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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6268
Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 5.1-5.2


וּבְנֵי רְאוּבֵן בְּכוֹר־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי הוּא הַבְּכוֹר וּבְחַלְּלוֹ יְצוּעֵי אָבִיו נִתְּנָה בְּכֹרָתוֹ לִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף בֶּן־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא לְהִתְיַחֵשׂ לַבְּכֹרָה׃And the sons of Reuben the first-born of Israel—for he was the first-born; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, yet not so that he was to be reckoned in the genealogy as first-born.


וּבִימֵי שָׁאוּל עָשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה עִם־הַהַגְרִאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ בְּיָדָם וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶם עַל־כָּל־פְּנֵי מִזְרָח לַגִּלְעָד׃And the sons of Reuben the first-born of Israel—for he was the first-born; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, yet not so that he was to be reckoned in the genealogy as first-born.


וַיֵּעָזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַיִּנָּתְנוּ בְיָדָם הַהַגְרִיאִים וְכֹל שֶׁעִמָּהֶם כִּי לֵאלֹהִים זָעֲקוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְנַעְתּוֹר לָהֶם כִּי־בָטְחוּ בוֹ׃For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him came he that is the prince; but the birthright was Joseph’s—


כִּי יְהוּדָה גָּבַר בְּאֶחָיו וּלְנָגִיד מִמֶּנּוּ וְהַבְּכֹרָה לְיוֹסֵף׃For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him came he that is the prince; but the birthright was Joseph’s—


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4, 21.15-21.17, 27.20, 33.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 21.15. כִּי־תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכוֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה׃ 21.16. וְהָיָה בְּיוֹם הַנְחִילוֹ אֶת־בָּנָיו אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה לוֹ לֹא יוּכַל לְבַכֵּר אֶת־בֶּן־הָאֲהוּבָה עַל־פְּנֵי בֶן־הַשְּׂנוּאָה הַבְּכֹר׃ 21.17. כִּי אֶת־הַבְּכֹר בֶּן־הַשְּׂנוּאָה יַכִּיר לָתֶת לוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵא לוֹ כִּי־הוּא רֵאשִׁית אֹנוֹ לוֹ מִשְׁפַּט הַבְּכֹרָה׃ 33.6. יְחִי רְאוּבֵן וְאַל־יָמֹת וִיהִי מְתָיו מִסְפָּר׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 21.15. If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated;" 21.16. then it shall be, in the day that he causeth his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved the first-born before the son of the hated, who is the first-born;" 21.17. but he shall acknowledge the first-born, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath; for he is the first-fruits of his strength, the right of the first-born is his." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ." 33.6. Let Reuben live, and not die In that his men become few."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 29.31, 47.31, 48.5-48.6, 49.2, 49.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.31. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי־שְׂנוּאָה לֵאָה וַיִּפְתַּח אֶת־רַחְמָהּ וְרָחֵל עֲקָרָה׃ 47.31. וַיֹּאמֶר הִשָּׁבְעָה לִי וַיִּשָּׁבַע לוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטָּה׃ 48.5. וְעַתָּה שְׁנֵי־בָנֶיךָ הַנּוֹלָדִים לְךָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַד־בֹּאִי אֵלֶיךָ מִצְרַיְמָה לִי־הֵם אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה כִּרְאוּבֵן וְשִׁמְעוֹן יִהְיוּ־לִי׃ 48.6. וּמוֹלַדְתְּךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹלַדְתָּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם לְךָ יִהְיוּ עַל שֵׁם אֲחֵיהֶם יִקָּרְאוּ בְּנַחֲלָתָם׃ 49.2. מֵאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ וְהוּא יִתֵּן מַעֲדַנֵּי־מֶלֶךְ׃ 49.2. הִקָּבְצוּ וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב וְשִׁמְעוּ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 29.31. And the LORD saw that Leah was hated, and he opened her womb; but Rachel was barren." 47.31. And he said: ‘Swear unto me.’ And he swore unto him. And Israel bowed down upon the bed’s head." 48.5. And now thy two sons, who were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh, even as Reuben and Simeon, shall be mine." 48.6. And thy issue, that thou begettest after them, shall be thine; they shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance." 49.2. Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; And hearken unto Israel your father." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch."
3. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 5.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וַיֵּעָזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַיִּנָּתְנוּ בְיָדָם הַהַגְרִיאִים וְכֹל שֶׁעִמָּהֶם כִּי לֵאלֹהִים זָעֲקוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְנַעְתּוֹר לָהֶם כִּי־בָטְחוּ בוֹ׃ 5.2. כִּי יְהוּדָה גָּבַר בְּאֶחָיו וּלְנָגִיד מִמֶּנּוּ וְהַבְּכֹרָה לְיוֹסֵף׃ 5.2. For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him came he that is the prince; but the birthright was Joseph’s—"
4. Anon., Jubilees, 33.2-33.4, 33.7-33.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.2. And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth month. 33.3. And Reuben saw Bilhah, Rachel's maid, the concubine of his father, bathing in water in asecret place, and he loved her. brAnd he hid himself at night, and he entered the house of Bilhah [at night], and he found her sleeping alone on a bed in her house. 33.4. And he lay with her, and she awoke and saw, and behold Reuben was lying with her in the bed, and she uncovered the border of her covering and seized him, and cried out 33.7. And Jacob did not approach her again because Reuben had defiled her. And as for any man who uncovereth his father's skirt. 33.8. his deed is wicked exceedingly, for he is abominable before the Lord. 33.9. For this reason it is written and ordained on the heavenly tables that a man should not lie with his father's wife, and should not uncover his father's skirt, for this is unclean:
5. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 1.6, 3.11-3.15, 4.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. And behold I call to witness against you this day the God of heaven, that ye walk not in the sins of youth and fornication, wherein I was poured out, and defiled the bed of my father Jacob. 4.4. And yet my father comforted me much and prayed for me unto the Lord, that the anger of the Lord might pass from me, even as the Lord showed. And thenceforth until now I have been on my guard and sinned not.
6. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 98.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

98.3. הִקָּבְצוּ וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב (בראשית מט, ב), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה זִמְנִין אֲמַר לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא וְזִמְנִין אֲמַר לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבָּנָן דְּתַמָּן, מִכָּאן שֶׁהָיוּ מְפֻזָּרִין וְיָרַד מַלְאָךְ וְכִנְסָן. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא מִכָּאן שֶׁהָיוּ מְפֻזָּרִין וְכִנְסָן בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ. (בראשית מט, ב): וְשִׁמְעוּ אֶל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי פִּינְחָס, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר שִׁמְעוּ לְאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם. וְרַבִּי פִּינְחָס אָמַר אֵל הוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם, מַה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹרֵא עוֹלָמוֹת, אַף אֲבִיכֶם בּוֹרֵא עוֹלָמוֹת. מַה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְחַלֵּק עוֹלָמוֹת, אַף אֲבִיכֶם מְחַלֵּק עוֹלָמוֹת. אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן אֲחוּי אָמַר מִכָּאן זָכוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ נִפְטַר מִן הָעוֹלָם קָרָא לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר בָּנָיו אָמַר לָהֶם שִׁמְעוּ אֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם אֲבִיכֶם, שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ בִּלְבַבְכֶם מַחְלֹקֶת עַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרוּ לוֹ (דברים ו, ד): שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אָבִינוּ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין בְּלִבְּךָ מַחְלֹקֶת עַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, כָּךְ אֵין בְּלִבֵּנוּ מַחְלֹקֶת, אֶלָּא (דברים ו, ד): ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד, אַף הוּא פֵּרַשׁ בִּשְׂפָתָיו וְאָמַר: בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכותוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל הֲדָא הוּא שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַשְׁכִּימִים וּמַעֲרִיבִים בְּכָל יוֹם וְאוֹמְרִים שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אָבִינוּ מִמְּעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה, אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁצֶּוִּיתָנוּ עֲדַיִן הוּא נוֹהֵג בָּנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד.
7. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 329 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

8. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. ואוכלין מתחת הנשרים בשבת ונותנין פאה לירק ומיחו בידם חכמים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר ששה דברים עשה חזקיה המלך על שלשה הודו לו ועל שלשה לא הודו לו גירר עצמות אביו על מטה של חבלים והודו לו כיתת נחש הנחשת והודו לו גנז ספר רפואות והודו לו,ועל שלשה לא הודו לו קיצץ דלתות של היכל ושיגרן למלך אשור ולא הודו לו סתם מי גיחון העליון ולא הודו לו עיבר ניסן בניסן ולא הודו לו:,מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכו': היכי עבדי אמר רב יהודה מייתי אסא דרא ושיכרא דדפנא וקימחא דשערי דרמי במנא דלא חלפי עליה ארבעין יומין ומרתחי להו ושדו להו לדיקלא בליביה וכל דקאי בארבע אמות דידיה אי לא עבדי ליה הכי צאוי לאלתר רב אחא בריה דרבא אמר מנחי כופרא דיכרא לנוקבתא:,וכורכין את שמע: היכי עבדי אמר רב יהודה אומרים (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ולא היו מפסיקין רבא אמר מפסיקין היו אלא שהיו אומרים היום על לבבך דמשמע היום על לבבך ולא מחר על לבבך: ת"ר כיצד היו כורכין את שמע אומרים שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ולא היו מפסיקין דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר מפסיקין היו אלא שלא היו אומרים ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,ואנן מאי טעמא אמרינן ליה כדדריש ר' שמעון בן לקיש,דאמר רשב"ל (בראשית מט, א) ויקרא יעקב אל בניו ויאמר האספו ואגידה לכם ביקש יעקב לגלות לבניו קץ הימין ונסתלקה ממנו שכינה אמר שמא חס ושלום יש במטתי פסול כאברהם שיצא ממנו ישמעאל ואבי יצחק שיצא ממנו עשו אמרו לו בניו שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אמרו כשם שאין בלבך אלא אחד כך אין בלבנו אלא אחד באותה שעה פתח יעקב אבינו ואמר ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,אמרי רבנן היכי נעביד נאמרוהו לא אמרו משה רבינו לא נאמרוהו אמרו יעקב התקינו שיהו אומרים אותו בחשאי אמר רבי יצחק אמרי דבי רבי אמי משל לבת מלך שהריחה ציקי קדירה אם תאמר יש לה גנאי לא תאמר יש לה צער התחילו עבדיה להביא בחשאי,אמר רבי אבהו התקינו שיהו אומרים אותו בקול רם מפני תרעומת המינין ובנהרדעא דליכא מינין עד השתא אמרי לה בחשאי:,תנו רבנן ששה דברים עשו אנשי יריחו שלשה ברצון חכמים ושלשה שלא ברצון חכמים ואלו ברצון חכמים מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכורכין את שמע וקוצרין לפני העומר ואלו שלא ברצון חכמים גודשין לפני העומר ופורצין פרצות בגנותיהן ובפרדסותיהן להאכיל נשר לעניים בשני בצורת בשבתות וימים טובים ומתירין גמזיות של הקדש של חרוב ושל שקמה דברי רבי מאיר,אמר לו רבי יהודה אם ברצון חכמים היו עושין יהו כל אדם עושין כן אלא אלו ואלו שלא ברצון חכמים היו עושין על שלשה מיחו בידם ועל שלשה לא מיחו בידם,ואלו שלא מיחו בידם מרכיבין דקלים כל היום וכורכין את שמע וקוצרין וגודשין לפני העומר ואלו שמיחו בידם מתירין גמזיות של הקדש של חרוב ושל שקמה ופורצין פרצות בגנותיהן ופרדסיהן להאכיל נשר לעניים בשבתות וימים טובים בשני בצורת נותנין פיאה לירק ומיחו בידם חכמים,וסבר רבי יהודה קצירה שלא ברצון חכמים היא והתנן אנשי יריחו קוצרין לפני העומר ברצון חכמים וגודשין לפני העומר שלא ברצון חכמים ולא מיחו בידם חכמים 56a. bandthey would beatfallen fruit bfrom beneathpalm btrees that shed fruitthat had fallen bon Shabbat; and theywould bdesignatethe produce in the bcornerfor the poor in a field of bvegetables,which is exempt from this obligation even by rabbinic law. bAnd the Sages reprimandedthe people of Jericho for doing these three things., strongGEMARA: /strong Apropos the people of Jericho, who were reprimanded for some of their actions and not reprimanded for others, the Gemara cites a similar ibaraita /i. bThe Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed six actions. With regard to threeof them, the Sages of his generation bconceded to him; and with regard to threeof them, the Sages bdid not concede to him.Due to King Hezekiah’s father’s wickedness, bhe dragged the bones of his fatherAhaz bon a bier of ropesand did not afford him the respect due to a king, bandthe Sages bconceded to him. He ground the copper snakethat Moses fashioned in the desert because Israel worshipped it, bandthe Sages bconceded to him. He suppressed the Book of Cures, and they conceded to him. /b, bAnd with regard to threeactions, the Sages bdid not concede to him. He cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the King of Assyria, and they did not concede to himbecause he thereby demeaned the Temple. bHe sealed the waters of the upper Gihonstream, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel, band they did not concede to him,because he harmed the local populace in the process and should have relied upon God ( iMe’iri /i). bHe intercalatedthe year, delaying the advent of the month bof Nisan during Nisan, and they did not concede to him.The Gemara explains that he declared the first of Nisan to be the thirtieth of Adar and only then intercalated the year (see II Chronicles 30:2).,We learned in the mishna: bTheywould bgraft palm trees the entire dayof the fourteenth of Nisan. The Gemara asks: bHow did they performthis grafting? bRabbi Yehuda said: They brought fresh myrtle, strong beermade bfrom thefruit of the blaurel tree, and barley flour that was cast into a vessel, and forty days has not passedsince it was ground. bThey boiled themtogether band pouredthe mixture binto the core of the palm tree.And for banytree bstanding within four cubits of thattree, bif they did not perform thistreatment with it, bit would immediately witherbecause the tree that received the treatment would grow faster at the expense of the surrounding trees. bRav Aḥa, sonof bRava, said: They placed a branch of a male palm tree on the female,and by doing so the female tree would yield fruit.,We learned in the mishna that the residents of Jericho would bbundle iShema /i.The Gemara asks: What does it mean that they bundled iShema /i? bHow did they doso? bRabbi Yehuda saidthat bthey recited: “Hear Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord is One /b” (Deuteronomy 6:4), band they would not pausebetween words. bRava said: Theywould bpausebetween words, bbutinstead of reciting this verse in the proper manner: “That which I command you today, shall be on your heart” (Deuteronomy 6:5), pausing after the word today; bthey would say: Today shall be on your heart,inferring: bToday it will be on your heart, and tomorrow it will not be on your heart. The Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bHow would they bundle iShema /i? They recited: “Hear Israel, the Lord is our God the Lord is One,” without pausing;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: They paused, but they would not recite: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reason that we recitethat passage: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, even though it does not appear in the Torah? The Gemara answers: We recite it bin accordance withthat bwhich Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish interpreted homiletically. /b, bAs Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat it is written: b“And Jacob called his sons and said, Gather around and I will tell youwhat will occur to you in the end of days” (Genesis 49:1). bJacob wanted to reveal to his sonswhen the complete redemption would arrive at bthe end of days(see Daniel 12:13), bbut the Divine Presence abandoned him,rendering him unable to prophesy. bHe said: Perhapsthe Divine Presence has abandoned me because, bHeaven forfend, one of my descendants is unfit, aswas the case with my grandfather bAbraham, from whom Ishmael emerged, andlike bmy father Isaac, from whom Esau emerged. His sons said to him: Hear Israel,our father, bthe Lord is our God, the Lord is One. They said: Just as there is only oneGod bin your heart, so too, there is only one in our hearts. At that moment Jacob our father saidin praise: bBlessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever,as all his children were righteous., bThe Rabbis said: What should we do? Shall we recitethis verse? But bMoses our teacher did not say itin the Torah as part of iShema /i. bShall we not recite it?But bJacob said it.In order to resolve this dilemma bthey established thatthis passage bshould be recited surreptitiously. Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bthe school of Rabbi Ami said:This is banalogous to the daughter of a king who smelledthe fragrance of the dried bspicesstuck to the bottom of bthe potand craved to eat them. What can she do? bIf she tellsher servants to give it to her, bshe will be disgraced,as the dried spices are a contemptible food. However, if bshe does not sayshe wants to eat them, bshe willendure bsuffering. Her servants began to bringthem to her bsurreptitiously.One should conduct himself in that manner in similar cases of uncertainty., bRabbi Abbahu said:The Sages binstituted thatthe people bshould recite it aloud due to the grievance of the heretics.It was instituted to prevent the heretics from claiming that the Jews are surreptitiously reciting inappropriate statements. The Gemara adds: bIn Neharde’a, where there are no heretics, they recite it surreptitiously even now. /b, bThe Sages taughta related matter in the iTosefta /i: bThe people of Jericho performed six actions, threein keeping bwith the will of the Sages and three against the will of the Sages. And theseare what they did in keeping bwith the will of the Sages: Theywould bgraft palm trees the entire dayof the fourteenth of Nisan; band theywould bbundle iShema /i; and theywould bharvestgrain bbefore the iomer /ioffering was brought. bAnd theseare what they did bagainst the will of the Sages: Theywould bpilethe harvest bbefore the iomer /i; and theywould bmake breaches inthe walls of btheir gardens and their orchards to feed fallenfruit bto the poor during drought years,so that the poor could take the fruit that had fallen bon Shabbat and Festivals; and theywould bpermitthe use of bconsecrated branches of carob and of sycamoretrees. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bRabbi Yehuda said to him:It is inaccurate to formulate it in that manner, as bif they actedin keeping bwith the will of the Sages, all people would do so,not only the residents of Jericho. bRather,formulate it in this manner: Both bthesethree acts band thosethree bwere performed against the will of the Sages. With regard to threethe Sages breprimanded them; and with regard to threethe Sages bdid not reprimand them.Since one could contend that the latter are permitted and the people of Jericho had already performed them, the Sages chose not to reprimand them., bAnd theseare what they did for which the Sages bdid not reprimand them: Theywould bgraft palm trees the entire day; and theywould bbundle iShema /i; and theywould bharvest and pilegrain bbefore the iomer /ioffering was brought. bAnd theseare what they did for which the Sages breprimanded them: Theywould bpermitthe use of bconsecrated branches of carob and of sycamoretrees; btheywould bmake breaches inthe walls of btheir gardens and orchards on Shabbat and Festivals, in order to feed the poor fallen fruit during drought years; and theywould bdesignatefor the poor btheproduce in the bcornerin a field of bvegetables. And the Sages reprimanded themfor those actions.,The Gemara asks: bAnddoes bRabbi Yehuda maintainthat this bharvestperformed by the residents of Jericho bwas against the will of the Sages? Didn’t we learnin a mishna: bThe people of Jerichowould bharvest before the iomer /i,in keeping bwith the will of the Sages, and theywould bpilethe grain bbefore the iomer /i, against the will of the Sages, but the Sages did not reprimand them? /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. יקבוהו לאום ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנאמר (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ ואין קבה אלא קללה שנאמר (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואין בר אלא תורה שנאמר (תהלים ב, יב) נשקו בר פן יאנף,עולא בר ישמעאל אומר מנקבין אותו ככברה כתיב הכא (משלי יא, כו) יקבוהו לאום וכתיב התם (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואמר אביי כי אוכלא דקצרי,ואם למדו מה שכרו אמר רבא אמר רב ששת זוכה לברכות כיוסף שנאמר (משלי יא, כו) וברכה לראש משביר ואין משביר אלא יוסף שנאמר (בראשית מב, ו) ויוסף הוא [השליט על הארץ הוא] המשביר לכל עם הארץ,אמר רב ששת כל המלמד תורה בעוה"ז זוכה ומלמדה לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי יא, כה) ומרוה גם הוא יורה,אמר רבא מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות יחי ראובן בעולם הזה ואל ימות לעולם הבא רבינא אמר מהכא (דניאל יב, ב) ורבים מישני אדמת עפר יקיצו אלה לחיי עולם ואלה לחרפות לדראון עולם רב אשי אמר מהכא (דניאל יב, יג) ואתה לך [לקץ] ותנוח ותעמוד לגורלך לקץ הימין,אמר רבי אלעזר כל פרנס שמנהיג את הצבור בנחת זוכה ומנהיגם לעוה"ב שנאמר (ישעיהו מט, י) כי מרחמם ינהגם ועל מבועי מים ינהלם,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה דעה שניתנה בין שתי אותיות שנאמר (שמואל א ב, ג) כי אל דעות ה',וא"ר אלעזר גדול מקדש שניתן בין שתי אותיות שנאמר (שמות טו, יז) פעלת ה' מקדש ה' כוננו ידיך מתקיף לה רב אדא קרחינאה אלא מעתה גדולה נקמה שניתנה בין שתי אותיות דכתיב (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה' אל נקמות הופיע,אמר ליה למילתיה הכי נמי כדעולא דאמר עולא שתי הופעיות הללו למה אחת למדת טובה ואחת למדת פורענות,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו דעה כאילו נבנה בית המקדש בימיו שזה ניתן בין שתי אותיות וזה ניתן בין שתי אותיות,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו דעה לסוף מתעשר שנאמר (משלי כד, ד) ובדעת חדרים ימלאו כל הון יקר ונעים,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שאין בו דעה אסור לרחם עליו שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, יא) כי לא עם בינות הוא על כן לא ירחמנו עושהו ויוצרו לא יחוננו,וא"ר אלעזר כל הנותן פיתו למי שאין בו דעה יסורין באין עליו שנאמר (עובדיה א, ז) לחמך ישימו מזור תחתיך אין תבונה בו ואין מזור אלא יסורין שנאמר (הושע ה, יג) וירא אפרים את חליו ויהודה את מזורו,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שאין בו דעה לסוף גולה שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, יג) לכן גלה עמי מבלי דעת,ואמר ר"א כל בית שאין דברי תורה נשמעים בו בלילה אש אוכלתו שנאמר (איוב כ, כו) כל חשך טמון לצפוניו תאכלהו אש לא נופח ירע שריד באהלו אין שריד אלא ת"ח שנאמר (יואל ג, ה) ובשרידים אשר ה' קורא,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל שאינו מהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שנאמר (איוב כ, כא) אין שריד לאכלו על כן לא יחיל טובו אין שריד אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר ובשרידים אשר ה' קורא,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל שאינו משייר פת על שלחנו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שנאמר אין שריד לאכלו על כן לא יחיל טובו,והאמר רבי אלעזר כל המשייר פתיתים על שלחנו כאילו עובד ע"ז שנאמר (ישעיהו סה, יא) העורכים לגד שלחן והממלאים למני ממסך לא קשיא הא דאיכא שלימה בהדיה הא דליכה שלימה בהדיה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחליף בדבורו כאילו עובד ע"ז כתיב הכא (בראשית כז, יב) והייתי בעיניו כמתעתע וכתיב התם (ירמיהו י, טו) הבל המה מעשה תעתועים,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המסתכל בערוה קשתו ננערת שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ט) עריה תעור קשתך,ואמר רבי אלעזר לעולם הוי קבל וקיים אמר רבי זירא אף אנן נמי תנינא בית אפל אין פותחין לו חלונות לראות נגעו ש"מ,אמר ר' טבי אמר ר' יאשיה מאי דכתיב (משלי ל, טז) שאול ועוצר רחם ארץ לא שבעה מים וכי מה ענין שאול אצל רחם אלא לומר לך מה רחם מכניס ומוציא אף שאול מכניס ומוציא,והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה רחם שמכניסין בו בחשאי מוציאין ממנו בקולי קולות שאול שמכניסין בו בקולות אינו דין שמוציאין ממנו בקולי קולות מיכן תשובה לאומרין אין תחיית המתים מן התורה,תנא דבי אליהו צדיקים שעתיד הקדוש ברוך הוא להחיותן אינן חוזרין לעפרן שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ג) והיה הנשאר בציון והנותר בירושלים קדוש יאמר לו כל הכתוב לחיים בירושלים מה קדוש לעולם קיים אף הם לעולם קיימין 92a. bthe people [ ileom /i] shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i],but blessing shall be upon the head of one who provides” (Proverbs 11:26). bAndthe term ileom /iis referring to bnothing other than fetuses, as it is stated:“Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples shall be separated from your bowels; band the one ileomshall overcome the other ileom /i”(Genesis 25:23). bAnd ikabbo /iis referring to bnothing other than curse, as it is statedin the statement of Balaam: b“How can I curse one who is not cursed [ ikabbo /i] by God?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ibar /iis referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “Pay homage to ibarlest He be angry”(Psalms 2:12), i.e., observe the Torah to avoid God’s wrath., bUlla bar Yishmael says: One perforates like a sievea person who withholds ihalakhafrom a student. bIt is written here:“He who withholds ibar /i, bthe people iyikkevuhu /i”(Proverbs 11:26), band it is written there: “And he bored [ ivayyikkov /i] a hole in its lid of it”(II Kings 12:10). bAnd Abaye says:One perforates him blike a launderers’ utensilused for sprinkling water on garments., bAnd if one teachesthe student ihalakharather than withholding it, bwhat is his reward? Rava saysthat bRav Sheshet says: He is privilegedto receive bblessings like Joseph, as it is statedat the end of that verse: b“But blessing shall be upon the head of one who provides [ imashbir /i]”(Proverbs 11:26). bAnd imashbir /iis referring to bnoone bother than Joseph, as it is stated: “And Joseph was the governor of the land, and he was the provider [ ihamashbir /i] to all the people of the land”(Genesis 42:6)., bRav Sheshet says: Anyone who teaches Torah in this world is privileged and teaches it in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And he who satisfies abundantly [ iumarveh /i] shall be satisfied himself [ iyoreh /i]”(Proverbs 11:25). Rav Sheshet interprets the verse homiletically: By transposing the letters of the word imarveh /i: iMem /i, ireish /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, one arrives at the word imoreh /i, meaning teaches. The verse means that one who teaches [ imoreh /i] will teach [ iyoreh /i] in the future as well.,The Gemara returns to the topic of the source for resurrection in the Torah. bRava says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Let Reuben live and not die,in that his men become few” (Deuteronomy 33:6). This is interpreted: b“Let Reuben live” in this world “and not die” in the World-to-Come. Ravina saysthat resurrection is derived bfrom here: “And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awaken, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting disgrace”(Daniel 12:2). bRav Ashi saysproof is derived bfrom here: “But go you your way until the end be; and you shall rest, and arise to your lot at the end of days”(Daniel 12:13).,§ bRabbi Elazar says: Any communal leader who leads the community calmly,without anger and honestly, bis privileged and leads them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “For he that has compassion upon them will lead them, even by the springs of water shall he guide them”(Isaiah 49:10). Just as he led them in this world, so too will he guide them in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara proceeds to cite additional statements of Rabbi Elazar relating to recommended conduct. bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Great is knowledge, as it was placed between two letters,two names of God, bas it is stated: “For a God of knowledge is the Lord”(I Samuel 2:3)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Great is the Holy Temple, as ittoo bwas placed between two letters,two names of God, bas it is stated:“The place in which to dwell that bYou have made, Lord, the Temple, Lord, which Your hands have prepared”(Exodus 15:17). bRav Adda Karḥina’a objects tothe explanation that being placed between two names of God accords significance. bIf that is so,the same should hold true for vengeance. Shall one say: bGreatis bvengeance, as it was placed between two letters, as it is written: “God of vengeance, Lord, God of vengeance shine forth”(Psalms 94:1)?,Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: In its context, indeed,vengeance is great, bin accordance withthe statement bof Ulla. As Ulla sayswith regard to bthese two appearances:“O Lord, God to Whom vengeance belongs; God to Whom vengeance belongs, appear” (Psalms 94:1), and: “He appeared from Mount Paran” (Deuteronomy 33:2), bwhyare both necessary? bOne,the second verse, is necessary bfor the attribute ofdivine bgood,with which God gave the Torah at Sinai, band one,the first verse, is necessary bfor the attribute ofdivine bpunishment,with which God exacts vengeance against the enemies and oppressors of the Jewish people., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to bany person in whom there is knowledge,it is bas though the Temple was built in his days, as this,knowledge, bwas placed between two letters and that,the Temple, bwas placed between two letters. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person in whom there is knowledge ultimately becomes wealthy, as it is stated: “And by knowledge are the chambers filled with all precious and pleasant riches”(Proverbs 24:4)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to bany person in whom there is no knowledge, it is prohibited to have mercy upon him, as it is stated: “For it is a people of no understanding; therefore its Maker will have no mercy on them, and its Creator will show them no favor”(Isaiah 27:11). If God has no mercy upon them, all the more so should people not show them mercy., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to banyone who gives his bread to one without knowledge, afflictions befall him, as it is stated: “They who eat your bread will place imazorunder you, in whom there is no discernment”(Obadiah 1:7). bAnd imazor /imeans bnothing other than afflictions,based on the parallel with another verse, bas it is stated: “And Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah his wound [ imezoro /i]”(Hosea 5:13). This indicates that one who gives his bread to one without discernment will ultimately fall ill., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person in whom there is no knowledge is ultimately exiled, as it is stated: “Therefore my people are exiled, for lack of knowledge”(Isaiah 5:13)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to bany house in which there are no matters of Torah heard at night, the fireof Gehenna bconsumes it, as it is stated: “All darkness is laid up for his treasures, a fire not fanned shall consume him; it shall go ill with a isaridin his tent”(Job 20:26). iSarid /iis referring to bnoone bbut a Torah scholar, as it is stated: “And among the iseridim /i, those whom the Lord shall call”(Joel 3:5). A house that is dark at night and in which no Torah is heard will be consumed by a fire that does not require fanning with a bellows, the fire of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who does not benefit Torah scholars from his property never sees a sign of blessing, as it is stated: “None of his food shall remain [ isarid /i]; therefore his prosperity shall not endure”(Job 20:21). iSarid /iis referring to bnoone bbut Torah scholars, as it is stated: “And among the iseridim /i, those whom the Lord shall call.”No prosperity will come to one who does not share his food with a Torah scholar., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who does not leave bread on his tableat the end of his meal indicating his gratitude to God for providing him more than enough bnever sees a sign of blessing, as it is stated: “None of his food shall remain; therefore his prosperity shall not endure.” /b,The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Elazar say:With regard to banyone who leaves piecesof bread bon his table, it is as if he worships idols, as it is stated: “Who prepare a table for Fortune [ iGad /i] and offer blended wine for Destiny”(Isaiah 65:11). The people would leave pieces of bread on the table as an offering to the constellation iGad /i, which they believed influences the fortune of the home. This practice was a form of idol worship. The Gemara answers: This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult: Thiscase, where leaving pieces of bread is a form of idol worship, applies bwhen there is a wholeloaf together bwiththe pieces, as the addition of the pieces is clearly for idol worship; bthatcase, where failure to leave bread on the table is criticized, applies bwhen there is no wholeloaf together bwiththe pieces., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to banyone who amendsthe truth bin his speech, it is as though he worships idols.As, bit is written here,in the verse where Jacob sought to resist taking his father’s blessing from Esau: b“And I shall seem to him a deceiver [ imetate’a /i]”(Genesis 27:12), band it is written therewith regard to idol worship: b“They are vanity, the work of deception [ itatuim /i]”(Jeremiah 10:15)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to banyone who looks at nakedness [ ierva /i], his bow is emptied,i.e., he will be robbed of his potency, bas it is stated: “Your bow is stripped bare [ ierya /i]”(Habakkuk 3:9)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Forever be in the dark,i.e., anonymous, bandyou will continue to bexist. Rabbi Zeira says: We learna similar idea in a mishna bas well( iNega’im2:3): In ba dark house, one does not open windows toilluminate bitin order bto seewhether or not bitsblemish is bleprosy,and the house retains the presumptive status of ritual purity. Those matters that are obscured are allowed to continue. The Gemara affirms: bConclude fromthat mishna that this is so.,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the source for resurrection in the Torah. bRabbi Tavi saysthat bRabbi Yoshiya says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“There are three that are never satisfied… bthe grave, and the barren womb, and earth that does not receive sufficient water”(Proverbs 30:15–16)? bAnd what does a grave have to do with a womb? Rather,they are juxtaposed bto say to you: Just as a womb takes in and gives forth, so too a grave takes in andalso bgives forth,with the resurrection of the dead., bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred ia fortiori /i: Ifwith regard to ba womb, into which one introducesthe embryo bin secret, one removesthe baby bfrom itaccompanied bbythe bloud soundsof the woman crying out during childbirth, then with regard to bthe grave, into which one introducesthe corpse bwith soundsof wailing and mourning the dead, bis it not right that one removesfrom it the resurrected dead accompanied bbythe bloud soundsof the resurrected multitudes? bFrom herethere is ba response tothose who bsay: There is no resurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah. /b, bThe school of Eliyahu taught: The righteous whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, is destined to resurrect do not return to their dust, as it is stated: “And it shall come to pass, that he who remains in Zion and he who remains in Jerusalem shall be called holy, anyone who is written unto life in Jerusalem”(Isaiah 4:3). bJust asthe bHoly One exists forever, so too will they exist forever. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
biblical interpretation, in book of jubilees Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 110
biblical interpretation Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 110, 115
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 409
hebrew bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 416, 422
hellenism/hellenistic period Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 409
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus iii the great Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 409
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389
jacob Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389, 416, 422
joseph and the brothers Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 416, 422
jubilees Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 110
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 416
midrash' Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 115
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389, 416, 422
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389, 416, 422
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389, 416, 422
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 422
reuben/reuben and bilhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389, 416, 422
rewritten bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 389