only person who knew them, and pretended them to be divine; as also he told him, that when he brought such wonderful sights before him, he would only be believed by the unlearned. Now when the priests threw down their rods, they became serpents. 2.286. But Moses was not daunted at it; and said, “O king, I do not myself despise the wisdom of the Egyptians, but I say that what I do is so much superior to what these do by magic arts and tricks, as divine power exceeds the power of man: but I will demonstrate that what I do is not done by craft, or counterfeiting what is not really true, but that they appear by the providence and power of God.” 8.111. 3. When the king had thus discoursed to the multitude, he looked again towards the temple, and lifting up his right hand to the multitude, he said, “It is not possible by what men can do to return sufficient thanks to God for his benefits bestowed upon them, for the Deity stands in need of nothing, and is above any such requital; but so far as we have been made superior, O Lord, to other animals by thee, it becomes us to bless thy Majesty, and it is necessary for us to return thee thanks for what thou hast bestowed upon our house, and on the Hebrew people; 8.114. And besides all this, I humbly beseech thee that thou wilt let some portion of thy Spirit come down and inhabit in this temple, that thou mayest appear to be with us upon earth. As to thyself, the entire heavens, and the immensity of the things that are therein, are but a small habitation for thee, much more is this poor temple so; but I entreat thee to keep it as thine own house, from being destroyed by our enemies for ever, and to take care of it as thine own possession: 8.117. For hereby all shall learn that thou thyself wast pleased with the building of this house for thee; and that we are not ourselves of an unsociable nature, nor behave ourselves like enemies to such as are not of our own people; but are willing that thy assistance should be communicated by thee to all men in common, and that they may have the enjoyment of thy benefits bestowed upon them.”
24. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
25. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.1-1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. There are four new years:The first of Nisan is the new year for kings and for festivals. The first of Elul is the new year for the tithe of beasts. Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: the first of Tishri. The first of Tishri is the new year for years, for shmitta and jubilee years, for planting and for [tithe of] vegetables. The first of Shevat is the new year for trees, according to the words of Bet Shammai. Bet Hillel says: on the fifteenth of that month." 1.2. At four set times the world is judged:On Pesah in respect to the produce. On Shavuot in respect to the fruit of the tree. On Rosh Hashanah all the people of the world pass before Him like a division of soldier [a numerus], as it says, “He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings” (Psalms 33:15). And on Sukkot they are judged in respect of rain." 1.3. There are six months [at the beginning of which] messengers go out.On Nisan because of Pesah; On Av because of the fast. On Elul because of Rosh Hashanah. On Tishri because of the setting of the festivals. On Kislev because of Hanukah. And on Adar because of Purim. When the Temple stood, they used also to go out to report Iyar because of Pesah Katan (Pesah Sheni)." 1.4. On account of two months they profane Shabbat: on account of Nissan and Tishri, for on those months messengers go forth to Syria and in them the dates of the festivals are fixed. When the Temple stood they used to profane Shabbat for all the months, in order that the sacrifice might be offered on the right day."
26. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.2-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat."
27. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons
28. New Testament, Acts, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.10. and said, "Full of all deceit and all cunning, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord?
29. New Testament, James, 5.14, 5.16-5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord 5.16. Confess your offenses to one another, and pray one for another, that you may be healed. The effective, earnest prayer of a righteous man is powerfully effective. 5.17. Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain, and it didn't rain on the earth for three years and six months. 5.18. He prayed again, and the sky gave rain, and the earth brought forth its fruit.
30. New Testament, John, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. There was much murmuring among the multitudes concerning him. Some said, "He is a good man." Others said, "Not so, but he leads the multitude astray.
31. New Testament, Luke, 6.15, 7.36-7.50, 8.48, 10.18, 17.19, 22.35-22.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.15. Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Simon, who was called the Zealot; 7.36. One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 7.37. Behold, a woman in the city who was a sinner, when she knew that he was reclining in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster jar of ointment. 7.38. Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. 7.39. Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. 7.40. Jesus answered him, "Simon, I have something to tell you."He said, "Teacher, say on. 7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 7.43. Simon answered, "He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most."He said to him, "You have judged correctly. 7.44. Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 7.45. You gave me no kiss, but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. 7.46. You didn't anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. 7.47. Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But to whom little is forgiven, the same loves little. 7.48. He said to her, "Your sins are forgiven. 7.49. Those who sat at the table with him began to say to themselves, "Who is this who even forgives sins? 7.50. He said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you. Go in peace. 8.48. He said to her, "Daughter, cheer up. Your faith has made you well. Go in peace. 10.18. He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven. 17.19. Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you. 22.35. He said to them, "When I sent you out without purse, and wallet, and shoes, did you lack anything?"They said, "Nothing. 22.36. Then he said to them, "But now, whoever has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword. 22.37. For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: 'He was counted with the lawless.' For that which concerns me has an end. 22.38. They said, "Lord, behold, here are two swords."He said to them, "That is enough.
32. New Testament, Mark, 4.11-4.12, 5.34, 5.41, 7.33-7.34, 10.11-10.12, 10.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.' 5.34. He said to her, "Daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace, and be cured of your disease. 5.41. Taking the child by the hand, he said to her, "Talitha cumi;" which means, being interpreted, "Young lady, I tell you, get up. 7.33. He took him aside from the multitude, privately, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spat, and touched his tongue. 7.34. Looking up to heaven, he sighed, and said to him, "Ephphatha!" that is, "Be opened! 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.52. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your faith has made you well." Immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 5.39-5.42, 6.12, 9.22, 9.34, 10.6, 10.34-10.35, 12.24, 27.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.42. Give to him who asks you, and don't turn away him who desires to borrow from you. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 9.22. But Jesus, turning around and seeing her, said, "Daughter, cheer up! Your faith has made you well." And the woman was made well from that hour. 9.34. But the Pharisees said, "By the prince of the demons, he casts out demons. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.34. Don't think that I came to send peace on the earth. I didn't come to send peace, but a sword. 10.35. For I came to set a man at odds against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons. 27.63. saying, "Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: 'After three days I will rise again.'
34. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.26.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Justin, First Apology, 26.1, 26.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. For we forewarn you to be on your guard, lest those demons whom we have been accusing should deceive you, and quite divert you from reading and understanding what we say. For they strive to hold you their slaves and servants; and sometimes by appearances in dreams, and sometimes by magical impositions, they subdue all who make no strong opposing effort for their own salvation. And thus do we also, since our persuasion by the Word, stand aloof from them (i.e., the demons), and follow the only unbegotten God through His Son - we who formerly delighted in fornication, but now embrace chastity alone; we who formerly used magical arts, dedicate ourselves to the good and unbegotten God; we who valued above all things the acquisition of wealth and possessions, now bring what we have into a common stock, and communicate to every one in need; we who hated and destroyed one another, and on account of their different manners would not live with men of a different tribe, now, since the coming of Christ, live familiarly with them, and pray for our enemies, and endeavour to persuade those who hate us unjustly to live conformably to the good precepts of Christ, to the end that they may become partakers with us of the same joyful hope of a reward from God the ruler of all. But lest we should seem to be reasoning sophistically, we consider it right, before giving you the promised explanation, to cite a few precepts given by Christ Himself. And be it yours, as powerful rulers, to inquire whether we have been taught and do teach these things truly. Brief and concise utterances fell from Him, for He was no sophist, but His word was the power of God.
36. Justin, Second Apology, 5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. But if this idea take possession of some one, that if we acknowledge God as our helper, we should not, as we say, be oppressed and persecuted by the wicked; this, too, I will solve. God, when He had made the whole world, and subjected things earthly to man, and arranged the heavenly elements for the increase of fruits and rotation of the seasons, and appointed this divine law - for these things also He evidently made for man - committed the care of men and of all things under heaven to angels whom He appointed over them. But the angels transgressed this appointment, and were captivated by love of women, and begot children who are those that are called demons; and besides, they afterwards subdued the human race to themselves, partly by magical writings, and partly by fears and the punishments they occasioned, and partly by teaching them to offer sacrifices, and incense, and libations, of which things they stood in need after they were enslaved by lustful passions; and among men they sowed murders, wars, adulteries, intemperate deeds, and all wickedness. Whence also the poets and mythologists, not knowing that it was the angels and those demons who had been begotten by them that did these things to men, and women, and cities, and nations, which they related, ascribed them to god himself, and to those who were accounted to be his very offspring, and to the offspring of those who were called his brothers, Neptune and Pluto, and to the children again of these their offspring. For whatever name each of the angels had given to himself and his children, by that name they called them.
37. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 2.2, 7.1, 7.3, 17.1, 62.3, 69.1, 69.7, 80.4, 108.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

85a. ובני בתירה ויונתן בן שאול רבן שמעון בן גמליאל הא דאמרן בני בתירה דאמר מר הושיבוהו בראש ומינוהו לנשיא עליהן יונתן בן שאול דקא"ל לדוד (שמואל א כג, יז) ואתה תמלוך על ישראל ואני אהיה לך למשנה,ממאי דלמא יונתן בן שאול דחזא דגריר עלמא בתר דוד בני בתירה נמי דחזו להלל דעדיף מינייהו אלא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ודאי ענוותן הוה,אמר רבי חביבין יסורין קבל עליה תליסר שני שית בצמירתא ושבע בצפרנא ואמרי לה שבעה בצמירתא ושית בצפרנא,אהורייריה דבי רבי הוה עתיר משבור מלכא כד הוה רמי כיסתא לחיותא הוה אזיל קלא בתלתא מילי הוה מכוין דרמי בההיא שעתא דעייל רבי לבית הכסא ואפי' הכי מעבר ליה קליה לקלייהו ושמעו ליה נחותי ימא,ואפ"ה יסורי דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון עדיפי מדרבי דאילו ר"א בר"ש מאהבה באו ומאהבה הלכו דרבי ע"י מעשה באו וע"י מעשה הלכו,ע"י מעשה באו מאי היא דההוא עגלא דהוו קא ממטו ליה לשחיטה אזל תליא לרישיה בכנפיה דרבי וקא בכי אמר ליה זיל לכך נוצרת אמרי הואיל ולא קא מרחם ליתו עליה יסורין,וע"י מעשה הלכו יומא חד הוה קא כנשא אמתיה דרבי ביתא הוה שדיא בני כרכושתא וקא כנשא להו אמר לה שבקינהו כתיב (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו אמרי הואיל ומרחם נרחם עליה,כולהו שני יסורי דר' אלעזר לא שכיב איניש בלא זמניה כולהו שני יסורי דרבי לא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא דאמר רבה בר רב שילא קשי יומא דמיטרא כיומא דדינא ואמר אמימר אי לאו צריך לעלמא בעו רבנן רחמי עליה ומבטלי ליה אפי' הכי כי הוו עקרי פוגלא ממשרא הוה קיימא בירא מליא מיא,איקלע רבי לאתריה דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון א"ל יש לו בן לאותו צדיק אמרו לו יש לו בן וכל זונה שנשכרת בשנים שוכרתו בשמנה אתייה אסמכיה ברבי ואשלמיה לר' שמעון בן איסי בן לקוניא אחות דאמיה,כל יומא הוה אמר לקרייתי אנא איזיל אמר ליה חכים עבדו יתך וגולתא דדהבא פרסו עלך ורבי קרו לך ואת אמרת לקרייתי אנא איזיל אמר ליה מומי עזובה דא כי גדל אתא יתיב במתיבתא דרבי שמעיה לקליה אמר הא קלא דמי לקליה דר' אלעזר בר' שמעון אמרו ליה בריה הוא,קרי עליה (משלי יא, ל) פרי צדיק עץ חיים ולוקח נפשות חכם פרי צדיק עץ חיים זה ר' יוסי בר' אלעזר בר' שמעון ולוקח נפשות חכם זה ר' שמעון בן איסי בן לקוניא,כי נח נפשיה אמטוהו למערתא דאבוה הוה הדרא לה עכנא למערתא אמר ליה עכנא עכנא פתח פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו לא פתחא להו כסבורים העם לומר שזה גדול מזה,יצתה בת קול ואמרה לא מפני שזה גדול מזה אלא זה היה בצער מערה וזה לא היה בצער מערה,איקלע רבי לאתריה דר' טרפון אמר להו יש לו בן לאותו צדיק שהיה מקפח את בניו אמרו לו בן אין לו בן בת יש לו וכל זונה שנשכרת בשנים שוכרתו בשמנה,אתיוהו לקמיה אמר ליה אי הדרת בך יהיבנא לך ברתאי הדר ביה איכא דאמרי נסבה וגירשה איכא דאמרי לא נסבה כלל כדי שלא יאמרו בשביל זו חזר זה,ולמה ליה כולי האי דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אמר ר' יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה זוכה ויושב בישיבה של מעלה שנאמר (ירמיהו טו, יט) אם תשוב ואשיבך לפני תעמוד,וכל המלמד את בן עם הארץ תורה אפילו הקב"ה גוזר גזירה מבטלה בשבילו שנאמר (ירמיהו טו, יט) ואם תוציא יקר מזולל כפי תהיה,אמר ר' פרנך אמר ר' יוחנן כל שהוא תלמיד חכם ובנו תלמיד חכם ובן בנו תלמיד חכם שוב אין תורה פוסקת מזרעו לעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, כא) ואני זאת בריתי וגו' לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך ומפי זרע זרעך אמר ה' מעתה ועד עולם,מאי אמר ה' אמר הקב"ה אני ערב לך בדבר זה מאי מעתה ועד עולם אמר ר' ירמיה מכאן ואילך תורה מחזרת על אכסניא שלה,רב יוסף יתיב ארבעין תעניתא ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך יתיב ארבעים תעניתא אחריני ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך יתיב מאה תעניתא אחריני אתא ואקריוהו לא ימושו מפיך ומפי זרעך ומפי זרע זרעך אמר מכאן ואילך לא צריכנא תורה מחזרת על אכסניא שלה,ר' זירא כי סליק לארעא דישראל יתיב מאה תעניתא דלשתכח גמרא בבלאה מיניה כי היכי דלא נטרדיה יתיב מאה אחרניתא דלא לשכוב ר' אלעזר בשניה ונפלין עילויה מילי דצבורא ויתיב מאה אחריני דלא נשלוט ביה נורא דגיהנם,כל תלתין יומי הוה בדיק נפשיה שגר תנורא סליק ויתיב בגויה ולא הוה שלטא ביה נורא יומא חד יהבו ביה רבנן עינא ואיחרכו שקיה וקרו ליה קטין חריך שקיה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו ט, יא) מי האיש החכם ויבן את זאת ואשר דבר פי ה' אליו ויגידה על מה אבדה הארץ דבר זה 85a. bthe sons of Beteira; and Jonathan, son of Saul.The Gemara discusses each case: The incident revealing the modesty of bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel is thatwhich bwejust bsaid,as he referred to himself modestly as a fox. bThe sons of Beteirawere exceptionally modest, as they served in the position of iNasiand yet abdicated their positions in favor of Hillel when he emigrated from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael. bAs the Master said:The sons of Beteira, upon recognizing that Hillel was a superior expert in ihalakha /i, bseated him at the head and appointed him iNasiover them(see iPesaḥim66a). bJonathan, son of Saul,was extremely modest, bas he said to David: “And you shall be king over Israel, and I shall be second to you”(I Samuel 23:17), despite the fact that his father, Saul, was the current king.,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredo we know that the aforementioned men were truly modest? bPerhaps Jonathan, son of Saul,relinquished his rights to the kingship not due to modesty, but bbecause he saw that the world,i.e., the masses, were bdrawn after David,and he felt he had no other recourse. With regard to the bsons of Beteira also,perhaps they abdicated only because they bsaw that Hillel was greater than they,as he was able to answer questions that they could not resolve. The Gemara adds: bBut Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel certainly wasa truly bmodestindividual.,§ The Gemara returns to the previous incident. When he heard that the greatness of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was due to his suffering, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaidto himself: bAfflictions areevidently bprecious. He accepted thirteen yearsof afflictions bupon himself; sixyears bof stones in the kidneys and sevenyears bof scurvy [ ibitzfarna /i]. And some sayit was bsevenyears bof stones in the kidneys and sixyears bof scurvy. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe stableman [ iahuriyareih /i] of the house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas wealthier than King Shapurof Persia, due to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s abundant livestock. bWhenthe stableman bwould place fodder before the livestock, the soundof their lowing bwould travelthe distance bof three imil /i. He would calculatethe right moment so bthathe would bplacethe fodder before the animals batprecisely bthat time when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bentered the latrine,so that the lowing of the animals would drown out Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s screams of pain. bBut even so,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s bvoicewas so loud that it bovercame the sound ofthe livestock, bandeven bsailors heard itout at sea.,The Gemara says: bBut even so, the afflictions of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,were bgreater thanthose bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi. The reason is bthat whereasthe afflictions of bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, cameupon him bout of love, and lefthim bout of love,i.e., they were solely the result of his own request, not because he deserved them, those bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi bcameupon him bdue to an incident and lefthim bdue toanother bincident. /b,The Gemara stated that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s suffering bcameupon him bdue to an incident. What was thatincident that led to his suffering? The Gemara answers bthatthere was ba certain calf that was being led to slaughter.The calf bwent and hung its head on the corner of RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s garment band was weeping.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to it: Go,as byou were created for thispurpose. It was bsaidin Heaven: bSince he was not compassionatetoward the calf, blet afflictions come upon him. /b,The Gemara explains the statement: bAnd lefthim bdue toanother bincident. One day, the maidservant of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas sweepinghis bhouse. There were young weasels [ ikarkushta /i] lyingabout, band she wasin the process of bsweeping themout. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to her: Let them be,as bit is written:“The Lord is good to all; band His mercies are over all His works”(Psalms 145:9). bThey saidin Heaven: bSince he was compassionate, we shall be compassionate on him,and he was relieved of his suffering.,The Gemara relates: During ball the years of the suffering of Rabbi Elazar,son of Rabbi Shimon, bno one died prematurely,as his afflictions atoned for the entire generation. During ball the years of the suffering of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthe world did not requireany brain,as the moisture of the dew was sufficient. bAs Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: A day of rain is as difficult as a day of judgment,due to the damage that storms and flooding can cause. bAnd Ameimar said: Wereit bnotfor the fact bthatrain is bneeded by people, the Sages would pray for mercy and annul it,due to the nuisances of rain. And beven so,despite the fact that there was no rain all those years, bwhen a radish was uprooted from its rowin the field, bthere remainedin its place ba hole filled with water,due to the moisture in the earth.,The Gemara continues discussing Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s relationship with Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Once bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barrived at the place of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. He said tothe locals: bDoes that righteous person have a son? They said to him: He has a sonwho is wayward, band any prostitute who hires herselfout to others bfor twocoins bhires him for eight,due to his handsomeness. Upon hearing this report, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi resolved to extricate Rabbi Elazar’s son from his plight. bHe brought himback with him, bordained him as a rabbi, and gave him over to Rabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya,the bbrother ofthe boy’s bmother,to teach him Torah., bEach day,the boy bwould say: I am going back to my town,because it was difficult for him to study. Rabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya bsaid to him: You have been made wise, and a golden cloak has been spread over youwhen you were ordained, band you are calledby the title bRabbi, andyet byou say: I am going back to my town?The boy bsaid to him: I vow [ imomei /i]that bthisthought of leaving is now babandoned,i.e., I will stay and improve my ways. bWhenthe boy bmaturedand became a Torah scholar, bhe came and sat in the academy of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheard his voice and said: This voice is similar to the voice of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon.Those who were present bsaid to him: It is his son. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse babout him: “The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life; and he that is wise wins souls”(Proverbs 11:30). The Gemara explains, with regard to the phrase b“the fruit of the righteous,”that bthisis referring to bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,who was the son of a righteous individual and became a great scholar in his own right. When the verse states: b“And he that is wise wins souls,” thisis referring to bRabbi Shimon ben Isi ben Lakonya,who successfully helped Rabbi Yosei reach his potential., bWhenthis Rabbi Yosei bdied, he was brought to his father’s cavefor burial. bA serpent encircled theentrance of the bcave,denying any access. Those present bsaid to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth, so that a son may enter next to his father.The serpent bdid not openits mouth bfor them. The peoplethere bthought thatRabbi Yosei was denied burial alongside his father because bthisone, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was bgreater than thatone, Rabbi Yosei., bA Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bnot because this one is greater than that one; rather,it is because bthis one,Rabbi Elazar, bexperienced the suffering of the cave, while that one,i.e., Rabbi Yosei, bdid not experience suffering of the cave.Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, suffered with his father for thirteen years in a cave while hiding from the Romans (see iShabbat33b).,The Gemara relates a similar incident: Once bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barrived at the place of Rabbi Tarfon. He said tothe townspeople: bDoes that righteous person,Rabbi Tarfon, bwho would take an oath by the life of his children, have a son?Rabbi Tarfon was wont to take oaths by the lives of his children (see iOholot16:1). bThey said to him: He does not have a son,but bhe hasa grandson, ba sonfrom bhis daughter, and every prostitutewho is bhired for twocoins bhires him for eight. /b,The townspeople bbroughtRabbi Tarfon’s grandson bbeforeRabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who bsaid to him: If you repentfrom your evil ways, bI will give you my daughterin marriage. bHe repentedand became a righteous individual. bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe marriedRabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s daughter bandsubsequently bdivorced her. There arethose bwho saythat bhe did not marry her at all, so that it would not be saidabout him: It was bfor the sake of thatwoman that bthisman brepented. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bAnd whydid Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi exert himself bso muchto save these wayward sons? The Gemara answers: It is because of bthatwhich bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some saythat which bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says, and some saythat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another merits to sitand study bin the heavenly academy, as it is stated:“Therefore so says the Lord: bIf you return, and I bring you back, you shall stand before Me”(Jeremiah 15:19). This verse, which is addressed to Jeremiah, indicates that if he is able to cause the Jewish people to return to God, he himself will be brought to stand before God., bAnd anyone who teaches Torah to the son of an ignoramusachieves such an exalted status that beven if the Holy One, Blessed be He,were to bissuea harsh bdecree, Hemay bnullify it for his sake, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse: b“And if you bring forth the precious out of the worthless, you shall be as My mouth,”i.e., you will be like the mouth of God that can rescind a decree.,The Gemara relates other statements pertaining to Torah scholars and their descendants. bRabbi Parnakh saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to banyone who is a Torah scholar, and whose sonis ba Torah scholar, and whose grandsonis ba Torah scholar, the Torah will never again cease from his descendants, as it is stated: “And as for Me, this is My covet… /bMy spirit that is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, bshall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed, nor out of the mouth of your seed’s seed, says the Lord, from now and forever”(Isaiah 59:21).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the significance of the phrase b“says the Lord”?The Gemara answers that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am your guarantor in this matter.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“from now and forever”?The verse mentioned only three generations. bRabbi Yirmeya says:The verse means that bfrom thispoint bforward,after three generations, bthe Torah returns to its lodging,i.e., the Torah is now ingrained in the family.,The Gemara relates that bRav Yosef fasted forty fastsso that the Torah would become ingrained in his family, band he was readthe verse in a dream: “My words… bshall not depart out of your mouth.” He fasted an additional forty fasts and he was read: “Shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed.” He fasted an additional one hundred fasts.In a dream, bhe came and was readthe conclusion of the verse: b“Shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your seed, nor out of the mouth of your seed’s seed.” He said: From thispoint bforward I do not needto fast anymore, as I am now assured that the bTorahwill breturn to its lodging. /b,The Gemara relates a similar occurrence: bWhen Rabbi Zeira ascendedfrom Babylonia bto Eretz Yisrael, he fasted one hundred fasts so that hewould bforget the Babylonianmethod of studying bGemara, so that it would not hinder himfrom adapting to the unique style of study prevalent in Eretz Yisrael. bHe fasted an additional one hundredfasts so bthat Rabbi Elazar,son of Rabbi Shimon, would bnot die during his lifetime,which would have caused the burden of bcommunal mattersto fall bupon him.As dean of the Torah academy, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was in charge of all public affairs, leaving Rabbi Zeira unencumbered to study Torah. Rabbi Zeira bfasted an additional one hundredfasts bso that the fire of Gehennashould bnot affect him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to Rabbi Zeira: bEvery thirty days, he would examine himselfto ascertain if he remained on his exalted level. He would bignite an oven, climb in, and sit inside it, and the fire would not affect him. One day, the Sages gave him theevil beye,i.e., they were envious of him, band his legs became singedin the fire. bAndfrom then on bthey referred to himas: The bshort one with singed legs. /b,§ The Gemara discusses the topic of the acquisition of Torah knowledge. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who is the wise man, that he may understand this? And who is he to whom the mouth of the Lord has spoken, that he may declare it? Why has the land been lostand laid waste like a wilderness, so that none passes through?” (Jeremiah 9:11). bThis matter,i.e., the question: Why has the land been lost
39. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26b. תנו רבנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת מתפלל בליל שבת שתים טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת מתפלל במוצאי שבת שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשניה ואם הבדיל בשניה ולא הבדיל בראשונה שניה עלתה לו ראשונה לא עלתה לו,למימרא דכיון דלא אבדיל בקמייתא כמאן דלא צלי דמי ומהדרינן ליה,ורמינהו טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו הבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס קשיא,איתמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר תפלות אבות תקנום רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר תפלות כנגד תמידין תקנום,תניא כוותיה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא ותניא כוותיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי תניא כוותיה דרבי יוסי בר' חנינא אברהם תקן תפלת שחרית שנא' (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פינחס ויפלל,יצחק תקן תפלת מנחה שנאמר (בראשית כד, סג) ויצא יצחק לשוח בשדה לפנות ערב ואין שיחה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטף ולפני ה' ישפוך שיחו,יעקב תקן תפלת ערבית שנאמר (בראשית כח, יא) ויפגע במקום וילן שם ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ואל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי,ותניא כוותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה אמרו תפלת השחר עד חצות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד חצות ורבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד ארבע שעות,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת המנחה עד הערב שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד פלג המנחה,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת הערב אין לה קבע שהרי אברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב קרבים והולכים כל הלילה,ומפני מה אמרו של מוספין כל היום שהרי קרבן של מוספין קרב כל היום רבי יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות שהרי קרבן מוסף קרב והולך עד שבע שעות,ואיזו היא מנחה גדולה משש שעות ומחצה ולמעלה ואיזו היא מנחה קטנה מתשע שעות ומחצה ולמעלה,איבעיא להו רבי יהודה פלג מנחה קמא קאמר או פלג מנחה אחרונה קאמר תא שמע דתניא ר' יהודה אומר פלג המנחה אחרונה אמרו והיא י"א שעות חסר רביע,נימא תיהוי תיובתיה דר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמר לך ר' יוסי בר' חנינא לעולם אימא לך תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות דאי לא תימא הכי תפלת מוסף לר' יוסי בר' חנינא מאן תקנה אלא תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות:,רבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות: איבעיא להו עד ועד בכלל או דלמא עד ולא עד בכלל תא שמע ר' יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה אי אמרת בשלמא עד ולא עד בכלל היינו דאיכא בין ר' יהודה לרבנן אלא אי אמרת עד ועד בכלל ר' יהודה 26b. On a similar note, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays inthe evening prayer btwo iAmidaprayers bon Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday iAmidaprayers in the evening prayer bat the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites ihavdala[ /bthe prayer of bdistinction]between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the iAmida,which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, bin the firstprayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, bbut he does not recite ihavdalain the secondprayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, bif he recited ihavdalain the secondprayer band did not recite ihavdalain the first, the second prayer fulfilled hisobligation, the bfirst one did not fulfill hisobligation.,The Gemara comments: bIs that to saythat bsince he did not recite ihavdalain the firstprayer, he is bas one who did not pray and we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite ihavdalain the prayer must repeat that prayer.,The Gemara braises a contradictionto the above conclusion from the iTosefta /i: bOne who erred and did not mention the might of the rains:He makes the wind blow and rain fall binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing on bthe revival of the dead, andone who erred and failed to recite bthe requestfor rain binthe ninth blessing of the iAmida /i, bthe blessing of the years, we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite ihavdalainthe blessing: bWho graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, bas he can recite ihavdala bover the cupof wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains bdifficult. /b,The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. bIt was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; bprayers were instituted by the Patriarchs.However, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat the bprayers were instituted based on the daily offeringssacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.,The Gemara comments: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara elaborates: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is statedwhen Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: b“And Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stoodbefore the Lord” (Genesis 19:27), bandfrom the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb bstandingmeans bnothing other than prayer,as this language is used to describe Pinehas’ prayer after the plague, bas it is stated: “And Pinehas stood up and prayedand the plague ended” (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning., bIsaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And Isaac went out to converse [ ilasuaḥ /i] in the field toward evening”(Genesis 24:63), band conversationmeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “A prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [ isiḥo /i] before the Lord”(Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer., bJacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: “And he encountered [ ivayifga /i] the place and he slept therefor the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). The word bencountermeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is statedwhen God spoke to Jeremiah: b“And you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [ itifga /i] Mefor I do not hear you” (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set., bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levithat the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: bWhy didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe morning prayermay be recited buntil noon? Because,although the bdaily morning offeringis typically brought early in the morning, it may be bsacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says:My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursinto the day, is bbecause the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited buntil the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon because,according to his opinion, bthe daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b, bAnd why did they saythat bthe evening prayer is not fixed? Becausethe burning of the blimbs and fatsof the offerings that were bnot consumedby the fire on the altar buntil the evening.They remained on the altar and were boffered continuouslythroughout bthe entire night. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe additional prayermay be recited ball day? Because the additional offering is broughtthroughout bthe entire day.However, bRabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe additional prayermay be recited buntil the seventh hourof the day, bbecause the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour. /b,The ibaraitacontinues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier iminḥa[ iminḥa gedola /i] and lesser, later iminḥa[ iminḥa ketana /i]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: bWhich is iminḥa gedola /i? From six-and-a-half hoursafter sunrise band on,which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. bWhich is iminḥa ketana /i? From nine-and-a-half hours and on,which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.,On that note, ba dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda,who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does bhe say the midpoint of the first iminḥa /i, iminḥa gedola /i? bOr,does bhe say the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i? Come and hearan explicit resolution to this dilemma: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bRabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i, and that is eleven hours minus a quarterof an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.,In any case, it is clear that according to this ibaraitathe ihalakhotof prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,could have bsaid to you: Actually, I will say to youthat bthe Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages basedthe times and characteristics of prayer bon the Temple offerings,even though they do not stem from the same source. bAs, if you do not say so,that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, bthen, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who instituted the additional prayer?It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. bRather,even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bthe prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based themon the laws of the bofferings. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says:The morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursof the day. bA dilemma was raised beforethe yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says buntil,does he mean buntil and includingthe fourth hour, bor, perhapswhen he says b“until”he means buntil and not including,in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? bCome and heara resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. bRabbi Yehuda says:The afternoon prayer may be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon.Now, bgranted, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and not including, then there isa difference bbetweenthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda andthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. However, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and including,then the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106b. (יהושע יג, כב) הרגו בני ישראל [בחרב] אל חלליהם אמר רב שקיימו בו ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנק,א"ל ההוא מינא לר' חנינא מי שמיע לך בלעם בר כמה הוה א"ל מיכתב לא כתיב אלא מדכתיב (תהלים נה, כד) אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם בר תלתין ותלת שנין או בר תלתין וארבע א"ל שפיר קאמרת לדידי חזי לי פנקסיה דבלעם והוה כתיב ביה בר תלתין ותלת שנין בלעם חגירא כד קטיל יתיה פנחס ליסטאה,א"ל מר בריה דרבינא לבריה בכולהו לא תפיש למדרש לבר מבלעם הרשע דכמה דמשכחת ביה דרוש ביה,כתיב דואג וכתיב דוייג אמר ר' יוחנן בתחילה יושב הקב"ה ודואג שמא יצא זה לתרבות רעה לאחר שיצא אמר ווי שיצא זה,(סימן גבור ורשע וצדיק חיל וסופר),א"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ג) מה תתהלל ברעה הגבור חסד אל כל היום אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג לא גבור בתורה אתה מה תתהלל ברעה לא חסד אל נטוי עליך כל היום,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חוקי אמר לו הקב"ה לדואג הרשע מה לך לספר חוקי כשאתה מגיע לפרשת מרצחים ופרשת מספרי לשון הרע מה אתה דורש בהם (תהלים נ, טז) ותשא בריתי עלי פיך אמר ר' אמי אין תורתו של דואג אלא משפה ולחוץ,ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ח) ויראו צדיקים וייראו ועליו ישחקו בתחילה ייראו ולבסוף ישחקו,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (איוב כ, טו) חיל בלע ויקיאנו מבטנו יורישנו אל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ימות דואג אמר לו חיל בלע ויקיאנו אמר לפניו מבטנו יורישנו אל,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) גם אל יתצך לנצח אמר הקב"ה לדוד ניתי דואג לעלמא דאתי אמר לפניו גם אל יתצך לנצח מאי דכתיב (תהלים נב, ז) יחתך ויסחך מאהל ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה אמר הקב"ה לימרו שמעתא בי מדרשא משמיה אמר לפניו יחתך ויסחך מאהל ליהוי ליה בנין רבנן ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה,וא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, יח) איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים איה סופר כל אותיות שבתורה איה שוקל ששוקל כל קלים וחמורים שבתורה איה סופר את המגדלים שהיה סופר שלש מאות הלכות פסוקות במגדל הפורח באויר,א"ר ארבע מאה בעיי' בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר [ולא איפשט להו חד] אמר רבא רבותא למבעי בעיי בשני דרב יהודה כולי תנויי בנזיקין ואנן קא מתנינן טובא בעוקצין,וכי הוה מטי רב יהודה אשה שכובשת ירק בקדירה ואמרי לה זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהן טהורים אמר הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכא ואנן קא מתנינן בעוקצין תלת סרי מתיבתא,ורב יהודה שליף מסאני ואתא מטרא ואנן צוחינן וליכא דמשגח בן אלא הקב"ה ליבא בעי דכתיב (שמואל א טז, ז) וה' יראה ללבב,אמר רב משרשיא דואג ואחיתופל לא [הוו] סברי שמעתא מתקיף לה מר זוטרא מאן דכתיב ביה איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים ואת אמרת לא הוו סברי שמעתא אלא דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתא אליבא דהלכתא דכתיב (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,א"ר אמי לא מת דואג עד ששכח תלמודו שנא' (משלי ה, כג) הוא ימות באין מוסר וברוב אולתו ישגה רב (אשי) אמר נצטרע שנאמר (תהלים עג, כז) הצמתה כל זונה ממך,כתיב התם (ויקרא כה, ל) לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין ותנן אין בין מוסגר ומוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,(סימן שלשה ראו וחצי וקראו),א"ר יוחנן שלשה מלאכי חבלה נזדמנו לו לדואג אחד ששכח תלמודו ואחד ששרף נשמתו ואחד שפיזר עפרו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,(א"ר) יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא ראו זה את זה דואג בימי שאול ואחיתופל בימי דוד,וא"ר יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא חצו ימיהם תניא נמי הכי אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם כל שנותיו של דואג לא היו אלא שלשים וארבע ושל אחיתופל אינן אלא שלשים ושלש,וא"ר יוחנן בתחלה קרא דוד לאחיתופל רבו ולבסוף קראו חבירו ולבסוף קראו תלמידו בתחילה קראו רבו (תהלים נה, יד) ואתה אנוש כערכי אלופי ומיודעי ולבסוף קראו חבירו (תהלים נה, טו) אשר יחדו נמתיק סוד בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש ולבסוף קראו תלמידו (תהלים מא, י) גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו 106b. With regard to the latter part of the verse: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, bdid the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain”(Joshua 13:22), bRav says:It means bthat they accomplished in himall bfourmeans of court-imposed bexecutions: Stoning, and burning, beheading, and strangulation. /b, bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Have you heard how old Balaam waswhen he died? Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to him: It is not writtenexplicitly in the Torah. bBut fromthe fact bthat it is written: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24), this indicates that he was bthirty-two or thirty-four years old,less than half the standard seventy-year lifespan. The heretic bsaid to him: You have spoken well, I myself saw the notebook of Balaam and it was written therein: Balaam the lame was thirty-two years old when Pinehas the highwayman killed him. /b, bMar, son of Ravina, said to his son:With regard to ball of thoseenumerated as not having a share in the World-to-Come, bdo not extensively interpretverses bhomileticallyin order to denigrate them, bexceptwith regard to bBalaam the wicked, as anynegative element bthat you discover in hisregard, continue to binterpret homiletically concerning him,as it is appropriate to attribute wickedness to one so wicked.,§ bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Doegthe Edomite” (I Samuel 22:9), band it is writtenin another verse: “And the king said to bDoyeig”(I Samuel 22:18). bRabbi Yoḥa saysin explaining the discrepancy: bInitially, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sat and was concerned [ idoeg /i]that bperhaps thisperson bwould emerge toundertake ban evil path. After he emergedon that path, God bsaid: Alas [ ivai /i], thatperson bhas emerged toundertake an evil path.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the statements of Rabbi Yitzḥak that follow: bMighty, wicked, and righteous, riches, and counter. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Why boast of your evil mighty one? The mercy of God endures continually”(Psalms 52:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg: Aren’t you mighty in Torah? Why do you boast of evil? Isn’t God’s mercy extended over you continuallywhen you engage in His Torah?, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But to the wicked, God says: What have you to do to declare My statutes,and that you have taken My covet in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg the wicked: Why do you speak of My statutesand My Torah? bWhen you reachthe Torah bportion of murderers andthe Torah bportion of slanderers, how do you teach them?You have violated both. With regard to the end of that verse: b“And that you have taken My covet in your mouth”(Psalms 50:16), bRabbi Ami says: Doeg’s Torah is onlyinsincere blip service,as it is in his mouth but not in his heart. He does not have a profound understanding of the Torah and does not commit himself to the performance of its mitzvot., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And the righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him”(Psalms 52:8)? bInitially, they will fearDoeg due to his success, band ultimately they will laughwhen they witness his downfall., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again; God shall cast them out of his belly”(Job 20:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Doeg shall die.God bsaid to him: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again.”He is filled with Torah and wisdom; wait until he forgets what he has learned. David bsaid before Him: “God shall cast them out of his belly.”God can remove his Torah knowledge from him before he will forget it on his own., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “God shall likewise destroy you forever”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Let Doeg enter the World-to-Come.David bsaid before Him: “God shall likewise destroy you forever,”i.e., let Doeg not have eternal life. bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent, and root you out from the land of the living. Selah”(Psalms 52:7)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto David: At least blet them state a ihalakhain the study hall in his name.David bsaid before Him: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent,”i.e., let him be completely removed from the tents of Torah. God said to him: bLet him have sons who are Sages.David said: b“And root you out from the land of the living. Selah,”i.e., let Doeg be entirely uprooted., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers [ imigdalim /i]”(Isaiah 33:18)? bWhere is he that counts all the letters of the Torah? Where is he that weighs, who considers all theelements of ia fortioriinferences in the Torah? Where is he who counts the towers?This is Doeg, bwho would count three hundred halakhic conclusions with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard [ imigdal /i] that floats in the air [ iavir /i]. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Doeg and Ahithophel raised four hundred dilemmas with regard tothe purity of ba cupboard that floats in the air, and they did not resolveeven bone,an indication of their great knowledge. bRava says:Is it bgreatness to raise dilemmas?That is not a barometer of greatness, as bin the years of Rav Yehuda all of theirTorah bstudywas confined to the order of iNezikin /i, and we study muchmore than that, and are expert even bintractate iOkatzin /i,the final tractate in the difficult order of iTeharot /i., bMoreover, when Rav Yehuda would encounterthe mishna in tractate iOkatzinthat discusses the extent to which the stems of various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of contracting ritual impurity, where the mishna discusses the ihalakhaconcerning ba woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, and some saywhen he would reach the mishna ( iOkatzin2:1): bOlives pickled with their leaves are pure,because after pickling, it is no longer possible to lift the fruit by its leaves, so they are no longer considered part of the fruit; he would find it difficult to understand. bHe would say:Those are bthe discussions between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. And we,by contrast, bteachtractate iOkatzinin thirteen academies. /b, bButnevertheless, bwhen Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes the rain wouldimmediately bfall,whereas bwe cry out and no one notices us. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart,and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies, bas it is written: “But the Lord looks on the heart”(I Samuel 16:7)., bRav Mesharshiyya says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not comprehend halakhic discussions. Mar Zutra objects to thisstatement: These are people bwith regard to whom it is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers”(Isaiah 33:18), band you saythat bthey did not comprehend halakhic discussions? Rather,Doeg and Ahithophel bwould not conclude halakhic discussions in accordance with halakhicrulings, bas it is written: “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him”(Psalms 25:14). Since they did not fear God, they did not arrive at halakhic conclusions despite their keen intellect., bRabbi Ami says: Doeg died only when he forgot what he learned, as it is stated: “He shall die for want of instruction, and in his folly he shall go astray”(Proverbs 5:23). bRav Ashi says: He was afflicted with leprosybefore his death, bas it is stated: “Those that go far from You shall perish; You destroy [ ihitzmatta /i] all those who go astray from You”(Psalms 73:27).,Where is the allusion to leprosy in this verse? bIt is written there:“And the land shall not be sold bin perpetuity [ ilitzmitut /i]”(Leviticus 25:23), band we translateit into Aramaic as: iLaḥalutin /i. And we learnedin a mishna with regard to lepers ( iMegilla8b): bThe difference between a quarantinedleper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms to be inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop; band a confirmed [ imuḥlat /i]leper, i.e., one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a confirmed leper, bis onlywith regard to blettingthe hair on one’s head bgrow and rendingone’s garments. The derivation is based on the etymological similarity between ihitzmattaand ilitzmitut /i; the translation of ilitzmitutas ilaḥalutin /i, and the etymological similarity between ilaḥalutinand imuḥlat /i.,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicfor the ihalakhotthat follow: bThree, saw, and half, and called him. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Three angels of destruction encountered Doeg: One who caused him to forget his Torahknowledge, bone who burned his soul, and one who dispersed the ashes ofhis soul bin synagogues and in study hallsto be trampled beneath the feet of the righteous., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not see one another,as both died at a young age. bDoeglived bin the days of Saul, and Ahithophellived bin the days of David,toward the end of David’s life., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not reach half of theirallotted bdays,as they died before the age of thirty-five, half of the standard lifetime mentioned in the verse: “The days of our years are seventy years” (Psalms 90:10). bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days”(Psalms 55:24); ball the years of Doeg were only thirty-four, andthe years bof Ahithophel were only thirty-three. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, and eventually, he called him his colleague, and ultimately, he called him his student. Initially,David bcalledAhithophel bhis teacher,as it is stated: b“But it was you, a man my equal, my master [ ialufi /i], and my familiar friend”(Psalms 55:14); a teacher is known as ialufas he trains [ ime’alef] his students. bAnd eventually, he called him his colleague,as it is stated: b“We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God with the throng”(Psalms 55:15); the term together indicates that they were equals. bAnd ultimately, he called him his student,as it is stated: b“Even my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. בברייתו של עולם,ת"ר א"י נבראת תחילה וכל העולם כולו נברא לבסוף שנאמר (משלי ח, כו) עד לא עשה ארץ וחוצות א"י משקה אותה הקב"ה בעצמו וכל העולם כולו ע"י שליח שנאמר (איוב ה, י) הנותן מטר על פני ארץ ושולח מים על פני חוצות,א"י שותה מי גשמים וכל העולם כולו מתמצית שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' א"י שותה תחילה וכל העולם כולו לבסוף שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' משל לאדם שמגבל את הגבינה נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,אמר מר ממתקין הן בעבים מנליה דא"ר יצחק בר יוסף א"ר יוחנן כתיב (תהלים יח, יב) חשכת מים עבי שחקים וכתיב (שמואל ב כב, יב) חשרת מים עבי שחקים,שקול כף ושדי אריש וקרי ביה חכשרת,ור' יהושע בהני קראי מאי דריש בהו סבר לה כי הא דכי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא נהור ענני זעירין מוהי חשוך ענני סגיין מוהי,כמאן אזלא הא דתניא מים העליונים במאמר הם תלוים ופירותיהן מי גשמים שנאמר (תהלים קד, יג) מפרי מעשיך תשבע הארץ כמאן כר' יהושע ור' אליעזר ההוא במעשה ידיו של הקב"ה הוא דכתיב,אריב"ל כל העולם כולו מתמצית גן עדן הוא שותה שנאמר (בראשית ב, י) ונהר יוצא מעדן וגו' תנא מתמצית בית כור שותה תרקב:,ת"ר ארץ מצרים הויא ד' מאות פרסה על ד' מאות פרסה והוא אחד מששים בכוש וכוש אחד מששים בעולם ועולם א' מששים בגן וגן אחד מששים לעדן ועדן אחד מס' לגיהנם נמצא כל העולם כולו ככיסוי קדרה לגיהנם וי"א גיהנם אין לה שיעור וי"א עדן אין לה שיעור,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, יג) שוכנת על מים רבים רבת אוצרות מי גרם לבבל שיהו אוצרותיה מליאות בר הוי אומר מפני ששוכנת על מים רבים אמר רב עתירה בבל דחצדא בלא מיטרא אמר אביי נקיטינן טובעני ולא יובשני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בג' במרחשון שואלין את הגשמים רבן גמליאל אומר בשבעה בו ט"ו יום אחר החג כדי שיגיע אחרון שבישראל לנהר פרת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבן גמליאל תניא חנניה אומר ובגולה עד ששים בתקופה אמר רב הונא בר חייא אמר שמואל הלכה כחנניה,איני והא בעו מיניה משמואל מאימת מדכרינן ותן טל ומטר אמר להו מכי מעיילי ציבי לבי טבות רישבא דילמא אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא,איבעיא להו יום ששים כלפני ששים או כלאחר ששים ת"ש רב אמר יום ששים כלאחר ששים ושמואל אמר יום ששים כלפני ששים,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק וסימנך עילאי בעו מיא תתאי לא בעו מיא אמר רב פפא הלכתא יום ששים כלאחר ששים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיע י"ז במרחשון ולא ירדו גשמים התחילו היחידים מתענין ג' תעניות אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה הגיע ר"ח כסליו ולא ירדו גשמים ב"ד גוזרין שלש תעניות על הצבור אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן יחידים אמר רב הונא רבנן ואמר רב הונא יחידים מתענין שלשה תעניות שני וחמישי ושני,מאי קמשמע לן תנינא אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחילה בחמישי שלא להפקיע את השערים אלא שלש תעניות הראשונות שני וחמישי ושני,מהו דתימא הני מילי צבור אבל יחיד לא קמשמע לן תניא נמי הכי כשהתחילו היחידים להתענות מתענין שני וחמישי ושני ומפסיקין בראשי חדשים 10a. verse deals bwith the creation of the world,when all the water was contained in the deep., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEretz Yisrael was created first and the rest of the entire world was created afterward, as it is stated: “While as yet He had not made the land, nor the fields”(Proverbs 8:26). Here, and in the following statements, the term “land” is understood as a reference to the Land of Israel, while “the fields” means all the fields in other lands. Furthermore, bEretz Yisrael is watered by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, and the rest of the entire worldis watered bthrough an intermediary, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the land, and sends water upon the fields”(Job 5:10).,Additionally, bEretz Yisrael drinks rainwater andthe rest of bthe entire worlddrinks bfromthe remaining bresidueof rainwater left in the clouds, bas it is statedthat God is He b“who gives rain upon the land”and only afterward takes what is left “and sends water upon the fields.” bEretz Yisrael drinks first, andthe rest of bthe entire world afterward, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the landand sends water upon the fields.” There is ba parablethat illustrates this: bA personwho bkneadshis bcheeseafter it has curdled btakes the food and leaves the refuse. /b, bThe Master saidabove: The ocean waters bare sweetened in the clouds.The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredoes Rabbi Eliezer derive bthis?The Gemara answers bthat Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bit is written: “Darkness [ iḥeshkhat /i] of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). bAnd it is written,in a similar verse: b“Gathering of [ iḥashrat /i] waters, thick clouds of the skies”(II Samuel 22:12).,The Gemara explains the significance of this minor variation. These two phrases vary in only one word, which themselves differ by only one letter, a ikaffor a ireish /i. If you join the two versions together, and btakethe letter ikaf /ifrom the first version bandplace it bwiththe second version of the word, which has ba ireish /i,you can bread intothe verse a new word meaning brendering fit [ iḥakhsharat /i].Accordingly, the verse can be interpreted as: The rendering fit of water is performed in the clouds of the sky.,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua,with regard bto these verses, whatdoes he learn from bthem?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehoshua bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bthisSage, Rav Dimi. bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat bthey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael: When bclouds are bright, they have little water;when bclouds are dark, they have much water.Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that when there is “a darkness of waters” in the clouds, there is also “a gathering of waters,” as rain will fall from them.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe upper watersdo not stand in any defined place; rather, they are bsuspended bythe bwordof God, band their fruit is rainwater, as it is stated:“Who waters the mountains from His upper chambers; bthe earth is full of the fruit of Your works”(Psalms 104:13). bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this statement? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. And Rabbi Eliezer,how does he explain this verse? Rabbi Eliezer could say: bThatverse from Psalms bis written with regard to the handiwork of the Holy One, Blessed be He,not the upper waters., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The entire world drinks from the runoff of the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “And a river went out of Edento water the garden” (Genesis 2:10). It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom the runoff of a ibeit kor /i,a field in which a ikorof seed can be planted, which is approximately seventy-five thousand square cubits, a field in which ba half- ise’a[ itarkav /i],of seed can be sown, i.e. one-sixtieth the size of a ibeit kor /i, bcan be watered.If the runoff from a ibeit koris sufficient for a field one-sixtieth its size, it can be inferred that the rest of the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The area of the bland of Egypt is four hundred parasangs [ iparsa /i] by four hundred parasangs. Andthis bis one sixtieththe size bof Cush, and Cushitself bis one sixtieththe size bofthe rest of bthe world. And the world is one sixtieth of the Gardenof Eden, band the Gardenof Eden bis one sixtieth of Edenitself, band Eden is one sixtieth of Gehenna.You bfindthat bthe entire world is like a pot cover for Gehenna,as Eden, which is far larger than the rest of the world, is only one sixtieth the size of Gehenna. bAnd some say: Gehenna has no measure. And some saythat bEden has no measure. /b, bRabbi Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenabout Babylonia: b“You who dwells on many waters, abundant in storehouses”(Jeremiah 51:13)? bWhat caused Babylonia to have storehouses full of grain? You must saythat it is bdue tothe fact that bit resides on many waters,the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which render its land easy to irrigate. Similarly, bRav said: Babylonia is wealthy sinceit can bgrow cropsfor harvest beven without rain. Abaye said: We holdthat it is better for a land to be bswampylike Babylonia, band not dry,as crops in Babylonia grow all year., strongMISHNA: /strong bOn the third ofthe month of bMarḥeshvanone starts to brequest rainby inserting the phrase: And give dew and rain, in the blessing of the years, the ninth blessing of the iAmida /i. bRabban Gamliel says:One starts to request rain bon the seventh ofMarḥeshvan, which is bfifteen days after the festivalof iSukkot /i. Rabban Gamliel explains that one waits these extra four days bso thatthe blastpilgrim bof the Jewish people,who traveled to Jerusalem on foot for the Festival, bcan reach the Euphrates Riverwithout being inconvenienced by rain on his journey home., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Elazar said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel,that one does not begin to request rain until the seventh of Marḥeshvan. It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bḤaya says: And in the Diasporaone does not begin to request rain buntil sixtydays binto the season,i.e., sixty days after the autumnal equinox. bRav Huna bar Ḥiyya saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But they raised a dilemma before Shmuel: From when does one mention: And give dew and rain? He said to them: From when they bring wood into the house of Tavut the bird hunter [ irishba /i].This is apparently a different date than that mentioned by Ḥaya. The Gemara suggests: bPerhaps this and that are one measureof time, i.e., Shmuel merely provided a sign of sixty days after the autumnal equinox., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the bsixtieth dayitself treated as part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtiethday boris it included binthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday? The Gemara answers. bComeand bhearthat there is a dispute in this regard. bRav said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, band Shmuel said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtieth. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonicto remember the divergent opinions is: bThose above require water; those below do not require water.Since water flows downward, those who live in low places receive their water from above and are generally in less need of additional water. Accordingly, Shmuel, who lived in the lowlands of Babylonia, ruled that one begins to request for rain later, whereas Rav, who studied in Eretz Yisrael, which is higher in elevation and has a greater need for rain, stated an earlier date. bRav Pappa said: The ihalakhaisthat the bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, as stated by bRav,and therefore one begins to mention the request for rain on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox., strongMISHNA: /strong If the bseventeenth of Marḥeshvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals,but not the entire community, bbegin to fast three fastsfor rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one bmay eat and drink after dark, and one is permittedduring the days of the fasts themselves to engage binthe performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearing oilon one’s body, bin wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations.If the bNew Moon of Kislev arrived and rain hasstill bnot fallen,the bcourt decrees three fasts on theentire bcommunity.Similar to the individual fasts, everyone bmay eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted toengage in the performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearingone’s body bwith oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWho arethese bindividualsmentioned in the mishna? bRav Huna said:This is referring to bthe Sages,who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. bAnd Rav Hunafurther said: The bindividualswho bfastthe bthree fastsdo so bon a Monday, andon the next bThursday, andagain on the following bMonday. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isRav Huna bteaching us? Wealready blearnedthis (15b): The court bmay not decree a fast on the community starting from a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. Rather,the bfirst three fastsare established on bMonday, and Thursday, and Monday.What does Rav Huna’s statement add to this ruling?,The Gemara answers: Rav Huna’s comment is necessary, blest you saythat bthis appliesonly to ba community, butthat in the case of ban individual, no,the series of three fasts does not have to start on a Monday. bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to those mentioned in the mishna: bWhen the individuals begin to fast, they fast on a Monday, a Thursday, and a Monday. Andif one of the fast days occurs on a day with special observances, bthey interruptthe sequence bfor New Moons, /b
42. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.18.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.18.8. He writes also that even down to his time prophetic gifts shone in the Church. And he mentions the Apocalypse of John, saying distinctly that it was the apostle's. He also refers to certain prophetic declarations, and accuses Trypho on the ground that the Jews had cut them out of the Scripture. A great many other works of his are still in the hands of many of the brethren.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
abraham (patriarch) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
adultery Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
ahab Gera, Judith (2014) 377
akiba Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
altar Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142, 286
animal sacrifice Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
animals Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 332
anthony (saint) Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
antoninus pius Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
asherah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
athanasius Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
baal Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
balaam Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
bel Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
bible Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
biblical women, cause death Gera, Judith (2014) 377
biblical women, seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 377
biography Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 60
boaz Gera, Judith (2014) 377
book of judith, chronology Gera, Judith (2014) 377
bull Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
canaan and canaanites Gera, Judith (2014) 377
charismatic wonderworkers, elijah Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
church Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
clement of rome, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
cloak Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
community Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
confession, of sin Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
cornelius repentinus Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
cozbi Gera, Judith (2014) 377
david, king Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
death Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
delilah Gera, Judith (2014) 377
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 377
divine/god, covenant Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
dura europos, synagogue Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142, 286
dura europos Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142
egypt, exodus from Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
egypt, magic Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
egypt Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
el Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
eliat Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
eliezer Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
elijah, and the prophets of baal Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142, 286
elijah Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 171, 172; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
elijah the prophet Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
elisha Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
elite rhetoric, magic Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
ephrem the syrian Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142
equinox Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 377
faith, prayer of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
five-day moratorium Gera, Judith (2014) 377
forgiveness, of sins Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
forgiveness Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 377
gnosticism, as heretical or other Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59
god, relationship with israel Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
godhead; see also attributes, hierarchy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
gods power Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 172
goodenough e. Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 377
hammat gader Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
hanina ben dosa, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
healing Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
heaven Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
hebrew, biblical Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
hebrew Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
hiel of bethel Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142
high priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 377
hot springs Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
hygieia Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
hymn, invocations Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 172
isaac (patriarch), binding of Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
israel, relationship with god Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 377
jerusalem Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), concept of scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 321
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 321
jewish elite rhetoric, magic Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
jewish elite rhetoric, miracles, legitimacy of Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
jewish elite rhetoric Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
jezebel Gera, Judith (2014) 377
joash Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 377
josephus (flavius josephus), canonicity and scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 321
josephus (historian) Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 171, 172
judah Gera, Judith (2014) 377
judah ha-nasi, rabbi Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
king, as mythical being Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
king Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
kings Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
kuntillet ajrud Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
liturgical poetry Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
lucian of samosata, magic Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
magic Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80; Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 331, 332, 333
manoahs wife Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 172
martyr, justin, distinctive features of his heresiology Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
martyr, justin, naming sects Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
martyr, justin Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59
menander Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
midian(ites) Gera, Judith (2014) 377
miracle Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
moses Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 331, 334; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
mot Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
muhammad Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
myth, and metaphor Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
near eastern parallels, canaanite Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
netherworld Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
northern israelite narratives Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
oral tradition Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142
paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59
petitions of the lords prayer, fifth Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
pharaoh Gera, Judith (2014) 377
pharisees Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
philistines Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
philo of alexandria, canonicity and scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 321
piyyut Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142
potiphars wife Gera, Judith (2014) 377
prayer, effect of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, intercessory Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, petitionary Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer, vocabulary Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201; Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
priest Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
priesthood Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
primordial, time Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
prophecy Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 331, 333, 334; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
prophets Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
prophets and prophecy Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
proseuche Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
providence Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 171
rain Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
rebuke Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
redemption from Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
repentance Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
return from the dead Nicklas and Spittler, Credible, Incredible: The Miraculous in the Ancient Mediterranean. (2013) 332
roman army Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
rosh hashanah Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
ruth Gera, Judith (2014) 377
sacrifice Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
sacrifices Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
samson Gera, Judith (2014) 377
samuel Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
satan Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
saul, king Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
servants, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 377
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 377
sheba, son of bichri, sheba, queen of Gera, Judith (2014) 377
sheol Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
shofar Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
simon of samaria Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
sin, king david and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 205
sin Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 377
slaves, and servants Gera, Judith (2014) 377
solomon Gera, Judith (2014) 377; Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 171
son of hamor Gera, Judith (2014) 377
soteriology Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 201
swallowing, divine strife with Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 80
tamar, judahs daughter in law Gera, Judith (2014) 377
tamid service, financing Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 35
tamid service, significance Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 35
tamid service, time of' Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 35
temple, cult Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
toothache Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 88
voice Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
wall painting, synagogue Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 142
water libation Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
west-semitic pantheon Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
wild ox, horn of Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
wine and drunkenness, drinking parties Gera, Judith (2014) 377
witchcraft Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 184
word Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 209
yahweh Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green, A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner (2014) 176
yannai (poet) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 286
zealot Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
zechariah Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 178
zimri Gera, Judith (2014) 377
δύναμις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
κατάπληξις Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59, 60
σύνταγμα Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 59